WorldWideScience

Sample records for early life family

  1. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  2. Family Quality of Life for Families in Early Intervention in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Joana M.; Baqués, Natasha; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Dalmau, Mariona; Giné, Climent; Gràcia, Marta; Vilaseca, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) has been shown to be an essential resource for meeting the needs and priorities of children with intellectual and developmental disability and their families. The objective of this study was to examine (a) the perceived quality of life of families attending EI centers in Spain and (b) its relationship with characteristics…

  3. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  4. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  5. The Everyday Life of Children Across Early Childhood Institution and The Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the everyday life of Danish children across different social practices and explores what this outset can tell us about the life of children and families. Building on the critique of classical approaches in developmental psychology (e.g. Burman 1994; James, Jenks, & Prout...... 1998) and family research (e.g. Leira 1993; Thorne & Yalom 1982) the article puts forward a decentred approach to family life. The aim is to show how the institutional context and family context sets conditions for each other - and that interplay sets conditions for the development of the children....... The article argues that the social practice in which the children participate outside the family, in important ways shapes the life of children as well as their parents. The parents' insight and knowledge of their children's everyday life in early childhood institution and the co-operation between parents...

  6. CONCEPT OF LIFE QUALITY OF FAMILIES WITH EARLY AGE CHILD WITH ENDANGERED DEVELOPMENT DUE TO DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šándorová Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, there is a trend nowadays in supporting families caring for a child vulnerable due to disability. A network of services offering support to these families is growing. Causes of this fact can be found at three different levels, on the child and family side, but also at the support system. Concept of a life quality, and it´s various dimensions for this target group, have been neglected until recently. Present time, however, introduces significant changes in an approach to this issue and the concept of life quality in general is getting to the fore within the interagency scope and the social policy. In this particular case it presents a complex construct comprising many subunits. We can look at them from a variety of perspectives and operate with them in many different ways. This paper solves a view at this concept unusually at the background of the specific activities of Early Care Centre in Pardubice. For the paper processing qualitative research strategies have been used – description of organization´s material and quantitative survey (evaluation questionnaire for the year 2012. Particular aim of this paper is to describe activities of Early Care Centre in Pardubice which affect the concept of life quality of families with child (early age vulnerable due to disability. Results analysis of the evaluation survey which is aimed to identify some of quality indicators of service provided in 2012 also at the Centre for Early Intervention in Pardubice and comparison with the material of the National Centre of social services transformation support - A system of services for children and young people with disabilities and their families (Bačáková, 2013. Results evaluate the life quality concept for families with children in early age with the endangered development due to disability from the position of the family, support and assistance provider and support and assistance evaluator. The conclusion summarizes the problem

  7. Prenatal and early-life predictors of atopy and allergic disease in Canadian children: results of the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, T; Reece, P L; Schulze, K M; Morrison, K M; Atkinson, S A; Anand, S S; Teo, K K; Denburg, J A; Cyr, M M

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal and early-life environmental exposures play a key role in the development of atopy and allergic disease. The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life Study is a general, population-based Canadian birth cohort that prospectively evaluated prenatal and early-life traits and their association with atopy and/or allergic disease. The study population included 901 babies, 857 mothers and 530 fathers. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors were evaluated through questionnaires collected during the antenatal period and at 1 year. The end points of atopy and allergic diseases in infants were evaluated through questionnaires and skin prick testing. Key outcomes included atopy (24.5%), food allergy (17.5%), cow's milk allergy (4.8%), wheezing (18.6%) and eczema (16%). The association between infant antibiotic exposure [odds ratio (OR): 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-2.88] and increased atopy was noted in the multivariate analysis, whereas prenatal maternal exposure to dogs (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) and acetaminophen (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.92) was associated with decreased atopy. This population-based birth cohort in Canada demonstrated high rates of atopy, food allergy, wheezing and eczema. Several previously reported and some novel prenatal and postnatal exposures were associated with atopy and allergic diseases at 1 year of age.

  8. Life satisfaction in early adolescence: personal, neighborhood, school, family, and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2011-07-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood (perceived neighborhood support), family (perceived parental support), and peer group (positive peer relationships) were assessed in a sample of 1,402 4th to 7th graders (47% female) from 25 public elementary schools. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was conducted to analyze the variability in life satisfaction both at the individual and the school level. As hypothesized, adding optimism and the dimensions representing the ecology of early adolescence to the model significantly reduced the variability in life satisfaction at both levels of analysis. Both personal (optimism) and all of the ecological assets significantly and positively predicted early adolescents' life satisfaction. The results suggest the theoretical and practical utility of an assets approach for understanding life satisfaction in early adolescence.

  9. Early life socioeconomic status and metabolic outcomes in adolescents: The role of implicit affect about one's family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Meanne; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith

    2016-04-01

    Previous research suggests that the quality of early family relationships may moderate the association between lower socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular and other health outcomes. In this study, we investigated how implicit measures of early childhood environments (implicit anger, fear, or warmth about one's family) interacted with early life SES to predict metabolic outcomes in a sample of healthy adolescents. Adolescents (N = 259) age 13 to 16 participated with 1 parent. Implicit family affect was measured with a computer-based implicit affect assessment tool. Early life SES was indexed by home crowding (e.g., number of people per bedroom) during the first 5 years of life. Metabolic indicators included resting blood pressure, total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, and waist circumference. Early life SES significantly interacted with implicit negative family affect in resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure levels, such that among those participants with higher early life SES, as implicit negative family affect increased, resting blood pressure also increased. Similarly, early life SES interacted with implicit family warmth to predict total cholesterol levels, such that among those participants with higher early life SES, as implicit family warmth decreased, total cholesterol increased. These patterns were not observed with current SES or with explicit measures of family relationships. These findings provide evidence that implicit family affect moderates the association between early life SES and adolescent metabolic outcomes in a way that suggests that implicit family affect may be more relevant among higher SES adolescents. The utility of implicit psychosocial measures in cardiovascular health studies, particularly for higher SES samples, is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life and Midlife Conditions, and Familial Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival

  11. Linking Early Childhood Inclusion and Family Quality of Life: Current Literature and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Megan L.; Turnbull, Ann; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2006-01-01

    The daily educational experiences of a young child affect not only the child but also the family. The time and energy a family invests to achieve optimal educational experiences will likely impact the whole family system. As such, early education service providers are responsible for decreasing the challenges that parents experience so that…

  12. Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life,…

  13. Family Income and Material Deprivation: Do They Matter for Sleep Quality and Quantity in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetta, Marta; Ghislandi, Simone

    2016-11-28

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14,000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire. Logistic regression models for the sleep problems dummies and loglinear models for the sleep quantity. One additional item in the material deprivation index is associated to an increase of around 10% to 20% in the odds of having at least one sleep problem. Similarly, children from the richest families are less likely to have any sleep problem up to 115 months (around 20% reduction in the odds). Mother's characteristics (i.e. education and mental health in the pregnancy period) are also significant predictors. Sleep quantity does not vary much and is not sensitive to socioeconomic factors. Exposure to income-related inequalities affects child sleep. Further research is needed in order to understand if sleep in early life influence future health and economic trajectories.

  14. Early life adversity is associated with brain changes in subjects at family risk for depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carballedo, Angela

    2012-12-01

    The interplay of genetic and early environmental factors is recognized as an important factor in the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reduced volume of hippocampus and frontal brain regions involved in emotional regulation are already present in unaffected healthy individuals at genetic risk of suffering MDD and to investigate whether early life adversity is a relevant factor interacting with these reduced brain structures.

  15. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We exp...

  16. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Reed

    Full Text Available Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  17. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas E; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J; Burthe, Sarah J; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Takahashi, Emi A; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  18. The influence of family pattern abnormalities in the early stages of life on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), chronic immune mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. CD and UC are related with the development of chronic inflammatory lesions in the GI tract, causing digestive and absorption disorders. Typical symptoms of IBD are: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. In addition, IBD are often associated with the extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis and dermatoses. While the cause of IBD is still not fully understood, the psychological aspects are regarded as possible trigger factors. Moreover, most recent studies suggest that family pattern abnormalities associated with stress at the early stages of life may strongly affect health balance. In this paper, the most relevant studies focusing on the association between early life stress and IBD, found in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE are discussed. Possible effects of the early life stress on IBD progression and response to undertaken therapies are analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    What are the implications of ongoing processes of modernization and individualization for social relations in everyday life? This overall research question is the pivotal point in empirical studies at the Centre of Childhood-, Youth- and Family Life Research at Roskilde University. One research...... project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...

  20. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...... researchers to grasp both continuity and change. The article refers to everyday life studies and social psychology and argues that the term ‘family life’ my serve as one stepping stone for transgressing the dichotomy. Furthermore the article unfolds the implications of this framework for the research design...

  1. Contemporary family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viala, Eva Silberschmidt

    2011-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal interview-study of ten heterosexual couples and first-time parents, in Denmark the author argues that addressing contemporary everyday family life as a joint venture with contradictions contribute new insights into the complexities, contradictions, and ambiguities linked...... of complementary gender roles as well as in new understandings of gender equality based on ideals of mutual trust, respect and support. As a result, it is important to investigate how parenthood, family life and parental roles are constantly reflected upon and reproduced, negotiated and transformed through...

