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Sample records for early life thermal

  1. Discrete Modeling of Early-Life Thermal Fracture in Ceramic Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Benjamin W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dolbow, John E. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Hales, Jason D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Fracturing of ceramic fuel pellets heavily influences performance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Early in the life of fuel, starting with the initial power ramp, large thermal gradients cause high tensile hoop and axial stresses in the outer region of the fuel pellets, resulting in the formation of radial and axial cracks. Circumferential cracks form due to thermal gradients that occur when the power is ramped down. These thermal cracks cause the fuel to expand radially, closing the pellet/cladding gap and enhancing the thermal conductance across that gap, while decreasing the effective conductivity of the fuel in directions normal to the cracking. At lower length scales, formation of microcracks is an important contributor to the decrease in bulk thermal conductivity that occurs over the life of the fuel as the burnup increases. Because of the important effects that fracture has on fuel performance, a realistic, physically based fracture modeling capability is essential to predict fuel behavior in a wide variety of normal and abnormal conditions. Modeling fracture within the context of the finite element method, which is based on continuous interpolations of solution variables, has always been challenging because fracture is an inherently discontinuous phenomenon. Work is underway at Idaho National Laboratory to apply two modeling techniques model fracture as a discrete displacement discontinuity to nuclear fuel: The extended finite element method (XFEM), and discrete element method (DEM). XFEM is based on the standard finite element method, but with enhancements to represent discontinuous behavior. DEM represents a solid as a network of particles connected by bonds, which can arbitrarily fail if a fracture criterion is reached. This paper presents initial results applying the aforementioned techniques to model fuel fracturing. This work has initially focused on early life behavior of ceramic LWR fuel. A coupled thermal-mechanical XFEM method that includes

  2. Copper and thermal perturbations on the early life processes of the hard coral Platygyra acuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, C. K.; Lam, K. Y.; Leung, S. M.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Ang, P. O.

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants and climate change are major threats to coral reefs today. Yet interactions between chemical and thermal perturbations have not been fully explored in reef studies. Here, we present the single and combined effects of copper (Cu) with thermal stress on five early life-history stages/processes (fertilization, larval mortality, swimming ability, metamorphosis and growth of juvenile recruits) of the massive coral Platygyra acuta in Hong Kong. In the first four experiments, coral gametes and larvae were exposed to different Cu doses (0-200 μg L-1, apart from the fertilization assay in which 0-1000 μg L-1 was used) and temperature treatments (ambient and ambient +2 or +3 °C as a thermal stress treatment) following a factorial experimental design. Exposure time was 5 h for the fertilization assay and 48 h for the other experiments. The last experiment on growth of coral recruits was conducted over 56 d with 0-80 μg L-1 Cu used. Cu significantly reduced percent fertilization success, percentage of active swimming larvae and larval survivorship (EC50s, the half maximal effective concentrations, for percent fertilization success and percentage of active swimming larvae were 92-145 and 45-47 μg L-1 respectively. While LC50, the lethal concentration that kills 50% of the population, was 101-110 μg L-1), while growth of coral recruits was not affected at 80 μg L-1 Cu for 56 d. No settling cues were used in the settlement experiment. In their absence, percent metamorphosis increased with Cu doses, in sharp contrast to earlier findings. Settlement and metamorphosis may thus be strategies for coral larvae to escape from Cu toxicity. Thermal treatment did not significantly affect any experimental end points. This is likely because the thermal regimes used in the experiments were within the range experienced by local corals. The high variability in Cu toxicities indicates differential susceptibilities of the various life-history stages/processes of P

  3. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  5. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  6. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  7. The influence of the thermal environment and other early life events on growth rate of piglets during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L J; Schild, S-L Aa; Malmkvist, J

    2015-09-01

    The effects of early life events on average daily weight gain from birth to day 21 (ADG) of suckling pigs kept at different room temperatures (15°C, 20°C and 25°C) from birth to weaning were investigated. Data were collected from litters born by 61 sows in a loose housing system. The ADG for piglets with low birth weight (estimated for birth weights below the 10% percentile) was estimated to be 20 to 30 g higher per day at room temperature 20°C to 25°C compared with 15°C. In contrast, the ADG during the lactation period decreased for larger piglets (estimated for birth weights above the 10% percentile) by 28 g/day at room temperature 25°C compared with 15°C. Thus, high ambient temperatures (20°C to 25°C) are favourable for the growth in smaller piglets during lactation. Neither latency to first suckle nor birth-induced hypoxia, measured as concentration of umbilical cord lactate, affected the growth rate of the piglets. Lowest rectal temperature during the first 24 h after birth had a long-term negative effect on ADG (Ptemperature of 32.8°C (10% percentile) had an ADG which was on average 19 g lower per day than piglets with a rectal temperature of 37.3°C (90% percentile). Our results showed that hypothermia at birth, low birth weight and high number of suckling piglets lead to reduced ADG during the suckling period. The results suggest that keeping the room temperature at 20°C during lactation to some extent could compensate for the otherwise negative effects of low birth weight on ADG in piglets without decreasing the ADG of high birth weight piglets. However, to avoid hypothermia in the smallest piglets it may be beneficial to increase the room temperature above 20°C during the farrowing period of loose housed sows.

  8. Early life origins of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  9. Thermal energy and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Anthonie W J; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Life has evolved on Earth with electromagnetic radiation (light), fermentable organic molecules, and oxidizable chemicals as sources of energy. Biological use of thermal energy has not been observed although heat, and the thermal gradients required to convert it into free energy, are ubiquitous and were even more abundant at the time of the origin of life on Earth. Nevertheless, Earth-organisms sense thermal energy, and in suitable environments may have gained the capability to use it as energy source. It has been proposed that the first organisms obtained their energy by a first protein named pF(1) that worked on a thermal variation of the binding change mechanism of today's ATP sythase enzyme. Organisms using thermosynthesis may still live where light or chemical energy sources are not available. Possible suitable examples are subsurface environments on Earth and in the outer Solar System, in particular the subsurface oceans of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

  10. Seasonality of reproductive events and early mortality in a colony of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) over a 30-year period: Capital breeding and life history patterns in a food-provisioned population seasonally thermally stressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    In environments where energy demands and resource availability vary seasonally, individuals are expected to time the optimal allocation of resources to support survival and reproduction. Although female baboons are regarded as all year round, capital breeders, we wondered how they would respond in an ecological scenario where food were not limiting, foraging effort were negligible, and they were thermally stressed during the cold winter. This study analyzes a 30-year database of conceptions, births, resumptions of postlactational ovarian activity, menarches, and prenatal and early postnatal reproductive failures recorded in a food-provisioned colony of hamadryas baboons located in a temperate zone (40°25'N) to search for seasonal patterns in their life-history patterns and explore its fitness consequences. The results show that the study females exhibited moderate seasonality and behaved like capital breeders; ovarian activity peaked during the period of benign weather conditions (spring and early summer) and births and lactation peaked during the period when they were thermally stressed and faced a negative energy balance (winter). Mistimed conceptions were more likely to fail than timed conceptions were, although this association could be artefactual due to the difficulty to accurately detect prenatal losses. Insolation and, to a lesser extent, temperature were positively associated with conceptions, resumptions of postlactational ovarian activity and onsets of menarche, and negatively associated with births. These findings highlight the extent of plasticity (width of peaks) and resiliency (retention of a capital breeding tactic even under highly seasonally thermally stressful cold conditions) in how primates can adjust their life history patterns and solve tradeoffs in a scenario of strong seasonal variation. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1149-1164, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Early life factors and adult mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Berg, van den S.W.; Peeters, P.H.; Gils, van C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In

  12. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  13. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Addabbo

    Full Text Available The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand and/or an object (spoon. In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts.

  14. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  15. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Freiesleben Hansen, Per

    1999-01-01

    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete which includes the transitional thermal effect. The model govern both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model are assumed to depend on the hydration process...... and the thermal activation of the water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  16. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard, A. B.; Damkilde, L.; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete that includes the transitional thermal effect. The model governs both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model is assumed to depend on the hydration process...... and the thermal activation of water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle, and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of the experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  17. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf

    2013-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  18. Early life and mineral resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The recent breathtaking advances in the field of radio astronomy have made it increasingly clear that the beginnings of organic chemistry are to be found in interstellar space. From there, an impressive array of molecules have been discovered which have been shown to act as intermediates in the prebiotic synthesis of organic matter. These findings certainly tend to blur the arbitrary limit often drawn between the living and the non-living realms. The authors may, therefore, reasonably assume that life arose at a certain stage of either cosmic or planetary evolution as an intrinsically new property of matter. IGCP Project 157, launched in 1977, has been devoted to interdisciplinary research of those blurred areas where evolutionary biology, organic chemistry and economic geology seem to blend or overlap. This article summarizes the project's main findings to date, and shows how a community of 120 scientists from 19 countries have worked together to help unravel the mystery of life's origins on our planet. 6 references, 5 figures.

  19. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  20. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  1. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...

  2. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  3. Early Life Adversity, Genomic Plasticity, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Jackowski, Andrea; Kaufman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. The aim of this paper is to review emerging data on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future avenues of investigation. Epigenetic processes are described, key findings in the field presented, clinical implications of the research discussed, methodological issues, and future avenues of research considered. Research suggests that adverse early experiences can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that can alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behavior. While these changes are frequently long lasting, they can be reversed through pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate epigenetic marks other than methylcytosine, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with early-life adversity. PMID:26361201

  4. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rainer R.

    2009-05-01

    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  5. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  6. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  7. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Project Accelerated Life Thermal Cycling Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) project was a joint U.S./Russian effort to build a photovoltaic (PV) solar array and deliver it to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA will be used to increase the electrical power on Mir and provide PV array performance data in support of Phase 1 of the International Space Station. The MCSA was brought to Mir by space shuttle Atlantis in November 1995. This report describes an accelerated thermal life cycle test which was performed on two samples of the MCSA. In eight months time, two MCSA solar array 'mini' panel test articles were simultaneously put through 24,000 thermal cycles. There was no significant degradation in the structural integrity of the test articles and no electrical degradation, not including one cell damaged early and removed from consideration. The nature of the performance degradation caused by this one cell is briefly discussed. As a result of this test, changes were made to improve some aspects of the solar cell coupon-to-support frame interface on the flight unit. It was concluded from the results that the integration of the U.S. solar cell modules with the Russian support structure would be able to withstand at least 24,000 thermal cycles (4 years on-orbit). This was considered a successful development test.

  8. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  9. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  10. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  11. Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160885.html Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life Also increases chances of having end-of-life ... incurable cancer helps patients cope and improves their quality of life, a new study shows. It also leads to ...

  12. Thermal Pollution Impact upon Aquatic Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomoto, Gail T.; Olson, Betty H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and nuclear power plants release waste heat to cooling water which then returns to receiving bodies of surface water. This thermal pollution causes a variety of effects in the aquatic ecosystem. More must be learned about these effects to ensure adequate regulation of thermal discharges. (RE)

  13. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  14. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  15. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. Immunity to RSV in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eLambert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalisations and around 66 000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarising signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity towards dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarisation. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper (Tfh and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV, giving us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of

  17. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages.

  18. Life prediction of thermal-mechanical fatigue using strainrange partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, G. R.; Manson, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the applicability of the method of Strainrange Partitioning to the life prediction of thermal-mechanical strain-cycling fatigue. An in-phase test on 316 stainless steel is analyzed as an illustrative example. The observed life is in excellent agreement with the life predicted by the method using the recently proposed Step-Stress Method of experimental partitioning, the Interaction Damage Rule, and the life relationships determined at an isothermal temperature of 705 C. Implications of the present study are discussed relative to the general thermal fatigue problem.

  19. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  20. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard, A. B.; Damkilde, L.; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    and the thermal activation of water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle, and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of the experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  1. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Freiesleben Hansen, Per

    1999-01-01

    and the thermal activation of the water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  2. Thermal Modeling and Feedback Requirements for LIFE Neutronic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifried, J E

    2009-07-15

    An initial study is performed to determine how temperature considerations affect LIFE neutronic simulations. Among other figures of merit, the isotopic mass accumulation, thermal power, tritium breeding, and criticality are analyzed. Possible fidelities of thermal modeling and degrees of coupling are explored. Lessons learned from switching and modifying nuclear datasets is communicated.

  3. Thermal and Mechanical Design Aspects of the LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, R P; Gerhard, M A; Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Morris, K R; Peterson, P F; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-25

    The Laser Inertial confinement fusion - Fission Energy (LIFE) engine encompasses the components of a LIFE power plant responsible for converting the thermal energy of fusion and fission reactions into electricity. The design and integration of these components must satisfy a challenging set of requirements driven by nuclear, thermal, geometric, structural, and materials considerations. This paper details a self-consistent configuration for the LIFE engine along with the methods and technologies selected to meet these stringent requirements. Included is discussion of plant layout, coolant flow dynamics, fuel temperatures, expected structural stresses, power cycle efficiencies, and first wall survival threats. Further research and to understand and resolve outstanding issues is also outlined.

  4. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  5. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  7. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in early life. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies.

  8. Life Structure of Early Adulthood Period in Levinson's Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Aktu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early adulthood is one of the important defining periods considered within life-long development in the relevant literature. Early adulthood period consists of psychologically the most satisfying as well as turbulent years of ones life. Universality of theories explaining early adulthood has long been discussed. One of these theories is the Levinsons theory of individual life structure that emphasis on early adult years. In this study life structures of individuals in the early adulthood period was examined in terms of structure-building and structure-changing development tasks, regarding Levinsons theory of individual life structure. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 162-177

  9. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  10. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  11. Portable Life Support Subsystem Thermal Hydraulic Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bruce; Pinckney, John; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. The PLSS thermal hydraulic model simulates the thermal, pressure, flow characteristics, and human thermal comfort related to the PLSS performance. This paper presents modeling approaches and assumptions as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are presented that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  12. Impact Craters as Habitats for Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Tornabene, L. L.; Banerjee, N. R.; Cockell, C. S.; Flemming, R.; Izawa, M. R. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Pontefract, A.; Parnell, J.; Sapers, H.; Southam, G.

    2012-05-01

    In this contribution we present a case that impact craters on Early Mars would have represented prime habitats for life, and potentially for its origin, and that impact craters, therefore, should be prime exploration targets for future missions.

  13. Early life origins of psychological development and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina

    2009-12-01

    According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.

  14. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather......) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life....

  15. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  16. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  17. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the

  18. Thermal Springs and the Search for Past Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Walter, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    Ancient thermal spring sites have several features which make them significant targets in a search for past life. Chemical (including redox) reactions in hydrothermal systems possibly played a role in the origin of life on Earth and elsewhere. Spring waters frequently contain reduced species (sulfur compounds, Fe(sup +2), etc.) which can provide chemical energy for organic synthesis. Relatively cool hydrothermal systems can sustain abundant microbial life (on Earth, at temperatures greater than 110 C). A spring site on Mars perhaps might even have maintained liquid water for periods sufficiently long to sustain surface-dwelling biota had they existed. On Earth, a variety of microbial mat communities can be sampled along the wide range of temperatures surrounding the spring, thus offering an opportunity to sample a broad biological diversity. Thermal spring waters frequently deposit minerals (carbonates, silica, etc.) which can entomb and preserve both fluid inclusions and microbial communities. These deposits can be highly fossiliferous and preserve biological inclusions for geologically long periods of time. Such deposits can cover several square km on Earth, and their distinctive mineralogy (e.g., silica- and/or carbonate-rich) can contrast sharply with that of the surrounding region. As with Martian volcanoes, Martian thermal spring complexes and their deposits might typically be much larger than their counterparts on Earth. Thus Martian spring deposits are perhaps readily detectable and even accessible. Elysium Planitia is an example of a promising region where hydrothermal activity very likely remobilized ground ice and sustained springs.

  19. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  20. Identification of larval Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), river lampreys (L. ayresi), and western brook lampreys (L. richardsoni) and thermal requirements of early life history stages of lampreys. Annual report 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Reiche, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  1. Non-thermal emission from early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Benaglia, P

    2006-01-01

    Massive, early-type stars deposit energy and momentum in the interstellar medium through dense, supersonic winds. These objects are one of the most important sources of ionising radiation and chemical enrichment in the Galaxy. The physical conditions in the winds give rise to thermal and non-thermal emission, detectable from radio to gamma rays. In this report the relevant radiation processes will be described and studies on particular systems will be presented, discussing the information provided by multifrequency observations. Future steps aiming at understanding the stellar wind phenomenon as a whole will be outlined.

  2. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, ...

  3. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-06-06

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  4. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Françoise Rolland-Cachera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”. Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  5. Anisotropic hydrodynamics and the early-thermalization puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is used in 3+1 dimensions to analyze behavior of matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The model predictions for the hadronic transverse-momentum spectra, directed and elliptic flows, and the HBT radii are presented. We show that the effects of the initial anisotropy of pressure may be compensated by appropriate adjustment of the initial energy density. In this way, the final hadronic observables become insensitive to the early stage dynamics and the early thermalization puzzle may be circumvented.

  6. Thermal Production of Axinos in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, A; Brandenburg, Arnd; Steffen, Frank Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We compute the thermal axino production rate in supersymmetric QCD to leading order in the gauge coupling. Using hard thermal loop resummation and the Braaten-Yuan prescription, we obtain a finite result in a gauge-invariant way, which takes into account Debye screening in the hot quark-gluon-squark-gluino plasma. The relic axino density from thermal reactions in the early Universe is evaluated assuming the axino is the lightest supersymmetric particle and stable due to R-parity conservation. From the comparison with the WMAP results, we find that axinos could provide the dominant part of cold dark matter, for example, for an axino mass of 100 keV and a reheating temperature of 10^6 GeV.

  7. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    The bacteria that colonize the human body, our microbiota, can influence our health, both positively and negatively. The importance and functions of the microbiota in our intestinal tract have been the focus of several research projects and are widely published. However, there are great gaps in our...... knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...

  8. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    A large proportion of atopy develops in childhood and early life exposures are suspected to play a considerable role in the inception. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early life exposures and development of atopic disease in children. We performed a case-cohort study...... of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p feeding was longer in subjects...

  9. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary dat...

  10. Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zju, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) will play an increasingly important role in gas turbine engines because of their ability to further raise engine temperatures. However, the issue of coating durability is of major concern under high-heat-flux conditions. In particular, the accelerated coating delamination crack growth under the engine high heat-flux conditions is not well understood. In this paper, a laser heat flux technique is used to investigate the coating delamination crack propagation under realistic temperature-stress gradients and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating delamination mechanisms are investigated under various thermal loading conditions, and are correlated with coating dynamic fatigue, sintering and interfacial adhesion test results. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the crack initiation and propagation driving forces for coating failure under high-heat-flux test conditions.

  11. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  12. Immune-mediated diseases and microbial exposure in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Bønnelykke, K; Stokholm, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The non-communicable disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in early life where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system......, and certain exposures may have detrimental effects in the earliest life, but no or even beneficial effects later. The human microbiome and infections are candidates as intermediary in the interaction between the host and the environment. The evidence seems inconsistent as infections as well as particular...... colonization patterns in neonates drive both short-term and long-term asthma symptoms, while, on the other hand, the composition of the microbiome in early life may protect against asthma and allergy in later life. This apparent contradiction may be explained by a deeper disease heterogeneity than we...

  13. Early life development in a multiethnic sample and the relation to late life cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Rebecca J; Brewster, Paul; Marquine, María J; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Reed, Bruce; Farias, Sarah T; Mungas, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Poor quality of early life conditions has been associated with poorer late life cognition and increased risk of dementia. Early life physical development can be captured using adult measures of height and head circumference. Availability of resources may be reflected by socioeconomic indicators, such as parental education and family size. We sought to determine the association between early life development and experience and late life semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive functioning abilities, as well as rate of cognitive decline. This study was conducted using the UC Davis Aging Diversity cohort, an ethnically diverse sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic individuals from northern California. We used latent variable modeling to measure growth and childhood socioeconomic environment (SES) and examine their associations with longitudinal cognitive outcomes using mixed effects modeling. Growth was positively related to higher childhood SES. Higher childhood SES was associated with better semantic memory. Both low growth and low SES were associated with increased rate of cognitive decline. These findings demonstrate that early life experiences influence the trajectory of cognitive aging. Early life development and experience appears to provide a distal basis upon which additional risk and protective factors interact in the development of dementia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  14. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Kimberly A; Scot E Dowd; Georgios N. Stamatas; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first yea...

  15. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  16. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ...

  17. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, I R

    1998-01-01

    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  18. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress....

  19. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie A. Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

  20. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-09-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life.

  1. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  2. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  3. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic...

  4. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  5. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  6. Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peske, Patric O.

    Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

  7. Spatial coherence of thermal photons favors photosynthetic life

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, Pedro; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Rodríguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis; Johnson, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting of sunlight underpins Life on Earth as well as driving novel energy device design. Though several experiments suggest that excitation energy transport and charge separation within a photosynthetic membrane may benefit from the quantum nature of their dynamics, the effects of spatial coherences in the incident light have been largely ignored. Here we show that spatial correlations in the incident light likely play an important role in trapping light and adding robustness, as well as providing a driving mechanism for an organism's adaptation toward more ordered structures. Our theory is grounded by empirical inputs, while its output is validated against testable predictions. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal correlations between photons, a fundamental property of the quantum world, should play a key role in our understanding of early Life and in improving the design of artificial photosynthetic systems.

  8. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS......: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake...... programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved...

  9. DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-14

    Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism.

  10. On the possibility of life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

  11. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  12. Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litonjua Augusto A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. Objective To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and 4 months of life. Nine infants were diagnosed with eczema by the age of 6 months (cases and 12 infants were not (controls. After conducting denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of stool samples, we compared the microbial diversity of cases and controls using the number of electrophoretic bands and the Shannon index of diversity (H' as indicators. Results Control subjects had significantly greater fecal microbial diversity than children with eczema at ages 1 (mean H' for controls = 0.75 vs. 0.53 for cases, P = 0.01 and 4 months (mean H' for controls = 0.92 vs. 0.59 for cases, P = 0.02. The increase in diversity from 1 to 4 months of age was significant in controls (P = 0.04 but not in children who developed eczema by 6 months of age (P = 0.32. Conclusion Our findings suggest that reduced microbial diversity is associated with the development of eczema in early life.

  13. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  14. Diversity of the human skin microbiome early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-10-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function.

  15. Epigenetics and early life origins of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Walker, Sheila O; Hong, Xiumei; Bartell, Tami R; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-02-01

    In light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored. Given the unique properties of the epigenome-functionality during critical time windows, such as the intrauterine period, heritability, and reversibility-enhancing our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may offer new opportunities for the development of novel early prediction and prevention paradigms. This may present an unparalleled opportunity to offer maternal and child health professionals important tools with the translational value to predict, detect, and prevent disease at an early age, long before its clinical occurrence, and as such, break lifelong and transgenerational cycles of disease. In doing so, modern technology can be leveraged to make great contributions to population health, quality of life, and reducing the burdensome economic costs of noncommunicable diseases in developing countries.

  16. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  17. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwafi Hani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. Results In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW. We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. Conclusions These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies.

  18. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  19. Aspects of fatigue life in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, H.

    2001-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are applied on hot components in airborne and land based gas turbines when higher turbine inlet temperature, meaning better thermal efficiency, is desired. The TBC is mainly applied to protect underlying material from high temperatures, but also serves as a protection from the aggressive corrosive environment. Plasma sprayed coatings are often duplex TBC's with an outer ceramic top coat (TC) made from partially stabilised zirconia - ZrO{sub 2} + 6-8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Below the top coat there is a metallic bond coat (BC). The BC is normally a MCrAlX coating (M=Ni, Co, Fe... and X=Y, Hf, Si ... ). In gas turbine components exposed to elevated temperatures nickel-based superalloys are commonly adopted as load carrying components. In the investigations performed here a commercial wrought Ni-base alloy Haynes 230 has been used as substrate for the TBC. As BC a NiCoCrAlY serves as a reference material and in all cases 7% Yttria PS zirconia has been used. Phase development and failure mechanisms in APS TBC during service-like conditions, have been evaluated in the present study. This is done by combinations of thermal cycling and low cycle fatigue tests. The aim is to achieve better knowledge regarding how, when and why thermal barrier coatings fail. As a final outcome of the project a model capable of predicting fatigue life of a given component will help engineers and designers of land based gas turbines for power generation to better optimise TBC's. In the investigations it is seen that TBC life is strongly influenced by oxidation of the BC and interdiffusion between BC and the substrate. The bond coat is known to oxidise with time at high temperature. The initial oxide found during testing is alumina. With increased time at high temperature Al is depleted from the bond coat due to inter-diffusion and oxidation. Oxides others than alumina start to form when the Al content is reduced below a critical limit. It is here believed

  20. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults.

  1. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  2. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future cardiovascular status. This thesis is basically aimed at exploring the effects of several possible postnatal determinantson the developing cardiovascular system. These early life determinants perhaps immed...

  3. Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Maier, A B; Slagbom, P E

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated in immunosenescence and mortality in the elderly. Little is known about how and when susceptibility to CMV infection is determined. We measured CMV seroprevalence in two genet......--even under continuous within-partnership exposure--appears to be more strongly influenced by early-life environment than by genetic factors and adult environment....

  4. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  5. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.

  7. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  8. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  9. Early Life on Earth: the Ancient Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, F.

    2004-07-01

    The evidence for early life and its initial evolution on Earth is lin= ked intimately with the geological evolution of the early Earth. The environment of the early Earth would be considered extreme by modern standards: hot (50-80=B0C), volcanically and hydrothermally active, a= noxic, high UV flux, and a high flux of extraterrestrial impacts. Habitats = for life were more limited until continent-building processes resulted in= the formation of stable cratons with wide, shallow, continental platforms= in the Mid-Late Archaean. Unfortunately there are no records of the first appearance of life and the earliest isotopic indications of the exist= ence of organisms fractionating carbon in ~3.8 Ga rocks from the Isua greenst= one belt in Greenland are tenuous. Well-preserved microfossils and micro= bial mats (in the form of tabular and domical stromatolites) occur in 3.5-= 3.3 Ga, Early Archaean, sedimentary formations from the Barberton (South Afri= ca) and Pilbara (Australia) greenstone belts. They document life forms that = show a relatively advanced level of evolution. Microfossil morphology inclu= des filamentous, coccoid, rod and vibroid shapes. Colonial microorganism= s formed biofilms and microbial mats at the surfaces of volcaniclastic = and chemical sediments, some of which created (small) macroscopic microbi= alites such as stromatolites. Anoxygenic photosynthesis may already have developed. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes ratios are in the r= ange of those for organisms with anaerobic metabolisms, such as methanogenesi= s, sulphate reduction and photosynthesis. Life was apparently distribute= d widely in shallow-water to littoral environments, including exposed, evaporitic basins and regions of hydrothermal activity. Biomass in t= he early Archaean was restricted owing to the limited amount of energy t= hat could be produced by anaerobic metabolisms. Microfossils resembling o= xygenic photosynthesisers, such as cyanobacteria, probably first occurred in

  10. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  11. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  12. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

  13. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Kober, Olivia I; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C; Marchesi, Julian R; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3-5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

  14. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  15. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  16. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p ... with atopic heredity (p = 0.017), whereas smoking exposure during pregnancy (p = 0.019) and in the 1st year of life (p = 0.018) was less prevalent. Wheezy bronchitis was equally frequent among subjects with and without atopic predisposition (p = 0.893). Wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years seems...