  2. Impacts of parasites in early life: Contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, T.; Daunt, F.; Kiploks, A.J.; Burthe, S.J.; Granroth-Wilding, H.M.V.; Takahashi, E.A.; Newell, M.; Wanless, S.; Cunningham, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control mi

  3. Differential Vulnerability to Early-Life Parental Death: The Moderating Effects of Family Suicide History on Risks for Major Depression and Substance Abuse in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshaus, Michael S; Coon, Hilary; Crowell, Sheila E; Gray, Douglas D; Hanson, Heidi A; Pimentel, Richard; Smith, Ken R

    2016-01-01

    Only a portion of those individuals exposed to parental death in early life (PDE) develop behavioral health disorders. We utilized demographic pedigree data from the Utah Population Database to test for differential vulnerability to PDE by creating a risk score of familial susceptibility to suicide (FS) at the population level. Using logistic panel regression models, we tested for multiplicative interactions between PDE and FS on the risks of major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance abuse (SA), measured using Medicare claims, after age 65. The final sample included 155,983 individuals (born 1886-1944), yielding 1,431,060 person-years at risk (1992-2009). Net of several potential confounders, including probability of survival to age 65, we found an FS × PDE interaction for females, in which PDE and FS as main effects had no impact but jointly increased MDD risk. No statistically significant main or interactive effects were found for SA among females or for either phenotype among males. Our findings are consistent with a differential vulnerability model for MDD in females, in which early-life stress increases the risk for poor behavioral health only among the vulnerable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how demographic and pedigree data might serve as tools for investigating differential vulnerability hypotheses.

  4. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  5. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  6. Contemporary family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viala, Eva Silberschmidt

    2011-01-01

    of complementary gender roles as well as in new understandings of gender equality based on ideals of mutual trust, respect and support. As a result, it is important to investigate how parenthood, family life and parental roles are constantly reflected upon and reproduced, negotiated and transformed through...... to parents’ daily practices with their child. Contrary to the paradox in existing research between the ideal of gender equality on the one hand, and the differentiated and gender-based division of housework and care on the other, it is argued that changes are accruing even though parents still appear...... to adopt gender-based models when it comes to the day-to-day care and the distribution of domestic chores. Through empirical analyses it is demonstrated how the advent of the child becomes a fulcrum, and also how female and male parents’ expectations, beliefs and practises are rooted in traditional notions...

  7. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  8. Life and death in the family: early parental death, parental remarriage, and offspring suicide risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshaus, Michael S; Smith, Ken R

    2015-04-01

    Early-life parental death (PD) may increase suicide and other mortality risk in adulthood. The potential implications of subsequent remarriage of the widowed parent (RWP) for suicide have not been well examined. Data came from the Utah Population Database for birth cohorts between 1886 and 1960, yielding a sample of N = 663,729 individuals, including 4533 suicides. Cox models showed PD was associated with increased adult suicide risk before age 50, and with increased risk of cardiovascular disease deaths (CVD) for adults of all ages. For females, RWP attenuated the suicide relationship before age 50 (though not statistically significant), but significantly exacerbated it after age 50. RWP had no significant impact for males. Further, for females, PD's positive association with suicide was stronger than with CVD before age 50. These findings reinforce the importance of biological and social mechanisms in linking early-life stressors to adult mental and physical health.

  9. Reconciling Work and Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Helle

    The problems of balancing work and family life have within the last years been heavily debated in the countries of the European Union. This anthology deals with the question of how to obtain a better balance between work and family life. Focus is set on the role of companies. The anthology tries...... to shed some light on questions such as: How can compagnies become more family friendly? What are the barriers and how can they be overcome? What is the social outcome when companies are playing an active role in employees’ possiblities for combining family life and work life? How are the solutions...... on work/ family unbalance/ problems related to the growing social problems related to unemployment? The anthology is the result of a reseach-network on ”Work-place Contributions ro Reconcile Work and Family Life” funded by the European Commission, DG V, and co-coordinated by the editors....

  10. How the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort study has contributed to the understanding of the impact of birth weight and early life socioeconomic position on disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Mann, Kay D; Relton, Caroline L; Francis, Roger M; Steele, James G; Craft, Alan W; Parker, Louise

    2012-05-01

    Much has been made of the potential influence of birth weight and early socioeconomic disadvantage in influencing adult health, but little has been published in terms of how important these associations may be with respect to exposures throughout the lifecourse. The objective of this review is to describe the contributions of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study in understanding the relative impacts of factors in early life, particularly birth weight and socio-economic position at birth, in influencing health in later life. The Newcastle Thousand Families Study is a prospective birth cohort established in 1947. It originally included all births to mothers resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, in northern England, in May and June of that year. Study members were followed extensively throughout childhood and intermittently in adulthood. At the age of 49-51 years, study members underwent a large-scale follow-up phase enabling an assessment of how early life may influence their later health, and also incorporating adult risk factors which enabled the relative contributions of factors at different stages of life to be assessed. While some findings from the study do support birth weight and early socio-economic position having influences on adult health status, the associations are generally small when compared to risk factors later in life. Using path analyses on longitudinal data of this nature enables mediating pathways between early life and later health to be assessed and if more studies were to take this approach, the relative importance of early life on adult disease risk could be better understood.

  11. School and Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Getting Support for Your Child Talking to Your Child's Preschool Teacher Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media The Magic of Play: How It Inspires & Aids Early Development Top 10 Homework Tips What Is ADHD? Tough ...

  12. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...... patterns and family life among Pakistani immigrants but also have long- lasting effects on the relationship between minorities and majorities in Denmark....

  13. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  14. Family Trajectories and Health : A Life Course Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of family trajectory, i.e., the whole sequence of family events during the life course of early adults in shaping their health outcomes. Union formation and childbearing are jointly considered, since the two life domains are highly connected and their intersections

  15. Family Trajectories and Health : A Life Course Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of family trajectory, i.e., the whole sequence of family events during the life course of early adults in shaping their health outcomes. Union formation and childbearing are jointly considered, since the two life domains are highly connected and their intersections m

  16. Family Medicine: Bridge to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the suicide of a close friend, this essay explores what comprises, and inspires a will to live, and how those in Family Medicine can address suicide risk even in the face of debilitating or terminal illness. Research indicates that the will to live is a measurable indicator of general well-being, distinct from depression, and an important predictor of a person's motivation to "hold on to life". As such, understanding what is at the heart of a desire to live should alter clinical practice. This essay offers ideas for ways in which to create bridges for patients that could help sustain life.

  17. Children enrolled in public pre-K: the relation of family life, neighborhood quality, and socioeconomic resources to early competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar; Bryant, Donna; McCandies, Terry; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane; Clifford, Richard; Pianta, Robert; Howes, Carollee

    2006-04-01

    This article presents data on the family and social environments of 501 children enrolled in public sponsored pre-K in 5 states and tests the relation of these resources to child competence. Structured interviews and questionnaires provide information from parents about the family's social and economic status. Direct assessments and teacher reports provide data on children's literacy, numeracy, and behavioral problems. A majority of the children served in public pre-K lived in poverty and showed decrements in language but not in other domains. A socioeconomic resource factor consisting of parental education, household income, and material need predicted all domains of children's functioning. Children from households high in socioeconomic resources entered pre-K with more well developed language and math skill but fewer behavioral problems than their disadvantaged peers. Neighborhood quality status was related to language competence and mother's marital status to math competence. Neighborhood quality and income level may have their impact on child competence through their relation to dyadic quality and the health and the psychological well-being of the parents.

  18. Migrant Men in Misery : Result from a Qualitative Life History Analysis on Individuals and Families Concerning Internal Migration, Health and Life Circumstances in Early 19th Century, Linköping, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygren, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore and understand under what health and life circumstances internal migrants lived, in a small early 19th century Swedish town during a time of considerable social change, and also how these migrants coped with their everyday lives. By following a small number of men throughout their lives in a family context, using mainly church registers, a group of ‘migrant men in misery’ has been qualitatively discerned. These men´s problems were found to peak in a phase of their lives when they lived in town with wives and children to support. The wives shared the tough life in town with their husbands but the overall impression still support a conclusion which put the spouses´ different gender roles´ in a stressful situation in focus, where a lack of social integration in town could be an additional factor.

  19. Early life origins of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  20. Family Income and Material Deprivation: Do They Matter for Sleep Quality and Quantity in Early Life? Evidence From a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetta, Marta; Ghislandi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire. Logistic regression models for the sleep problem dummies and log-linear models for the sleep quantity. One additional item in the material deprivation index is associated to an increase of around 10-20% in the odds of having at least 1 sleep problem. Similarly, children from the richest families are less likely to have any sleep problem up to 115 months (around 20% reduction in the odds). Mother's characteristics (i.e., education and mental health in the pregnancy period) are also significant predictors. Sleep quantity does not vary much and is not sensitive to socioeconomic factors. Exposure to income-related inequalities affects child sleep. Further research is needed to understand if sleep in early life influences future health and economic trajectories.

  1. Four Essays on Family Life Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    . In addition, the present thesis underlines the need for an improved understanding of the role of health and caregiving as fundamental aspects of family life, and in doing so allocates increased attention to how children’s characteristics are central to family-level outcomes. Just as the lives of family...... and institutional settings, and c) the significance of the interconnectedness of family life events across life domains and over time. Taken together the analyses included in the present thesis combine the need to understand conditions and consequences of contemporary family life with a renewed attention...... to the social mechanisms associated with social differentiation. One contribution of the present thesis is that it highlights the need for family research in general, and Danish family studies in particular, to pay greater theoretical and methodological attention to the dynamic nature of family life events...

  2. Jesus and cultural values: Family life as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Osiek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Family values' is a set of traditional images that most cultures collect, images drawn mostly from an idealized picture of family life in the recent past. For Christians, the popular image of Jesus gets included: the Holy Family as a nuclear family unit, Jesus blessing children, Jesus as advocate of traditional family life. A closer reading of both contemporary family life and the Gospels reveals that things are not what they seem. Contemporary family life in Western societies is structured quite differently than the ideal. Jesus' family life was spent in a peasant village surrounded by relatives and neighbors, with little privacy and strong social pressure towards conformity. The gospel records indicate that he did not conform, and paid the price: rejection and misunderstanding by his extended family. The Synoptic Gospels consistently ponray not only an estrangement between Jesus and his family, but Jesus' encouragement of his disciples to break family ties in favor of the surrogate family of the circle of disciples. In a culture in which kinship loyalty was essential, this  message caused deep problems for early Christians which the authors of the household codes of Ephesians, Colossians, the  Pastoral Epistles, and 1 Peter tried to alleviate.

  3. Four Essays on Family Life Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    As demographic and social trends continue to change the institution of the family, a need to reconsider the study family life events as they unfold over the life course has emerged. To advance current knowledge of social dynamics associated with this new complexity, the point of departure...... differentiation in family life events persists across institutional settings and over time. Specifically, from a life course perspective and by means of dynamic quantitative methods, three central themes are investigated: a) the importance of children’s characteristics, b) the need to link family contexts...... to the social mechanisms associated with social differentiation. One contribution of the present thesis is that it highlights the need for family research in general, and Danish family studies in particular, to pay greater theoretical and methodological attention to the dynamic nature of family life events...

  4. A Family Life Program Accountability Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Gebeke, Deb

    1994-01-01

    The Cooperative Extension Program Evaluation Survey tests seven variables: behavioral change, tax dollars, support, family coping, quality of life, self-esteem, and stress and depression. Tests in family life programs in two states with 244 participants demonstrated its usefulness. (SK)

  5. Prejudice, Mental Health and Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Nathan W.

    This pamphlet explores the relationship among prejudice, mental health, and family life. Prejudice is learned behavior, initially within the family unit which sets the framework for good or bad mental health as well as for the development of positive or negative attitudes. The family also determines the degree and kind of mental health of each…

  6. Family influences on the career life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Beauregard, T. Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines the myriad ways in which one’s family and personal life can impact an individual’s career. A review of some of the key research literature reveals that career choice is influenced by an individual’s values, attitudes, and expectations concerning how work should be balanced with the rest of life. Individuals are also susceptible to influence from their families of origin with regard to occupational choice and prioritizing work over family, or vice versa. Career opportunit...

  7. Forgotten family members: the importance of siblings in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; McGorry, Patrick; Howie, Linsey

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on the significance of sibling inclusion in family interventions and support during early psychosis. This narrative review presents the current research related to the importance of family work during early psychosis, the needs and developmental significance of siblings during adolescence and early adulthood, the protective effects of sibling relationships, and the characteristics of early psychosis relevant to the sibling experience. It will also review the evidence of the sibling experience in chronic physical illness and disability, as well as long-term psychotic illness. Despite the evidence that working with families is important during early psychosis, siblings have been largely ignored. Siblings are an important reciprocal relationship of long duration. They play an important role in development during adolescence and early adulthood. These relationships may be an underutilized protective factor due to their inherent benefits and social support. Developmental theories imply that early psychosis could negatively impact the sibling relationship and their quality of life, effecting personality development and health outcomes. The evidence shows that adolescent physical illness or disability has a significantly negative impact on the sibling's quality of life and increases the risk for the onset of mental health issues. Long-term psychotic illness also results in negative experiences for siblings. Current evidence shows that siblings in early psychosis experience psychological distress and changes in functional performance. Further research using standard measures is required to understand the impact early psychosis has on the sibling relationship and their quality of life. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Linking Families and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1985-01-01

    Discusses and uses a global human ecological system framework to analyze family needs in relation to early childhood education. Topics emphasized include family support systems, population trends, health care, employment patterns, and political systems. Suggestions for meeting these needs are addressed to early childhood educators. (DST)

  9. Family Mentoring: A Life Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Brenda; Perrin, Kathy Riske; Knudson-Buresh, Alana

    2002-01-01

    Pre/posttest data from 84 nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and social work students who were mentored by families of children with special needs indicated an increase in family-centered attitudes, understanding, and respect among these future service providers. (SK)

  10. 'She was a foster mother who said she didn't give cuddles': The adverse early foster care experiences of children who later struggle with adoptive family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakings, Sarah; Selwyn, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Foster care remains a valuable and safe intervention for many children unable to live with their birth family. When birth family reunification is not considered possible, a small proportion of children in foster care will go on to achieve permanency by way of adoption. This article reports on some unexpected findings to emerge from two national adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. Focussing on a subset of families who had experienced or were at risk of an adoption disruption, the findings revealed that not only did children carry elevated risks for disruption due to their older age at entry to care, multiple foster care placements and traumatic early histories, but once in care, many of the children whose placements had disrupted were considered by their adoptive parents to have had very poor, even harmful fostering experiences before being placed for adoption. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, together with the implications for social work practice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Early Life Influences Kidney Function at Age 63–64 Years, but So Does Adult Body Size: Results from the Newcastle Thousand Families Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephanie L.; Mann, Kay D.; Pearce, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is suggested that impaired fetal growth can affect kidney development, resulting in fewer glomeruli being formed and reduced kidney function later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate early life variables in relation to adult kidney function, and compare these to the influence of later life variables. Methods Detailed information was collected prospectively regarding 1,142 babies, born in 1947 in Newcastle upon Tyne. At the age of 63–64 years, 335 participants had serum creatinine successfully measured and completed a lifestyle questionnaire. These measurements were used to calculate their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results Body mass index (BMI) and being female were significantly negatively associated with eGFR. Birth weight was significantly positively associated with eGFR. In sex-specific analyses, BMI and cigarette smoking remained significant for males (n = 154), with a near significant association for birth weight, whereas none of the variables remained significant for females (n = 181). Conclusions The findings suggest that sex, size at birth and BMI may be important variables influencing adult kidney function. However, as only a small amount of variance in eGFR was explained by these variables, additional longitudinal studies would be beneficial for assessing lifecourse influences on kidney function. PMID:23785509

  12. Early life influences kidney function at age 63-64 years, but so does adult body size: results from the newcastle thousand families birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Harrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is suggested that impaired fetal growth can affect kidney development, resulting in fewer glomeruli being formed and reduced kidney function later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate early life variables in relation to adult kidney function, and compare these to the influence of later life variables. METHODS: Detailed information was collected prospectively regarding 1,142 babies, born in 1947 in Newcastle upon Tyne. At the age of 63-64 years, 335 participants had serum creatinine successfully measured and completed a lifestyle questionnaire. These measurements were used to calculate their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI and being female were significantly negatively associated with eGFR. Birth weight was significantly positively associated with eGFR. In sex-specific analyses, BMI and cigarette smoking remained significant for males (n = 154, with a near significant association for birth weight, whereas none of the variables remained significant for females (n = 181. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that sex, size at birth and BMI may be important variables influencing adult kidney function. However, as only a small amount of variance in eGFR was explained by these variables, additional longitudinal studies would be beneficial for assessing lifecourse influences on kidney function.

  13. "Connected Presence" in Distributed Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2009-01-01

    Concurrently with the recent years’ explosive pervasion of information- and communication technologies, mediated communication has gained a strong position in the daily interaction between family members. Based on the results of qualitative interviews with families in Denmark, this article shows...... also analyses families’ use of the mobile phone in context of modern family life, emphasizing the importance of the temporal and spatial dispersion of family members in explaining the form and content of intra-familial mediated communication. Finally, the dual role of media technologies (including...

  14. 'Connected presence' in distributed family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with the explosive pervasion of information and communication technologies in recent years, mediated communication has gained a strong position in the daily interaction between family members. Based on the results of qualitative interviews with families in Denmark, this article shows how......' use of the mobile phone in the context of modern family life, emphasizing the importance of the temporal and spatial dispersion of family members in explaining the form and content of intra-familial mediated communication. Finally, the dual role of media technologies (including the mobile phone...

  15. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages.

  16. End of Life: A Family Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen K. Black

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on ethnographic research that examines family reaction to an elderly husband and father's end of life. From a group of 30 families in our study (family defined as a widow aged 70 and over and two adult biological children between the ages of 40 and 60, we offer an extreme case example of family bereavement. We report our findings through the open-ended responses of a widow and two children who were interviewed ten months after the death of the husband and father. Three general themes emerged: (1 how the family imputes meaning to the end of life, (2 changes in the roles of family members, and (3 the family's ways of coping with the death, particularly through their belief system. A key finding is that the meaning family members find in their loved one's death is tied to the context of his death (how and where he died, their perception of his quality of life as a whole, and their philosophical, religious, and spiritual beliefs about life, death, and the afterlife that are already in place.

  17. National Convention on Family Life Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    This secretarial report gives brief comments on some discussion of topics at the National Convention on Family Life Education. Discussion included: 1) legalized prostitution as a means to reduce venereal disease; 2) family life education promotion by government and civic groups; 3) more authority for the Population Council; 4) more liberal abortion legislation than previously; 5) statutory notification of veneral disease by medical practitioners; 6) compensatory measures for working women with young children, and 7) the need for modernization of legislation pertaining to child health, adoption, paternity, the Persons Act, infant life preservation, drugs, age of consent, and the age of minority.

  18. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary dat...