  17. Early Life Microbiota, Neonatal Immune Maturation and Hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    and the commensals in the gut. Hematopoietic stem cells from the fetal liver seed the fetal spleen and bone marrow in perinatal phase. Granulocytosis in neonate mice and man just after birth is a natural event of early life hematopoiesis and likely contributes to elevated counts of neutrophil-like cells...... bowl disease, later in life. The intestinal epithelium makes up a physical and biochemical barrier between the bacteria in the gut lumen and the immune cells in the submocusal tissue. This monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) makes up an extremely large surface and is highly important...... in the peripheral blood of newborns. Granular myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have recently been described in human cord blood. MDSC are potential immunosuppressive cells often described in cancer, inflammation and during sepsis. They evolve from immature myeloid cells during hematopoiesis. Several recent...

  18. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  19. In vivo research using early life stage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Rita; Bhogal, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Early life stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken.

  20. Planck early results. XXV. Thermal dust in nearby molecular clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.

    2011-01-01

    , and the dust optical depth at 250 μm τ250. The temperature map illustrates the cooling of the dust particles in thermal equilibrium with the incident radiation field, from 16 - 17 K in the diffuse regions to 13 - 14 K in the dense parts. The distribution of spectral indices is centred at 1.78, with a standard......Planck allows unbiased mapping of Galactic sub-millimetre and millimetre emission from the most diffuse regions to the densest parts of molecular clouds. We present an early analysis of the Taurus molecular complex, on line-of-sight-averaged data and without component separation. The emission...... blackbody. Significant positive residuals are also detected in the molecular regions and in the 217 GHz and 100 GHz bands, mainly caused by the contribution of the J = 2 → 1 and J = 1 → 0 12CO and 13CO emission lines. We derive maps of the dust temperature T, the dust spectral emissivity index β...

  1. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seico eBenner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED, and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior.

  2. Life Prediction of Ball Grid Array Soldered Joints under Thermal Cycling Loading by Fracture Mechanics Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation life of ball grid array (BGA) soldered joints during thermal cycling loading was investigated by fracture mechanics approach using finite element analysis. The relationships between the strain energy release rate (G) and crack size (α), thermal cycle numbers (N) can be derived. Based on the relationships, fatigue life of the soldered joints was determined. The results showed that crack propagation life was higher than crack initiation life. Therefore, it appears that it is more appropriate to predict the fatigue life of soldered joints using the fracture mechanics method.

  3. Lifetime fitness consequences of early-life ecological hardship in a wild mammal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harry H; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Mwanguhya, Francis; Businge, Robert; Kyabulima, Solomon; Hares, Michelle C; Inzani, Emma; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Mwesige, Kenneth; Nichols, Hazel J; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Thompson, Faye J; Cant, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Early-life ecological conditions have major effects on survival and reproduction. Numerous studies in wild systems show fitness benefits of good quality early-life ecological conditions ("silver-spoon" effects). Recently, however, some studies have reported that poor-quality early-life ecological conditions are associated with later-life fitness advantages and that the effect of early-life conditions can be sex-specific. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of the variability of early-life ecological conditions on later-life fitness. Here, we test how the mean and variability of early-life ecological conditions affect the longevity and reproduction of males and females using 14 years of data on wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo). Males that experienced highly variable ecological conditions during development lived longer and had greater lifetime fitness, while those that experienced poor early-life conditions lived longer but at a cost of reduced fertility. In females, there were no such effects. Our study suggests that exposure to more variable environments in early life can result in lifetime fitness benefits, whereas differences in the mean early-life conditions experienced mediate a life-history trade-off between survival and reproduction. It also demonstrates how early-life ecological conditions can produce different selection pressures on males and females.

  4. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  5. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  6. Early childhood health promotion and its life course health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Bernard; Ma, Sai; Grason, Holly; Frick, Kevin D; Perry, Deborah F; Sharkey, Alyssa; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether health promotion efforts targeted at preschool-age children can improve health across the life span and improve future economic returns to society. We selected 4 health topics to review-tobacco exposure, unintentional injury, obesity, and mental health-because they are clinically and epidemiologically significant, and represent the complex nature of health problems in this early period of life. The peer-reviewed literature was searched to assess the level of evidence for short- and long-term health impacts of health promotion and disease prevention interventions for children from before birth to age 5. This review sought to document the monetary burden of poor child health, the cost implications of preventing and treating child health problems, and the net benefit of the interventions. The evidence is compelling that these 4 topics-tobacco exposure, unintentional injury, obesity, and mental health-constitute a significant burden on the health of children and are the early antecedents of significant health problems across the life span. The evidence for the cost consequences of these problems is strong, although more uneven than the epidemiological data. The available evidence for the effectiveness of interventions in this age group was strongest in the case of preventing tobacco exposure and injuries, was limited to smaller-scale clinical interventions in the case of mental health, and was least available for efforts to prevent obesity among preschoolers. Currently available research justifies the implementation of health interventions in the prenatal to preschool period-especially to reduce tobacco exposure and prevent injuries. There is an urgent need for carefully targeted, rigorous research to examine the longitudinal causal relationships and provide stronger economic data to help policy makers make the case that the entire society will benefit from wise investment in improving the health of preschool-age children and their families.

  7. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  8. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  9. Trait canalization analysis of water quality, temperature, and developmental associations with early life stages of two fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of trait robustness based on environmental fluctuation in ontogenetic life stages are needed to evaluate stability and trait response during critical developmental events. Hardness, alkalinity, acidity, light intensity, and thermal differences were studied for trait canalization variation in morphometric, meristic, ontogenetic processes, and pigment characteristics. Trait canalization was observed with no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in mixed random two-way ANOVA comparisons between various block and treatment effects for hardness, alkalinity or acidity. Thermal block variation differences in six measures, including mandible length, yolk sac length, midpostanal depth, and head width, incubation, and hatching length, varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with declining temperatures. Water quality and thermal attributes exhibited trait canalization and did not increase character state variation in the early life stage morphological expression, which result in stable phenotypic inheritance rather than variable environmental conditions during embryonic and larval development.

  10. The stepwise evolution of early life driven by energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, James G; House, Christopher H

    2006-06-01

    Two main theories have emerged for the origin and early evolution of life based on heterotrophic versus chemoautotrophic metabolisms. With the exception of a role for CO, the theories have little common ground. Here we propose an alternative theory for the early evolution of the cell which combines principal features of the widely disparate theories. The theory is based on the extant pathway for conversion of CO to methane and acetate, largely deduced from the genomic analysis of the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. In contrast to current paradigms, we propose that an energy-conservation pathway was the major force which powered and directed the early evolution of the cell. We envision the proposed primitive energy-conservation pathway to have developed sometime after a period of chemical evolution but prior to the establishment of diverse protein-based anaerobic metabolisms. We further propose that energy conservation played the predominant role in the later evolution of anaerobic metabolisms which explains the origin and evolution of extant methanogenic pathways.

  11. Life Prediction of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Temperature-Dependent Model Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Chen, Kuiying; Baddour, N.; Patnaik, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    The failure analysis and life prediction of atmospheric plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (APS-TBCs) were carried out for a thermal cyclic process. A residual stress model for the top coat of APS-TBC was proposed and then applied to life prediction. This residual stress model shows an inversion characteristic versus thickness of thermally grown oxide. The capability of the life model was demonstrated using temperature-dependent model parameters. Using existing life data, a comparison of fitting approaches of life model parameters was performed. A larger discrepancy was found for the life predicted using linearized fitting parameters versus temperature compared to those using non-linear fitting parameters. A method for integrating the residual stress was proposed by using the critical time of stress inversion. The role of the residual stresses distributed at each individual coating layer was explored and their interplay on the coating's delamination was analyzed.

  12. Biodemography of exceptional longevity: early-life and mid-life predictors of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States between 1890 and 1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies, and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (aged less than 25 years) had significantly higher chances of living to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33-3.11, p = .001). Paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 years and beyond differ in physical characteristics at a young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men who were born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the U.S. Social Security Administration database and linked to U.S. World War I civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls who were matched by calendar year of birth, race, and place of draft registration in 1917. Results showed a negative association between "stout" body build (being in the heaviest 15 percent of the population) and survival to age 100. Having the occupation of "farmer" and a large number of children (4 or more) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. The results of both studies demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity.

  13. Early life stress and later health : Cardiovascular disease and general health among former war evacuees

    OpenAIRE

    Alastalo, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Experienced stress in childhood might have been so severe that it has effects throughout the life course. It has been suggested that early life stress may extend consequences on psychological and physical well-being. Previous findings focusing upon consequences of early life stress are however limited and mostly based upon retrospective studies. Still little is known about the consequences of early life stress, such as war separation on physical health from a longitudinal aspect. This th...

  14. Babies of the War: The Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we investigate whether less extreme situations during World War II also affected later-life mortality for cohorts born in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Norway. We argue that these occupied countries experienced a considerable deterioration in daily life situations and show that this resulted in strongly increased mortality rates and lower probabilities of survival until age 55 among civilian populations who had been prenatally exposed to wartime circumstances. However, this mortality effect among the prenatally exposed is entirely concentrated in the first years of life, particularly infanthood. Once we condition on having survived the first years of life, those who had been prenatally exposed do not have higher mortality rates. This suggests that "culling" is important and that effects found in earlier studies may have been biased downward substantially.

  15. Body size in early life and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, Md Shajedur Rahman; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei

    2017-07-21

    Body size in early life is inversely associated with adult breast cancer (BC) risk, but it is unclear whether the associations differ by tumor characteristics. In a pooled analysis of two Swedish population-based studies consisting of 6731 invasive BC cases and 28,705 age-matched cancer-free controls, we examined the associations between body size in early life and BC risk. Self-reported body sizes at ages 7 and 18 years were collected by a validated nine-level pictogram (aggregated into three categories: small, medium and large). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models in case-control analyses, adjusting for study, age at diagnosis, age at menarche, number of children, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of BC. Body size change between ages 7 and 18 were also examined in relation to BC risk. Case-only analyses were performed to test whether the associations differed by tumor characteristics. Medium or large body size at age 7 and 18 was associated with a statistically significant decreased BC risk compared to small body size (pooled OR (95% CI): comparing large to small, 0.78 (0.70-0.86), Ptrend size categories between age 7 and 18 . Women who remained medium or large between ages 7 and 18 had significantly decreased BC risk compared to those who remained small. A reduction in body size between ages 7 and 18 was also found to be inversely associated with BC risk (0.90 (0.81-1.00)). No significant association was found between body size at age 7 and tumor characteristics. Body size at age 18 was found to be inversely associated with tumor size (Ptrend = 0.006), but not estrogen receptor status and lymph node involvement. For all analyses, the overall inferences did not change appreciably after further adjustment for adult body mass index. Our data provide further support for a strong and independent inverse relationship between early life body size and BC risk

  16. Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants

  17. Life prediction of thermal-mechanical fatigue using strain-range partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, G. R.; Manson, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability is described of the method of Strainrange Partitioning to the life prediction of thermal-mechanical strain-cycling fatigue. An in-phase test on 316 stainless steel is analyzed as an illustrative example. The observed life is in excellent agreement with the life predicted by the method using the recently proposed Step-Stress Method of experimental partitioning, the Interation Damage Rule, and the life relationships determined at an isothermal temperature of 705 C. Implications of the study are discussed relative to the general thermal fatigue problem.

  18. Spillover Effects of Early-Life Medical Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard; Daysal, N. Meltem; Simonsen, Marianne;

    2015-01-01

    substantial positive spillovers on all our measures of academic achievement. Our estimates suggest that siblings of focal children who were slightly below the VLBW cutoff have higher 9th grade language and math test scores, as well as higher probability of enrolling in a high school by age 19. Our results......We investigate the spillover effects of early-life medical treatments on the siblings of treated children. We use a regression discontinuity design that exploits changes in medical treatments across the very low birth weight (VLBW) cutoff. Using administrative data from Denmark, we first confirm...... the findings in the previous literature that children who are slightly below the VLBW cutoff have better short- and long-term health, and higher math test scores in 9th grade. We next investigate spillover effects on siblings and find no evidence of an impact on their health outcomes. However, we find...

  19. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  20. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  1. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  2. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin...... test reactivity to 10 common aeroallergens was measured using standard techniques. Atopic disease was defined as a history of hayfever and/or asthma concomitantly with a positive skin-prick test. Logistic regression showed that parental atopy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p breast-feeding was longer in subjects...

  3. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator for Life Support and Thermal Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal...

  4. Podocyte number and density changes during early human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masao; Wickman, Larysa; Rabah, Raja; Wiggins, Roger C

    2017-05-01

    Podocyte depletion, which drives progressive glomerulosclerosis in glomerular diseases, is caused by a reduction in podocyte number, size or function in the context of increasing glomerular volume. Kidneys obtained at autopsy from premature and mature infants who died in the first year of life (n = 24) were used to measure podometric parameters for comparison with previously reported data from older kidneys. Glomerular volume increased 4.6-fold from 0.13 ± 0.07 μm(3) x10(6) in the pre-capillary loop stage, through 0.35 μm(3) x10(6) at the capillary loop, to 0.60 μm(3) x10(6) at the mature glomerular stage. Podocyte number per glomerulus increased from 326 ± 154 per glomerulus at the pre-capillary loop stage to 584 ± 131 per glomerulus at the capillary loop stage of glomerular development to reach a value of 589 ± 166 per glomerulus in mature glomeruli. Thus, the major podocyte number increase occurs in the early stages of glomerular development, in contradistinction to glomerular volume increase, which continues after birth in association with body growth. As glomeruli continue to enlarge, podocyte density (number per volume) rapidly decreases, requiring a parallel rapid increase in podocyte size that allows podocyte foot processes to maintain complete coverage of the filtration surface area. Hypertrophic stresses on the glomerulus and podocyte during development and early rapid growth periods of life are therefore likely to play significant roles in determining how and when defects in podocyte structure and function due to genetic variants become clinically manifest. Therapeutic strategies aimed at minimizing mismatch between these factors may prove clinically useful.

  5. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Yoo, S B; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Kim, B T; Park, K; Jahng, J W

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS. Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levels of the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggest that neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increased expressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  6. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardamagna, Ornella; Abello, Francesca; Cagliero, Paola; Lughetti, Lorenzo

    2012-12-21

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic.The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body's "metabolic programming". Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood.The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease.

  7. Programming of hippocampal structure and function by early-life stress: Opportunities for nutritional intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life is a critical developmental phase during which brain structure and function are shaped 'for life'. When early-life is disturbed by stress-exposure, this lastingly programs our brains and is associated with impaired cognition and predisposition to psychopathology in adulthood.

  8. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience.

  9. Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R; Clark, A

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to see why both purchasers and providers of mental health services would be interested in prevention, but will preventive interventions work in practice? This paper discusses the possibility of preventing depressive disorder in late adolescence and early adult life by intervening in childhood and early adolescence. The paper begins with a description of the phenomenology of depression and its risk factors. It then goes on to describe a framework of prevention and within this framework explores whether there is an adequate knowledge base. The general perspective that is presented is one of cautious scepticism. It is argued that difficulties in defining depression and identifying risk factors that can easily be remedied make it unlikely that within the foreseeable future primary prevention programmes will prove to be more effective than treatment and rehabilitation of affected individuals. The possibility that preventive programmes could do harm will also be discussed. The paper concludes with some proposals about appropriate targets for prevention. It is suggested that apart from a few policy areas where there are some relatively harmless measures that could protect from later depression, a balanced preventive programme will give higher priority to treatment services than to those concerned with early intervention.

  10. Simple mechanisms of early life - simulation model on the origin of semi-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bock, Martin; Alt, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The development of first cellular structures played an important role in the early evolution of life. Early evolution of life probably took place on a molecular level in a reactive environment. The iron-sulfur theory postulates the formation of cell-like structures on catalytic surfaces. Experiments show that H2S together with FeS and other metallic centers drive auto-catalytic surface reactions, in which organic molecules such as pyruvic and amino acids occur. It is questionable which mechanisms are needed to form cell-like structures under these conditions. To address this question, we implemented a model system featuring the fundamentals of molecular dynamics: heat, attraction, repulsion and formation of covalent bonds. Our basic model exhibits a series of essential processes: self-organization of lipid micelles and bilayers, formation of fluid filled cavities, flux of molecules along membranes, transport of energized groups towards sinks and whole colonies of cell-like structures on a larger scale. The results demonstrate that only a few features are sufficient for discovering hitherto non described phenomena of self-assembly and dynamics of cell-like structures as candidates for early evolving proto-cells. Significance statement The quest for a possible origin of life continues to be one of the most fascinating problems in biology. In one theoretical scenario, early life originated from a solution of reactive chemicals in the ancient deep sea, similar to conditions as to be found in thermal vents. Experiments have shown that a variety of organic molecules, the building blocks of life, form under these conditions. Based on such experiments, the iron-sulfur theory postulates the growth of cell-like structures at certain catalytic surfaces. For an explanation and proof of such a process we have developed a computer model simulating molecular assembly of lipid bilayers and formation of semi-cell cavities. The results demonstrate the possibility of cell-like self

  11. Immobile and mobile life-history stages have different thermal physiologies in a lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telemeco, Rory S

    2014-01-01

    Temperature affects multiple aspects of an organism's biology and thus defines a major axis of the fundamental niche. For ectotherms, variation in the thermal environment is particularly important because most of these taxa have a limited capacity to thermoregulate via metabolic heat production. While temperature affects all life-history stages, stages can differ in their ability to respond to the thermal environment. For example, in oviparous organisms, free-living adults can behaviorally thermoregulate, whereas developing embryos are at the mercy of the nest environment. These differences in the realized thermal environment should select for life-history stages to have different thermal tolerances, although this has been rarely examined. I tested the hypothesis that stage-specific thermal reaction norms can evolve independently by using southern alligator lizards (Elgaria multicarinata, Anguidae). Using incubation experiments (five temperatures: 24°, 26°, 28°, 30°, and 32°C), I described the thermal reaction norm for embryonic development and compared these results to previous studies on the thermal ecology of adults. Offspring survivorship and morphology were similarly affected by incubation temperature. While developing embryos had the same optimum temperature as adults (approximately 28°C), the breadth of their thermal reaction norms differed. My results suggest that developing embryos of E. multicarinata are more sensitive to variation in the average thermal environment than are adults. Variation in the thermal sensitivity of life-history stages might be common and has implications for how organisms respond to variation in the thermal environment. Identifying those life-history stages that are most sensitive/limiting will be important for developing models that best predict species' responses to impending environmental change.

  12. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  13. Application and limitations on thermal and spectroscopic methods for shelf-life prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Lecon [Baxter Healthcare, Round Lake, IL 60073 (United States)]. E-mail: Wool@baxter.com; Ling, Michael T.K. [Baxter Healthcare, Round Lake, IL 60073 (United States); Eu, Bruce [Baxter Healthcare, Round Lake, IL 60073 (United States); Sandford, Craig [Baxter Healthcare, Round Lake, IL 60073 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    In medical products, shelf-life after thermoplastic processing and sterilization is important, and ionizing radiation has become a preferred sterilization mode for medical devices. We have employed successfully thermal analytical methods to predict shelf-life for many polyolefin materials. However, as the material of construction becoming more sophisticated: multiphase alloys and blends, multi-layer constructions, etc., issues existed that require clarification as to what extent these methodologies are applicable. We have employed thermal analytical methods in conjunction with other spectroscopic and morphological methods to study the applicability and limitation of these techniques. Results combined with real life and simulated aging experiments will be presented in this article.

  14. Infections in early life and premature acute coronary syndrome : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qanitha, Andriany; de Mol, Bastianus Ajm; Pabittei, Dara R; Mappangara, Idar; van der Graaf, Yolanda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072825847; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343075881; Burgner, David P; Uiterwaal, Cuno SPM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/136603947

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections in young children may affect the vasculature and initiate early atherosclerosis. Whether infections experienced in childhood play a part in adult clinical cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We investigated the association between infections in early life and the

  15. Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Caroline A; Grice, Desma M; Tran, Cuong D; Bauer, Denis C; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Phil; Hannan, Garry N

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed 'resilience', in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual's co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia's resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the 'at risk' infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.

  16. Impact of casing rotation on premium connection service life in horizontal thermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J.; Fan, C.; Tao, G.; Matthews, C.M. [C-FER Technologies (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal recovery methods are often used to enhance oil recovery but thermal cycle loading can cause failure of casing connections. With thermal recovery methods, casing connections are submitted to bending cycles during casing installation and to thermal cycles thereafter and this results in fatigue damage to the connections. The aim of this paper is to review casing connection rotation bending fatigue assessments and relevant fatigue life prediction theorems. A methodology is presented herein for predicting connection fatigue damage under casing bending rotation loading conditions and is then applied to a design example. Results showed that the limited casing rotation occurring in the installation process had a small impact on the connection fatigue life and that the connections could withstand several under thermal cycles. This paper presented and applied a method to predict connection fatigue damage under casing bending rotation loading conditions.

  17. Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia S Koe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc., stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

  18. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  19. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  20. Thermal cycling can extend tool life in orthopaedic operating rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchky, Ryan N; McLachlin, Stewart D; Wong, Edwin K Y; Finkelstein, Joel; Kreder, Hans J; Whyne, Cari M

    2016-03-01

    Thermal cycling is a temperature modulation process developed to improve the performance, durability and longevity of materials. This process has been successfully utilized in the automotive, aeronautic and manufacturing industries. Surgical cutting tools undergo cyclical loading and generally fail by dulling, suggesting that thermal cycling may improve their performance and longevity. Ten 2.5 mm orthopaedic drill bits were randomized, with five undergoing thermal cycling within their sterile packaging and five serving as untreated controls. Using a servohydraulic testing machine, 100 drilling cycles were performed with each drill bit into the diaphyseal region of bovine femurs. After every 25 cycles, data was collected by performing identical drilling cycles into simulated human cortical bone material. Maximum force, maximum normalized torque and drilling work were measured, and a scanning electron microscope was used to measure outer corner wear. After 100 drilling cycles, the maximum drilling force, maximum normalized torque, drilling work and microscopic outer corner wear were all significantly lower for the treated drill bits (p cutting tools. Application of this technology may also be relevant to surgical cutting tools such as saw blades, burrs and reamers.

  1. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted.

  2. The field investigation on thermal comfort of tent in early autumn of Tianjin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a university campus in Tianjin, four tents were set up to investigate the thermal environment and thermal comfort. Both the field investigation and questionnaires were adopted in this experiment. Two hundred people were investigated, and two hundred questionnaires were gotten. The results show that the thermal comfort zone of officers and soldiers is 24°C to 28°C in early fall, it is a wide range. There is a big error between the PMV index and the actual survey results, PMV calculation index is not accurate in tents environment. The results will have a significant effect on improving the thermal comfort of tents..

  3. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo

  4. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardamagna Ornella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La

  5. Application of time-temperature superposition method in thermal aging life prediction of shipboard cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Wen-dong; CHEN Yi-yuan

    2014-01-01

    The life of shipboard cables will decrease due to the complex aging processes. In terms of the safety perspective, remaining life prediction of the cable is essential to maintain a reliable operation. In this paper, firstly, based on Arrhenius equation, residual life of new styrene-butadiene cable is calculated;result indicates that the degradation rate which changes with time is proportional to thermal temperature. Then second order dynamic model is adopted into the residual life prediction, combined with the time-temperature superposition method (TTSP), and a new residual life model is proposed. According to the accelerated thermal aging experiment data and Arrhenius equation, TTSP method demonstrates to be an efficient way for life prediction, and life at normal temperature can be estimated by this model. In order to monitor the state of styrene-butadiene cable more accurately, an improved residual life model based on equivalent environment temperature of cable is proposed, and life of cable under real operation is analyzed. Result indicates that this model is credible and reliable, and it provides an important theoretical base for residual life of cables.

  6. Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

  7. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  8. Dietary factors during early life program bone formation in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases; however, evidence for an association between early life dietary factors and bone health in adults is limited. Soy protein isolate (SPI) may be one such dietary factor that promotes bone accretion du...

  9. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets’ early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Hereto, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a back

  10. Early-life stress mediated modulation of adult neurogenesis and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korosi, A.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Oomen, C.A.; Schouten, M.; Krugers, H.; Fitzsimons, C.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience can confer enduring effects on brain structure and function. During early perinatal life the quality of the surrounding environment and experiences, in particular the parent-child relationship, is associated with emotional and cogn

  11. Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life,…

  12. Childhood asthma and early life exposure to indoor allergens, endotoxin and beta(1,3)-glucans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelsen, R.J.; Carlsen, K.C.L.; Granum, B.; Doekes, G.; Haland, G.; Mowinckel, P.; Lovik, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Divergent results have been reported regarding early life exposure to indoor environmental agents and the risk of asthma and allergic sensitization later in life. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether early exposure to indoor allergens, beta(1,3)-glucans and endotoxin modifies the risk of allergi

  13. Early-life stress mediated modulation of adult neurogenesis and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korosi, A.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Oomen, C.A.; Schouten, M.; Krugers, H.; Fitzsimons, C.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience can confer enduring effects on brain structure and function. During early perinatal life the quality of the surrounding environment and experiences, in particular the parent-child relationship, is associated with emotional and

  14. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  15. Mission Life Thermal Analysis and Environment Correlation for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Matthew B.; Peabody, Hume

    2012-01-01

    Standard thermal analysis practices include stacking worst-case conditions including environmental heat loads, thermo-optical properties and orbital beta angles. This results in the design being driven by a few bounding thermal cases, although those cases may only represent a very small portion of the actual mission life. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Branch developed a procedure to predict the flight temperatures over the entire mission life, assuming a known beta angle progression, variation in the thermal environment, and a degradation rate in the coatings. This was applied to the Global Precipitation Measurement core spacecraft. In order to assess the validity of this process, this work applies the similar process to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. A flight-correlated thermal model was exercised to give predictions of the thermal performance over the mission life. These results were then compared against flight data from the first two years of the spacecraft s use. This is used to validate the process and to suggest possible improvements for future analyses.

  16. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    to 75%. Moreover, a number of technology-specific improvements were identified, for instance by the substitution of stainless steel types in wells, heaters, and liners used in thermal conduction heating, thus reducing the nickel consumption by 45%. The combined effect of introducing all the suggested......In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...

  17. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Divergence of gastropod life history in contrasting thermal environments in a geothermal lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M P; Ermold, F; Kristjánsson, B K; Laurila, A

    2016-10-01

    Experiments using natural populations have provided mixed support for thermal adaptation models, probably because the conditions are often confounded with additional environmental factors like seasonality. The contrasting geothermal environments within Lake Mývatn, northern Iceland, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate thermal adaptation models using closely located natural populations. We conducted laboratory common garden and field reciprocal transplant experiments to investigate how thermal origin influences the life history of Radix balthica snails originating from stable cold (6 °C), stable warm (23 °C) thermal environments or from areas with seasonal temperature variation. Supporting thermal optimality models, warm-origin snails survived poorly at 6 °C in the common garden experiment and better than cold-origin and seasonal-origin snails in the warm habitat in the reciprocal transplant experiment. Contrary to thermal adaptation models, growth rate in both experiments was highest in the warm populations irrespective of temperature, indicating cogradient variation. The optimal temperatures for growth and reproduction were similar irrespective of origin, but cold-origin snails always had the lowest performance, and seasonal-origin snails often performed at an intermediate level compared to snails originating in either stable environment. Our results indicate that central life-history traits can differ in their mode of evolution, with survival following the predictions of thermal optimality models, whereas ecological constraints have shaped the evolution of growth rates in local populations.