  19. Early-Life Adversity Interacts with FKBP5 Genotypes: Altered Working Memory and Cardiac Stress Reactivity in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, William R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Vincent, Andrea S; Goldman, David

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods of development can have adverse effects on adult health behaviors, and genetic vulnerabilities may enhance these stress effects. We carried out an exploratory examination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of 252 healthy young adults for the impact of early-life adversity (ELA) in relation to the G-to-A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9296158, of the FKBP5 gene. FKBP5 is a molecular cochaperone that contributes to the functional status of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and to the quality of corticosteroid signaling. FKBP5 expression is upregulated by cortisol exposure during stressful episodes, with greater upregulation seen in A-allele carriers. As such, FKBP5 expression and GR function may be environmentally sensitive in A-allele carriers and therefore suitable for the study of gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Compared with FKBP5, GG homozygotes (N=118), A-allele carriers (N = 132) without psychiatric morbidity had progressively worse performance on the Stroop color-word task with increasing levels of ELA exposure (Genotype × ELA, F=5.14, P=0.007), indicating a G × E interaction on working memory in early adulthood. In addition, heart rate response to mental stress was diminished overall in AA/AG-allele carriers (F=5.15, P=0.024). Diminished working memory and attenuated autonomic responses to stress are both associated with risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. The present data suggest that FKBP5 in the GR pathway may be a point of vulnerability to ELA, as seen in this group of non-traumatized young adults. FKBP5 is accordingly a potential target for more extensive studies of the impact of ELA on health and health behaviors in adulthood.

  20. Early life factors and adult mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Berg, van den S.W.; Peeters, P.H.; Gils, van C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In

  1. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  2. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Addabbo

    Full Text Available The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand and/or an object (spoon. In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts.

  3. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Family life in transition – a longitudinal study of family life in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan; Dencik, Lars; Andersen, Hans H. K.

    This paper is an outline of the background for the study and it’s methodological and theoretical framework. The study, Family Forms and Cohabitation in the Modern Welfare State (FAMOSTAT), was originally funded by the National Danish Research Council for the Human Sciences. Its focus is on the tr...... questionnaire (IFUSOFF) was adopted to the web-format (IFUSOFF II), adding more questions on the work-life/family-life balance....... is on the transformations of family life as a consequence of societal modernization in Denmark. The project was informed by Dencik’s (1996) social psychological perspective on family life, arguing that the impact of modernization should be studied through empirical investigations of everyday family life. Following Asplund...

  5. The Child's Eye View of Family Life: A Report to Respondents in a Study Conducted in Victoria in Late 1982 and Early 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Amato, Paul

    Marriage and the family traditionally have been structured around the key functions of the nurturing and socialization of children. This report looks closely at how effectively and competently various family types manage these tasks. Containing a brief overview of the "Australian Children in Families Study," this report concentrates on…

  6. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ...

  7. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  8. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf

    2013-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  9. Called home: The creation of family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, R A

    1992-09-01

    Engendering family life is a spiritual process (theosis) based on human ethological constants of gender difference and generational turnover. Recent studies on ethnicity suggest that such a process retrieves a primordial sense of the human species as a whole, "humankind." Families, especially in this broad sense, link together the living and the dead and, at their best, morally empower individuals who link their destinies to such a vision of creation and human health. Reference is made to work on human strengths and speciation by Erik Erikson and to that on maternal thinking by Sara Ruddick. A political program by which an ideology of "familism" can be made is offered.

  10. Reconceptualizing the Domain and Boundaries of Family Life Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers-Walls, Judith A.; Ballard, Sharon M.; Darling, Carol Anderson; Myers-Bowman, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    Many scholars have defined family life education (FLE), and some have differentiated it from other family-related fields. For example, Doherty (1995) provided a definition of the boundaries between FLE and family therapy; however, we believe those criteria can be improved. We explore the professions of family life education, family therapy, and…

  11. Linking Family Life and Health Professionals, Volunteers, and Family Life Students in a Community Hospice Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit, Dorothy

    This paper describes the Portage County, Ohio community hospice program, emphasizing the linkages between family life specialists, health professionals, volunteers, and students. Hospice service is defined as a specialized, home-based program for the management of pain and other symptoms of terminal illness, with the family as the unit of care.…

  12. Quality of life and consequences for daily life of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, K.F.L.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Gundy, C.M.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Aim  The study aimed to document the impact of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and several practical aspects of daily life and to identify factors associated significantly with HRQOL. This study is the first to compare HRQOL between FAP-patients, at-ris

  13. Quality of life and consequences for daily life of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, K.F.L.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Gundy, C.M.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to document the impact of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and several practical aspects of daily life, and to identify factors significantly associated with HRQOL. This study is the first to compare HRQOL between patients with FAP, at-ri

  14. Early life and mineral resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The recent breathtaking advances in the field of radio astronomy have made it increasingly clear that the beginnings of organic chemistry are to be found in interstellar space. From there, an impressive array of molecules have been discovered which have been shown to act as intermediates in the prebiotic synthesis of organic matter. These findings certainly tend to blur the arbitrary limit often drawn between the living and the non-living realms. The authors may, therefore, reasonably assume that life arose at a certain stage of either cosmic or planetary evolution as an intrinsically new property of matter. IGCP Project 157, launched in 1977, has been devoted to interdisciplinary research of those blurred areas where evolutionary biology, organic chemistry and economic geology seem to blend or overlap. This article summarizes the project's main findings to date, and shows how a community of 120 scientists from 19 countries have worked together to help unravel the mystery of life's origins on our planet. 6 references, 5 figures.

  15. Early life development in a multiethnic sample and the relation to late life cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Rebecca J; Brewster, Paul; Marquine, María J; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Reed, Bruce; Farias, Sarah T; Mungas, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Poor quality of early life conditions has been associated with poorer late life cognition and increased risk of dementia. Early life physical development can be captured using adult measures of height and head circumference. Availability of resources may be reflected by socioeconomic indicators, such as parental education and family size. We sought to determine the association between early life development and experience and late life semantic memory, episodic memory, and executive functioning abilities, as well as rate of cognitive decline. This study was conducted using the UC Davis Aging Diversity cohort, an ethnically diverse sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic individuals from northern California. We used latent variable modeling to measure growth and childhood socioeconomic environment (SES) and examine their associations with longitudinal cognitive outcomes using mixed effects modeling. Growth was positively related to higher childhood SES. Higher childhood SES was associated with better semantic memory. Both low growth and low SES were associated with increased rate of cognitive decline. These findings demonstrate that early life experiences influence the trajectory of cognitive aging. Early life development and experience appears to provide a distal basis upon which additional risk and protective factors interact in the development of dementia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  16. Changes in modern family life and the transformation of the family and family life in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milivojević, Snežana M.

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework of this topic can be built on an analysis of the following issues: developmental changes in the family; the transformation of the function of a modern family; changes in the structure of families and relationships among its members; the transition model of marriage and parenting; the impact of social, economic, and demographic factors on the transformation of the family. Review of the prospects for the future development of the family points out the changes in marria...

  17. Jesus and cultural values: Family life as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Osiek

    1997-01-01

    'Family values' is a set of traditional images that most cultures collect, images drawn mostly from an idealized picture of family life in the recent past. For Christians, the popular image of Jesus gets included: the Holy Family as a nuclear family unit, Jesus blessing children, Jesus as advocate of traditional family life. A closer reading of both contemporary family life and the Gospels reveals that things are not what they seem. Contemporary family life in Western societies is structured ...

  18. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  19. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  20. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  1. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  2. Parental and child genetic contributions to obesity traits in early life based on 83 loci validated in adults: the FAMILY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A; Robiou-du-Pont, S; Anand, S S; Morrison, K M; McDonald, S D; Atkinson, S A; Teo, K K; Meyre, D

    2016-12-23

    The genetic influence on child obesity has not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the parental and child contributions of 83 adult body mass index (BMI)-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to obesity-related traits in children from birth to 5 years old. A total of 1402 individuals were genotyped for 83 SNPs. An unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) was generated by the sum of BMI-increasing alleles. Repeated weight and length/height were measured at birth, 1, 2, 3 and 5 years of age, and age-specific and sex-specific weight and BMI Z-scores were computed. The GRS was significantly associated with birthweight Z-score (P = 0.03). It was also associated with weight/BMI Z-score gain between birth and 5 years old (P = 0.02 and 6.77 × 10(-3) , respectively). In longitudinal analyses, the GRS was associated with weight and BMI Z-score from birth to 5 years (P = 5.91 × 10(-3) and 5.08 × 10(-3) , respectively). The maternal effects of rs3736485 in DMXL2 on weight and BMI variation from birth to 5 years were significantly greater compared with the paternal effects by Z test (P = 1.53 × 10(-6) and 3.75 × 10(-5) , respectively). SNPs contributing to adult BMI exert their effect at birth and in early childhood. Parent-of-origin effects may occur in a limited subset of obesity predisposing SNPs. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Family survivorship and quality of life following a cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, S; Northouse, L L

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine the quality of life of the family as a unit during the long-term survivor phase of illness and (b) to test a family model of factors that may influence family quality of life. The family survivorship model, which includes illness survival stressors (family stressors, fear of recurrence, and patient somatic concerns), resources (family hardiness and family social support), appraisal (family meaning of the illness), and the outcome, family quality of life, was used to guide this exploratory cross-sectional study. A random, stratified sample of 123 families (N = 246 individuals) was interviewed 1-5 years after treatment ended. The model explained 63% of the variance in family quality of life, with the strongest predictors being concurrent family stressors, family social support, family member fear of recurrence, family meaning of the illness, and patient employment status. The study findings suggest the importance of addressing cancer-related stressors, family resources, and family meaning as key factors related to family quality of life.