  19. Resilience Factors in Women with Severe Early-Life Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Karen; Neukel, Corinne; Hagemann, Dirk; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    Early-life maltreatment (ELM) has long-lasting negative consequences and is the most important general risk factor for mental disorders. Nevertheless, a number of maltreated children grow up to become healthy adults and have therefore been called 'resilient'. The aim of the current study is to investigate 'resilience factors' in the context of severe ELM. The study was part of the large multicenter project Understanding and Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Abuse (UBICA). A total of 89 women were examined, 33 with ELM and at least one lifetime mental disorder (nonresilient), 19 with ELM but without lifetime mental disorders (resilient), and 37 without ELM and without lifetime mental disorders (controls). ELM and other circumstances before the age of 18 years were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) Interview. Additional relevant person and situation factors were measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders (SCID-I), International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Multiple-Choice Vocabulary Intelligence Test (MWT-B). Factor analyses and paired t tests were performed to identify those variables which differentiate best between the three groups. In addition, a discriminant analysis was conducted to detect the accuracy of assigning women to their specific group. The factor analyses revealed 10 resilience factors based on which we could correctly assign 80% of the women to their group in the discriminant analysis. t tests of factor scores showed that resilient and nonresilient maltreated women mainly differed in current individual attributes (e.g. impulsivity, attachment style), while resilient and nonresilient maltreated women differed from controls in both their current individual attributes and their view of their situation as a

  20. Early-Life State-of-Residence Characteristics and Later Life Hypertension, Diabetes, and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Eisen, Ellen A; Modrek, Sepideh; Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Costello, Sadie; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    We examined how state characteristics in early life are associated with individual chronic disease later in life. We assessed early-life state of residence using the first 3 digits of social security numbers from blue- and white-collar workers from a US manufacturing company. Longitudinal data were available from 1997 to 2012, with 305 936 person-years of observation. Disease was assessed using medical claims. We modeled associations using pooled logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights. We found small but statistically significant associations between early-state-of-residence characteristics and later life hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. The most consistent associations were with income inequality, percentage non-White, and education. These associations were similar after statistically controlling for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and current state characteristics. Characteristics of the state in which an individual lives early in life are associated with prevalence of chronic disease later in life, with a strength of association equivalent to genetic associations found for these same health outcomes.

  1. Ocean warming enhances malformations, premature hatching, metabolic suppression and oxidative stress in the early life stages of a keystone squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge about the capacity of organisms' early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows.

  2. Ocean warming enhances malformations, premature hatching, metabolic suppression and oxidative stress in the early life stages of a keystone squid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Rosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The knowledge about the capacity of organisms' early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70 and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular

  3. Long Duration Life Test of Propylene Glycol Water Based Thermal Fluid Within Thermal Control Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung; Hill, Charles; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of thermal properties and resistance to microbial growth concluded that 50% Propylene Glycol (PG)-based fluid and 50% de-ionized water mixture was desirable for use as a fluid within a vehicle s thermal control loop. However, previous testing with a commercial mixture of PG and water containing phosphate corrosion inhibitors resulted in corrosion of aluminum within the test system and instability of the test fluid. This paper describes a follow-on long duration testing and analysis of 50% Propylene Glycol (PG)-based fluid and 50% de-ionized water mixture with inorganic corrosion inhibitors used in place of phosphates. The test evaluates the long-term fluid stability and resistance to microbial and chemical changes

  4. Phylogeny and life habits of Early Arthropods-Predation in the Early Cambrian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas MAAS; Dieter WALOSZEK; CHEN Junyuan; Andreas BRAUN; WANG Xiuqiang; HUANG Diying

    2004-01-01

    We investigated two new arthropods from the Maotianshan-Shale fauna of southern China in the course of our research on life strategies, particularly predation, in Early Cambrian marine macrofaunal biota. One form clearly belongs to the so-called "great-appendage" arthropods, animals that were, most likely, active predators catching prey with their first pair of large, specialized frontoventral appendages. Based on this, we hypothesize that the new species and many others, if not all, of the "great-appendage" arthropods were derivatives of the chelicerate stem lineage and not forms having branched off at different nodes along the evolutionary lineage of the Arthropoda. Rather, we consider the "great-appendage" arthropods as belonging to a monophyletic clade, which modified autapomorphically their first pair of appendages (antennae in general arthropod terminology) into raptorial organs for food capture. The second new form resembles another Maotianshan-Shale arthropod, Fuxianhuia protensa, in sharing a head made of only two separate segments, a small segment bearing oval eyes laterally, and another bearing a large tergite, which forms a wide shield freely overhanging the subsequent narrow trunk segments. This segment bears a single pair of rather short anteriorly directed uniramous appendages, considered as the "still" limb-shaped antennae. Particularly the evolutionary status of head and limbs of these two forms suggests that both are representatives of the early part of the stem lineage toward the crown-group of Arthropoda, the Euarthropoda. These forms appear rather unspecialized, but may have been but simple predators. This adds to our hypothesis that predation was a common, if not dominant feeding strategy in the Cambrian, at least for arthropods.

  5. Endocrine disruptors and the breast: early life effects and later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macon, Madisa B; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future.

  6. Effects of fluctuating daily temperatures at critical thermal extremes on Aedes aegypti life-history traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carrington, Lauren B; Armijos, M Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    .... A fluctuating temperature profile around a mean of 26°C can alter Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue viruses as well as numerous life-history traits, however, the effect of fluctuations on mosquitoes at critical thermal limits is unknown...

  7. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  8. Early life characteristics and late life burden of cerebral small vessel disease in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Thalia S.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Johnson, Wendy; Backhouse, Ellen; McHutchison, Caroline; Cox, Simon; Corley, Janie; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Shenkin, Susan; Cvoro, Vera; Morris, Zoe; Staals, Julie; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether relations between early-life factors and overall health in later life apply to burden of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a major cause of stroke and dementia. We explored relations between early-life factors and cSVD in the Lothian Birth Cohort, a healthy aging cohort. Participants were recruited at age 70 (N = 1091); most had completed a test of cognitive ability at age 11 as part of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. Of those, 700 participants had brain MRI that could be rated for cSVD conducted at age 73. Presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0-4 representing all MRI cSVD features. We tested associations with early-life factors using multivariate logistic regression. Greater SVD score was significantly associated with lower age-11 IQ (OR higher SVD score per SD age-11 IQ = .78, 95%CI 0.65-.95, p=.01). The associations between SVD score and own job class (OR higher job class, .64 95%CI .43-.95, p=.03), age-11 deprivation index (OR per point deprivation score, 1.08, 95%CI 1.00-1.17, p=.04), and education (OR some qualifying education, .60 95%CI .37-.98, p=.04) trended towards significance (p<.05 for all) but did not meet thresholds for multiple testing. No early-life factor was significantly associated with any one individual score component. Early-life factors may contribute to age-73 burden of cSVD. These relations, and the potential for early social interventions to improve brain health, deserve further study. PMID:27652981

  9. Fragmentation and Unpredictability of Early-Life Experience in Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Solodkin, Ana; Davis, Elysia P.; Stern, Hal; Obenaus, Andre; Sandman, Curt A.; Small, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal sensory signals in early life play a crucial role in programming the structure and function of the developing brain, promoting vulnerability or resilience to emotional and cognitive disorders. In rodent models of early-life stress, fragmentation and unpredictability of maternally derived sensory signals provoke persistent cognitive and emotional dysfunction in offspring. Similar variability and inconsistency of maternal signals during both gestation and early postnatal human life may influence development of emotional and cognitive functions, including those that underlie later depression and anxiety. PMID:22885631

  10. A study on the learning of a life jacket for the early adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    野沢, 巌

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the learning of life jacket for the early adolescents. The Questionnaire was administered in pre- (before activities) and post- (after activities).The major findings were as follows.1) They had little understanding of life jacket on findings of pre-test. The result of the findings ofpre-test suggested the learning of the life jacket.2) The life jacket class what I did was sat a high valuation by the early adolescents and the school teachers.3) The lear...

  11. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.

  12. FKBP5 genotype interacts with early life trauma to predict heavy drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Kranzler, Henry R; Tennen, Howard; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma. Functional genetic variation within FKBP5, a gene encoding a modulator of HPA axis function, is associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, particularly among individuals exposed to trauma early in life. In the current study, we examined interactions between self-reported early life trauma, past-year life stress, past-year trauma, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1360780) in FKBP5 on heavy alcohol consumption in a sample of 1,845 college students from two university settings. Although we found no effect of early life trauma on heavy drinking in rs1360780*T-allele carriers, rs1360780*C homozygotes exposed to early life trauma had a lower probability of heavy drinking compared to rs1360780*C homozygotes not exposed to early life trauma (P stress or past-year trauma, and FKBP5 genotype on heavy drinking suggests that there exists a developmental period of susceptibility to stress that is moderated by FKBP5 genotype. These findings implicate interactive effects of early life trauma and FKBP5 genetic variation on heavy drinking. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Protein needs early in life and long-term health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Greer, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize selected health aspects of protein intake during the first 2 y of life. During this period there is a marked increase in protein intake from an intake of ∼5% of energy from protein (PE%) in an exclusively breastfed infant to ∼15 PE% when complementary...... foods have been introduced. At this age, mean protein intake is ∼3 times as high as the physiologic requirement, but some children receive 4-5 times their physiologic requirement. Protein from cow milk constitutes a main part of protein intake in toddlers and seems to have a specific effect on insulin...... by decreasing the upper allowable limit of the protein content of infant formulas for the first year of life and limiting the intake of cow milk in the second year of life....

  14. Correlation between early-life regulation of the immune system by microbiota and allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensollen, Thomas; Blumberg, Richard S

    2017-04-01

    Early postnatal life is a key time for development of the immune system and colonization of the host by microbiota. Recent studies have shown that specific limbs of the immune system can be regulated by microbiota in a time-restricted period during early life. Studies in mouse models have shown that perturbations of the microbiota during early life can cause immune effects that can persist into adulthood and create increased host susceptibility to certain diseases. Here we discuss the role of early-life regulation of the immune system by the microbiota and how it can be related to allergy development. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  16. Examination of age-related epigenetic changes following early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that transient early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a pyruvate analog and metabolic reprogramming agent, increases liver cancer incidence in older mice. This carcinogenic effect is not associated with direct mutagenicity, persistent cytotoxi...

  17. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic...

  18. Early Thermal Evolution of Planetesimals and its Impact on Processing and Dating of Meteoritic Material

    CERN Document Server

    Gail, H -P; Breuer, D; Spohn, T

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotopic ages for meteorites and their components provide constraints on the evolution of small bodies: timescales of accretion, thermal and aqueous metamorphism, differentiation, cooling and impact metamorphism. Realising that the decay heat of short-lived nuclides (e.g. 26Al, 60Fe), was the main heat source driving differentiation and metamorphism, thermal modeling of small bodies is of utmost importance to set individual meteorite age data into the general context of the thermal evolution of their parent bodies, and to derive general conclusions about the nature of planetary building blocks in the early solar system. As a general result, modelling easily explains that iron meteorites are older than chondrites, as early formed planetesimals experienced a higher concentration of short-lived nuclides and more severe heating. However, core formation processes may also extend to 10 Ma after formation of Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). A general effect of the porous nature of the starting material ...

  19. Long-term effects of early life stress exposure: Role of epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Dafne M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Zorrilla Zubilete, María A

    2016-07-01

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress during the first years of life has been shown to have profound effects on the growth and development of an adult individual. There are evidences demonstrating that stressful experiences during gestation or in early life can lead to enhanced susceptibility to mental disorders. Early-life stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and the associated neurochemical reactions following glucocorticoid release are accompanied by a rapid physiological response. An excessive response may affect the developing brain resulting in neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes later in life. This article reviews the data from experimental studies aimed to investigate hormonal, functional, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the stress response during early-life programming. We think these studies might prove useful for the identification of novel pharmacological targets for more effective treatments of mental disorders.

  20. Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Pertoldi, C.

    2008-01-01

    to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits...... and heritable variation in phenotypic plasticity suggest that although increasing temperatures are likely to affect some populations negatively, they may have the potential to adapt to changing temperature regimes.  ...

  1. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapenko Valerijus; Veseliunas Jonas; Bulotiene Giedre

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the ...

  2. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants....

  3. Lung surfactant metabolism: early in life, early in disease and target in cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Mucci, Adele; Lachmann, Nico; Serrano-Mollar, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins lining the alveolar epithelium. At the air-liquid interface, surfactant lowers surface tension, avoiding alveolar collapse and reducing the work of breathing. The essential role of lung surfactant in breathing and therefore in life, is highlighted by surfactant deficiency in premature neonates, which causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and results in early death after birth. In addition, defects in surfactant metabolism alter lung homeostasis and lead to disease. Special attention should be paid to two important key cells responsible for surfactant metabolism: alveolar epithelial type II cells (AE2C) and alveolar macrophages (AM). On the one hand, surfactant deficiency coming from abnormal AE2C function results in high surface tension, promoting alveolar collapse and mechanical stress in the epithelium. This epithelial injury contributes to tissue remodeling and lung fibrosis. On the other hand, impaired surfactant catabolism by AM leads to accumulation of surfactant in air spaces and the associated altered lung function in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). We review here two recent cell therapies that aim to recover the activity of AE2C or AM, respectively, therefore targeting the restoring of surfactant metabolism and lung homeostasis. Applied therapies successfully show either transplantation of healthy AE2C in fibrotic lungs, to replace injured AE2C cells and surfactant, or transplantation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to counteract accumulation of surfactant lipid and proteinaceous material in the alveolar spaces leading to PAP. These therapies introduce an alternative treatment with great potential for patients suffering from lung diseases.

  4. In search of early life: Carbonate veins in Archean metamorphic rocks as potential hosts of biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carl A.; Piazolo, Sandra; Webb, Gregory E.; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; George, Simon C.

    2016-11-01

    The detection of early life signatures using hydrocarbon biomarkers in Precambrian rocks struggles with contamination issues, unspecific biomarkers and the lack of suitable sedimentary rocks due to extensive thermal overprints. Importantly, host rocks must not have been exposed to temperatures above 250 °C as at these temperatures biomarkers are destroyed. Here we show that Archean sedimentary rocks from the Jeerinah Formation (2.63 billion yrs) and Carawine Dolomite (2.55 billion yrs) of the Pilbara Craton (Western Australia) drilled by the Agouron Institute in 2012, which previously were suggested to be suitable for biomarker studies, were metamorphosed to the greenschist facies. This is higher than previously reported. Both the mineral assemblages (carbonate, quartz, Fe-chlorite, muscovite, microcline, rutile, and pyrite with absence of illite) and chlorite geothermometry suggest that the rocks were exposed to temperatures higher than 300 °C and probably ∼400 °C, consistent with greenschist-facies metamorphism. This facies leads to the destruction of any biomarkers and explains why the extraction of hydrocarbon biomarkers from pristine drill cores has not been successful. However, we show that the rocks are cut by younger formation-specific carbonate veins containing primary oil-bearing fluid inclusions and solid bitumens. Type 1 veins in the Carawine Dolomite consist of dolomite, quartz and solid bitumen, whereas type 2 veins in the Jeerinah Formation consist of calcite. Within the veins fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures and calcite twinning geothermometry indicate maximum temperatures of ∼200 °C for type 1 veins and ∼180 °C for type 2 veins. Type 1 veins have typical isotopic values for reprecipitated Archean sea-water carbonates, with δ13CVPDB ranging from - 3 ‰ to 0‰ and δ18OVPDB ranging from - 13 ‰ to - 7 ‰, while type 2 veins have isotopic values that are similar to hydrothermal carbonates, with δ13CVPDB ranging from - 18

  5. Mother-Stranger Discrimination in the Early Weeks of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Genevieve C.

    A report is presented which relates to a general hypothesis suggested by previous data on visual response to faces that in the first weeks of life infants develop expectations regarding the human face. Three predictions were made: (1) Silent human faces would elicit less direct regard than faces accompanied by voices; (2) A familiar face would…

  6. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towa...

  7. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  8. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  9. The role of impact and radiogenic heating in the early thermal evolution of Mars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sahijpal; G K Bhatia

    2015-02-01

    The planetary differentiation models of Mars are proposed that take into account core–mantle and coremantle–crust differentiation. The numerical simulations are presented for the early thermal evolution of Mars spanning up to the initial 25 million years (Ma) of the early solar system, probably for the first time, by taking into account the radiogenic heating due to the short-lived nuclides, 26Al and 60Fe. The influence of impact heating during the accretion of Mars is also incorporated in the simulations. The early accretion of Mars would necessitate a substantial role played by the short-lived nuclides in its heating. 26Al along with impact heating could have provided sufficient thermal energy to the entire body to substantially melt and trigger planetary scale differentiation. This is contrary to the thermal models based exclusively on the impact heating that could not produce widespread melting and planetary differentiation. The early onset of the accretion of Mars perhaps within the initial ∼1.5 Ma in the early solar system could have resulted in substantial differentiation of Mars, provided, it accreted over the timescale of ∼1 Ma. This seems to be consistent with the chronological records of the Martian meteorites.

  10. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-07

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass or

  12. The Influence of Parent and Peer Attachments on Life Satisfaction in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Nagle, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Satisfaction in different life domains was examined with respect to parent and peer attachment relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. Three hundred and three students, evenly distributed across sex and grade (fourth, sixth, and eighth) were administered "People in My Life," a measure of attachment relationships, and the…

  13. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass

  14. Effects of early life conditions on immunity in broilers and layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The course for later life immune responses is set early in life during the developmental phase of the immune system and accordingly disturbances of immune development may have long-term consequences for host health. In terms of immune activation and immune development the g

  15. Life Prediction Issues in Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coatings in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Brewer, David N.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2001-01-01

    Issues and design requirements for the environmental barrier coating (EBC)/thermal barrier coating (TBC) life that are general and those specific to the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) development program have been described. The current state and trend of the research, methods in vogue related to the failure analysis, and long-term behavior and life prediction of EBCITBC systems are reported. Also, the perceived failure mechanisms, variables, and related uncertainties governing the EBCITBC system life are summarized. A combined heat transfer and structural analysis approach based on the oxidation kinetics using the Arrhenius theory is proposed to develop a life prediction model for the EBC/TBC systems. Stochastic process-based reliability approach that includes the physical variables such as gas pressure, temperature, velocity, moisture content, crack density, oxygen content, etc., is suggested. Benefits of the reliability-based approach are also discussed in the report.

  16. Costs and quality of life for prehabilitation and early rehabilitation after surgery of the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Andreasen, Jakob Huus; Asmussen, Mikael;

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years improved operation techniques and administrative procedures have been developed for early rehabilitation. At the same time preoperative lifestyle intervention (prehabilitation) has revealed a large potential for additional risk reduction. The aim was to assess the quality...... of life and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of standard care versus an integrated programme including prehabilitation and early rehabilitation....

  17. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after p

  18. Female Early Adolescent Sex Role Attitude and Behavior Development: A Life Span, Ecosystem Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christine Seipke; Keith, Joanne

    Theory and research related to early adolescent sex role development needs to be addressed from both a life-span and an ecological perspective. A study was conducted to examine the development of female early adolescent sex role attitudes and behaviors in an ecological context as defined by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Data were the results of a…

  19. Intestinal microbiota composition after antibiotic treatment in early life : the INCA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N B M M; Rijkers, G T; Meijssen, C B; Crijns, C E; Oudshoorn, J H; van der Ent, C K; Vlieger, A M; van der Ent, CK

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acquisition and development of infant gut microbiota can be influenced by numerous factors, of which early antibiotic treatment is an important one. However, studies on the effects of antibiotic treatment in early life on clinical outcomes and establishment and development of the gut

  20. Lability of IgE Levels Early in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi N'guessan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a very fast and intriguing decrease in IgE concentrations after exclusion from the diet of any CM lysate in an unusual clinical presentation of cow's milk allergy in an infant. Analysis of IgE kinetics after allergen elimination suggests rapid cessation of IgE biosynthesis and a short IgE half-life.

  1. Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2012-01-01

    indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years...... of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age....... Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S...

  2. Coping with a changing environment: The effects of early life stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Madaro, Angelico; Fraser, Thomas W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing rapid domestication of Atlantic salmon implies that individuals are subjected to evolutionarily novel stressors encountered under conditions of artificial rearing, requiring new levels and directions of flexibility in physiological and behavioural coping mechanisms. Phenotypic plasticity...... to environmental changes is particularly evident at early life stages. We investigated the performance of salmon, previously subjected to an unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) treatment at an early age (10 month old parr), over several months and life stages. The UCS fish showed overall higher specific growth...... farming environments may be beneficial, because in such situations individuals may be able to reallocate energy from stress responses into other life processes, such as growth....

  3. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations.

  4. Does thermal variability experienced at the egg stage influence life history traits across life cycle stages in a small invertebrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xing

    Full Text Available Although effects of thermal stability on eggs have often been considered in vertebrates, there is little data thermal stability in insect eggs even though these eggs are often exposed in nature to widely fluctuating ambient conditions. The modularity of development in invertebrates might lead to compensation across life cycle stages but this remains to be tested particularly within the context of realistic temperature fluctuations encountered in nature. We simulated natural temperate fluctuations on eggs of the worldwide cruciferous insect pest, the diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L., while maintaining the same mean temperature (25°C±0°C, 25±4°C, 25±6°C, 25±8°C, 25±10°C, 25±12°C and assessed egg development, survival and life history traits across developmental stages. Moderate fluctuations (25±4°C, 25±6°C did not influence performance compared to the constant temperature treatment, and none of the treatments influenced egg survival. However the wide fluctuating temperatures (25±10°C, 25±12°C slowed development time and led to an increase in pre-pupal mass, although these changes did not translate into any effects on longevity or fecundity at the adult stage. These findings indicate that environmental effects can extend across developmental stages despite the modularity of moth development but also highlight that there are few fitness consequences of the most variable thermal conditions likely to be experienced by Plutella xylostella.

  5. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  6. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease. PMID:28208659

  7. Life satisfaction in early adolescence: personal, neighborhood, school, family, and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2011-07-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood (perceived neighborhood support), family (perceived parental support), and peer group (positive peer relationships) were assessed in a sample of 1,402 4th to 7th graders (47% female) from 25 public elementary schools. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was conducted to analyze the variability in life satisfaction both at the individual and the school level. As hypothesized, adding optimism and the dimensions representing the ecology of early adolescence to the model significantly reduced the variability in life satisfaction at both levels of analysis. Both personal (optimism) and all of the ecological assets significantly and positively predicted early adolescents' life satisfaction. The results suggest the theoretical and practical utility of an assets approach for understanding life satisfaction in early adolescence.

  8. Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

    2013-11-01

    In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution.

  9. Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Chung, Jennifer; Battaglia, Thomas; Henderson, Nora; Jay, Melanie; Li, Huilin; D Lieber, Arnon; Wu, Fen; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Chen, Yu; Schweizer, William; Zheng, Xuhui; Contreras, Monica; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Blaser, Martin J

    2016-06-15

    Early childhood is a critical stage for the foundation and development of both the microbiome and host. Early-life antibiotic exposures, cesarean section, and formula feeding could disrupt microbiome establishment and adversely affect health later in life. We profiled microbial development during the first 2 years of life in a cohort of 43 U.S. infants and identified multiple disturbances associated with antibiotic exposures, cesarean section, and formula feeding. These exposures contributed to altered establishment of maternal bacteria, delayed microbiome development, and altered α-diversity. These findings illustrate the complexity of early-life microbiome development and its sensitivity to perturbation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Thermal to Nonthermal Energy Partition at the Early Rise Phase of Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Altyntsev, Alexander A; Lesovoi, Sergey V; Meshalkina, Natalia S

    2012-01-01

    In some flares the thermal component appears much earlier than the nonthermal component in X-ray range. Using sensitive microwave observations we revisit this finding made by Battaglia et al. (2009) based on RHESSI data analysis. We have found that nonthermal microwave emission produced by accelerated electrons with energy of at least several hundred keV, appears as early as the thermal soft X-ray emission indicative that the electron acceleration takes place at the very early flare phase. The non-detection of the hard X-rays at that early stage of the flares is, thus, an artifact of a limited RHESSI sensitivity. In all considered events, the microwave emission intensity increases at the early flare phase. We found that either thermal or nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission can dominate the low-frequency part of the microwave spectrum below the spectral peak occurring at 3-10 GHz. In contrast, the high-frequency optically thin part of the spectrum is always formed by the nonthermal, accelerated electron compon...

  11. The role of impact and radiogenic heating in the early thermal evolution of Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahijpal, S

    2014-01-01

    The planetary differentiation models of Mars are proposed that take into account core-mantle and core-mantle-crust differentiation. The numerical simulations are presented for the early thermal evolution of Mars spanning up to the initial 25 million years (Ma) of the early solar system, probably for the first time, by taking into account the radiogenic heating due to the short-lived nuclides, 26Al and 60Fe. The influence of impact heating during the accretion of Mars is also incorporated in the simulations. The early accretion of Mars would necessitate a substantial role played by the short-lived nuclides in its heating. 26Al along with impact heating could have provided sufficient thermal energy to the entire body to substantially melt and trigger planetary scale differentiation. This is contrary to the thermal models based exclusively on the impact heating that could not produce widespread melting and planetary differentiation. The early onset of the accretion of Mars perhaps within the initial ~1.5 Ma in t...

  12. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  13. How can Early Life Flavor Experiences Affect Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences with food flavors lead up to children’s food preferences and develop long-lasting flavor preferences and healthy eating habits. The process of flavor learning begins during pregnancy by the foods eaten by mothers which pass to the amniotic fluid. Some flavors coming from the mother’s diet that pass to the amniotic fluid are detected by the fetus. This flavor learning continues after birth with breastfeeding, since the human milk is composed of flavors which reflect the foods consumed by the mother. Flavor composition in human milk which changes during the course of lactation due to the transmission of flavors into human milk enables the baby to get used to new flavors. Therefore, breastfed infants are likely to accept flavor changes and novel flavors more than formula fed infants. Flavor learning continues with starting complementary foods and eating the foods directly. Exposure to a specific flavor and repeated exposures in different times may facilitate the acceptance of this flavor. Furthermore, infants exposed to a variety of foods accept new flavors than infants following a monotonous diet. This underlines the importance of promoting the access to a variety of foods in early childhood. In conclusion, pregnant and lactating women should have variety of healthy foods in their diets with a variety of flavors and they should be encouraged to breastfeed their babies. In addition, starting complementary foods and early repeated exposure to a wide variety of healthy foods, the infants should get familiar with the flavor of healthy and various food. These factors may influence the development of healthy food preferences and healthy eating habits in later periods.

  14. Toxicogenomic and phenotypic analyses of bisphenol-A early-life exposure toxicity in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hong Lam

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A is an important environmental contaminant due to the increased early-life exposure that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. This study aimed to use zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to capture transcriptomic and phenotypic changes for inference of signaling pathways, biological processes, physiological systems and identify potential biomarker genes that are affected by early-life exposure to bisphenol-A. Phenotypic analysis using wild-type zebrafish larvae revealed BPA early-life exposure toxicity caused cardiac edema, cranio-facial abnormality, failure of swimbladder inflation and poor tactile response. Fluorescent imaging analysis using three transgenic lines revealed suppressed neuron branching from the spinal cord, abnormal development of neuromast cells, and suppressed vascularization in the abdominal region. Using knowledge-based data mining algorithms, transcriptome analysis suggests that several signaling pathways involving ephrin receptor, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, synaptic long-term potentiation, axonal guidance, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin and tight junction were deregulated. Physiological systems with related disorders associated with the nervous, cardiovascular, skeletal-muscular, blood and reproductive systems were implicated, hence corroborated with the phenotypic analysis. Further analysis identified a common set of BPA-targeted genes and revealed a plausible mechanism involving disruption of endocrine-regulated genes and processes in known susceptible tissue-organs. The expression of 28 genes were validated in a separate experiment using quantitative real-time PCR and 6 genes, ncl1, apoeb, mdm1, mycl1b, sp4, U1SNRNPBP homolog, were found to be sensitive and robust biomarkers for BPA early-life exposure toxicity. The susceptibility of sp4 to BPA perturbation suggests its role in altering brain development, function and subsequently behavior observed in

  15. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  16. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JH LEE; SB YOO; JY KIM; JY LEE; BT KIM; K PARK; JW JAHNG

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) – chronic stress experience inearly life – affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague–Dawley pups wereseparated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1–14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH).NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and thenfood intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes,phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B(PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Westernblot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS.Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levelsof the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggestthat neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increasedexpressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  17. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary

  18. Depression is an independent determinant of life satisfaction early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveer, Daniëlla M; Mishre, Radha Rambaran; van Oort, Andrea; Bodde, Karin; Aerden, Leo A M

    2017-03-06

    Life satisfaction is reduced in stroke patients. However, as a rule, rehabilitation goals are not aimed at life satisfaction, but at activities and participation. In order to optimize life satisfaction in stroke patients, rehabilitation should take into account the determinants of life satisfaction. The aim of this study was therefore to determine what factors are independent determinants of life satisfaction in a large group of patients early after stroke. Stroke-surviving patients were examined by a specialized nurse 6 weeks after discharge from hospital or rehabilitation setting. A standardized history and several screening lists, including the Lisat-9, were completed. Step-wise regression was used to identify independent determinants of life satisfaction. A total of 284 stroke-surviving patients were included in the study. Of these, 117 answered all of the Lisat-9 questions. Most patients (66.5%) rated their life as a whole as "satisfying" or "very satisfying". More depressive symptoms were independently associated with lower life satisfaction (p life early after a stroke. The score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression items is independently associated with life satisfaction. Physicians should therefore pay close attention to the mood of these patients.

  19. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutaif, N.A. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Palazzo, R. Jr [Departamento de Telemática, Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gontijo, J.A.R. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-17

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.

  20. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Lutaif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group. By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.

  1. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutaif, N A; Palazzo, R; Gontijo, J A R

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.

  2. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality...... populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have...... to be lower than those from the general population sample. After careful consideration we concluded that this finding was probably incorrect. The most important explanations were thought to be the wording of some HAD Scale items as well as two mechanisms that are not specific to the HAD Scale, the "selective...

  3. Thermal-hydraulic design and transient evaluation of a small long-life HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ming [Harbin Engineering University, Nantong Street 145, 150001 Harbin (China); Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Kloosterman, Jan Leen, E-mail: j.l.kloosterman@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We present the thermal-hydraulic evaluations of a small, long-life and block-type HTR using the DALTON/THERMIX code system. ► A cross section generation methodology is developed and verified for the diffusion calculations of the small HTR. ► The thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the small HTR during pressurized loss of forced-cooling incidents are compared with depressurized loss of forced-cooling ones. ► The thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a cylindrical core are compared with an annular one. ► Thermal power limit of the small HTR is investigated based on depressurized loss of forced-cooling incidents. -- Abstract: Small long-life high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTRs) may provide electricity or heat for remote areas or industrial users in developed and/or developing countries. Moreover, small HTRs have advantages over large nuclear reactors of demonstrated inherent safety, transportability, modular construction, and flexible site selection. This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic evaluations of the U-Battery, which is a small, long-life and block-type HTR using the DALTON/THERMIX code system. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a cylindrical design and an annular design of the U-Battery were evaluated for loss of forced-cooling (LOFC) incidents including depressurized LOFC (DLOFC) and pressurized LOFC (PLOFC) incidents. The calculations show that the stronger natural circulation during the PLOFC makes the reactor core cool faster than during the DLOFC, flattens the radial solid temperature distribution, and transfers more heat from the hot regions (bottom and center of the reactor core) to cold regions (top and periphery of the reactor core). Although the natural circulation in the reactor core is so weak that it is neglected during the DLOFC, the decay heat is removed passively by conduction without any violation of the temperature limits for the 20 MWth U-Battery. The comparisons of the cylindrical and annular reactor

  4. Crystals, colloids, or molecules?: Early controversies about the origin of life and synthetic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Crystals, colloids, and (macro-)molecules have played major roles in theoretical concepts and experimental approaches concerning the generation of life from the mid-19th century on. The notion of the crystallization of life out of a nonliving fluid, a special case of the doctrine of spontaneous generation, was most prominently incorporated into Schleiden's and Schwann's version of cell theory. Refutation at the end of the 19th century of spontaneous generation of life and cells, in particular by Pasteur, Remak, and Virchow, not only gave rise to the flourishing fields of microbiology and cytology, but it also opened up research on synthetic life. These approaches focused on growth and form and colloidal chemistry on the one hand, and on the specificity of organisms' macromolecules and chemical reactions on the other. This article analyzes the contribution of these approaches to synthetic life research and argues that researchers' philosophical predilections and basic beliefs have played important roles in the choice of experimental and theoretical approaches towards synthetic life.

  5. Early-life social origins of later-life body weight: the role of socioeconomic status and health behaviors over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-07-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression on anxiety and memory after early life stress in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eKanatsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of early-life stress on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that early-life stress increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of early life stress on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  7. Experimental DC extraction of the thermal resistance of bipolar transistors taking into account the Early effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessandro, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents three methods to experimentally extract the thermal resistance of bipolar transistors taking into account the Early effect. The approaches are improved variants of recently-proposed techniques relying on common-base DC measurements. The accuracy is numerically verified by making use of a compact model calibrated on I-V characteristics of state-of-the-art SOG BJTs and SiGe:C HBTs.

  8. Early detection of oil-induced stress in crops using spectral and thermal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major source of environmental degradation, and requires accurate monitoring and timely detection for an effective control of its occurrence. This paper examines the potential of a remote sensing approach using the spectral and thermal responses of crops for the early detection of stress caused by oil pollution. In a glasshouse, pot-grown maize was treated with oil at sublethal and lethal applications. Thereafter, leaf thermal, spectral and physiological measurements were taken every two to three days to monitor the development of stress responses. Our results indicate that absolute leaf temperature was a poor indicator of developing stress. However, a derived thermal index (IG) responded consistently in the early stages of physiological damage. Various spectral reflectance features were highly sensitive to oil-induced stress. A narrow-band index using wavelengths in the near-infrared and red-edge region, (R755-R716)/(R755+R716), was optimal for previsual detection of oil-induced stress. This index had a strong linear relationship with photosynthetic rate. This indicates that by detecting vegetation stress, thermal and hyperspectral remote sensing has considerable potential for the timely detection of oil pollution in the environment.

  9. Prenatal and early-life predictors of atopy and allergic disease in Canadian children: results of the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, T; Reece, P L; Schulze, K M; Morrison, K M; Atkinson, S A; Anand, S S; Teo, K K; Denburg, J A; Cyr, M M

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal and early-life environmental exposures play a key role in the development of atopy and allergic disease. The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life Study is a general, population-based Canadian birth cohort that prospectively evaluated prenatal and early-life traits and their association with atopy and/or allergic disease. The study population included 901 babies, 857 mothers and 530 fathers. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors were evaluated through questionnaires collected during the antenatal period and at 1 year. The end points of atopy and allergic diseases in infants were evaluated through questionnaires and skin prick testing. Key outcomes included atopy (24.5%), food allergy (17.5%), cow's milk allergy (4.8%), wheezing (18.6%) and eczema (16%). The association between infant antibiotic exposure [odds ratio (OR): 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-2.88] and increased atopy was noted in the multivariate analysis, whereas prenatal maternal exposure to dogs (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) and acetaminophen (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.92) was associated with decreased atopy. This population-based birth cohort in Canada demonstrated high rates of atopy, food allergy, wheezing and eczema. Several previously reported and some novel prenatal and postnatal exposures were associated with atopy and allergic diseases at 1 year of age.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  11. Young and turbulent: the early life of massive galaxy progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Madau, Piero; Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo; Haardt, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    We present results from the 'Ponos' simulation suite on the early evolution of a massive, Mvir(z = 0) = 1.2 × 1013 M⊙ galaxy. At z ≳ 6, before feedback from a central supermassive black hole becomes dominant, the main galaxy has a stellar mass ˜2 × 109 M⊙ and a star formation rate ˜20 M⊙ yr-1. The galaxy sits near the expected main sequence of star-forming galaxies at those redshifts, and resembles moderately star-forming systems observed at z > 5. The high specific star formation rate results in vigorous heating and stirring of the gas by supernovae feedback, and the galaxy develops a thick and turbulent disc, with gas velocity dispersion ˜40 km s-1, rotation to dispersion ratio ˜2, and with a significant amount of gas at ˜105 K. The Toomre parameter always exceeds the critical value for gravito-turbulence, Q ˜ 1.5-2, mainly due to the contribution of warm/hot gas inside the disc. Without feedback, a nearly gravito-turbulent regime establishes with similar gas velocity dispersion and lower Q. We propose that the 'hot and turbulent' disc regime seen in our simulations, unlike the 'cold and turbulent' gravito-turbulent regime of massive clumpy disc galaxies at z ˜ 1-2, is a fundamental characterization of the main-sequence galaxies at z ≳ 6, as they can sustain star formation rates comparable to those of low-mass starbursts at z = 0. This results in no sustained coherent gas inflows through the disc, and in fluctuating and anisotropic mass transport, possibly postponing the assembly of the bulge and causing the initial feeding of the central black hole to be highly intermittent.

  12. Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress.

  13. Early life treatment with vancomycin reduces diabetes incidence in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    immune response and a fine-tuned balance between these immunological components is crucial for characteristics of the disease, such as severity, onset time and recovery. The balance between the regulatory and the adaptive immune response is heavily influenced by early life bacterial stimulation......Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from an uncontrolled T cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Causal factors include a combination of genetics, early life incidents and the food we eat. The involved adaptive immune response can be down regulated by a regulatory....... An interplay that is likely to represent a critical environmental component to diabetes induction. In a period after birth alterations of the early microbial colonization of the gut therefore can be expected to have an immense impact on diabetes progression later in life. In this study neonate NOD mice were...

  14. Investigating epigenetic consequences of early-life adversity: some methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Fiori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressful and traumatic events occurring during early childhood have been consistently associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. This relationship may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, which are influenced by the early-life environment. Epigenetic patterns can have lifelong effects on gene expression and on the functioning of biological processes relevant to stress reactivity and psychopathology. Optimization of epigenetic research activity necessitates a discussion surrounding the methodologies used for DNA methylation analysis, selection of tissue sources, and timing of psychological and biological assessments. Recent studies related to early-life adversity and methylation, including both candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies, have drawn from the variety of available techniques to generate interesting data in the field. Further discussion is warranted to address the limitations inherent to this field of research, along with future directions for epigenetic studies of adversity-related psychopathology.

  15. Early life treatment with vancomycin reduces diabetes incidence in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist;

    immune response and a fine-tuned balance between these immunological components is crucial for characteristics of the disease, such as severity, onset time and recovery. The balance between the regulatory and the adaptive immune response is heavily influenced by early life bacterial stimulation......Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from an uncontrolled T cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Causal factors include a combination of genetics, early life incidents and the food we eat. The involved adaptive immune response can be down regulated by a regulatory....... An interplay that is likely to represent a critical environmental component to diabetes induction. In a period after birth alterations of the early microbial colonization of the gut therefore can be expected to have an immense impact on diabetes progression later in life. In this study neonate NOD mice were...

  16. Early-life enteric infections: relation between chronic systemic inflammation and poor cognition in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation. The leaky gut–derived low-grade systemic inflammation may have profound consequences on the gut–liver–brain axis, compromising normal growth, metabolism, and cognitive development. This review examines recent data suggesting that early-life enteric infections that lead to intestinal barrier disruption may shift the intestinal microbiota toward chronic systemic inflammation and subsequent impaired cognitive development. PMID:27142301

  17. Early life exposure to malaria and cognition in adulthood: evidence from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the impact of early life malaria exposure on cognition in sample of Mexican adults, using the nationwide introduction of malaria eradication efforts to identify causal impacts. The core findings are that birth year exposure to malaria eradication was associated with increases in Raven Progressive Matrices test scores and consumption expenditures, but not schooling. Additionally, cohorts born after eradication both entered and exited school earlier than their pre-eradication counterparts. These effects were only seen for men and explanations for this are assessed. Collectively, these findings suggest that improvements in infant health help explain secular increases in cognitive test scores, that better cognition may link early life health to adulthood earnings, and that human capital investments through childhood and young adulthood respond sensitively to market returns to early life endowment shocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The early life origins of vascular ageing and cardiovascular risk: the EVA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Peter M; Lurbe, Empar; Laurent, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    Early vascular ageing is common in patients with hypertension and increased burden of cardiovascular risk factors, often influenced by chronic inflammation. One aspect of this vascular ageing is arterial stiffening, as measured by increased pulse wave velocity or augmentation index and central pressure. Several studies have indicated that this process starts early in life and that arterial function and ageing properties could be programmed during foetal life or influenced by adverse growth patterns in early postnatal life. This could explain the repeated findings in observational epidemiology that an inverse association exists between birth weight, adjusted for gestational age, and systolic blood pressure elevation in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, as well as for increased cardiovascular risk. One new marker of increased pulse pressure and arterial ageing is telomere length, as regulated by telomerase enzymatic activity. Future studies will hopefully shed light on the possibilities to halt or even reverse vascular ageing, and thereby also influence telomere biology and its different expressions.

  19. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The....... The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood.......Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied...

  20. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  1. Early-life environmental variation affects intestinal microbiota and immune development in new-born piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirkjan Schokker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances.

  2. The Influence of Early Life Conditions on Social Perceptions of Women in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers, Jazmin J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women are key contributors to an organizational environment, though the stereotypic perceptions about powerful women are common and often negative. Factors such as wage gap differentials between men and women imply that women are not of the same value to an organization’s success as men. Many empirical studies have examined perceptions about women in positions such as managers, CEOs, supervisors or directors. These studies have not, however, focused on how early life environments, and variables related to an individual’s upbringing, might influence the self-perceptions of these women and the roles they play in the workplace. The purpose of this research is to identify 1 perceptions about women in today’s workplace; 2 how individuals’ early life experiences correlate with their later perceptions about women in the workplace, and 3 how early life influences affect women as organizational leaders in groups and dyads. As such, it is hypothesized that this correlational study will discover that early life conditions, such as the quality of education, household income, and demographic data from both male and female genders will influence common attitudes about women in the workplace. The present research also aims to help employees become more aware of company perceptions and to improve gender communication in the workplace. Examining the workplace perceptions of men and women formed by early life influences, and specifically, researching how women work as leaders in an organizational setting can provide information that will be useful in corporate environments. Significant early life predictors can also be used as data for families and schools raising young women to become leaders in the corporate world.

  3. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lauren M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2017-08-21

    Study aims were to examine: (i) how physical and sexual victimisation in early life are associated with alcohol's harm from others; and (ii) whether respondents' current drinking is a mediator of the association between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others among men and women. Data were from national computer-assisted telephone interviews, using the landline sample (3335 men and 3520 women ages ≥18) from the 2010 US National Alcohol Survey. Harms from someone else's drinking included family/marital problems, financial troubles, assault and vandalism in the past 12 months. Victimisation was measured with severe physical abuse or sexual assault before age 18. Severe physical or sexual victimisation before age 18 was reported by 3.4% of men and 8.1% of women. Significantly more men (5.2%) than women (2.4%) reported assault by other drinkers, and significantly more women reported family/marital (5.3%) and financial problems (2.8%) than did men (2.6 and 1% respectively). Severe early life victimisation was robustly associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing past-year harms from other drinkers for both men and women. Men's drinking partially mediated associations between early life victimisation and recent assaults and vandalism by other drinkers. Early life victimisation may increase risk of harms from someone else's drinking. Health services and interventions that screen for histories of victimisation may help decrease risk of later harms from others' drinking. Reductions in drinking among men with histories of victimisation also could help reduce their exposure to such harms. [Kaplan LM, Greenfield TK, Karriker-Jaffe KJ. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Statistical mechanics of the genetic code: a glimpse of early life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    Relics of early life, preceding even the last universal common ancestor of all life on Earth, are present in the structure of the modern day canonical genetic code --- the map between DNA sequence and amino acids that form proteins. The code is not random, as often assumed, but instead is now known to have certain error minimisation properties. How could such a code evolve, when it would seem that mutations to the code itself would cause the wrong proteins to be translated, thus killing the organism? I show how a unique and optimal genetic code can emerge over evolutionary time from digital life simulations, but only if horizontal gene transfer was a much stronger characteristic of early life than it is now. These results suggest a natural scenario in which evolution exhibits three distinct dynamical regimes, differentiated respectively by the way in which information flow, genetic novelty and complexity emerge. Possible observational signatures of these predictions are discussed.

  5. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A.; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K.; Gartner, Stephanie R.; Field, Catherine J.; Chan, Catherine B.; Willing, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation. PMID:28150721

  6. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees...... of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system....... of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result...

  7. Influences of fine pitch solder joint shape parameters on fatigue life under thermal cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chun-yue; WU Zhao-hua; HUANG Hong-yan; ZHOU De-jian

    2005-01-01

    The solder joint reliability of a 0. 5 mm lead pitch, 240-pin quad flat package(QFP) was studied by nonlinear finite element analysis(FEA). The stress/strain distributions within the solder joints and the maximum plastic strain range of the solder joints were determined. Based on the calculated maximum plastic strain range the thermal fatigue life of the solder joints was calculated using Coffin-Manson equation. The influences of shape parameters including volume of solder joint, pad size and stand-off on the thermal fatigue life of the solder joints were also studied. The results show that the stress and strain distribution in the solder joint are not uniform; the interface between the lead and the solder joint is the high stress and strain region; the maximum stress and stain occur at the topmost point where the solder joint intersects with the inner side of the lead. The solder joint cracks should occur firstly at this point and propagate along the interface between the solder and the lead. The solder joint with the pad size of 1.25 mm× 0.35 mm, the stand-off of 0.02 mm and the solder volume of 0. 026 mm3 has longer fatigue life than that of any others. These optimal parameters have been applied in practice to assemble the 240-pin, 0.5 mm pitch QFP.

  8. The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Gupta, Sumedha

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages.

  9. Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Vivienne A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma experienced early in life increases the risk of developing a number of psychological and/or behavioural disorders. It is unclear, however, how genetic predisposition to a behavioural disorder, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, modifies the long-term effects of early life trauma. There is substantial evidence from family and twin studies for susceptibility to ADHD being inherited, implying a strong genetic component to the disorder. In the present study we used an inbred animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, to investigate the long-term consequences of early life trauma on emotional behaviour in individuals predisposed to developing ADHD-like behaviour. Methods We applied a rodent model of early life trauma, maternal separation, to SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain from which SHR were originally derived. The effects of maternal separation (removal of pups from dam for 3 h/day during the first 2 weeks of life on anxiety-like behaviour (elevated-plus maze and depressive-like behaviour (forced swim test were assessed in prepubescent rats (postnatal day 28 and 31. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results The effect of maternal separation on SHR and WKY differed in a number of behavioural measures. Similar to its reported effect in other rat strains, maternal separation increased the anxiety-like behaviour of WKY (decreased open arm entries but not SHR. Maternal separation increased the activity of SHR in the novel environment of the elevated plus-maze, while it decreased that of WKY. Overall, SHR showed a more active response in the elevated plus-maze and forced swim test than WKY, regardless of treatment, and were also found to have higher basal plasma corticosterone compared to WKY. Maternal separation increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone in SHR females only, possibly through adaptive

  10. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2013-01-01

    and survival. In marine fish, rates of natural mortality are highest during early life and are negatively correlated with rates of growth and body size. In these early life stages (eggs, larvae, young juveniles) subtle differences in mortality can cause large differences in recruitment and year-class success...... this 12 males and two females were crossed using a full-factorial breeding design. Paternity had a strong influence on fertilization success, hatching success, cumulative embryonic mortality, larval standard length, eye diameter, yolk-sac area, and cumulative larval mortality. Female 1 showed an overall...

  11. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the s......Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  12. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta;

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The....... The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood....

  13. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-01-01

    Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An q...

  14. Development of atopic dermatitis and its association with prenatal and early life exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Over 20% of children in industrialized countries are affected by atopic dermatitis. From epidemiological studies, it is quite obvious that the worldwide prevalence of atopic dermatitis has considerably increased over the past decades and constitutes a major public health problem. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs in very early life and frequently precedes the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis during the first several years of life. Although a large...

  15. Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

  16. Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

  17. Imperfect past and present progressive: beak color reflects early-life and adult exposure to antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Naylor, Madeleine F; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Secondary sexual traits may convey information about individual condition. We assessed the capacity for immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) during the prenatal and early postnatal stages to impact beak color development and expression in captive zebra finches. In addition, we tested whether adult immune challenge impacted beak color, and if early-life experience was influential. Immune challenge with KLH early in life slowed development of red beak coloration, and males challenged with KLH as nestlings had reduced red coloration as adults. Following adult KLH challenge, males exhibited a decline in beak redness. Birds challenged with KLH during development produced more anti-KLH antibodies after adult challenge. There was a significant interaction between young treatment and anti-KLH antibody production; for males not challenged with KLH early in life, individuals that mounted a weaker antibody response lost more red coloration after challenge than males mounting a stronger antibody response. Based on models of avian vision, these differences in beak coloration should be detectable to the finches. In contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of early-life or adult challenge with LPS on any aspects of beak coloration. These results provide evidence that beak color reflects developmental and current conditions, and that the signal is linked to critical physiological processes.

  18. Early life adversity is associated with brain changes in subjects at family risk for depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carballedo, Angela

    2012-12-01

    The interplay of genetic and early environmental factors is recognized as an important factor in the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reduced volume of hippocampus and frontal brain regions involved in emotional regulation are already present in unaffected healthy individuals at genetic risk of suffering MDD and to investigate whether early life adversity is a relevant factor interacting with these reduced brain structures.

  19. DNA methylation as a risk factor in the effects of early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnally, Erin L; Feinberg, Caroline; Kim, David; Ferguson, Kerel; Leibel, Rudolph; Coplan, Jeremy D; John Mann, J

    2011-11-01

    Epigenetic marks (e.g., DNA 5-methylcytosine [5mC] content or CpG methylation) within specific gene regulatory regions have been demonstrated to play diverse roles in stress adaptation and resulting health trajectories following early adversity. Yet the developmental programming of the vast majority of the epigenome has not yet been characterized, and its role in the impact of early stress largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the relationships among early life stress, whole-epigenome and candidate stress pathway gene (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT) methylation patterns, and adult behavioral stress adaptation in a non-human primate model. Early in life, experimental variable foraging demand (VFD) stress or control conditions were administered to two groups each of 10 female bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) and their mothers. As adults (3-13 years of age), these females were assessed for behavioral adaptation to stress across four conditions of increasing intensity. Blood DNA 5-HTT 5mC status was determined using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and total 5mC content was determined using ELISA. Neither stress reactivity nor DNA methylation differed based on early life stress. However, we found that both greater 5-HTT and whole-genome 5mC was associated with enhanced behavioral stress reactivity following early life stress, but not control conditions. Therefore, regardless of developmental origin, greater DNA methylation conferred a genomic background of "risk" in the context of early stress. We suggest that this may arise from constrained plasticity in gene expression needed for stress adaptation early in development. This risk may have wider implications for psychological and physical stress adaptation and health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  1. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation on life sciences engineering (air) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on a life sciences double-glazed air solar collector under simulated conditions is discussed. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center's solar simulator. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were also conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector. These results and the results of the collector load test are also discussed.

  2. Automatic segmentation of the hippocampus for preterm neonates from early-in-life to term-equivalent age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: MAGeT-Brain is capable of segmenting hippocampi accurately in preterm neonates, even at early-in-life. Hippocampal asymmetry with a larger right side is demonstrated on early-in-life images, suggesting that this phenomenon has its onset in the 3rd trimester of gestation. Hippocampal volume assessed at the time of early-in-life and term-equivalent age is linearly associated with GA at birth, whereby smaller volumes are associated with earlier birth.

  3. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatigue life prediction of Ni-base thermal solar receiver tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartrott, Philipp von; Schlesinger, Michael [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhlig, Ralf; Jedamski, Jens [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Solar receivers for tower type Solar Thermal Power Plants are subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loads including fast and severe thermo-mechanical cycles. The material temperatures can reach more than 800 C and fall to room temperature very quickly. In order to predict the fatigue life of a receiver design, receiver tubes made of Alloy 625 with a wall thickness of 0.5 mm were tested in isothermal and thermo-cyclic experiments. The number of cycles to failure was in the range of 100 to 100,000. A thermo-mechanical fatigue life prediction model was set up. The model is based on the cyclic deformation of the material and the damage caused by the growth of fatigue micro cracks. The model reasonably predicts the experimental results. (orig.)

  5. Life prediction methodology for thermal-mechanical fatigue and elevated temperature creep design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annigeri, Ravindra

    Nickel-based superalloys are used for hot section components of gas turbine engines. Life prediction techniques are necessary to assess service damage in superalloy components resulting from thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) and elevated temperature creep. A new TMF life model based on continuum damage mechanics has been developed and applied to IN 738 LC substrate material with and without coating. The model also characterizes TMF failure in bulk NiCoCrAlY overlay and NiAl aluminide coatings. The inputs to the TMF life model are mechanical strain range, hold time, peak cycle temperatures and maximum stress measured from the stabilized or mid-life hysteresis loops. A viscoplastic model is used to predict the stress-strain hysteresis loops. A flow rule used in the viscoplastic model characterizes the inelastic strain rate as a function of the applied stress and a set of three internal stress variables known as back stress, drag stress and limit stress. Test results show that the viscoplastic model can reasonably predict time-dependent stress-strain response of the coated material and stress relaxation during hold times. In addition to the TMF life prediction methodology, a model has been developed to characterize the uniaxial and multiaxial creep behavior. An effective stress defined as the applied stress minus the back stress is used to characterize the creep recovery and primary creep behavior. The back stress has terms representing strain hardening, dynamic recovery and thermal recovery. Whenever the back stress is greater than the applied stress, the model predicts a negative creep rate observed during multiple stress and multiple temperature cyclic tests. The model also predicted the rupture time and the remaining life that are important for life assessment. The model has been applied to IN 738 LC, Mar-M247, bulk NiCoCrAlY overlay coating and 316 austenitic stainless steel. The proposed model predicts creep response with a reasonable accuracy for wide range of

  6. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  7. The Everyday Life of Children Across Early Childhood Institution and The Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the everyday life of Danish children across different social practices and explores what this outset can tell us about the life of children and families. Building on the critique of classical approaches in developmental psychology (e.g. Burman 1994; James, Jenks, & Prout...... 1998) and family research (e.g. Leira 1993; Thorne & Yalom 1982) the article puts forward a decentred approach to family life. The aim is to show how the institutional context and family context sets conditions for each other - and that interplay sets conditions for the development of the children....... The article argues that the social practice in which the children participate outside the family, in important ways shapes the life of children as well as their parents. The parents' insight and knowledge of their children's everyday life in early childhood institution and the co-operation between parents...