  4. Communication with Family and Friends across the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Kertesz, Janos; Rotkirch, Anna; Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Monsivais, Daniel; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    Each stage of the human life course is characterised by a distinctive pattern of social relations. We study how the intensity and importance of the closest social contacts vary across the life course, using a large database of mobile communication from a European country. We first determine the most likely social relationship type from these mobile phone records by relating the age and gender of the caller and recipient to the frequency, length, and direction of calls. We then show how communication patterns between parents and children, romantic partner, and friends vary across the six main stages of the adult family life course. Young adulthood is dominated by a gradual shift of call activity from parents to close friends, and then to a romantic partner, culminating in the period of early family formation during which the focus is on the romantic partner. During middle adulthood call patterns suggest a high dependence on the parents of the ego, who, presumably often provide alloparental care, while at this stage female same-gender friendship also peaks. During post-reproductive adulthood, individuals and especially women balance close social contacts among three generations. The age of grandparenthood brings the children entering adulthood and family formation into the focus, and is associated with a realignment of close social contacts especially among women, while the old age is dominated by dependence on their children. PMID:27893748

  5. Communication with Family and Friends across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Kertesz, Janos; Rotkirch, Anna; Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Monsivais, Daniel; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    Each stage of the human life course is characterised by a distinctive pattern of social relations. We study how the intensity and importance of the closest social contacts vary across the life course, using a large database of mobile communication from a European country. We first determine the most likely social relationship type from these mobile phone records by relating the age and gender of the caller and recipient to the frequency, length, and direction of calls. We then show how communication patterns between parents and children, romantic partner, and friends vary across the six main stages of the adult family life course. Young adulthood is dominated by a gradual shift of call activity from parents to close friends, and then to a romantic partner, culminating in the period of early family formation during which the focus is on the romantic partner. During middle adulthood call patterns suggest a high dependence on the parents of the ego, who, presumably often provide alloparental care, while at this stage female same-gender friendship also peaks. During post-reproductive adulthood, individuals and especially women balance close social contacts among three generations. The age of grandparenthood brings the children entering adulthood and family formation into the focus, and is associated with a realignment of close social contacts especially among women, while the old age is dominated by dependence on their children.

  6. Governing multicultural populations and family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suki

    2014-03-01

    Shortly after coming to power in Britain, the Conservative-Liberal Democratic alliance placed family life at the heart of their political agenda, and set out their plans to reform adoption. The paper draws upon debates about the reforms and considers them in articulation with concerns about health of the nation expressed in political pronouncements on 'broken Britain' and the failures of 'state multiculturalism'. The paper considers the debates about domestic (transracial) and intercountry adoption, and uses feminist postcolonial perspectives to argue that we can only understand what are expressed as national issues within a transnational and postcolonial framework which illuminate the processes of state and institutional race-making. The paper analyses three key instances of biopower and governmentality in the adoption debates: the population, the normalizing family and the individual. The paper argues that we need to understand the reforms as part of a wider concern with the 'problem' of multicultural belonging, and that the interlocking discourses of nation, family and identities are crucial to the constitution and regulation of gendered, racialized subjects.

  7. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...

  8. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  9. Professionalization of Family Life Education: Defining the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Carol A.; Fleming, Wm. Michael; Cassidy, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    An online professional practice analysis of family life educators was conducted resulting in responses from 522 Certified Family Life Educators (CFLEs) and a comparison group of 369 noncertified family practitioners. This survey included questions about the characteristics of CFLEs, their work environments, and practice-related tasks within 10…

  10. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  11. The life-cycle squeeze: The interaction of men's occupational and family life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, V K

    1974-05-01

    This paper is concerned with analyzing one structural source of pressure for wives to contribute to family income. This is the "life-cycle squeeze"-the situation where a man's resources are inadequate to meet the needs engendered by the number and ages of his children. Studies of how economic needs vary by family life-cycle stage indicate that one high point of need occurs when men are in their forties and early fifties. However, 1960 Census data on earnings patterns by age indicate that in only relatively high-level professional, managerial and sales occupations do average earnings peak at the same time family income needs are peaking. For most blue-collar and many medium- and low-level white collar occupations, median earnings are highest for younger men, and men at an age when family costs are at their maximum are earning somewhat less, on the average. As a consequence, the families of such men run the risk of a deterioration in their level of living unless an additional income is brought into the household.

  12. Early Life Adversity, Genomic Plasticity, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Jackowski, Andrea; Kaufman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. The aim of this paper is to review emerging data on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future avenues of investigation. Epigenetic processes are described, key findings in the field presented, clinical implications of the research discussed, methodological issues, and future avenues of research considered. Research suggests that adverse early experiences can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that can alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behavior. While these changes are frequently long lasting, they can be reversed through pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate epigenetic marks other than methylcytosine, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with early-life adversity. PMID:26361201

  13. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rainer R.

    2009-05-01

    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  14. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  15. Communication with family and friends across the life course

    CERN Document Server

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Rotkirch, Anna; Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Monsivais, Daniel; Kaski, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Each stage of the human life course is characterized by a distinctive pattern of social relations. We study how the intensity and importance of the closest social contacts vary across the life course, using a large database of mobile communication from a European country. We first determine the most likely social relationship type from these mobile phone records by relating the age and gender of the caller and recipient to the frequency, length, and direction of calls. We then show how communication patterns between parents and children, romantic partner, and friends vary across the six main stages of the adult family life course. Young adulthood is dominated by a gradual shift of call activity from parents to close friends, and then to a romantic partner, culminating in the period of early family formation during which the focus is on the romantic partner. During middle adulthood call patterns suggest a high dependence on the parents of the ego, who, presumably often provide alloparental care, while at this ...

  16. Stressors and Enhancers in the Marital/Family Life of Family Professionals and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Stephen F.; Goddard, H. Wallace

    1993-01-01

    Assessed how work as family professional is uniquely enhancing and stressful and whether enhancers and stressors are correlated with marital and family quality. Findings from 59 family professionals and their spouses strengthen idea that there are marital and family life enhancers and stressors uniquely associated with work as family professional.…

  17. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  18. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  19. Insights on Caring for Early Childhood Professionals and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James

    2007-01-01

    Caring is the core value that empowers families and early childhood professionals. This article articulates the meaning and power of caring in the lives of children and families. It also explores family, professional, and community strategies for creating caring and nurturing children and families. In particular, insights that show that caring is…

  20. Early Family Deaths May Create 'Grief Gap' for Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163190.html Early Family Deaths May Create 'Grief Gap' for Blacks Compared ... Americans, the researchers found that death strikes black families significantly earlier than whites on average. "Blacks were ...

  1. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  2. Developing Online Family Life Prevention and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert, Jr.; Bowers, Jill R.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Curtiss, Sarah; Ebata, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis…

  3. Family Life Program Accountability Norms: How Do Your Results Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Participants in cooperative extension family life programs (N=916) identified family strains, coping, quality of life, self-esteem, stress, and willingness to support extension services with tax dollars. The resulting normative data can be used to measure the impact of cooperative extension programs. (SK)

  4. Family Life Education Needs of Mentally Disabled Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jerelyn B.; Adams, Donna U.

    1987-01-01

    Administered 50 needs statements to 134 minimally and mildly mentally disabled adolescent students to identify their family life education needs as a basis for curriculum development. Identified six clusters or groups of family life education needs: Basic Nutrition, Teenage Pregnancy, Sex Education, Developmental Tasks of Adolescents, Marriage and…

  5. Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160885.html Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life Also increases chances of having end-of-life ... incurable cancer helps patients cope and improves their quality of life, a new study shows. It also leads to ...

  6. Levity and Learning: Lessons from Life in a Family and Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladding, Samuel T.

    2002-01-01

    In humorous moments, family counselors and families often learn a lot about themselves and their relationships. This article focuses on the importance of levity and learning within family life and family counseling through the use of a series of vignettes drawn from the author's own experiences. (Author)

  7. Global Family Concerns and the Role of Family Life Education: An Ecosystemic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Carol A.; Turkki, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed colleagues from 4 international professional organizations involved with families in order to examine global family concerns and the role of family life education from an ecosystemic perspective. Our sample represented 6 continents and 50 countries. Survey results indicated that family education and related coursework were available in…

  8. Exceptional memory performance in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann;

    2013-01-01

    Research to understand variability at the highest end of the cognitive performance distribution has been scarce. Our aim was to define a cognitive endophenotype based on exceptional episodic memory (EM) performance and to investigate familial aggregation of EM in families from the Long Life Family...

  9. The Role of Companion Animals throughout the Family Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the roles that companion animals play in the lives of American families, and discusses how those roles change as families progress through the stages of the family life cycle. It highlights the importance of pets in the lives of children and the benefits they receive from such relationships. It also presents information…

  10. The Family Adaptation Model: A Life Course Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    families may vary in their values toward work, family, and community life (Bowen & Janofsky, 1988; Langman , 1987; Wilkinson, 1937). This recognition...1044. Langman , L. (1987). Social stratification. In M. B. Sussman & S. K. Steinmetz (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and the family (pp. 211-249). New York

  11. The Marital/Family Life of the Family Theapist: Stressors and Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchler, Joseph L.; Piercy, Fred P.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses possible stressors and enhancers of marital and family life for the family therapist. The results are examined in terms of respondents' gender, work setting, theoretical orientation, number of hours worked, income, age, and marital status. (Author/BL)

  12. Preparation for Family Life. The CCC's Project No. 1: "Preparation for Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Klaus

    Part of the Council of Europe's Project Number 1, "Preparation for Life," this report analyzes developments in Austria, Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, and England in the area of preparation for family life. Specifically, the report (1) explains the growing concern in the above countries for the preparation for family life; (2)…

  13. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  14. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  15. Early Childhood Service Delivery for Families Living with Childhood Disability: Disabling Families through Problematic Implicit Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to unpack the implicit ideology underpinning early childhood service delivery for families living with childhood disability. The family as the unit of care is central to the philosophy and practice of early childhood services. However, the practice of family-centred care can be problematic; it is based upon neo-liberal…

  16. End-of-life family conferences: rooted in the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautrette, Alexandre; Ciroldi, Magali; Ksibi, Hichem; Azoulay, Elie

    2006-11-01

    Critical care clinicians no longer consider family members as visitors in the intensive care unit. Family-centered care has emerged from the results of qualitative and quantitative studies evaluating the specific needs of families of patients dying in the intensive care unit. In addition, interventional studies have established that intensive and proactive communication empowers family members of dying patients, helping them to share in discussions and decisions, if they so wish. In addition to intensive communication, interventional studies have highlighted the role of nurses, social workers, and palliative care teams in reducing family burden, avoiding futile life-sustaining therapies, and providing effective comfort care. End-of-life family conferences are formal, structured meetings between intensivists and family members. Guidelines for organizing these conferences take into account the specific needs of families, including reassurance that the patient's symptoms will be adequately managed; honest clear information about the patient's condition and treatment; a willingness on the part of physicians to listen and respond to family members and to address their emotions; attention to patient preferences; clear explanations about surrogate decision making; and continuous, compassionate, and technically proficient attention to the patient's needs until death occurs. Means of improving end-of-life care have been identified in epidemiologic and interventional studies. End-of-life family conferences constitute the keystone around which excellent end-of-life care can be built.

  17. Immunity to RSV in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eLambert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the commonest cause of severe respiratory infection in infants, leading to over 3 million hospitalisations and around 66 000 deaths worldwide each year. RSV bronchiolitis predominantly strikes apparently healthy infants, with age as the principal risk factor for severe disease. The differences in the immune response to RSV in the very young are likely to be key to determining the clinical outcome of this common infection. Remarkable age-related differences in innate cytokine responses follow recognition of RSV by numerous pattern recognition receptors, and the importance of this early response is supported by polymorphisms in many early innate genes which associate with bronchiolitis. In the absence of strong, Th1 polarising signals, infants develop T cell responses that can be biased away from protective Th1 and cytotoxic T cell immunity towards dysregulated, Th2 and Th17 polarisation. This may contribute not only to the initial inflammation in bronchiolitis, but also to the long-term increased risk of developing wheeze and asthma later in life. An early-life vaccine for RSV will need to overcome the difficulties of generating a protective response in infants, and the proven risks associated with generating an inappropriate response. Infantile T follicular helper (Tfh and B cell responses are immature, but maternal antibodies can afford some protection. Thus, maternal vaccination is a promising alternative approach. However, even in adults adaptive immunity following natural infection is poorly protective, allowing re-infection even with the same strain of RSV, giving us few clues as to how effective vaccination could be achieved. Challenges remain in understanding how respiratory immunity matures with age, and the external factors influencing its development. Determining why some infants develop bronchiolitis should lead to new therapies to lessen the clinical impact of RSV and aid the rational design of

  18. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  19. Family History - An Early Warning for Your Child

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-14

    Collecting family history information could save your child's life. Listen to learn more about how knowing your family history information could benefit your entire family.  Created: 11/14/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  20. Perception of Early Intervention Family Outcome: Inside Chinese-American Families Having Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Fang Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether Chinese-American Families having a child with disabilities experience different needs and expected early intervention family outcomes from families from the mainstream culture. The Researcher used different qualitative research techniques to examine Chinese-American Families who have children with…

  1. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Epstein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.  Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey.  Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided.             Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions

  2. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants....

  3. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  4. Chronic illness and family: impact of schizophrenia and Crohn's disease on the family quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loga, Slobodan; Sošić, Bojan; Kulenović, Alma Džubur; Svraka, Emira; Bosankić, Nina; Kučukalić, Abdulah; Cemalović, Omer; Hadžić, Alma

    2012-12-01

    Quality of life assessments are increasingly present in health research. Chronic and progressive illness of a family member unavoidably affects quality of life of a family as a whole. The goals of this study were to gain insight into the family burden of chronic disorders, especially possible differences in family quality of life (FQOL) in families that have members suffering from either schizophrenia or Crohn's disease, and families in which none of the members have chronic somatic or mental illness, as well as to pilot an instrument for this purpose. The sample consisted of 53 families with a member suffering from schizophrenia, 50 families with a member suffering from Crohn's disease, and 45 families with no identifiable chronic illnesses. An informant from each family underwent a structured face to face interview, using a questionnaire specially adapted from Family Quality of Life Survey, an instrument widely used to assess FQOL in families with members with disabilities, and which addresses nine areas of family life. In the domain of health, both groups of families with chronic illnesses believe they have significantly different conditions when compared to members of the Control group. In the Crohn's disease group, families had a great deal more of challenges in accessing healthcare services; and see themselves at a disadvantage when compared to both other groups in the domain of finances. Control group offered lowest rating in the domain of support from others. Overall measures of FQOL show significant variation among the three groups, Crohn's disease group offering lowest ratings, followed by families of mental health service users. Overall, FQOL seems to be lower in families that have members diagnosed with Crohn's disease than in families with members suffering from schizophrenia. Illness-specific studies are required, as well as instruments with stronger psychometric properties and studies of determinants of FQOL. Qualitative approach should be emphasised

  5. Young Pioneers: Cohabitation and Family Life Pathways in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using a life course perspective, I examine cohabitation in a cohort of Danish women and menborn in 1954, whom formed families as cohabitation became normative in the Danish context. Inaddition, this cohort was among the first cohorts to come of age in a well-established Danishwelfare state, which...... logistic regression and latent class clusteranalysis to examine the likelihood of ever forming a cohabiting union, to situate cohabitation inthe larger context of family life pathways, and to explore social circumstances as well aspersonal aspirations as determinants of the identified family life pathways...

  6. Work and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Early Retirement in Married Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Bettina; Korunka, Christian; Hoonakker, Peter; Raymo, James M

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an integrative model of early retirement using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The model extends prior work by incorporating work-family conflict to capture the interaction between the work and family domains and by assuming proximal and distal predictors of early retirement. More precisely, the model suggests that family and job demands and resources predict family-to-work and work-to-family conflict, respectively. All of these factors are presumed to have only indirect effects on retirement timing via the intervening effect of quality of life measures, that is, marital satisfaction, job satisfaction and health. The authors assume that these three factors constitute predictors of early retirement in addition to socioeconomic status and the availability of a pension plan and health insurance. The model was tested with structural equation modeling techniques, and the results were supportive. Therefore, the proposed model offers a general framework for the integration of previous research findings.

  7. Vocational Home and Family Life Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy L.

    1978-01-01

    Parents and prospective parents need to learn more about child growth and development and the family's role in furthering that development; experience-based child development programs are helping to do this for many young people today. (MM)

  8. Family Quality of Life of South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, Liezl; Dada, Shakila; Samuels, Alecia E.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the family quality of life among families who are raising a young child with autism spectrum disorder. Survey research was conducted with 180 families of children with autism spectrum disorder who were receiving disability-related services in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The principle measure used was the Beach…

  9. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  10. Satisfaction With Life, Coping, and Spirituality Among Urban Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Benjamin; Courtney, Malachi; Jasien, Joan

    2015-10-01

    Urban families face many challenges that affect life satisfaction, including low income, limited access to resources, and unstable neighborhoods. To investigate life satisfaction and identify potential mediators: neighborhood stability, emotional coping strategies, religion, and spirituality. A convenience sample of families presenting to an urban primary care clinic for routine care filled out an anonymous, voluntary survey that included demographic data, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Spiritual Inventory and Beliefs Scale, and an emotional coping inventory. 127 individuals filled out the survey. Life satisfaction was high (21.3 ± 9). Families in the lowest quartile of the SWLS were 4.5 times as likely to have a child with a chronic medical illness. SWLS correlated with strategy planning (r = 0.24, P life satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Accommodating family life: mentoring future female faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-03-01

    The demands of family life are crucial factors in successfully retaining women in science. Retention efforts should focus on creating a family-friendly environment within the laboratory and the institute. Based on my own experiences, I suggest ways to attract top young scientists and support their development into leading researchers.

  12. Life Journey through Autism: A Guide for Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Katie C.; Clemens, Erin M.; Gilbert, Marilyn; McBreen, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Autism presents parents and families with many challenges under normal circumstances. Autism in a military family magnifies many of those challenges and adds a few more that are unique to the demands of military life and service, further complicating an already complex neurobiological disorder. Military sources indicate that more than 13,000…

  13. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: the role of demands and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W; van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work-family interface. The basic proposition is that life stages partly determine career development, and consequently the specific working conditions (job demands and job resources) and family conditions (family demands and family resources) that individuals are exposed to. As a result, the specific demands and resources in the work and family domains determine to what extent individuals experience that work and family are conflicting or enriching life domains. In this review we suggest that individuals in early adulthood will experience high inter-role conflict and low facilitation due to high demands and low resources in both life domains, while individuals in late adulthood will experience the opposite pattern; that is, low conflict and high facilitation due to low demands and high resources in both domains. Individuals in middle adulthood will experience high work-family conflict but also high family-work facilitation due to the presence of high job demands and resources in both life domains. Integrating life and career stage perspectives and the experience of work-family interface is of notable practical utility because it provides a mechanism to make more informed decisions about the relative need for and corresponding benefits of work-family programs.

  14. Online discussions mirroring family life during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirkko Kouri

    2006-03-01

    Conclusions Today, the relationship between clients and professionals is inevitably changing. More online services and advocacy are needed if families are to have access to online health services. The role of professionals is diversifying from being authorities to supporting and facilitating clients' individual self-care. Based on direct client feedback, the quality of maternity care can be improved.