  8. Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ku-ming

    2011-06-01

    Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism.

  9. Early-life origins of chronic respiratory diseases: understanding and promoting healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Silvia; Scheltema, Nienke; Bont, Louis; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often originate early in life. In addition to a genetic predisposition, prenatal and early-life environmental exposures have a persistent impact on respiratory health. Acting during a critical phase of lung development, these factors may change lung structure and metabolism, and may induce maladaptive responses to harmful agents, which will affect the whole lifespan. Some environmental factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, type of childbirth and diet, may be modifiable, but it is more difficult to influence other factors, such as preterm birth and early exposure to viruses or allergens. Here, we bring together recent literature to analyse the critical aspects involved in the early stages of lung development, going back to prenatal and perinatal events, and we discuss the mechanisms by which noxious factors encountered early on may have a lifelong impact on respiratory health. We briefly comment on the need for early disease biomarkers and on the possible role of "-omic" technologies in identifying risk profiles predictive of chronic respiratory conditions. Such profiles could guide the ideation of effective preventive strategies and/or targeted early lifestyle or therapeutic interventions.

  10. Work-Life Balance, Burnout, and Satisfaction of Early Career Pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmer, Amy J; Frintner, Mary Pat; Freed, Gary L

    2016-04-01

    Data describing factors associated with work-life balance, burnout, and career and life satisfaction for early career pediatricians are limited. We sought to identify personal and work factors related to these outcomes. We analyzed 2013 survey data of pediatricians who graduated residency between 2002 and 2004. Dependent variables included: (1) balance between personal and professional commitments, (2) current burnout in work, (3) career satisfaction, and (4) life satisfaction. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations of personal and work characteristics with each of the 4 dependent variables. A total of 93% of participants completed the survey (n = 840). A majority reported career (83%) and life (71%) satisfaction. Fewer reported current appropriate work-life balance (43%) or burnout (30%). In multivariable modeling, excellent/very good health, having support from physician colleagues, and adequate resources for patient care were all found to be associated with a lower prevalence of burnout and a higher likelihood of work-life balance and career and life satisfaction. Having children, race, and clinical specialty were not found to be significantly associated with any of the 4 outcome measures. Female gender was associated with a lower likelihood of balance and career satisfaction but did not have an association with burnout or life satisfaction. Burnout and struggles with work-life balance are common; dissatisfaction with life and career are a concern for some early career pediatricians. Efforts to minimize these outcomes should focus on encouragement of modifiable factors, including health supervision, peer support, and ensuring sufficient patient care resources. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinic, P J; Patterson, D A; Ydenberg, R C

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs > 130 days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods recorded for any O. nerka population. Copper Creek presents an easy upstream migration, with mild water temperatures (7 to 14°  C), short distance (13·1 km) and low elevation gain (41 m) to the lake where fish hold prior to spawning. An energetic model estimates that Haida Gwaii has ever exceeded the presumed temperature threshold (19° C) for early marine exit. Although it is not impossible that the thermal tolerance of Copper Creek O.nerka is very low, the data presented here appear inconsistent with thermal avoidance as an explanation for the early marine exit timing in Copper Creek and in three other populations on the archipelago with early marine exit.

  12. Sex and strain modify antioxidant response to early life ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the 3rd leading cause of death. In women, its impact continues to increase. Oxidant insults like cigarette smoke and air pollution, especially during critical periods of early life, appear to further increase risk of COPD...

  13. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Beijers, R.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety

  14. Gut microbiota in early life and its impact on allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.B.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development of the intestinal microbiota in infancy, investigated by different molecular approaches (all based on rRNA gene analysis), and includes studies describing consequences of early life modulation of microbiota, by supplementation of probiotics, on composition and f

  15. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  16. Early life influences on cognition, behavior, and emotion in humans: from birth to age 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, B.R. Van den; Loomans, E.M.; Mennes, M.

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting effects of fetal exposure to early life influences (ELI) such as maternal anxiety, stress, and micronutrient deficiencies as well as mediating and moderating factors are quite well established in animal studies, but remain unclear in humans. Here, we report about effects on cognitio

  17. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta Jadwiga;

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The...

  18. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Juliana; Patel, Kruti R; Aven, Linh; Achey, Rebecca; Minns, Martin S; Lee, Yoonjoo; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery E; Ai, Xingbin

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are the only innervated airway epithelial cells. To what extent neural innervation regulates PNEC secretion and function is unknown. Here, we discover that neurotrophin 4 (NT4) plays an essential role in mucus overproduction after early life allergen exposure by orchestrating PNEC innervation and secretion of GABA. We found that PNECs were the only cellular source of GABA in airways. In addition, PNECs expressed NT4 as a target-derived mechanism underlying PNEC innervation during development. Early life allergen exposure elevated the level of NT4 and caused PNEC hyperinnervation and nodose neuron hyperactivity. Associated with aberrant PNEC innervation, the authors discovered that GABA hypersecretion was required for the induction of mucin Muc5ac expression. In contrast, NT4(-/-) mice were protected from allergen-induced mucus overproduction and changes along the nerve-PNEC axis without any defects in inflammation. Last, GABA installation restored mucus overproduction in NT4(-/-) mice after early life allergen exposure. Together, our findings provide the first evidence for NT4-dependent neural regulation of PNEC secretion of GABA in a neonatal disease model. Targeting the nerve-PNEC axis may be a valid treatment strategy for mucus overproduction in airway diseases, such as childhood asthma.-Barrios, J., Patel, K. R., Aven, L., Achey, R., Minns, M. S., Lee, Y., Trinkaus-Randall, V. E., Ai, X. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion. © FASEB.

  19. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanatsou, S.; ter Horst, J.P.; Harris, A.P.; Seckl, J.R.; Krugers, H.J.; Joëls, M.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure,

  20. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  1. Immunological effects of reduced mucosal integrity in the early life of BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja Maria Bangsgaard; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Certain stimuli at the gut barrier may be necessary in early life to establish a proper balance of immune tolerance. We evaluated a compromised barrier in juvenile mice in relation to microbiota and local and systemic immunity. BALB/c mice were treated with a low dose of dextran sulfate sodium (D...

  2. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  3. Early life history of pomatomus saltatrix off the East coast of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beckley, LE

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have stated that southward transport of the early life-history stages of Pomatomus saltatrix also known as the elf or shad occurs by passive drift in the Agulhas Current, a strong western boundary current which flows southwards...

  4. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  5. Gut microbiota in early life and its impact on allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.B.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development of the intestinal microbiota in infancy, investigated by different molecular approaches (all based on rRNA gene analysis), and includes studies describing consequences of early life modulation of microbiota, by supplementation of probiotics, on composition and f

  6. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  7. Association of early-life antibiotic use and protective effects of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Long duration of breastfeeding is known to reduce the frequency of infections and the risk of overweight, both of which are prevalent health problems among children, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objectives: To test whether early-life antibiotic use in children prevents the benefici

  8. Mexican American Birthweight and Child Overweight: Unraveling a Possible Early Life Course Health Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage…

  9. Sex and strain modify antioxidant response to early life ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the 3rd leading cause of death. In women, its impact continues to increase. Oxidant insults like cigarette smoke and air pollution, especially during critical periods of early life, appear to further increase risk of COPD...

  10. Increased microbe-receptor contact in early life – approaching immune regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja Maria Bangsgaard; Hansen, Camilla H. F.; Krych, Lukasz

    Sulphate Sodium interrupts the barrier function of the gut wall by shaving the mucus layer. In low doses it may have the desired contact-increasing effect without inducing colitis-related disease. Following low-dose DSS treatment in early life of BALB/c mice, we did a gene expression screening in ileum...

  11. Association of early-life antibiotic use and protective effects of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Long duration of breastfeeding is known to reduce the frequency of infections and the risk of overweight, both of which are prevalent health problems among children, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objectives: To test whether early-life antibiotic use in children prevents the

  12. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  13. Individuals' Life Structures in the Early Adulthood Period Based on Levinson's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktu, Yahya; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Early adulthood is one of the important milestones considered within lifelong development in the relevant literature. Adulthood is examined through various theories; however, universality of many of these is still being discussed. One of these theories is Levinson's theory of life structure. Thus, the current research aims to examine the extent to…

  14. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model.

  15. Family Quality of Life for Families in Early Intervention in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Joana M.; Baqués, Natasha; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Dalmau, Mariona; Giné, Climent; Gràcia, Marta; Vilaseca, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) has been shown to be an essential resource for meeting the needs and priorities of children with intellectual and developmental disability and their families. The objective of this study was to examine (a) the perceived quality of life of families attending EI centers in Spain and (b) its relationship with characteristics…

  16. Does Early-Life Exposure to Organophosphate Insecticides Lead to Prediabetes and Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Human exposures to organophosphate insecticides are ubiquitous. Although regarded as neurotoxicants, increasing evidence points toward lasting metabolic disruption from early-life organophosphate exposures. We gave neonatal rats chlorpyrifos, diazinon or parathion in doses devoid of any acute signs of toxicity, straddling the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition. Organophosphate exposure during a critical developmental window altered the trajectory of hepatic adenylyl cyc...

  17. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  18. Why Did the Netherlands Develop So Early? The Legacy of the Brethren of the Common Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S. Akçomak (I. Semih); H.D. Webbink (Dinand); B. ter Weel (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis research establishes a link between the Brethren of the Common Life (BCL), a religious community founded by Geert Groote in Deventer in the late fourteenth century, and the early economic development of the Netherlands. The BCL stimulated human capital accumulation. The histor

  19. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  20. Early Years: Young Children Deserve the Best Possible Start in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leena

    2015-01-01

    That all young children should have the best possible start in life is a statement that tends to be met with universal agreement. This article, however, argues there are very many different kinds of ideologies that shape the kinds of "best starts" early years teachers should strive for at a time when childhood poverty is rising and when…

  1. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  2. Early Thermal History of Rhea: The Role of Serpentinization and Liquid State Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Łosiak, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Early thermal history of Rhea is investigated. The role of the following parameters of the model is investigated: time of beginning of accretion, tini, duration of accretion, tac, viscosity of ice close to the melting point, η0, activation energy in the formula for viscosity, E, thermal conductivity of silicate component, ksil, ammonia content, XNH3, and energy of serpentinization, cserp. We found that tini and tac are crucial for evolution. All other parameters are also important, but no dramatic differences are found for realistic values. The process of differentiation is also investigated. It is found that liquid state convection could delay the differentiation for hundreds of My. The results are confronted with observational data from Cassini spacecraft. It is possible that differentiation is fully completed but the density of formed core is close to the mean density. If this interpretation is correct, then Rhea could have accreted any time before 3-4 My after formation of CAI.

  3. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-02-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. This study used data on 4750 mother-offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition.

  4. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  5. Life cycle assessment of thermal Waste-to-Energy technologies: Review and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies ......Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case......-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste...... improved. Based on the review, a detailed overview of assumptions and modeling choices in existing literature is provided in conjunction with practical recommendations for state-of-the-art LCA of Waste-to-Energy....

  6. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Laura [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Smith, Paul [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Rizea, Steven [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Van Ryzin, Joe [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Morgan, Charles [Planning Solutions, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States); Noland, Gary [G. Noland and Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Pavlosky, Rick [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Thomas, Michael [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  7. Resistance to early-life stress in mice: effects of genetic background and stress duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M. Savignac

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress can induce marked behavioural and physiological impairments in adulthood including cognitive deficits, depression, anxiety and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Although robust rat models of early-life stress exist there are few established effective paradigms in the mouse. Genetic background and protocol parameters used are two critical variables in such model development.Thus we investigated the impact of two different early-life stress protocols in two commonly used inbred mouse strains. C57BL/6 and innately anxious BALB/c male mice were maternally deprived 3 hrs daily, either from postnatal day 1 to 14 (Protocol 1 or 6 to 10 (Protocol 2. Animals were assessed in adulthood for cognitive performance (spontaneous alternation behaviour test, anxiety (open field, light/dark box and elevated plus maze tests and depression-related behaviours (forced swim test in addition to stress-sensitive physiological changes. Overall, the results showed that early-life stressed mice from both strains displayed good cognitive ability and no elevations in anxiety. However, paradoxical changes occurred in C57BL/6 mice as the longer protocol (protocol 1 decreased anxiety in the light-dark box and increased exploration in the elevated plus maze. In BALB/c mice there were also limited effects of maternal separation with both separation protocols inducing reductions in stress-induced defecation and protocol 1 reducing the colon length. These data suggest that, independent of stress duration, mice from both strains were on the whole resilient to the maladaptive effects of early-life stress. Thus maternal-separation models of brain-gut axis dysfunction should rely on either different stressor protocols or other strains of mice.

  8. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Juliette; Hamel, Gérard; Zbinden, Magali; Tasiemski, Aurélie A; Boutet, Isabelle; Léger, Nelly; Tanguy, Arnaud; Jollivet, Didier; Shillito, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours) exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  9. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ravaux

    Full Text Available The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  10. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids.

  11. Effects of fluctuating daily temperatures at critical thermal extremes on Aedes aegypti life-history traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Carrington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of temperature on insect biology is well understood under constant temperature conditions, but less so under more natural, fluctuating conditions. A fluctuating temperature profile around a mean of 26°C can alter Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue viruses as well as numerous life-history traits, however, the effect of fluctuations on mosquitoes at critical thermal limits is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effects of large and small daily temperature fluctuations at low (16°C and high (35-37°C mean temperatures, after we identified these temperatures as being thresholds for immature development and/or adult reproduction under constant temperature conditions. We found that temperature effects on larval development time, larval survival and adult reproduction depend on the combination of mean temperature and magnitude of fluctuations. Importantly, observed degree-day estimates for mosquito development under fluctuating temperature profiles depart significantly (around 10-20% from that predicted by constant temperatures of the same mean. At low mean temperatures, fluctuations reduce the thermal energy required to reach pupation relative to constant temperature, whereas at high mean temperatures additional thermal energy is required to complete development. A stage-structured model based on these empirical data predicts that fluctuations can significantly affect the intrinsic growth rate of mosquito populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that by using constant temperatures, one could under- or over-estimate values for numerous life-history traits compared to more natural field conditions dependent upon the mean temperature. This complexity may in turn reduce the accuracy of population dynamics modeling and downstream applications for mosquito surveillance and disease prevention.

  12. Effects of fluctuating daily temperatures at critical thermal extremes on Aedes aegypti life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Lauren B; Armijos, M Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The effect of temperature on insect biology is well understood under constant temperature conditions, but less so under more natural, fluctuating conditions. A fluctuating temperature profile around a mean of 26°C can alter Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue viruses as well as numerous life-history traits, however, the effect of fluctuations on mosquitoes at critical thermal limits is unknown. We investigated the effects of large and small daily temperature fluctuations at low (16°C) and high (35-37°C) mean temperatures, after we identified these temperatures as being thresholds for immature development and/or adult reproduction under constant temperature conditions. We found that temperature effects on larval development time, larval survival and adult reproduction depend on the combination of mean temperature and magnitude of fluctuations. Importantly, observed degree-day estimates for mosquito development under fluctuating temperature profiles depart significantly (around 10-20%) from that predicted by constant temperatures of the same mean. At low mean temperatures, fluctuations reduce the thermal energy required to reach pupation relative to constant temperature, whereas at high mean temperatures additional thermal energy is required to complete development. A stage-structured model based on these empirical data predicts that fluctuations can significantly affect the intrinsic growth rate of mosquito populations. Our results indicate that by using constant temperatures, one could under- or over-estimate values for numerous life-history traits compared to more natural field conditions dependent upon the mean temperature. This complexity may in turn reduce the accuracy of population dynamics modeling and downstream applications for mosquito surveillance and disease prevention.

  13. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood.

  14. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Gražulevicˇiene˙, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure–health effect relationships. The “exposome” concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the “early-life exposome.” Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother–child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother–child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure–response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P

  15. ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2003-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  16. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  17. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2004-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

  18. ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2003-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  19. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  20. Does dietary protein in early life affect the development of adiposity in mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, C C

    2001-07-01

    This article examines the proposition that dietary protein in pre- and early postnatal life influences the development of adiposity in later life. In rodents, low protein intake during gestation can result in low birth weight and subsequently leads to various metabolic disturbances in adulthood, such as high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The few controlled studies conducted in animals suggest that high protein or energy intake during gestation leads to low birth weights. Observational studies in humans have been inconclusive in establishing a relationship between dietary protein intake in pregnancy and effects on birth weight and adiposity of the offspring later in life. There is only weak epidemiological evidence linking high protein intake during early childhood and the development of obesity. By contrast, studies in domestic animals have found that higher levels of protein intake are often associated with lower rates of fat accretion. Additional studies are proposed to explore claims linking protein nutrition in early life to the postnatal development of obesity and disease in humans.

  1. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-09-13

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  2. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  3. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Valerijus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 ± 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status. Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Results Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Conclusion Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients – those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  4. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-06-26

    In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 +/- 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT) group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status). Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients--those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  5. Opportunities During Early Life for Cancer Prevention: Highlights From a Series of Virtual Meetings With Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Buchanan, Natasha D

    2016-11-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that early life exposures can affect lifetime cancer risk. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan Workgroup hosted a series of virtual meetings with select experts to discuss the state of the evidence linking factors during the prenatal period and early childhood to subsequent risk of both pediatric and adult cancers. In this article, we present the results from a qualitative analysis of the meeting transcripts and summarize themes that emerged from our discussions with meeting participants. Themes included the state of the evidence linking early life factors to cancer risk, research gaps and challenges, the level of evidence needed to support taking public health action, and the challenges of communicating complex, and sometimes conflicting, scientific findings to the public. Opportunities for collaboration among public health agencies and other stakeholders were identified during these discussions. Potential next steps for the CDC and its partners included advancing and building upon epidemiology and surveillance work, developing and using evidence from multiple sources to inform decision-making, disseminating and communicating research findings in a clear and effective way, and expanding collaborations with grantees and other partners. As the science on early life factors and cancer risk continues to evolve, there are opportunities for collaboration to translate science into actionable public health practice.

  6. Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, Matthew; McGowan, Patrick O; Sasaki, Aya; Huang, Tony C T; Hallett, Michael T; Meaney, Michael J; Turecki, Gustavo; Szyf, Moshe

    2012-10-16

    Early life experience is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. However, it is unlikely that such effects completely capture the evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms of early adaptation to environment. Here we present DNA methylation profiles spanning 6.5 million base pairs centered at the NR3C1 gene in the hippocampus of humans who experienced abuse as children and nonabused controls. We compare these profiles to corresponding DNA methylation profiles in rats that received differential levels of maternal care. The profiles of both species reveal hundreds of DNA methylation differences associated with early life experience distributed across the entire region in nonrandom patterns. For instance, methylation differences tend to cluster by genomic location, forming clusters covering as many as 1 million bases. Even more surprisingly, these differences seem to specifically target regulatory regions such as gene promoters, particularly those of the protocadherin α, β, and γ gene families. Beyond these high-level similarities, more detailed analyses reveal methylation differences likely stemming from the significant biological and environmental differences between species. These results provide support for an analogous cross-species epigenetic regulatory response at the level of the genomic region to early life experience.

  7. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Abecia, Leticia; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonization that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk) to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations.

  8. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Yanez-Ruiz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonisation that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early-life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early-life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations.

  9. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children : A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Wouters, Inge M.; Torrent, Maties; Gehring, Ulrike; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Thiering, Elisabeth; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Jongste, Johan; Smit, Henriette A.; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvaerinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early li

  10. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; El Aidy, Sahar; Crispie, Fiona; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Kelly, Philip; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several

  11. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children : A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Wouters, Inge M.; Torrent, Maties; Gehring, Ulrike; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Thiering, Elisabeth; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Jongste, Johan; Smit, Henriette A.; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvaerinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early li

  12. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeijmakers, L.; Lucassen, P.J.; Korosi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutr

  13. Early life exposure to farm animals and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema: an ISAAC Phase Three Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Wong, G.; Odhiambo, J.; Clayton, T.O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations between early life exposure to farm animals and respiratory symptoms and allergy in children have been reported in developed countries, but little is known about such associations in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between early life exposure to far

  14. Do People Who Became Blind Early in Life Develop a Better Sense of Smell? A Psychophysical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Phillippe; Collignon, Olivier; De Volder, Anne G.; Renier, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Using a set of psychophysical tests, we compared the olfactory abilities of 8 persons who became blind early in life and 16 sighted persons in a control group who were matched for age, sex, and handedness. The results indicated that those who became blind early in life developed compensatory perceptual mechanisms in the olfactory domain that…

  15. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; El Aidy, Sahar; Crispie, Fiona; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Kelly, Philip; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several

  16. CONCEPT OF LIFE QUALITY OF FAMILIES WITH EARLY AGE CHILD WITH ENDANGERED DEVELOPMENT DUE TO DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šándorová Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, there is a trend nowadays in supporting families caring for a child vulnerable due to disability. A network of services offering support to these families is growing. Causes of this fact can be found at three different levels, on the child and family side, but also at the support system. Concept of a life quality, and it´s various dimensions for this target group, have been neglected until recently. Present time, however, introduces significant changes in an approach to this issue and the concept of life quality in general is getting to the fore within the interagency scope and the social policy. In this particular case it presents a complex construct comprising many subunits. We can look at them from a variety of perspectives and operate with them in many different ways. This paper solves a view at this concept unusually at the background of the specific activities of Early Care Centre in Pardubice. For the paper processing qualitative research strategies have been used – description of organization´s material and quantitative survey (evaluation questionnaire for the year 2012. Particular aim of this paper is to describe activities of Early Care Centre in Pardubice which affect the concept of life quality of families with child (early age vulnerable due to disability. Results analysis of the evaluation survey which is aimed to identify some of quality indicators of service provided in 2012 also at the Centre for Early Intervention in Pardubice and comparison with the material of the National Centre of social services transformation support - A system of services for children and young people with disabilities and their families (Bačáková, 2013. Results evaluate the life quality concept for families with children in early age with the endangered development due to disability from the position of the family, support and assistance provider and support and assistance evaluator. The conclusion summarizes the problem

  17. Early life stress-induced alterations in rat brain structures measured with high resolution MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Loi, Manila; Joëls, Marian; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; van der Toorn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Adverse experiences early in life impair cognitive function both in rodents and humans. In humans this increases the vulnerability to develop mental illnesses while in the rodent brain early life stress (ELS) abnormalities are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity, excitability and microstructure. Detailed information on the effects of ELS on rodent brain structural integrity at large and connectivity within the brain is currently lacking; this information is highly relevant for understanding the mechanism by which early life stress predisposes to mental illnesses. Here, we exposed rats to 24 hours of maternal deprivation (MD) at postnatal day 3, a paradigm known to increase corticosterone levels and thereby activate glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined: i) volumetric changes and white/grey matter properties of the whole cerebrum and of specific brain areas; and ii) whether potential alterations could be normalized by blocking glucocorticoid receptors with mifepristone during the critical developmental window of early adolescence, i.e. between postnatal days 26 and 28. The results show that MD caused a volumetric reduction of the prefrontal cortex, particularly the ventromedial part, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Within the whole cerebrum, white (relative to grey) matter volume was decreased and region-specifically in prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum following MD. A trend was found for the hippocampus. Grey matter fractions were not affected. Treatment with mifepristone did not normalize these changes. This study indicates that early life stress in rodents has long lasting consequences for the volume and structural integrity of the brain. However, changes were relatively modest and-unlike behavior- not mitigated by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during a critical developmental period.

  18. Effect of High Thermal Manipulations during Early and Late Embryogenesis on Asymmetry for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Alkan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on asymmetry in terms of sides of shank length, shank width and face length of broilers. Incubation conditions were 37.5°C and 55% relative humidity for control group throughout the incubation period until the 19th days. In the thermally treated eggs during early embryogenesis (8-10 days, incubation temperature was increased to 41°C and relative humidity to 65% for 3 hours (12.00-15.00 on the 8th-10th days of incubation. Also, in the late embryogenesis stage (16-18 days incubation temperature was increased to 41°C and relative humidity to 65 % for 3 hours (12.00-15.00 on the 16th-18th days of incubation. Total 16 chickens were selected at randomly from all experimental groups to determine the asymmetry. The weekly left and right sides of shank length, shank width and face length of chickens were measured from 7 days of age to 35 days of age, and relative asymmetry values were calculated. There was no significant difference among the groups in point of relative asymmetry. Asymmetry values were reduced due to aging.

  19. The evolving role of the dynamic thermal analysis in the early detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhab, M; Al Sarakbi, W; Mokbel, K

    2005-01-01

    It is now recognised that the breast exhibits a circadian rhythm which reflects its physiology. There is increasing evidence that rhythms associated with malignant cells proliferation are largely non-circadian and that a circadian to ultradian shift may be a general correlation to neoplasia. Cancer development appears to generate its own thermal signatures and the complexity of these signatures may be a reflection of its degree of development. The limitations of mammography as a screening modality especially in young women with dense breasts necessitated the development of novel and more effective screening strategies with a high sensitivity and specificity. Dynamic thermal analysis of the breast is a safe, non invasive approach that seems to be sensitive for the early detection of breast cancer. This article focuses on dynamic thermal analysis as an evolving method in breast cancer detection in pre-menopausal women with dense breast tissue. Prospective multi-centre trials are required to validate this promising modality in screening. The issue of false positives require further investigation using molecular genetic markers of malignancy and novel techniques such as mammary ductoscopy. PMID:15819982

  20. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  1. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and the environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We describe the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell, Ptychobranchus jonesi, and compare methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on conglutinate-producing mussel species. Both the glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on the 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate 90% for at least 5 days. Directly feeding conglutinates to fishes allowed us to estimate natural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts using an inoculation bath. Each method for measuring fecundity produced similar estimates but the regression, which estimated fecundity based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment, was most practical. The distribution information, coupled with early life history description and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials, may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi, specifically during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  2. Gene-environment interactions in early life and adulthood: implications for cocaine intake

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen, Rixt

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to demonstrate the role of gene-environment interactions in the emergence of individual differences in cocaine use. For this purpose we used two inbred mouse strains, the C57Bl/6 (C57) and DBA/2 (DBA), which are known to differ in drug-intake and to be differentially sensitive to several stressors. We studied the impact of early life experiences (long-term influence) as well as a later life psychosocial stressor (short-term influence)...

  3. Endurance training in early life results in long-term programming of heart mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Glenn D; Laker, Rhianna C; McConell, Glenn K; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Being born small for gestational age increases the risk of developing adult cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to examine if early-life exercise could increase heart mass in the adult hearts from growth restricted rats. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction in the offspring (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) was performed on day 18 of gestation in WKY rats. A separate group of sham litters had litter size reduced to five pups at birth (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Male offspring remained sedentary or underwent treadmill running from 5 to 9 weeks (early exercise) or 20 to 24 weeks of age (later exercise). Remarkably, in Control, Restricted, and Reduced litter groups, early exercise increased (P heart mass in adulthood. This was despite the animals being sedentary for ~4 months after exercise. Later exercise also increased adult absolute and relative heart mass (P early or later exercise. Phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473) in adulthood was increased in the early exercise groups but not the later exercise groups. Microarray gene analysis and validation by real-time PCR did not reveal any long-term effects of early exercise on the expression of any individual genes. In summary, early exercise programs the heart for increased mass into adulthood, perhaps by an upregulation of protein synthesis based on greater phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473).

  4. Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Janet; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD.

  5. End-of-life vehicles processing, towards a thermal treatment of auto shredder residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Baranger; CHEN Ming; WANG Lu

    2011-01-01

    All over the world, the management of End-of-life Vehicles (ELV) and Automobile Shredder Residue ( ASR ) is an increasing issue for the car industry. The selting up of several environmental directives, among others the notion of extended producer responsibility, encourage car manufacturers to find alternatives solutions to waste disposal. For 2017, China aims for, the recyclability and energy trcovery of 95% of total weight of used cars, and in order to reach this role, the development of some ASR thermal processes could be envisaged. With this research, an overview of ElV, management was given and the different solutions about ASR thermtal treatment were presented. It is showed that in spite of its big heterogeneity, the high heating value of ASR makes pyrolysis and gasification very interesting, compared to incineration or disposal of in landfills.

  6. Influence of early life exposure, host genetics and diet on the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Langley, Sasha A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Brislawn, Colin J.; Noecker, Cecilia; Zink, Erika M.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Casey, Cameron P.; Miller, Darla; Huang, Yurong; Karpen , Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Borenstein, Elhanan A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-28

    Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease1, we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut.We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system2 to discover that early life history impacts themicrobiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism. Quantitative trait analysis identified mouse genetic trait loci (QTL) that impact the abundances of specific microbes. Human orthologues of genes in the mouse QTL are implicated in gastrointestinal cancer. Additionally, genes located in mouse QTL for Lactobacillales abundance are implicated in arthritis, rheumatic disease and diabetes. Furthermore, Lactobacillales abundance was predictive of higher host T-helper cell counts, suggesting an important link between Lactobacillales and host adaptive immunity.

  7. Influence of early life exposure, host genetics and diet on the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Langley, Sasha A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Brislawn, Colin J.; Noecker, Cecilia; Zink, Erika M.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Casey, Cameron P.; Miller, Darla R.; Huang, Yurong; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Jansson, Janet K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-28

    Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease1, we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut.We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system2 to discover that early life history impacts themicrobiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism. Quantitative trait analysis identified mouse genetic trait loci (QTL) that impact the abundances of specific microbes. Human orthologues of genes in the mouse QTL are implicated in gastrointestinal cancer. Additionally, genes located in mouse QTL for Lactobacillales abundance are implicated in arthritis, rheumatic disease and diabetes. Furthermore, Lactobacillales abundance was predictive of higher host T-helper cell counts, suggesting an important link between Lactobacillales and host adaptive immunity.

  8. Patterns of variability in early-life traits of fishes depend on spatial scale of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Guidetti, Paolo

    2011-06-23

    Estimates of early-life traits of fishes (e.g. pelagic larval duration (PLD) and spawning date) are essential for investigating and assessing patterns of population connectivity. Such estimates are available for a large number of both tropical and temperate fish species, but few studies have assessed their variability in space, especially across multiple scales. The present study, where a Mediterranean fish (i.e. the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus) was used as a model, shows that spawning date and PLD are spatially more variable at a scale of kilometres than at a scale of tens to hundreds of kilometres. This study indicates the importance of considering spatial variability of early-life traits of fishes in order to properly delineate connectivity patterns at larval stages (e.g. by means of Lagrangian simulations), thus providing strategically useful information on connectivity and relevant management goals (e.g. the creation of networks of marine reserves).

  9. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Eva H Telzer; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAc...

  10. Early-life exposures to persistent organic pollutants in relation to overweight in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Martina; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    Current knowledge on obesogenic effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is equivocal. We therefore evaluated the associations between early-life POP exposures and body mass index (BMI) in 444 Faroese children born in 2007–2009. POPs were measured in maternal 2-week postpartum serum and ch...... that requires attention in future prospective analyses. Findings in this recent cohort support a role of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors in the childhood obesity epidemic....

  11. Early life predictors of childhood intelligence: evidence from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study

    OpenAIRE

    Lawlor,D.A.; Batty, G D; Morton, S M B; Deary, I.J.; Macintyre, S.; Ronalds, G.; Leon, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the early life predictors of childhood intelligence. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study of 10 424 children who were born in Aberdeen (Scotland) between 1950 and 1956. \\ud \\ud Results: Social class of father around the time of birth, gravidity, maternal age, maternal physical condition, whether the child was born outside of marriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth, and childhood height were all independently associated with childhood intelligence at ages 7, 9, and 11. The ef...

  12. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomei Cong; Wanli Xu; Susan Janton; Henderson, Wendy A.; Adam Matson; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Kendra Maas; Joerg Graf

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of li...

  13. Early Life Stress Effects on the Glucocorticoid - BDNF interplay in the Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaos P Daskalakis; Edo Ronald eDe Kloet; Rachel eYehuda; Dolores eMalaspina; Kranz, Thorsten M.

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is implicated in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. Important biological effects of ELS are manifested in stress-susceptible regions of the hippocampus and are partially mediated by long-term effects on glucocorticoid and/or neurotrophin signaling pathways. Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling mediates the regulation of the stress response to maintain homeostasis, while neurotrophin signaling plays a key role in neuronal outgrowth and is crucial for axonal guidan...

  14. Early life determinants of physical activity and sedentary time: Current knowledge and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Pauck Øglund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings of the association between low birth weight and subsequent health outcomes have led to the “developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis”. Furthermore, modifiable and partly modifiable early life factors may also influence behaviors such as physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of the present review was to summarize the existing knowledge on early life determinants (birth weight, rapid infant weight gain, motor development and infant temperament of childhood physical activity and sedentary time, and suggest opportunities for future research based on the Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Inconsistent results have been observed when relating birth weight to later physical activity, likely explained by differences in methodology when assessing physical activity between studies. There is limited data on whether rapid weight gain in early life predicts later physical activity and few studies have examined the association between birth weight and infant weight gain with subsequent sedentary time. Motor development may be a predictor for childhood physical activity, however methodological limitations preclude firm conclusions. The association between motor development and sedentary time has rarely been examined. Conflicting results have been reported for the association between infant temperament and subsequent physical activity and sedentary time in toddlers. Finally, it is unknown whether physical activity modifies the association between birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and later health outcomes in youth. Additional research in well-characterized birth cohorts can be used to generate new knowledge on possible early life determinants of children’s and youth’s physical activity and sedentary time which may inform evidence-based public health interventions.

  15. Assessment of Accrued Damage and Remaining Useful Life in Leadfree Electronics Subjected to Multiple Thermal Environments of Thermal Aging and Thermal Cycling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method has been developed for prognostication of accrued prior damage in electronics subjected to overlapping sequential environments of thermal aging and thermal...

  16. Associations between early life experience, chronic HPA axis activity, and adult social rank in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Wooddell, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank. We found that mother-peer-reared (MPR) monkeys acquired higher social ranks than either of the two nursery-reared (NR) groups (peer-reared, PR, or surrogate-peer-reared, SPR monkeys) (β = -0.07, t(89) = -2.16, p = 0.034). We also found that MPR HCCs were lower during the juvenile period at 18 months (F(2,25) = 3.49, p = 0.047). Furthermore, for MPR but not NR monkeys, changes in HCCs from 18 to 24 months (r(s) = -0.627, p = 0.039) and adult HCCs (r(s) = -0.321, p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with adult social rank. These findings suggest that chronic HPA axis regulation in juvenility, and perhaps in adulthood, may influence adult social status for primates that experience typical early rearing. However, early life adversity may result in dissociation between neuroendocrine stress regulation and adult social competence, which may be risk factors for adverse health outcomes.

  17. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Henrique M R; Koerting, Lina; Devito, Sarah; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Murk, Albertinka J

    2011-11-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mortality, morphological abnormalities and larval development stages were quantified at specific time points during the 16-day experimental period. In contrast to amphibians and fish, P. miliaris early life development was not sensitive to dioxin-like toxicity in the prolonged early life stage test. Triclosan (TCS) levels higher than 500 nM were acutely toxic during embryo development. Morphological abnormalities were induced at concentrations higher than 50 nM hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1000 nM tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Larval development was delayed above 25 nM HBCD and 500 nM TBBPA. Heptadecafluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure slightly accelerated larval development at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the accelerated development was no longer observed at the end of the test period (16 dpf). The newly developed 16-day echinoid ELS bioassay proved to be sensitive to toxic effects of POPs that can be monitored for individual echinoid larvae. The most sensitive and dose related endpoint was the number of developmental penalty points. By manipulation of the housing conditions, the reproductive season could be extended from 3 to 9 months per year and the ELS experiments could be performed in artificial sea water as well.

  18. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Costs and quality of life for prehabilitation and early rehabilitation after surgery of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreasen Jakob

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the recent years improved operation techniques and administrative procedures have been developed for early rehabilitation. At the same time preoperative lifestyle intervention (prehabilitation has revealed a large potential for additional risk reduction. The aim was to assess the quality of life and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of standard care versus an integrated programme including prehabilitation and early rehabilitation. Methods The analyses were based on the results from 60 patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative lumbar disease; 28 patients were randomised to the integrated programme and 32 to the standard care programme. Data on cost and health related quality of life was collected preoperatively, during hospitalisation and postoperatively. The cost was estimated from multiplication of the resource consumption and price per unit. Results Overall there was no difference in health related quality of life scores. The patients from the integrated programme obtained their postoperative milestones sooner, returned to work and soaked less primary care after discharge. The integrated programme was 1,625€ (direct costs 494€ + indirect costs 1,131€ less costly per patient compared to the standard care programme. Conclusion The integrated programme of prehabilitation and early rehabilitation in spine surgery is more cost-effective compared to standard care programme alone.

  20. Early-life febrile seizures worsen adult phenotypes in Scn1a mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Stacey B B; Dutt, Karoni; Papale, Ligia A; Helmers, Sandra; Goldin, Alan L; Escayg, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene SCN1A, encoding the Nav1.1 channel, are responsible for a number of epilepsy disorders including genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS). Patients with SCN1A mutations often experience prolonged early-life febrile seizures (FSs), raising the possibility that these events may influence epileptogenesis and lead to more severe adult phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we subjected 21-23-day-old mice expressing the human SCN1A GEFS+ mutation R1648H to prolonged hyperthermia, and then examined seizure and behavioral phenotypes during adulthood. We found that early-life FSs resulted in lower latencies to induced seizures, increased severity of spontaneous seizures, hyperactivity, and impairments in social behavior and recognition memory during adulthood. Biophysical analysis of brain slice preparations revealed an increase in epileptiform activity in CA3 pyramidal neurons along with increased action potential firing, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed worsening of adult phenotypes. These findings demonstrate the long-term negative impact of early-life FSs on disease outcomes. This has important implications for the clinical management of this patient population and highlights the need for therapeutic interventions that could ameliorate disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of a low iron diet and early life methylmercury exposure in Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sherri L.; Doke, Dzigbodi A.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency increases risk for adverse health outcomes in humans; however little is known about the potential interaction with methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Studies testing multiple stressor hypotheses are expensive and time consuming in mammalian model systems; therefore, determining relevance of alternative models is important. Daphnia pulex were fed standard or low-Fe diets of freshwater algae, Ankistrodesmus falcatus. MeHgCl (1600 ng/L) or vehicle was added to culture media for 24 h during early life, and the combinatorial effects of a low-Fe diet and MeHg exposure on lifespan, maturation time, and reproduction were evaluated. Lipid storage effects were measured using image analysis of Oil Red O staining and triacylglyceride quantification. Our results show a dose-dependent reduction in lifespan in D. pulex fed low Fe diets. Lipid analysis suggests an interactive effect of diet and MeHg exposure, with MeHg exposure increasing lipid storage in D. pulex fed a low-Fe diet. These findings suggest the effects of dietary iron intake and early life MeHg exposure in D. pulex may be mediated by changes in energetics that result in differential lipid storage. Therefore, lipid storage in D. pulex may be a useful screen for detecting long-term effects of multiple stressors early in life. PMID:26806633

  2. Effects of early life exposure to methylmercury in Daphnia pulex on standard and reduced food ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Dzigbodi A.; Hudson, Sherri L.; Dawson, John A.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    As a well-known eco-toxicological model organism, Daphnia pulex may also offer advantages in human health research for assessing long-term effects of early life exposures to coupled stressors. Here, we examine consequences of early life exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) under standard and reduced food ration. We exposed Daphnia for 24 h in early life to varying concentrations of methylmercury(II) chloride (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ng/L) and thereafter kept Daphnia on either a standard or a reduced food ration. The data suggests an additive effect of MeHg concentration and food ration on decreasing lifespan, although MeHg concentration does not affect survival linearly. Food ration and MeHg concentration were predictive of reduced reproduction, and there is some evidence of an interaction (p = 0.048). Multi-stressor work in alternative model systems may be useful for prioritizing research, taking into account potential antagonistic, additive or synergistic effects that nutritional status may have on chemical toxicity. PMID:25263226

  3. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae.

  4. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila eLoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats showed a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age-and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development.

  5. Global Effects Of Early Life Stress On Neurons And Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulma, Dueñas; Carlos, Caicedo-Mera Juan; Luz, Torner

    2017-02-24

    Early life stress is considered a risk factor for the development of many diseases in both adolescence and adulthood. It has been reported that chronic stress (for instance, due to maternal separation during breast feeding), causes damage to the central nervous system at the level of neurons and glial cells, which are reflected in behavioral disturbances and susceptibility to the development of primarily emotional psychopathology. The aim of this review is to identify the overall state of the scientific literature that relates the information about the consequences of early life stress, contextualizing the mechanisms that may be altered, the behavioral consequences that have been studied and the possible dimorphic effects and its causes. At the end a short overview of pharmacological treatments that have been proposed to reduce the behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences caused by early life stress is presented. This review pretends to integrate general but relevant information based primarily on studies in animal models, which allow the experimental approach and the study of the mechanisms involved. A series of questions remains for reflection and surely will be answered in the near future.

  6. Early-Life Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: Use of the Piglet as a Translational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Austin T; Dilger, Ryan N

    2017-01-01

    Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation.

  7. Early Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome: The Role of Environmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects more than 47 million people in the U.S. Even more alarming, MetS, once regarded as an "adult problem", has become increasingly common in children. To date, most related research and intervention efforts have occurred in the adult medicine arena, with limited understanding of the root causes and lengthy latency of MetS. This review highlights new science on the early life origins of MetS, with a particular focus on exposure to two groups of environmental toxicants: endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and metals during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, and their specific effects and important differences in the development of MetS. It also summarizes available data on epigenetic effects, including the role of EDCs in the androgen/estrogen pathways. Emerging evidence supports the link between exposures to environmental toxicants during early life and the development of MetS later in life. Additional research is needed to address important research gaps in this area, including prospective birth cohort studies to delineate temporal and dose-response relationships, important differences in the effects of various environmental toxicants and their joint effects on MetS, as well as epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of specific toxicants such as EDCs and metals.

  8. Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma.

  9. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eHoeijmakers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  10. [Setting the course early: relevance of childhood and adolescence for health in later life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T

    2010-05-01

    The article examines the importance of childhood and adolescence for health in later life against the background of the population-aging process and the debate on the social challenges expected to result from this process. In this context, it describes the findings of life course epidemiology, which suggest (among other things) that there is a connection between early organic damage and the risk of illness in middle and old age, that risks and resources accumulate throughout a person's lifespan, and that living conditions and opportunities in life influence the development of health. The article also describes the health situation of children and adolescents based on the data available in Germany, in order to draw attention to existing problems and to identify possible ways of preventing them and taking action.

  11. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  12. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2017-01-07

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course.

  13. Life distribution of thermal fatigue crack propagation under random temperature fluctuation with wide-band spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    Thermal fatigue crack propagation under random temperature fluctuation is theoretically investigated from a probabilistic view point by the use of a Markov approximation method, under the condition that the temporary variation of the inner surface temperature of plate is modeled as a wide-band stationary Gaussian process. First, a crack growth equation is formulated on the basis of the Paris law under the assumption that the stress intensity factor range {Delta}K can be approximated by the local expectation of a relative maximum of the stress intensity factor K. Next it is extended to a random differential equation, where the randomness in crack propagation resistance is taken into account. The Markov approximation method is then applied to derive a residual life distribution function as well as a probability distribution function of the crack length. Finally, numerical examples are shown to examine the quantitative behavior of the residual life distribution, whose results indicate that the present model is applicable even if the spectrum of temperature is of narrow-band type. (author).

  14. What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, F.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Environmental conditions on early Mars, from a microbial point of view, were largely similar to those on the early Earth. The oldest, well-preserved rocks on the early Earth (~3.5 Ga) host a wide range of morphological and geochemical traces of life, including chemolithotrophic, heterotrophic and photosynthetic anaerobic microorganisms. These microorganisms evolved in a tectonically evolving geological context, including carbonate platform formation. This scenario did not exist on Mars. Moreover, Mars was outside the habitable zone and standing bodies of water were probably ice-covered. Evolutionary advancement of martian life (if it appeared) would have been curtailed very early and it is unlikely that photosynthesis could have evolved. It is therefore unlikely that martian life will leave visible traces that can be detected with in situ instrumentation (no biolaminites or stromatolites). Geochemical detection of organic components will be possible but it is unlikely that the results will be conclusive. The return of suitable rocks from Mars is advocated. Early life on Earth and Mars The oldest, well preserved rocks on Earth, including both sedimentary and volcanic lithologies, contain abundant morphological and geochemical traces of life [1]. Evidence of borings into basalt lavas [2] and microbial colonies within volcanic sediments [3,4] testify to microbial utilisation of chemolithotrophy. Microscopic tunnels, tens of microns in length, containing traces of biologically important elements, such as C and N, in the vitreous rinds of pillow lavas are identified in petrographic thin section (Fig. 1) [2]. Similar 5-10 μm-sized tunnels have been channelled into the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains [4]. They contain the remains of microbial polymeric substances (EPS) but can only be identified in petrographic thin section and using the high magnification of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, volcanic sediments deposited in water contain

  15. Early-life stress is associated with gender-based vulnerability to epileptogenesis in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Desgent

    Full Text Available During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1, and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to

  16. Behavioral and cognitive impact of early life stress: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesong; Atrooz, Fatin; Salvi, Ankita; Salim, Samina

    2017-08-01

    Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages. We utilized the single prolonged stress (SPS), a rodent model of PTSD, to study the effects of early life stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to SPS on post-natal day (PND) 25. Tests to assess anxiety- and depression-like behavior, as well as learning and memory function were performed at PND32, 60 and 90. Rats exposed to SPS exhibited both anxiety- and depression-like behavior at PND32. And, short-term (STM) but not long-term memory (LTM) was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND60 exhibited anxiety- but not depression-like behavior. STM but not LTM was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND90 exhibited fearful (as indicated by elevated plus maze test) but not an overall anxiety-like behavior (in light and dark test). These rats also displayed significant depression-like behavior with no changes in STM or LTM. Interestingly, when data was further analyzed, two subsets of PND90 rats exposed to SPS were identified, "susceptible": with depression-like behavior and "resilient": without depression-like behavior. Importantly, while resilient group expressed early signs of anxiety- (at PND32 and PND60) and depression-like behavior (at PND32), these behavioral deficits were absent at PND90. On the other hand, susceptible PND90 rats exposed to SPS expressed later onset of anxiety-like behavior (at PND60), while depression

  17. Early-life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Later-life Health Outcomes: An Epigenetic Bridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that adverse events early in development, and particularly during intrauterine life, may program risks for diseases in adult life. Increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in developmental programming. Among the environmental factors which play an important role in programming of chronic pathologies, the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity are of specific concern because the developing organism is extremely sensitive to perturbation by substances with hormone-like activity. Among EDCs, there are many substances that are constantly present in the modern human environment or are in widespread use, including dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, phthalates, agricultural pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial solvents, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. Apart from their common endocrine active properties, several EDCs have been shown to disrupt developmental epigenomic programming. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent research findings which indicate that exposure to EDCs during in-utero and/or neonatal development can cause long-term health outcomes via mechanisms of epigenetic memory.

  18. Determination of the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Concrete at Early Ages by Using Temperature-stress Testing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Kaicheng; SHUI Zhonghe; LI Yue

    2006-01-01

    By using the uptodate temperatuer-stress testing machine, the thermal expansion coefficient of concrete at early ages was studied and indicative conclusions were achieved: temperature rising due to hydration heat is not directly correlated with cracking, but the temperature and stress evolution process should be taken into consideration in the same time. Proper chemical admixtures and mineral compositions can improve the mechanical properties of concrete such as thermal expansion coefficient, which is very indicative in practice.

  19. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  20. Exposures in early life: associations with DNA promoter methylation in breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, M-H; Marian, C; Shields, P G; Potischman, N; Nie, J; Krishnan, S S; Berry, D L; Kallakury, B V; Ambrosone, C; Edge, S B; Trevisan, M; Winston, J; Freudenheim, J L

    2013-04-01

    There is evidence that epigenetic changes occur early in breast carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that early-life exposures associated with breast cancer would be associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tumors. In particular, we examined DNA methylation patterns in breast tumors in association with several early-life exposures in a population-based case-control study. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16 and RAR-β2 genes was assessed in archived tumor blocks from 803 cases with real-time methylation-specific PCR. Unconditional logistic regression was used for case-case comparisons of those with and without promoter methylation. We found no differences in the prevalence of DNA methylation of the individual genes by age at menarche, age at first live birth and weight at age 20. In case-case comparisons of premenopausal breast cancer, lower birth weight was associated with increased likelihood of E-cadherin promoter methylation (OR = 2.79, 95% CI, 1.15-6.82, for ⩽2.5 v. 2.6-2.9 kg); higher adult height with RAR-β2 methylation (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19-9.39, for ⩾1.65 v. <1.60 m); and not having been breastfed with p16 methylation (OR = 2.75, 95% CI, 1.14-6.62). Among postmenopausal breast cancers, birth order was associated with increased likelihood of p16 promoter methylation. Being other than first in the birth order was inversely associated with likelihood of ⩾1 of the three genes being methylated for premenopausal breast cancers, but positively associated with methylation in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that there may be alterations in methylation associated with early-life exposures that persist into adulthood and affect breast cancer risk.

  1. Early life stages of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in cold-water nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Martinho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plaice Pleuronectes platessa (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most important commercial flatfish in the European continent, whose captures have reduced considerably in recent decades due to the high pressure of fisheries. Despite the wide distribution of this species, most studies have focused on the North Sea, its central area of occurrence, and very little information is available concerning the populations living at the northern limit of its distribution. Age determination is essential to study population dynamics of commercially important species such as plaice, and can be inferred through otolith microstructure analysis. The aim of this work was to investigate the timing of early life events (spawning, larval, metamorphosis and settlement stage duration and growth of juvenile plaice in two cold-water nursery areas in northern Norway (Valosen estuary and Storfjord. A latitudinal cline was observed in the main life-history events, such as spawning, and the onset of larval and metamorphosis stages. Settlement to benthic habitats (which coincides with metamorphosis was estimated to have occurred between mid-May and early-September (peak from the end May and mid July in the Valosen, and between the end of May and early July (peak in June in the Storfjord. In the Storfjord area, larval and metamorphosis stage duration seemed to be shorter, probably due to a reduced window of opportunity for growth and survival at the northernmost extremes. Size at settlement was negatively related with hatch day, implying that the older larvae were larger at settlement, a consequence of higher fecundity of females earlier in the spawning season. A significant relationship between size at settlement and total length reinforced this evidence. The results demonstrate the influence of latitude in the early life stages of plaice, mainly by the regulatory effect of temperature in the growth and survival of larvae and juveniles.

  2. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data.

  3. Orofacial pain and quality of life in early adolescents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Badiyani, Bhumika K; Kumar, Amit; Dixit, Garima; Sharma, Prachi; Agrawal, Sugandha

    2016-08-18

    Orofacial pain may have an impact on quality of life. It may affect the overall well-being of an individual. To assess the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on quality of life in early adolescents in Indore city, India. This was a cross-sectional study which included a total of 800 children selected from various public and private schools located in Indore city, India. A questionnaire was developed which collected information on sociodemographic characteristics and previous dental visits. The severity of pain was assessed using Von Korff pain scale and quality of life using the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. The overall prevalence of orofacial pain was found to be 17.9%. Toothache (10.1%) was found to be the most prevalent orofacial pain followed by temporomandibular joint pain (4.3%). The highest severity of pain (Grades 3 and 4) was reported for toothache followed by temporomandibular joint pain. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the prevalence of orofacial pain (odds ratio=7.18, p-valueorofacial pain has a negative influence on the quality of life of adolescents. Effective policies should be created to improve the quality of life of adolescents focusing on oral health education and prevention of oral diseases.

  4. On the early and developed stages of surface condensation: competition mechanism between interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-10-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the early and developed stages of surface condensation. We find that the liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfacial thermal resistances depend on the properties of solid and fluid, which are time-independent, while the condensate bulk thermal resistance depends on the condensate thickness, which is time-dependent. There exists intrinsic competition between the interfacial and condensate bulk thermal resistances in timeline and the resultant total thermal resistance determines the condensation intensity for a given vapor-solid temperature difference. We reveal the competition mechanism that the interfacial thermal resistance dominates at the onset of condensation and holds afterwards while the condensate bulk thermal resistance gradually takes over with condensate thickness growing. The weaker the solid-liquid bonding, the later the takeover occurs. This competition mechanism suggests that only when the condensate bulk thermal resistance is reduced after it takes over the domination can the condensation be effectively intensified. We propose a unified theoretical model for the thermal resistance analysis by making dropwise condensation equivalent to filmwise condensation. We further find that near a critical point (contact angle being ca. 153°) the bulk thermal resistance has the least opportunity to take over the domination while away from it the probability increases.

  5. Effects of Fluctuating Daily Temperatures at Critical Thermal Extremes on Aedes aegypti Life-History Traits: e58824

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauren B Carrington; M Veronica Armijos; Louis Lambrechts; Christopher M Barker; Thomas W Scott

    2013-01-01

    .... A fluctuating temperature profile around a mean of 26°C can alter Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue viruses as well as numerous life-history traits, however, the effect of fluctuations on mosquitoes at critical thermal limits is unknown...

  6. The effect of coating residual stress on the fatigue life of thermal spray-coated steel and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrann, R.T.R.; Greving, D.J.; Shadley, J.R.; Rybicki, E.F. [Tulsa Univ., OK (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Kruecke, T.L.; Bodger, B.E. [Southwest Aeroservice, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-10-10

    The acceptance of thermal spray coatings in many applications depends on the effect of the coating on the fatigue performance of the coated part. One of the factors that influences the fatigue life of thermal spray-coated components is the residual stress in the coating. This study investigates the fatigue performance of tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) thermal spray coating systems. Bending fatigue tests of specimens with WC-Co coatings on both 4130 steel substrates and 6061 aluminum substrates were conducted. The through-thickness residual stress level in the thermal spray coatings was determined using the modified layer removal method. The effect of the residual stresses on the fatigue life of the coated specimens was analyzed. It was found that there is a direct relation between the residual stress in the coating and the fatigue life of the coated part. Fatigue life can be changed by a factor of ten due to the level of compressive residual stress in the coating. (orig.) 7 refs.