  15. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family…

  16. New Strategies for Improving Rural Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.

    Presented in capsule form for the convenience of busy policy makers, planners, and program managers, this booklet summarizes major findings of a three-year study on practical aspects of rural development, with particular emphasis on ways of alleviating extreme poverty among disadvantaged rural families. Using case studies from Bangladesh, India,…

  17. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  18. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  19. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  20. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 families in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhu, Folorunsho Tajudeen; Eseigbe, Edwin Ehi; Issa, Baba Awoye; Gomina, Michael Omeiza

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are subpopulations for genetic studies. We present 2 families with heavy genetic loading who have adolescents with schizophrenia.

  2. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 families in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Folorunsho Tajudeen; Eseigbe, Edwin Ehi; Issa, Baba Awoye; Gomina, Michael Omeiza

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are subpopulations for genetic studies. We present 2 families with heavy genetic loading who have adolescents with schizophrenia.

  3. THE PROFESSIONAL ROLE OF TEACHER OF EDUCATION FOR FAMILY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zellma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of education for family life take all sorts of forms of professional activity in school. The activities are an important component of teachers’ professional role. They arise, among others, from applicable laws, professional obligations, curriculum assumptions in particular types of schools and social expectations. However, personal characteristics as well as professional qualifications and competence are of great importance. These factors determine the quality of professional activity of the teacher of education for family life. By analyzing the issue mentioned in the title of this thesis, attention was drawn to the rights and obligations of teachers of education for life in the family that relate to teaching, upbringing, prevention and care. Reference is made at the same time to the existing educational documents and curriculum assumptions. This made it possible to indicate what the proper fulfillment of teaching, educational-preventive and caring tasks of the teacher of education for life in the family depends on. It has been proved that regardless of the changes taking place in the socio-cultural realities, the needs and interests of students and the expectations of parents, teachers of education for life in the family is required to take fair and responsible participation in the issues relating to marriage and family. He also has to support his students in the integral development and shape social and moral attitudes based on universal moral and social values.

  4. Family sense of coherence and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Ngu, Siew-Fei

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between family sense of coherence, social support, stress, quality of life and depressive symptoms among Chinese pregnant women. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 267 Chinese pregnant women was recruited at the antenatal clinic and completed the Family Sense of Coherence Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Medical Outcome Study Short Form 12-Item Health Survey and General Health Questionnaire. Path analysis was employed. Family sense of coherence and social support had a direct impact on the mental health component of quality of life and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Family sense of coherence also mediated the effect of stress on quality of life and depressive symptoms. The study provides evidence that family sense of coherence and social support play a significant role in promoting quality of life and reducing depressive symptoms during the transition to motherhood. Culturally competent healthcare should be developed to strengthen women's family sense of coherence and foster social support to combat the stress of new motherhood, thereby promoting quality of life during that period of their lives.

  5. Expressed attitudes of adolescents toward marriage and family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paige D; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2003-01-01

    In the U.S., modifications in family structure and in attitudes concerning marriage and family life have been numerous. Areas such as sexual behavior and alternative living arrangements have become highly varied and nontraditional compared to past generations. This study examined the attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority of adolescents expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While only about a third of the adolescents expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage in sexual intercourse before marriage, or already have. Interestingly, about half of the adolescents held positive attitudes toward cohabitation. Lastly, the adolescents demonstrated a growing acceptance of premarital counseling and psychoeducational interventions regarding marriage and family life.

  6. Family quality of life of Chinese families of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Wang, M; Fei, X

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of quality of life and family quality of life (FQOL) are increasingly being studied in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) in China as important frameworks for: (1) assessing families' need for supports and services; (2) guiding organisational and service delivery system changes; and (3) evaluating quality family outcomes. The present study focused on exploring the perceptions of Chinese families who have a child with an ID regarding FQOL as well as examining the factor structure of FQOL concept from Chinese families. The Chinese version of the Family Quality of Life Scale was used to survey Chinese families living in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing who have a child with ID. A total of 442 families participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the factor structure of FQOL. Multivariate analysis was also used to examine group differences among families in terms of family demographic variables. A five-factor structure of the FQOL construct was found in the Chinese sample, suggesting a similar factor structure found from US families in the literature. Different living conditions (e.g. housing and transportation) tended to affect significantly families' satisfaction ratings of their FQOL. It is also found that family income and severity of disability of the child are predictors of families' satisfaction ratings of FQOL. The preliminary findings of this study suggest a cross-cultural factor structure comparability of FQOL between samples in the USA and China. Results call for further examination of the family-centred service and support as a mediator on the interactive relationship between family characteristics, family needs and FQOL outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  8. Family Life Quality and Emotional Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Lee, T. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 2758) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting quality and parent-child relational quality) and emotional quality of life (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Parenting quality included different aspects of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge,…

  9. Family Life Quality and Emotional Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Lee, T. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 2758) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting quality and parent-child relational quality) and emotional quality of life (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Parenting quality included different aspects of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge,…

  10. The timing of family commitments in the early work career: Work-family trajectories of young adults in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Koelet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article examines the diverse ways in which young adults develop both their professional career and family life in the years immediately after they complete their education. Building a career and starting a family often occur simultaneously in this stage of life. By studying the simultaneous developments in these life domains, we can gain a better understanding of this complex interplay. Methods: The data consist of a sample of 1,657 young adults born in 1976 who were interviewed as part of the SONAR survey of Flanders at ages 23, 26, and 29 about their education, their entry into and early years on the labour market, and their family life. Sequence analysis is used to study the timing of union formation and having children among these young adults, as well as how these events are related to their work career. Multinomial regression analysis is applied to help us gain a better understanding of the extent to which these life course patterns are determined by education and economic status at the start of the career. Results: The results reveal a set of work-family trajectories which vary in terms of the extent of labour market participation and the type and timing of family formation. Various aspects of the trajectory are found to be determined by different dimensions of an individual's educational career (duration, level, field of study. Education is more relevant for women than for men, as a man's trajectory is more likely than a woman's to be determined by the first job. Conclusions: By using a simultaneous approach which takes into account both family and work, this life course analysis confirms that men have a head start on the labour market, and examines the factors which influence the distinct trajectories of young women and men.

  11. Biodemography of exceptional longevity: early-life and mid-life predictors of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States between 1890 and 1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies, and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (aged less than 25 years) had significantly higher chances of living to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33-3.11, p = .001). Paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 years and beyond differ in physical characteristics at a young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men who were born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the U.S. Social Security Administration database and linked to U.S. World War I civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls who were matched by calendar year of birth, race, and place of draft registration in 1917. Results showed a negative association between "stout" body build (being in the heaviest 15 percent of the population) and survival to age 100. Having the occupation of "farmer" and a large number of children (4 or more) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. The results of both studies demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity.

  12. Striking a Balance: Families, Work, and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Paul; And Others

    This study examines the connections between work, families, and early childhood education, and analyzes international trends and perspectives on parental leave. Chapter 1, "Introduction," shows that the increase in paid work by mothers makes families, work, and education important research and policy issues, and surveys reasons for this…

  13. Families' First Experiences with Early Intervention: National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study. NEILS Data Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Don; Scarborough, Anita; Hebbeler, Kathleen

    This report describes several aspects of families' experiences in beginning early intervention services using data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS). Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, NEILS is following a nationally representative sample of 3,338 infants and toddlers and their families from the time they…

  14. FAMILY CONFLICT MODERATES EARLY PARENT-CHILD BEHAVIORAL TRANSACTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Katherine W; Barnett, Melissa A; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Mortensen, Jennifer A

    2017-09-01

    The reciprocal transactions that shape early parent-child relationships are influenced by contextual stress, such as family conflict. Although family conflict is a salient stressor to the family system, few studies have considered how parent-child transactions vary according to exposure to family conflict. The present study examined how family conflict alters early parent-child behavioral transactions. We utilized three waves of data from a multisite longitudinal study of low-income families (N = 2, 876), child age 14 months, 24 months, and 36 months, to identify behavioral transactions of positive and negative maternal (supportiveness, negative regard) and child (engagement, negativity) behaviors. Results indicated that family conflict at 14 months diminished the positive association between maternal supportiveness and child engagement, and amplified the inverse association between maternal negativity and child engagement. Family conflict at 14 months also was associated with increased stability of child negativity and subsequent increased maternal negative regard at 36 months, in part via increases in 24-month child negativity. In sum, family conflict occurring early in childhood predicted and moderated behavioral transactions between young children and their mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  16. Early Intervention Services: Effectively Supporting Maori Children and their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…

  17. Early childhood health promotion and its life course health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Bernard; Ma, Sai; Grason, Holly; Frick, Kevin D; Perry, Deborah F; Sharkey, Alyssa; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether health promotion efforts targeted at preschool-age children can improve health across the life span and improve future economic returns to society. We selected 4 health topics to review-tobacco exposure, unintentional injury, obesity, and mental health-because they are clinically and epidemiologically significant, and represent the complex nature of health problems in this early period of life. The peer-reviewed literature was searched to assess the level of evidence for short- and long-term health impacts of health promotion and disease prevention interventions for children from before birth to age 5. This review sought to document the monetary burden of poor child health, the cost implications of preventing and treating child health problems, and the net benefit of the interventions. The evidence is compelling that these 4 topics-tobacco exposure, unintentional injury, obesity, and mental health-constitute a significant burden on the health of children and are the early antecedents of significant health problems across the life span. The evidence for the cost consequences of these problems is strong, although more uneven than the epidemiological data. The available evidence for the effectiveness of interventions in this age group was strongest in the case of preventing tobacco exposure and injuries, was limited to smaller-scale clinical interventions in the case of mental health, and was least available for efforts to prevent obesity among preschoolers. Currently available research justifies the implementation of health interventions in the prenatal to preschool period-especially to reduce tobacco exposure and prevent injuries. There is an urgent need for carefully targeted, rigorous research to examine the longitudinal causal relationships and provide stronger economic data to help policy makers make the case that the entire society will benefit from wise investment in improving the health of preschool-age children and their families.