  7. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2015-01-01

    Foetal development and infancy are life stages that are characterised by rapid growth, development and maturation of organs and systems. Variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed by mothers during pregnancy, or infants during the first year of life, can exert permanent and powerful effects upon developing tissues. These effects are termed 'programming' and represent an important risk factor for noncommunicable diseases of adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. This narrative review provides an overview of the evidence-base showing that indicators of nutritional deficit in pregnancy are associated with a greater risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. There is also a limited evidence-base that suggests some relationship between breastfeeding and the timing and type of foods used in weaning, and disease in later life. Many of the associations reported between indicators of early growth and adult disease appear to interact with specific genotypes. This supports the idea that programming is one of several cumulative influences upon health and disease acting across the lifespan. Experimental studies have provided important clues to the mechanisms that link nutritional challenges in early life to disease in adulthood. It is suggested that nutritional programming is a product of the altered expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle, resulting in effective remodelling of tissue structure and functionality. The observation that traits programmed by nutritional exposures in foetal life can be transmitted to further generations adds weight the argument that heritable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  9. Sustainable poverty amelioration through early life education in a peri-urban community of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Abosede

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daycare centres/nurseries have become popular because of the need for working mothers to leave young children with caregivers. However, the high poverty level (54% relative and 35% extreme poverty makes it difficult for disadvantaged parents to pay the high fees charged by the centres. This study describes an attempt to economically empower mothers through the organisation of free early life education in a peri-urban community in Lagos.Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine early life education for under-fives as a means of economic empowerment of mothers and sustainable poverty amelioration. Method: The methodology included a non-randomised selection of 34 disadvantaged mothers by criteria, a prospective intervention utilising community resources to organise early childhood education, an in-depth interview of mothers, and observation of the outcomes over a 5-year period.Results: The result of the study showed that no mother preferred keeping a child older than three years at home. Access to early childhood education gave mothers opportunity to undergo vocational training (1, 2.8% and take up new/additional jobs (12, 35.3%. All mothers and 32 (80% of the participating families more than doubled their income, earning up to twenty thousand Naira (approximately $182 per month from the first year of participation. Finally, selection criteria and periodic assessment of immunisation/growth monitoring records of participants’ children improved compliance with primary health care service utilisation.Conclusion: Organisation of early childhood education had the potential for sustainable poverty amelioration through economic empowerment of mothers.

  10. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance.

  11. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, Maria del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life. PMID:27820846

  12. Metal and Microelement Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration in Early Life Permethrin-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Nasuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a non-invasive biological material useful in the biomonitoring of trace elements because it is a vehicle for substance excretion from the body, and it permits evaluating long-term metal exposure. Here, hair from an animal model of neurodegeneration, induced by early life permethrin treatment from the sixth to 21th day of life, has been analyzed with the aim to assess if metal and microelement content could be used as biomarkers. A hair trace element assay was performed by the ICP-MS technique in six- and 12-month-old rats. A significant increase of As, Mg, S and Zn was measured in the permethrin-treated group at 12 months compared to six months, while Si and Cu/Zn were decreased. K, Cu/Zn and S were increased in the treated group compared to age-matched controls at six and 12 months, respectively. Cr significantly decreased in the treated group at 12 months. PCA analysis showed both a best difference between treated and age-matched control groups at six months. The present findings support the evidence that the Cu/Zn ratio and K, measured at six months, are the best biomarkers for neurodegeneration. This study supports the use of hair analysis to identify biomarkers of neurodegeneration induced by early life permethrin pesticide exposure.

  13. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  14. Early life and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: what can we learn from animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhillaj, Emanuela; Morgese, Maria Grazia; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex pathology characterized by the occurrence of a variety of symptoms classified as positive, negative and cognitive. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of this disorder has not been unraveled yet, many theories have been endorsed during the last years. Among these, the neurochemical theories have been the most suited, considering the dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysfunctions to be mainly responsible for psychotic symptoms. However, the lack of efficacy of the available drugs, namely antipsychotics, toward negative and cognitive symptoms led to hypothesize alternative approaches. In this regard, the neurodevelopmental theory of schizophrenia has emerged, proposing the association between the occurrence of environmental risk factors in early-life and the development of psychosis in late-life. In particular, exposure to early life stressing situations, such as pre- and peri-natal stress, has been suggested as a risk factor to d evelop psychopathologies in adulthood in people genetically predisposed. A crucial support in favor of this hypothesis came from neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia, such as maternal malnutrition, maternal deprivation, maternal infections as well as post-weaning social isolation rearing. Moreover, data from these models, corroborated by clinical findings, indicate that oxidative and nitrosative stress play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. In the present work, we reviewed the recent progress in literature regarding data available from animal models linking oxidative and nitrosative stress to psychiatric disorders in order to evaluate novel biomarkers of pathology as well as novel therapeutical targets.

  15. Acquisition and adaptation of the airway microbiota in the early life of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Sébastien; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2017-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which bacterial infections of the airways play a major role in the long-term clinical outcome. In recent years, a number of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies aimed at deciphering the structure and composition of the airways' microbiota. It was shown that the nasal cavity of CF patients displays dysbiosis early in life indicating a failure in the first establishment of a healthy microbiota. In contrast, within the conducting and lower airways, the establishment occurs normally first, but is sensitive to future dysbiosis including chronic infections with classical pathogens in later life. The objective of this mini-review is to give an update on the current knowledge about the development of the microbiota in the early life of CF patients. Microbial acquisition in the human airways can be described by the island model: Microbes found in the lower airways of CF patients represent "islands" that are at first populated from the upper airways reflecting the "mainland." Colonization can be modeled following the neutral theory in which the most abundant bacteria in the mainland are also frequently found in the lower airways initially. At later times, however, the colonization process of the lower airways segregates by active selection of specific microbes. Future research should focus on those processes of microbial and host interactions to understand how microbial communities are shaped on short- and long-term scales. We point out what therapeutic consequences arise from the microbiome data obtained within ecological framework models.

  16. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Efrem S; Zhou, Yanjiao; Zhao, Guoyan; Bauer, Irma K; Droit, Lindsay; Ndao, I Malick; Warner, Barbara B; Tarr, Phillip I; Wang, David; Holtz, Lori R

    2015-10-01

    The early years of life are important for immune development and influence health in adulthood. Although it has been established that the gut bacterial microbiome is rapidly acquired after birth, less is known about the viral microbiome (or 'virome'), consisting of bacteriophages and eukaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, during the first years of life. Here, we characterized the gut virome and bacterial microbiome in a longitudinal cohort of healthy infant twins. The virome and bacterial microbiome were more similar between co-twins than between unrelated infants. From birth to 2 years of age, the eukaryotic virome and the bacterial microbiome expanded, but this was accompanied by a contraction of and shift in the bacteriophage virome composition. The bacteriophage-bacteria relationship begins from birth with a high predator-low prey dynamic, consistent with the Lotka-Volterra prey model. Thus, in contrast to the stable microbiome observed in adults, the infant microbiome is highly dynamic and associated with early life changes in the composition of bacteria, viruses and bacteriophages with age.

  17. Early life socioeconomic status and metabolic outcomes in adolescents: The role of implicit affect about one's family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Meanne; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith

    2016-04-01

    Previous research suggests that the quality of early family relationships may moderate the association between lower socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular and other health outcomes. In this study, we investigated how implicit measures of early childhood environments (implicit anger, fear, or warmth about one's family) interacted with early life SES to predict metabolic outcomes in a sample of healthy adolescents. Adolescents (N = 259) age 13 to 16 participated with 1 parent. Implicit family affect was measured with a computer-based implicit affect assessment tool. Early life SES was indexed by home crowding (e.g., number of people per bedroom) during the first 5 years of life. Metabolic indicators included resting blood pressure, total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, and waist circumference. Early life SES significantly interacted with implicit negative family affect in resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure levels, such that among those participants with higher early life SES, as implicit negative family affect increased, resting blood pressure also increased. Similarly, early life SES interacted with implicit family warmth to predict total cholesterol levels, such that among those participants with higher early life SES, as implicit family warmth decreased, total cholesterol increased. These patterns were not observed with current SES or with explicit measures of family relationships. These findings provide evidence that implicit family affect moderates the association between early life SES and adolescent metabolic outcomes in a way that suggests that implicit family affect may be more relevant among higher SES adolescents. The utility of implicit psychosocial measures in cardiovascular health studies, particularly for higher SES samples, is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Birth weight, early life weight gain and age at menarche: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, F; Chang, V W; Brar, P; Parekh, N

    2017-11-01

    Adiposity in pre- and postnatal life may influence menarcheal age. Existing evidence is primarily cross-sectional, failing to address temporality, for which the role of adiposity in early life remains unclear. The current study sought to systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating the associations between birth weight and infant/childhood weight status/weight gain in relation to menarcheal age. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health (Ovid) and CINAHL were systematically searched. Selected studies were limited to English-language articles presenting multi-variable analyses. Seventeen studies reporting risk estimates for birth weight (n = 3), infant/childhood weight gain/weight status (n = 4) or both (n = 10), in relation to menarcheal age were included. Lower vs. higher birth weight was associated with earlier menarche in nine studies and later menarche in one study, while three studies reported a null association. Greater BMI or weight gain over time and greater childhood weight were significantly associated with earlier menarche in nine of nine and six of seven studies, respectively. Studies suggested that lower birth weight and higher body weight and weight gain in infancy and childhood may increase the risk of early menarche. The pre- and postnatal period may thus be an opportune time for weight control interventions to prevent early menarche, and its subsequent consequences. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  20. The early Earth under a superflare and super-CME attack: prospects for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Glocer, Alex; Gronoff, Guillaume

    Kepler observations suggest that G-type stars produce powerful flares suggesting that the early Earth may also have been exposed to frequent and energetic solar explosive events generated by the young Sun. We show that powerful coronal mass ejection (CME) events associated with superflares impacting the Earth magnetosphere with a frequency of 1 event/day. What was the impact of superflares, CMEs and associated solar energetic particle (SEPs) events on the atmospheric erosion of the young Earth and habitability? In this paper we discuss our three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations that show that frequent and energetic CMEs from the early Sun continuously destroyed the sub-solar parts of Earth's magnetosphere at heights Photo-collisional dissociation of molecular nitrogen and carbon dioxide creates reactive chemistry that efficiently produces nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide, the essential molecule in prebiotic life chemistry. This raises an possibility that frequent super-CMEs could serve as a potential catalyst for the origin of life on early Earth.

  1. Early-Life Host–Microbiome Interphase: The Key Frontier for Immune Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Amenyogbe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human existence can be viewed as an “animal in a microbial world.” A healthy interaction of the human host with the microbes in and around us heavily relies on a well-functioning immune system. As development of both the microbiota and the host immune system undergo rapid changes in early life, it is not surprising that even minor alterations during this co-development can have profound consequences. Scrutiny of existing data regarding pre-, peri-, as well as early postnatal modulators of newborn microbiota indeed suggest strong associations with several immune-mediated diseases with onset far beyond the newborn period. We here summarize these data and extract overarching themes. This same effort in turn sets the stage to guide effective countermeasures, such as probiotic administration. The objective of our review is to highlight the interaction of host immune ontogeny with the developing microbiome in early life as a critical window of susceptibility for lifelong disease, as well as to identify the enormous potential to protect and promote lifelong health by specifically targeting this window of opportunity.

  2. The potential link between gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L K; Ward, Alister C; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-12-16

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  3. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DGR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA, or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors.Keywords: mortality, survival, life expectancy, early-onset, tumors

  4. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Molloy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  5. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Treatment Prevents Delayed Effects of Early Life Stress in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenhouse, Heather C.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Early developmental insults can cause dysfunction within parvalbumin (PVB)-containing interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. The neuropsychiatric disorders associated with such dysfunction might involve neuroinflammatory processes. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key mediator of inflammation and is therefore a potential target for preventive treatment. Here, we investigated whether the developmental trajectories of PVB expression and COX-2 induction in the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex are altered after maternal separation stress in male rats. Methods Male rat pups were separated from their mother and littermates for 4 hours/day between postnatal Days 2 and 20. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze PVB and COX-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. A separate cohort of animals was treated with a COX-2 inhibitor during preadolescence and analyzed for PVB, COX-2, and working memory performance. Results We demonstrate that maternal separation causes a reduction of PVB and an increase in COX-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex in adolescence, with concurrent working memory deficits. Parvalbumin was not affected earlier in development. Prophylactic COX-2 inhibition preadolescence prevents PVB loss and improves working memory deficits induced by maternal separation. Conclusions These data are the first to show a preventive pharmacological intervention for the delayed effects of early life stress on prefrontal cortex interneurons and working memory. Our results suggest a possible mechanism for the relationship between early life stress and interneuron dysfunction in adolescence. PMID:21679927

  6. The impact of early life gut colonization on metabolic and obesogenic outcomes: what have animal models shown us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J G; Gohir, W; Sloboda, D M

    2016-02-01

    The rise in the occurrence of obesity to epidemic proportions has made it a global concern. Great difficulty has been experienced in efforts to control this growing problem with lifestyle interventions. Thus, attention has been directed to understanding the events of one of the most critical periods of development, perinatal life. Early life adversity driven by maternal obesity has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease and obesity in the offspring later in life. Although a mechanistic link explaining the relationship between maternal and offspring obesity is still under investigation, the gut microbiota has come forth as a new factor that may play a role modulating metabolic function of both the mother and the offspring. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays a much larger role in mediating the risk of developing non-communicable disease, including obesity and metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. With the observation that the early life colonization of the neonatal and postnatal gut is mediated by the perinatal environment, the number of studies investigating early life gut microbial establishment continues to grow. This paper will review early life gut colonization in experimental animal models, concentrating on the role of the early life environment in offspring gut colonization and the ability of the gut microbiota to dictate risk of disease later in life.

  7. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship....

  8. Nutritional intervention in early life to manipulate rumen microbial colonization and methane output by kid goats postweaning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abecia, L; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of this work was to study whether intervention in early life of goat kids has an impact on methane emissions and the microbial ecosystem in the rumen and whether the effects persist postweaning...

  9. Early Life Lung Antioxidant Levels and Response to Ozone: Influence of Sex and Maturation in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and girls in later childhood. In adults, particularly the elderly, studies report stronger...

  10. Maternal Smoking and the Risk of Cancer in Early Life – A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrich, Isabell Katharina; Viluksela, Matti; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Gissler, Mika; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hänninen, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Background In spite of the well-known harmful effects on the fetus, many women continue smoking during pregnancy. Smoking as an important source of toxic chemicals may contribute to the developmental origin of diseases. Objectives The aim of this work was to pursue the possible association between maternal smoking and cancer in early life. Specifically, we wanted to identify the associated early life cancer types, and to quantify the associations. Methods In a systematic literature search 825 articles were identified in PubMed and Web of Science, and 55 more through the reference lists. Of these 62 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in meta-analyses. Using Mantel-Haenszel or DerSimonian and Laird method, depending on heterogeneity of the studies, pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals for eight cancer types were calculated. Results Smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for for brain and central nervous system tumors (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02–1.17). Although the risk for lymphoma was also associated (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.05–1.34), it did not hold up in subgroup analyses. Leukemia was not found to be associated with maternal smoking. Five other cancer types (bone, soft tissue, renal, hepatic, and germ cell cancer) were also examined, but the number of studies was too limited to exclude the possibility of maternal smoking as a risk factor for cancer in offspring. Conclusions According to our meta-analyses, maternal smoking is associated with nervous system cancers, but not with leukemia in early life. Confirming or rejecting associations of maternal smoking with lymphoma and the five other cancer types requires further studies. PMID:27824869

  11. ACTH Prevents Deficits in Fear Extinction Associated with Early Life Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Massey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early life seizures are often associated with cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that are detrimental to quality of life. In a rat model of early life seizures (ELS, we explored long-term cognitive outcomes in adult rats. Using ACTH, an endogeneous HPA-axis hormone given to children with severe epilepsy, we sought to prevent cognitive deficits. Through comparisons with dexamethasone, we sought to dissociate the corticosteroid effects of ACTH from other potential mechanisms of action. We found that while rats with a history of ELS were able to acquire a conditioned fear learning paradigm as well as controls, these rats had significant deficits in their ability to extinguish fearful memories. ACTH treatment did not alter any seizure parameters but nevertheless was able to significantly improve this fear extinction, while dexamethasone treatment during the same period did not. This ACTH effect was specific for fear extinction deficits and not for spatial learning deficits in a water maze. Additionally, ACTH did not alter seizure latency or duration suggesting that cognitive and seizure outcomes may be dissociable. Expression levels of melanocortin receptors, which bind ACTH, were found to be significantly lower in animals that had experienced ELS than in control animals, potentially implicating central melanocortin receptor dysregulation in the effects of ELS and suggesting a mechanism of action for ACTH. Taken together, these data suggest that early treatment with ACTH can have significant long-term consequences for cognition in animals with a history of ELS independently of seizure cessation, and may act in part through a CNS melanocortin receptor pathway.

  12. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  13. Toxicity of naproxen sodium and its mixture with tramadol hydrochloride on fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Fiorino, Emma; Faggio, Caterina; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-08-31

    Pharmaceuticals occur in water bodies as a consequence of their incomplete removal during waste water treatment processes. The occurence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters as well as their possible impact on aquatic vertebrates have received considerable attention in recent years. However, there is still a lack of informations on the chronic effects of widely used drugs as well as their possible mixture toxicity on non-target aquatic vertebrates as well as their possible mixture toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of naproxen sodium on early life stages of fish and evaluate its mixture toxicity with tramadol hydrochloride, which was assessed in our earlier study as a single substance. Two embryo-larval toxicity tests with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were performed according to the OECD guideline 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test) in order to assess the subchronic toxicity of naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochlorid-naproxen sodium mixture at the concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200 μg/L. These experiments were conducted for 32 days. The subchronic exposure to naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture had a strong effect on the early life stages of common carp. Hatching, developmental rate, morphology, histopathology and, in the case of the naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture, mortality were influenced. The bioindicators of oxidative stress were also influenced. The LOEC was determined at 10 μg/L for both naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Targeting regulatory T cells to improve vaccine immunogenicity in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorjoh eNdure

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in early life. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB, malaria and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses to many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in early life. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in early life, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs. It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future.

  15. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  16. The role of early life nutrition in the establishment of gastrointestinal microbial composition and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Erin C; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M

    2017-03-04

    The development of the human infant intestinal microbiota is a sequential process that begins in utero and continues during the first 2 to 3 years of life. Microbial composition and diversity are shaped by host genetics and multiple environmental factors, of which diet is a principal contributor. An understanding of this process is of clinical importance as the microbiota acquired in early life influence gastrointestinal, immune and neural development, and reduced microbial diversity or dysbiosis during infancy is associated with disorders in infancy and later childhood. The goal of this article was to review the published literature that used culture-independent methods to describe the development of the gastrointestinal microbiota in breast- and formula-fed human infants as well as the impact of prebiotic and probiotic addition to infant formula, and the addition of solid foods.

  17. Long-term impact of early life events on physiology and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, G J; Bale, T L; Casanello, P; Lara, H E; Lucion, A B; Suchecki, D; Tamashiro, K L

    2014-09-01

    This review discusses the effects of stress and nutrition throughout development and summarises studies investigating how exposure to stress or alterations in nutrition during the pre-conception, prenatal and early postnatal periods can affect the long-term health of an individual. In general, the data presented here suggest that that anything signalling potential adverse conditions later in life, such as high levels of stress or low levels of food availability, will lead to alterations in the offspring, possibly of an epigenetic nature, preparing the offspring for these conditions later in life. However, when similar environmental conditions are not met in adulthood, these alterations may have maladaptive consequences, resulting in obesity and heightened stress sensitivity. The data also suggest that the mechanism underlying these adult phenotypes might be dependent on the type and the timing of exposure.

  18. Behavioural consequences of visual deprivation occurring at hatch or in the early life of chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hocking, Paul M.; Haldane, Kirsty-Anne; Davidson, Emma M.;

    2015-01-01

    behaviours are a response to a complete loss of vision regardless of initial sight. Birds that became blind during rearing (rdd) may be more active as adults than birds that were blind throughout life but in general the behaviour of blind birds was similar regardless of early sight.......The development of behaviour in a line of chickens that are born sighted (rdd) but turn blind after hatching was compared with a line that is blind at hatch (beg) and with sighted White Leghorn controls (WL) to test the hypothesis that birds that become blind later in their life will show...... characteristic behaviours of both blind and sighted birds. Individual behaviour, group aggregation and behavioural synchrony were compared at 1, 5 and 9 weeks of age (experiment 1) and in the parents of these chicks at 9–13 months of age (experiment 2). Responses to visual and physical isolation were assessed...

  19. An animal model of eating disorders associated with stressful experience in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Jeong Won

    2011-02-01

    Experience of childhood abuse is prevalent among patients with eating disorders, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is implicated in its pathophysiology. Neonatal maternal separation is considered as an animal model of stressful experience early in life. Many of studies have demonstrated its impact both on the activity of HPA axis and the development of psycho-emotional disorders later in life. In this paper, a series of our researches on developing an animal model of eating disorders is reviewed. An animal model of neonatal maternal separation was used; Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of life (MS) or undisturbed. Anxiety-/depression-like behaviors were observed in MS rats at the age of two months with decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus and the raphe. Post-weaning social isolation promoted food intake and weight gain of adolescent MS pups, with impacts on anxiety-like behaviors. Sustained hyperphagia was observed in the MS pups subjected to a fasting/refeeding cycle repeatedly during adolescence, with increased plasma corticosterone levels. Anhedonia, major symptom of depression, to palatable food was observed in adolescent MS pups with blunted response of the mesolimbic dopaminergic activity to stress. Results suggest that neonatal maternal separation lead to the development of eating disorders when it is challenged with social or metabolic stressors later in life, in which dysfunctions in the HPA axis and the brain monoaminergic systems may play important roles.

  20. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride.

  1. Early-life origins of metabolic dysfunction: role of the adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Beverly; Smith, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    More than 60% of adults in the US are classified as overweight, with most developing associated metabolic problems. It is increasingly clear that the origins of obesity and metabolic disease are early in life, yet the physiological basis for this is not well understood. We propose that perturbations to nutrient supply in utero affect adipocyte development, altering functional properties and promoting excess body fat accumulation after birth. We also propose that excessive body fat accumulation leads to leptin and insulin resistance in these individuals, rendering them more susceptible to further weight gain and metabolic deterioration. Finally, we propose that interventions that inhibit this early increase in fat deposition have the potential to interrupt the pathway to obesity.

  2. Immunological effects of reduced mucosal integrity in the early life of BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja Maria Bangsgaard; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Certain stimuli at the gut barrier may be necessary in early life to establish a proper balance of immune tolerance. We evaluated a compromised barrier in juvenile mice in relation to microbiota and local and systemic immunity. BALB/c mice were treated with a low dose of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS......-fold upregulation of colonic Foxp3 and Il1a was evident 25 days post-treatment. DSS skewed the microbiota in favor of Gram negative phyla. Therefore, increased permeability induced tolerogenic immunity independent of microbiota, and this was enhanced by LPS stimulation....

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and early-life stress: Multifaceted interplay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NATALYA P BONDAR; TATIANA I MERKULOVA

    2016-12-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and plasticity. Longtermchanges in the BDNF pathway are associated with childhood adversity and adult depression symptoms.Initially, stress-induced decreases in the BDNF pathway were found in some studies, but subsequent reportsindicated the relationship between stress and BDNF to be much more complex, and the concept wassignificantly revised. In the present mini-review, we focus on the structure and regulation of the Bbnf geneas well as on the stress–BDNF interactions under early-life adverse conditions.

  4. Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically generated underwater noise in the marine environment is ubiquitous, comprising both intense impulse and continuous noise. The installation of offshore wind farms across the North Sea has triggered a range of ecological questions regarding the impact of anthropogenically produced underwater noise on marine wildlife. Our interest is on the impact on the "passive drifters," i.e., the early life stages of fish that form the basis of fish populations and are an important prey for pelagic predators. This study deals with the impact of pile driving and operational noise generated at offshore wind farms on Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass) larvae.

  5. Effects of prenatal and early life malnutrition: evidence from the Greek famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelsen, Sven; Stratmann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the long run education and labor market effects from early-life exposure to the Greek 1941-1942 famine. Given the short duration of the famine, we can separately identify the famine effects for cohorts exposed in utero, during infancy and at 1 year of age. We find that adverse outcomes due to the famine are largest for infants. Further, in our regression analysis we exploit the fact that the famine was more severe in urban than in rural areas. Consistent with our prediction, we find that urban-born cohorts show larger negative impacts on educational outcomes than rural-born cohorts.

  6. Early-life origin of adult disease: evidence from natural experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Until the present time, disease susceptibility was believed to be determined solely by the genetic information carried in the DNA sequence. In recent years, however, it has become clear that epigenetic rearrangements play an equally essential role in the disease development and that this process, particularly at key developmental stages, is very susceptible to environmental modulations. The extensive studies, both human and animal, have shown that early-life environment is probably the most important causal component in the etiology of some diseases including cancer as well as metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. This review considers the natural experiment-based evidence regarding the developmental origin of human adult disease.

  7. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism...

  8. Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programming effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes has yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechan...

  9. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces a...

  10. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo M Pusceddu; Sahar El Aidy; Fiona Crispie; Orla O'Sullivan; Paul Cotter; Catherine Stanton; Philip Kelly; John F Cryan; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) o...

  11. Comparative study of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Kazunori; Katayama, Ryu; Sarinont, Thapanut; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Attri, Pankaj; Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    We are comparing several non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas for life science applications. Here we measured discharge period dependence of pH value and 750 nm absorbance of KI-starch solution of deionized water after plasma irradiation with two discharge devices; a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet device and a scalable DBD device. The pH and the absorbance of KI-starch solution are useful indicator of their oxidizability. We have obtained a map of the absorbance and proton concentration [H+] which is deduced from pH value. For the scalable DBD, the range of the absorbance is between 0.7 and 1.3 and that of [H+] is between 10-7 and 10-5 mol/L. For the DBD jet, the range of the absorbance and [H+] are 2.0-3.2 and 10-4-10-3 mol/L, respectively. Measured data for both devices shows same tendency in the map, while the range of values for the scalable DBD is smaller than that for the DBD jet. The results indicate the oxidazability for the scalable DBD is much weaker than that for the DBD jet.

  12. Life cycle assessment of thermal waste-to-energy technologies: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent descriptions of all these aspects, in many cases preventing an evaluation of the validity of results, and limiting applicability of data and results in other contexts. The review clearly suggests that the quality of LCA studies of WtE technologies and systems including energy recovery can be significantly improved. Based on the review, a detailed overview of assumptions and modeling choices in existing literature is provided in conjunction with practical recommendations for state-of-the-art LCA of Waste-to-Energy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of salinity on early life history traits of three estuarine fish species in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Maylis; Morize, Eric; Scolan, Pierre; Lae, Raymond; Dabas, Eric; Bohn, Marcel

    2009-05-01

    The adaptive mechanisms on the early life stages of fishes to hypersaline stress are still poorly understood and probably determine the resistance of a population to disruption, compared with other less plastic species. The Casamance River in Senegal is an ideal location to test the adaptation to salinity as a dam was built in 1998 to exclude saline water intrusion. This lowered the salinity from 70 to 5 upstream and 60 downstream. The salinity influence on the growth in the early life of three West African fish species ( Ethmalosa fimbriata, Sarotherodon melanotheron, and Tilapia guineensis) was studied using the width of microstructures in the otoliths and the individual migratory behaviour analysed from strontium (Sr) to calcium (Ca) ratios in the otoliths. The Sr:Ca ratio was quantified along individual transects measured from the posterior edge of the otolith to the core. The fishes were sampled on both sides of the dam that separated water with low salinity upstream from metahaline and hyperhaline water downstream. The results showed that salinity has different influence on the growth of each species. Ethmalosa fimbriata has the highest growth during the first 180 days in the freshwaters, indicating growth inhibition in the hyperhaline areas. For the two other species no growth difference were found. The Sr/Ca ratio varied widely, in Tilapia and Sarotherodon from below the dam. Individual life histories were more heterogeneous than upstream and showed a crossing of the dam for some individuals which could reach half of the fishes analysed. On the contrary in E. fimbriata, despite the large range of salinity, identical Sr/Ca profiles were found both upstream and downstream. This indicated that Sr/Ca ratio was not appropriate to evaluate life history patterns linked to salinity for this specie.

  14. Early-Life Intranasal Colonization with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Exacerbates Juvenile Airway Disease in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jessica R; Mason, Stanley N; Auten, Richard L; St Geme, Joseph W; Seed, Patrick C

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a connection between asthma development and colonization with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Specifically, nasopharyngeal colonization of human infants with NTHi within 4 weeks of birth is associated with an increased risk of asthma development later in childhood. Monocytes derived from these infants have aberrant inflammatory responses to common upper respiratory bacterial antigens compared to those of cells derived from infants who were not colonized and do not go on to develop asthma symptoms in childhood. In this study, we hypothesized that early-life colonization with NTHi promotes immune system reprogramming and the development of atypical inflammatory responses. To address this hypothesis in a highly controlled model, we tested whether colonization of mice with NTHi on day of life 3 induced or exacerbated juvenile airway disease using an ovalbumin (OVA) allergy model of asthma. We found that animals that were colonized on day of life 3 and subjected to induction of allergy had exacerbated airway disease as juveniles, in which exacerbated airway disease was defined as increased cellular infiltration into the lung, increased amounts of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 in lung lavage fluid, decreased regulatory T cell-associated FOXP3 gene expression, and increased mucus production. We also found that colonization with NTHi amplified airway resistance in response to increasing doses of a bronchoconstrictor following OVA immunization and challenge. Together, the murine model provides evidence for early-life immune programming that precedes the development of juvenile airway disease and corroborates observations that have been made in human children.

  15. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagel, T.; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects...

  16. Association Between Early Life Growth and Blood Pressure Trajectories in Black South African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Munthali, Richard J; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-11-01

    Early growth is associated with blood pressure measured on one occasion, but whether early life growth patterns are associated with longitudinal blood pressure trajectories is under-researched. Therefore, we sought to examine the association between early growth and blood pressure trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Blood pressure was measured on 7 occasions between ages 5 and 18 years in the Birth to Twenty cohort study, and conditional variables for growth in infancy and mid-childhood were computed from anthropometric measures (n=1937, 52% girls). We used a group-based trajectory modeling approach to identify distinct height-adjusted blood pressure trajectories and then tested their association with growth between birth and mid-childhood adjusting for several covariates. Three trajectory groups were identified for systolic and diastolic blood pressure: lower, middle, and upper in boys and girls, separately. In boys, predictors of the middle or upper systolic blood pressure trajectories versus the lower trajectory were in birth weight (odds ratio 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.58-0.96] per SD) and relative weight gain in infancy (4.11 [1.25-13.51] per SD). In girls, greater relative weight gain and linear growth in both infancy and mid-childhood were consistently associated with an almost 2-fold higher likelihood of being in the upper versus lower systolic blood pressure trajectory. The associations for the diastolic blood pressure trajectories were inconsistent. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying children at risk of progression to high blood pressure. Accelerated growth in infancy and mid-childhood may be a key target for early life intervention in prevention of elevated blood pressure progression. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Early life arsenic exposure, infant and child growth, and morbidity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Granberg, Caroline; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-09-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a negative association between early life arsenic exposure and fetal size at birth, and subsequently with child morbidity and growth. However, our understanding of the relationship between arsenic exposure and morbidity and growth is limited. This paper aims to systematically review original human studies with an analytical epidemiological study design that have assessed arsenic exposure in fetal life or early childhood and evaluated the association with one or several of the following outcomes: fetal growth, birth weight or other birth anthropometry, infant and child growth, infectious disease morbidity in infancy and early childhood. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, TOXLINE, Web of Science, SciFinder and Scopus databases filtered for human studies. Based on the predefined eligibility criteria, two authors independently evaluated the studies. A total of 707 studies with morbidity outcomes were identified, of which six studies were eligible and included in this review. For the growth outcomes, a total of 2959 studies were found and nine fulfilled the criteria and were included in the review. A majority of the papers (10/15) emanated from Bangladesh, three from the USA, one from Romania and one from Canada. All included studies on arsenic exposure and morbidity showed an increased risk of respiratory tract infections and diarrhea. The findings in the studies of arsenic exposure and fetal, infant, and child growth were heterogeneous. Arsenic exposure was not associated with fetal growth. There was limited evidence of negative associations between arsenic exposures and birth weight and growth during early childhood. More studies from arsenic-affected low- and middle-income countries are needed to support the generalizability of study findings.

  18. Early life stress enhancement of limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats: mechanistic insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2-14 to either maternal separation stress (MS or control brief early handling (EH, underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU. Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts and dentate gyrus (DG (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting. As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05, with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p = 0.002. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life

  19. Early life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Bacharier, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To present recent findings and perspectives on the relationship between early life respiratory infections and asthma inception and to discuss emerging concepts on strategies that target these infectious agents for asthma prevention. Recent findings Cumulative evidence supports the role of early life viral infections, especially respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus, as major antecedents of childhood asthma. These viruses may have different mechanistic roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. The airway microbiome and virus-bacteria interactions in early life have emerged as additional determinants of childhood asthma. Innovative strategies for the prevention of these early life infections, or for attenuation of acute infection severity, are being investigated and may identify effective strategies for the primary and secondary prevention of childhood asthma. Summary Early life infections are major determinants of asthma development. The pathway from early life infections to asthma is the result of complex interactions between the specific type of the virus, genetic and environmental factors. Novel intervention strategies that target these infectious agents have been investigated in proof-of-concepts trials, and further study is necessary to determine their capacity for asthma prevention. PMID:26854761

  20. On Becoming Batman: An Ethnographic Examination of Hero Imagery in Early-Career Residential Life Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency response is an essential function of all residential life staff, but particularly for resident assistants serving on the front line. This organizational ethnography examined the role that professional identity played for early-career residential life practitioners engaged in emergency management. The data elucidated heroism as a…

  1. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  2. The impact of reproductive investment and early-life environmental conditions on senescence : support for the disposable soma hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, M.; Richardson, D. S.; Burke, T.; Komdeur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of senescence. One of the leading hypotheses, the disposable soma hypothesis, predicts a trade-off, whereby early-life investment in reproduction leads to late-life declines in survival (survival senescence). Testing this hypothesis i

  3. On Becoming Batman: An Ethnographic Examination of Hero Imagery in Early-Career Residential Life Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency response is an essential function of all residential life staff, but particularly for resident assistants serving on the front line. This organizational ethnography examined the role that professional identity played for early-career residential life practitioners engaged in emergency management. The data elucidated heroism as a…

  4. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  5. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  6. The impact of reproductive investment and early-life environmental conditions on senescence : Support for the disposable soma hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, M.; Richardson, D. S.; Burke, T.; Komdeur, J.

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of senescence. One of the leading hypotheses, the disposable soma hypothesis, predicts a trade-off, whereby early-life investment in reproduction leads to late-life declines in survival (survival senescence). Testing this hypothesis

  7. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been investigate

  8. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and

  9. Long-term Effects of Early Life Maize Yield on Maize Productivity and Efficiency in Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    The paper assesses the effects of maize yields just prior to birth (in utero), in the first and the second years of life on adult life productivity and efficiency of maize farmers born between 1984 and 1995 in rural Malawi. To ensure that early life maize yields are not confounded by omitted local chacteristics, they are transformed into relative maize yields by using a cumulative gamma distribution. I find that maize yield just prior to birth significantly increases maize output in a farmer'...

  10. Effects of early adolescent environmental enrichment on cognitive dysfunction, prefrontal cortex development, and inflammatory cytokines after early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Carine H; Narahari, Tanya; Holland, Freedom H; Lee, Ha-Neul; Murthy, Shashi K; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-05-01

    Early postnatal stress such as maternal separation causes cognitive dysfunction later in life, including working memory deficits that are largely mediated by the prefrontal cortex. Maternal separation in male rats also yields a loss of parvalbumin-containing prefrontal cortex interneurons in adolescence, which may occur via inflammatory or oxidative stress mechanisms. Environmental enrichment can prevent several effects of maternal separation; however, effects of enrichment on prefrontal cortex development are not well understood. Here, we report that enrichment prevented cognitive dysfunction in maternally separated males and females, and prevented elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines that was evident in maternally separated males, but not females. However, enrichment did not prevent parvalbumin loss or adolescent measures of oxidative stress. Significant correlations indicated that adolescents with higher oxidative damage and less prefrontal cortex parvalbumin in adolescence committed more errors on the win-shift task; therefore, maternal separation may affect cognitive dysfunction via aberrant interneuron development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 482-491, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Oxytocin pathways in the intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Philipp; Heim, Christine; Entringer, Sonja; Binder, Elisabeth; Wadhwa, Pathik; Buss, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Severe stress in early life, such as childhood abuse and neglect, constitutes a major risk factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases. Importantly, these long-term effects may impact the next generation. The intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress (ELS) may occur via pre-and postnatal pathways, such as alterations in maternal-fetal-placental stress physiology, maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as impaired mother-offspring interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has gained considerable attention for its role in modulating all of these assumed transmission pathways. Moreover, central and peripheral OT signaling pathways are highly sensitive to environmental exposures and may be compromised by ELS with implications for these putative transmission mechanisms. Together, these data suggest that OT pathways play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS in humans. By integrating recent studies on gene-environment interactions and epigenetic modifications in OT pathway genes, the present review aims to develop a conceptual framework of intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS that emphasizes the role of OT.

  12. A critical review: early life nutrition and prenatal programming for adult disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia

    2015-12-01

    To present the evidence in relation to early life nutrition and foetal programming for adult disease. Epigenetics is a new and growing area of study investigating the impact of the intrauterine environment on the lifelong health of individuals. Discursive paper. Searches were conducted in a range of electronic health databases. Hand searches located additional articles for review. Maternal search terms included: pregnancy; nutrition; diet; obesity; over nutrition; under nutrition. Offspring related search terms included: macrosomia; intrauterine growth restriction; epigenetics; foetal programming; childhood obesity; adolescent obesity; adolescent type 2 diabetes. Results indicate that foetal programming for adult disease occurs in response to particular insults during vulnerable developmental periods. Four main areas of foetal exposure were identified in this review: (1) under nutrition; (2) over nutrition; (3) gestational diabetes mellitus; and (4) infant catch-up growth. Numerous studies also described the trans-generational nature of foetal programming. Overall, foetal exposure to excess or insufficient nutrition during vulnerable developmental periods appears to result in a lifelong predisposition to obesity and adult disease, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiac disease. For the infant who has been undernourished during early life, a predisposition to renal disease also occurs. Pregnancy is a time when women are engaged in health systems and are receptive to health messages. These factors suggest that pregnancy may be an optimal time for dietary education and intervention. There is a particular need for education on healthy diet and for interventions which aim to limit over consumption of calories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  14. Density-dependent coral recruitment displays divergent responses during distinct early life-history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doropoulos, Christopher; Evensen, Nicolas R; Gómez-Lemos, Luis A; Babcock, Russell C

    2017-05-01

    Population growth involves demographic bottlenecks that regulate recruitment success during various early life-history stages. The success of each early life-history stage can vary in response to population density, interacting with intrinsic (e.g. behavioural) and environmental (e.g. competition, predation) factors. Here, we used the common reef-building coral Acropora millepora to investigate how density-dependence influences larval survival and settlement in laboratory experiments that isolated intrinsic effects, and post-settlement survival in a field experiment that examined interactions with environmental factors. Larval survival was exceptionally high (greater than 80%) and density-independent from 2.5 to 12 days following spawning. By contrast, there was a weak positive effect of larval density on settlement, driven by gregarious behaviour at the highest density. When larval supply was saturated, settlement was three times higher in crevices compared with exposed microhabitats, but a negative relationship between settler density and post-settlement survival in crevices and density-independent survival on exposed surfaces resulted in similar recruit densities just one month following settlement. Moreover, a negative relationship was found between turf algae and settler survival in crevices, whereas gregarious settlement improved settler survival on exposed surfaces. Overall, our findings reveal divergent responses by coral larvae and newly settled recruits to density-dependent regulation, mediated by intrinsic and environmental interactions.

  15. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  16. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  17. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life. PMID:22743759

  18. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life.

  19. Glutamine Randomized Studies in Early Life: The Unsolved Riddle of Experimental and Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrossini Briassouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine may have benefits during immaturity or critical illness in early life but its effects on outcome end hardpoints are controversial. Our aim was to review randomized studies on glutamine supplementation in pups, infants, and children examining whether glutamine affects outcome. Experimental work has proposed various mechanisms of glutamine action but none of the randomized studies in early life showed any effect on mortality and only a few showed some effect on inflammatory response, organ function, and a trend for infection control. Although apparently safe in animal models (pups, premature infants, and critically ill children, glutamine supplementation does not reduce mortality or late onset sepsis, and its routine use cannot be recommended in these sensitive populations. Large prospectively stratified trials are needed to better define the crucial interrelations of “glutamine-heat shock proteins-stress response” in critical illness and to identify the specific subgroups of premature neonates and critically ill infants or children who may have a greater need for glutamine and who may eventually benefit from its supplementation. The methodological problems noted in the reviewed randomized experimental and clinical trials should be seriously considered in any future well-designed large blinded randomized controlled trial involving glutamine supplementation in critical illness.

  20. Environmental and Economic Strategies for Primary Prevention of Cancer in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, David; Hoppin, Polly J; Jacobs, Molly M; Clapp, Richard W

    2016-11-01

    This article summarizes the evidence for environmental toxic exposures contributing to cancers in early life, focusing on the most common cancer sites in this age group. It provides examples of widespread avoidable exposures to human carcinogens through air, water, and food and then describes recent examples of successful initiatives to reduce exposure to chemicals linked to these cancer sites, through government policy, industry initiatives, and consumer activism. State government initiatives to reduce toxic chemical exposures have made important gains; the Toxics Use Reduction Act of Massachusetts is now 25 years old and has been a major success story. There are a growing number of corporate initiatives to eliminate toxics, especially carcinogens, from the products they manufacture and sell. Another important opportunity for cancer prevention is provided by online databases that list chemicals, their toxicity, and lower-toxicity alternatives; these can be used by businesses, health care institutions, consumers, and workers to reduce exposures to chemicals of concern. The article concludes by inviting pediatricians and public health professionals to include elimination of carcinogen exposures in their work to promote primary prevention of cancer in early life.

  1. Glutamine randomized studies in early life: the unsolved riddle of experimental and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassouli, Efrossini; Briassoulis, George

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine may have benefits during immaturity or critical illness in early life but its effects on outcome end hardpoints are controversial. Our aim was to review randomized studies on glutamine supplementation in pups, infants, and children examining whether glutamine affects outcome. Experimental work has proposed various mechanisms of glutamine action but none of the randomized studies in early life showed any effect on mortality and only a few showed some effect on inflammatory response, organ function, and a trend for infection control. Although apparently safe in animal models (pups), premature infants, and critically ill children, glutamine supplementation does not reduce mortality or late onset sepsis, and its routine use cannot be recommended in these sensitive populations. Large prospectively stratified trials are needed to better define the crucial interrelations of "glutamine-heat shock proteins-stress response" in critical illness and to identify the specific subgroups of premature neonates and critically ill infants or children who may have a greater need for glutamine and who may eventually benefit from its supplementation. The methodological problems noted in the reviewed randomized experimental and clinical trials should be seriously considered in any future well-designed large blinded randomized controlled trial involving glutamine supplementation in critical illness.

  2. Embryotoxicity of nitrophenols to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zeynep; Şişman, Turgay; Yazıcı, Zehra; Altıkat, Aysun Özen

    2016-08-01

    The nitrophenols (NPs) are water-soluble compounds. These compounds pose a significant health threat since they are priority environmental pollutants. In this study, 2-Nitrophenol (2NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) were examined for embryo and early life stage toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity and teratogenicity of 2NP and DNP were tested for 4 days using zebrafish embryos. The typical lesions observed were no somite formation, incomplete eye and head development, tail curvature, weak pigmentation (≤48 hours postfertilization (hpf)), kyphosis, scoliosis, yolk sac deformity, and nonpigmentation (72 hpf). Also, embryo and larval mortality increased and hatching success decreased. The severity of abnormalities and mortalities were concentration- and compound-dependent. Of the compounds tested, 2,4-DNP was found to be highly toxic to the fish embryos following exposure. The median lethal concentrations and median effective concentrations for 2NP are 18.7 mg/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively; the corresponding values for DNP are 9.65 mg/L and 3.05 mg/L for 48 h. The chorda deformity was the most sensitive endpoint measured. It is suggested that the embryotoxicity may be mediated by an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling mechanism. This article is the first to describe the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of two NPs to the early life stages of zebrafish.

  3. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  4. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories.

  5. Prenatal and early life exposure to stressful life events and risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based studies in Sweden and England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rai

    Full Text Available Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been suggested as a potential risk factor for offspring Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, but the literature is limited and inconsistent. We tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to stressful life events would be associated with increased risks of offspring ASD, and that these risks would be highest for exposures during the prenatal period.We used prospectively collected data from two large population based studies in Sweden and England. In the Swedish study of 4429 ASD cases and 43277 controls, our exposure comprised the occurrence of any severe life event before and during pregnancy and the child's early life. In the English study (maximum n = 11554, ASD n = 72, we studied the risk of offspring ASD in relation to a combined maternal exposure to multiple (up to 42 common and rare life events, as well as their perceived impact upon the mother during pregnancy and early life. In crude and adjusted regression analyses in both studies, we found no evidence of an association between prenatal life events, or their number and perceived impact and the risk of offspring ASD. Sub-group analysis of ASD with and without intellectual disability in the Swedish study yielded similar results.We found no evidence to support the hypotheses that exposure to stressful life events during the prenatal period is associated with an increased risk of offspring ASD.

  6. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  7. Combined Effect of TLR2 Gene Polymorphism and Early Life Stress on the Age at Onset of Bipolar Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    José Oliveira; Bruno Etain; Mohamed Lajnef; Nora Hamdani; Meriem Bennabi; Djaouida Bengoufa; Aparna Sundaresh; Arij Ben Chaabane; Frank Bellivier; Chantal Henry; Jean-Pierre Kahn; Dominique Charron; Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy; Marion Leboyer; Ryad Tamouza

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions may play an important role in modulating the impact of early-life stressful events on the clinical course of bipolar disorder (BD), particularly associated to early age at onset. Immune dysfunction is thought to be an important mechanism linking childhood trauma with early-onset BD, thus the genetic diversity of immune-related loci may account for an important part of the interindividual susceptibility to this severe subform. Here we investigated the potential in...

  8. Malnutrition in early life and adult mental health: evidence from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Phillips, Michael R; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Jingxuan; Shi, Qichang; Song, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhijie; Pang, Shutao; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-11-01

    As natural experiments, famines provide a unique opportunity to test the health consequences of nutritional deprivation during the critical period of early life. Using data on 4972 Chinese born between 1956 and 1963 who participated in a large mental health epidemiology survey conducted between 2001 and 2005, we investigated the potential impact of exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese Famine in utero and during the early postnatal life on adult mental illness. The risk of mental illness was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and eight other risk factors, and the famine impact on adult mental illness was estimated by difference-in-difference models. Results show that compared with unexposed women born in 1963, women born during the famine years (1959-1961) had higher GHQ scores (increased by 0.95 points; CI: 0.26, 1.65) and increased risk of mental illness (OR = 2.80; CI: 1.23, 6.39); those born in 1959 were the most affected and had GHQ scores 1.52 points higher (CI: 0.42, 2.63) and an OR for mental illness of 4.99 (CI: 1.68, 14.84). Compared to men in the 1963 birth cohort, men born during the famine had lower GHQ scores (decreased by 0.89 points; CI: -1.59, -0.20) and a nonsignificant decrease in the risk of mental illness (OR = 0.60; CI: 0.26, 1.40). We speculate that the long-term consequences of early-life famine exposure include both the selection of the hardiest and the enduring deleterious effects of famine on those who survive. The greater biological vulnerability and stronger natural selection in utero of male versus female fetuses during severe famine may result in a stronger selection effect among men than women, obscuring the deleterious impact of famine exposure on the risk of mental illness in men later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  10. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  11. Records of our Early Biosphere Illuminate our Origins and Guide our Search for Life Beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    A scientific "mission of exploration to early Earth" will help us chart the distribution of life elsewhere. We must discriminate between attributes of biospheres that are universal versus those attributes that represent principally the outcomes of long-term survival specifically on Earth. In addition to the basic physics and chemistry of matter, the geologic evolution of rocky habitable planets and their climates might be similar elsewhere in the Universe. Certain key agents that drive long-term environmental change (e.g., stellar evolution, impacts, geothermal heat flow, tectonics, etc.) can help us to reconstruct ancient climates and to compare their evolution among populations of Earth- like planets. Early Earth was tectonically more active than today and therefore it exhaled reduced chemical species into the more oxidized surface environment at greater rates. This tectonic activity thus sustained oxidation-reduction reactions that provided the basis for the development of biochemical pathways that harvest chemical energy ("bioenergetics"). Most examples of bioenergetics today that extract energy by reacting oxidized and reduced chemicals in the environment were likely more pervasive among our microbial ancestors than are the presently known examples of photosynthesis. The geologic rock record indicates that, as early as 3.5 billion years ago (3.5 Ga), microbial biofilms were widespread within the coastal environments of small continents and tectonically unstable volcanic islands. Non oxygen-producing (non-oxygenic) photosynthesis preceded oxygenic photosynthesis, but all types of photosynthesis contributed substantially to the long-term increase in global primary biological productivity. Evidence of photosynthesis is tentative by 3.5 Ga and compelling by 2.7 Ga. Evidence of oxygenic photosynthesis is strong by 2.7 Ga and compelling by 2.3 Ga. These successive innovations transformed life from local communities that survived principally by catalyzing chemical

  12. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone minera...

  13. Molecular mechanisms of early-life stress in 5-Htt deficient mice: Gene x environment interactions and epigenetic programming

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Early-life stress has been shown to influence the development of the brain and to increase the risk for psychiatric disorders later in life. Furthermore, variation in the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT, SLC6A4) gene is suggested to exert a modulating effect on the association between early-life stress and the risk for depression. At the basis of these gene x environment (G x E) interactions, epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA-methylation, seem to represent the primary biological processes...

  14. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  15. Attention deficit associated with early life interictal spikes in a rat model is improved with ACTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Hernan

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy often present with pervasive cognitive and behavioral comorbidities including working memory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. These non-seizure characteristics are severely detrimental to overall quality of life. Some of these children, particularly those with epilepsies classified as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome or continuous spike and wave during sleep, have infrequent seizure activity but frequent focal epileptiform activity. This frequent epileptiform activity is thought to be detrimental to cognitive development; however, it is also possible that these IIS events initiate pathophysiological pathways in the developing brain that may be independently associated with cognitive deficits. These hypotheses are difficult to address due to the previous lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we have recently developed a rat model to test the role of frequent focal epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex. Using microinjections of a GABA(A antagonist (bicuculline methiodine delivered multiple times per day from postnatal day (p 21 to p25, we showed that rat pups experiencing frequent, focal, recurrent epileptiform activity in the form of interictal spikes during neurodevelopment have significant long-term deficits in attention and sociability that persist into adulthood. To determine if treatment with ACTH, a drug widely used to treat early-life seizures, altered outcome we administered ACTH once per day subcutaneously during the time of the induced interictal spike activity. We show a modest amelioration of the attention deficit seen in animals with a history of early life interictal spikes with ACTH, in the absence of alteration of interictal spike activity. These results suggest that pharmacological intervention that is not targeted to the interictal spike activity is worthy of future study as it may be beneficial for preventing or ameliorating adverse

  16. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pgut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly contribute to the dynamic development of the gut microbiome in preterm infants.

  17. Potent carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke in mice exposed early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Steele, Vernon E; D'Agostini, Francesco; De Flora, Silvio

    2007-10-01

    In spite of the dominant role of cigarette smoke (CS) in cancer epidemiology, all studies performed during the past 60 years have shown that this complex mixture is either negative or weakly tumorigenic in experimental animals. We implemented studies aimed at evaluating whether exposure of mice early in life may enhance susceptibility to CS carcinogenicity. A total of 98 newborn Swiss albino mice were either untreated (controls) or received a subcutaneous injection of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] (positive control) or were exposed whole-body to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) for 120 days, starting within 12 h after birth. Complete necropsy and histopathological analyses were performed at periodical intervals. In contrast with the lack of lung tumors in controls, MCS-exposed mice developed microscopically detectable tumors, starting only 75 days after birth and reaching an overall incidence of 78.3% after 181-230 days. The mean lung tumor multiplicities were 6.1 and 13.6 tumors per mouse in males and females, respectively, showing a significant intergender difference. Most tumors were microadenomas or adenomas, but 18.4% of the mice additionally had malignant lung cancer. MCS also induced bronchial and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, and blood vessel proliferation. Furthermore, malignant tumors, some of which may have a metastatic origin, were detected in the urinary tract and liver of MCS-exposed mice. A somewhat different spectrum of tumors was observed in B(a)P-treated mice. In conclusion, MCS is a potent and broad spectrum carcinogen in mice when exposure starts early in life, covering stages of life corresponding to neonatal, childhood and adolescence periods in humans. This animal model will be useful to explore the mechanisms involved in CS-induced carcinogenesis and to investigate the protective effects of dietary agents and chemopreventive drugs.

  18. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mrdalj

    Full Text Available Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min or brief maternal separation (10 min. Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  19. Air pollution in early life and adult mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Williams, Martin L; Jones, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD. They raised the possibility that early air pollution, which is known to be strongly linked with chest infection during infancy, may predispose to RHD. We related estimates of air pollution and social conditions developed by Daly in 1951-52 for 78 urban areas in England and Wales to their subsequent RHD mortality rates at ages 35-74 in men and women during 1993-2012. There were strong relationships between domestic air pollution and RHD [relative risk per standard deviation (SD) increase in pollution 1.168, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.128 to 1.210, P pollution association was independent of these; only overcrowding was separately linked with RHD. We present the first evidence of an association between air pollution in early life and RHD. Although there are several limitations to this study, the strength and consistency of the results, together with their biological plausibility, suggest a causal link. This deserves attention because it may have important consequences for the control of RHD in resource-poor countries where widespread use of biomass fuels and domestic pollution remain a problem.

  20. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.