  18. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in early life. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies.

  19. Life Structure of Early Adulthood Period in Levinson's Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Aktu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early adulthood is one of the important defining periods considered within life-long development in the relevant literature. Early adulthood period consists of psychologically the most satisfying as well as turbulent years of ones life. Universality of theories explaining early adulthood has long been discussed. One of these theories is the Levinsons theory of individual life structure that emphasis on early adult years. In this study life structures of individuals in the early adulthood period was examined in terms of structure-building and structure-changing development tasks, regarding Levinsons theory of individual life structure. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 162-177

  20. The long-term experience of family life after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmüller, Gabriele; Asplund, Kenneth; Häggström, Terttu

    2012-02-01

    Stroke is a life-threatening and disabling illness known to have a significant impact on families. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the long-term experience of family life after stroke of stroke survivors and their spouses and children, particularly regarding marital and parent-child relationships. Thirty-seven narrative interviews were conducted with stroke survivors and their spouses and adult children who were minors at onset of the illness. A qualitative approach inspired by Gadamer's hermeneutic and van Manen's phenomenological understanding of lived experience was used. The analysis revealed four themes: the family as a lifebuoy, absent presence, broken foundations, and finding a new marital path. Lack of communication and altered roles and relationships endangered marital equilibrium and parent-child relationships after stroke. This study highlighted the need for professional family support as families were unprepared for the life changes that occurred. Nurses and other healthcare workers should examine family relationships and communication patterns and view the family as a unit composed of unique persons with different needs. Further research on the experiences of stroke survivors' children seems urgent.

  1. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  2. Familialization in Welfare State Arrangements: Foster Families in the Life Course of Foster Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Götzö

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently enforced discourses on the significance of familial resources as a precondition for education, employability and social mobility reveal aspects of the interplay between state and families in terms of social integration. Foster families are of special interest when studying the drifts in discourses toward a familialization of life course regimes. The research on foster family care highlights the ambiguous negotiations on responsibilities, competencies, expertise and professionalisation, as well as the call to not colonise the intimate familial context. The authors analyse the interplay of the involved persons in the everyday practices, such as local authorities, legal guardians, therapists, parents of origin, foster parents and foster children. In the article, the beginning and the end of the child protection measure is discussed to see how trajectories and transitions are shaped by those involved, and how their acting can be interpreted in terms of life course regimes

  3. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    within average population values. No significant differences were found between long-lived family members and their spouses.Discussion. Personality factors and more specifically low neuroticism and high extraversion may be important for achieving extreme old age. In addition, personality scores of family......Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...

  4. 2010 Military Family Life Project (MFLP) - Couples: Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-31

    care home, preschool , after-school program)? Number of child care arrangements 2010 Military Family Life Project: Couples DMDC 119 67. [Ask if...officials contributing to the development of this survey included Cathy Flynn and Yuko Whitestone (Military Community and Family Policy). DMDC’s Survey...Design, Analysis & Operations Branch, under the guidance of Paul Rosenfeld, Branch Chief, is responsible for the development of questionnaires used

  5. Family Life in an Anti-Family Setting: A Critique of Marriage and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldberg, Roslyn; Kohen, Janet

    1976-01-01

    The failure of family life is traced to its complex dependence on the capitalist corporate order and the particular sex-based division of labor that is a product of that order. Particular emphasis is given to the woman's special responsibility for the emotional life of her spouse and children. (Author)

  6. Cancer Communication and Family Caregiver Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Wittenberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Family caregivers have enormous communication responsibilities tied to caregiving, such as sharing the patient’s medical history with providers, relaying diagnosis and prognosis to other family members, and making decisions about care with the patient. While caregiver stress and burden has been widely documented in the caregiving literature, little is known about how communication burden, real or perceived communication challenges, impacts caregiver quality of life. In family caregiving, the City of Hope (COH Quality of Life model proposes that the caregiving experience is reciprocal to the patient experience, impacting physical, social, psychological, and spiritual quality of life. We used data from a pilot study testing a communication coaching call intervention with family caregivers of lung cancer patients to analyze caregiver reported communication burden and quality of life. We found variances in each quality of life domain, suggesting that caregiver interventions should range from self-care skill building for physical care to psycho-educational interventions that support caregiver coping and communication skill building. These findings demonstrate the importance of caregiver assessment and attention to communication burden in quality cancer care.

  7. Cancer Communication and Family Caregiver Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Borneman, Tami; Koczywas, Marianna; Del Ferraro, Catherine; Ferrell, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Family caregivers have enormous communication responsibilities tied to caregiving, such as sharing the patient’s medical history with providers, relaying diagnosis and prognosis to other family members, and making decisions about care with the patient. While caregiver stress and burden has been widely documented in the caregiving literature, little is known about how communication burden, real or perceived communication challenges, impacts caregiver quality of life. In family caregiving, the City of Hope (COH) Quality of Life model proposes that the caregiving experience is reciprocal to the patient experience, impacting physical, social, psychological, and spiritual quality of life. We used data from a pilot study testing a communication coaching call intervention with family caregivers of lung cancer patients to analyze caregiver reported communication burden and quality of life. We found variances in each quality of life domain, suggesting that caregiver interventions should range from self-care skill building for physical care to psycho-educational interventions that support caregiver coping and communication skill building. These findings demonstrate the importance of caregiver assessment and attention to communication burden in quality cancer care. PMID:28257110

  8. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  9. Satisfaction with Life among Adolescents from Returned Portuguese Immigrant Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A central construct within the positive psychology literature is satisfaction with life. The aim of this study was to determine the level of satisfaction with life among adolescents from returned immigrant families in Portugal, as well as the background, the intercultural contact and the adaptation factors related thereto. The sample consisted of 615 adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years; SD = 1.4. The mean duration of sojourn in Portugal for the sample was 8.4 (SD = 4.6. They answered a self-report questionnaire. A comparison group involving 217 young Portuguese was also included in the study. Adolescents from returned immigrant families revealed similar levels of satisfaction with life in comparison with peers who have never migrated. The notion that geographic mobility of parents is a primary cause of adaptation problems in their children appears to be incorrect. Predictive factors – demographic, intercultural, and adaptation variables – were significantly linked to the satisfaction with life of youth. Combined, these variables explained 37% of the variance in life satisfaction. The results help us understand which variables are important to target when developing interventions to improve the life satisfaction of adolescents from returned immigrant families.

  10. Family (Dis)Advantage and Life Course Expectations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Hitlin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Optimistic assessments of life chances can positively influence life outcomes, but conflicting theories suggest these assessments either reflect structural privilege or develop as a result of childhood hardship. In addition, competing hypotheses suggest that these assessments may matter differently depending on who holds them. We examine whether family socioeconomic status shapes adolescents’ expectations about how successful their lives will turn out. We distinguish generalized life expectations (GLE), capturing anticipated success in life across multiple domains, from intergenerational comparative expectations (ICE), which register expectations about improvement relative to observed success within the respondent’s family lineage. We find that adolescents from higher socioeconomic status families are simultaneously more optimistic about their likely success in life (GLE) but less likely to anticipate relative improvement in life success across generations (ICE). Holding high GLE in combination with low ICE predicted doing better in adulthood across a range of health, attainment, and well-being outcomes, though in most cases high GLE, regardless of ICE, was the key. These beneficial patterns are, for the most part, at least as beneficial for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth as they are for advantaged youth. PMID:28408766

  11. Family (Dis)Advantage and Life Course Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Hitlin, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Optimistic assessments of life chances can positively influence life outcomes, but conflicting theories suggest these assessments either reflect structural privilege or develop as a result of childhood hardship. In addition, competing hypotheses suggest that these assessments may matter differently depending on who holds them. We examine whether family socioeconomic status shapes adolescents' expectations about how successful their lives will turn out. We distinguish generalized life expectations (GLE), capturing anticipated success in life across multiple domains, from intergenerational comparative expectations (ICE), which register expectations about improvement relative to observed success within the respondent's family lineage. We find that adolescents from higher socioeconomic status families are simultaneously more optimistic about their likely success in life (GLE) but less likely to anticipate relative improvement in life success across generations (ICE). Holding high GLE in combination with low ICE predicted doing better in adulthood across a range of health, attainment, and well-being outcomes, though in most cases high GLE, regardless of ICE, was the key. These beneficial patterns are, for the most part, at least as beneficial for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth as they are for advantaged youth.

  12. Involvement of family members in life with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabowski, Dan; Andersen, Tue Helms; Varming, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Family involvement plays a key role in diabetes management. Problems and challenges related to type 2-diabetes often affect the whole family, and relatives are at increased risk of developing diabetes themselves. We highlight these issues in our objectives: (1) to uncover specific fam...... in healthcare settings. CONCLUSION: The study generated important knowledge about problems associated with family involvement in life with type 2 diabetes and about how family involvement can be supported in healthcare practice.......OBJECTIVES: Family involvement plays a key role in diabetes management. Problems and challenges related to type 2-diabetes often affect the whole family, and relatives are at increased risk of developing diabetes themselves. We highlight these issues in our objectives: (1) to uncover specific...... family problems associated with mutual involvement in life with type 2-diabetes and (2) to analytically look at ways of approaching these problems in healthcare settings. METHODS: Qualitative data were gathered in participatory problem assessment workshops. The data were analysed in three rounds using...

  13. Delimiting family in syntheses of research on childhood chronic conditions and family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafl, Kathleen; Leeman, Jennifer; Havill, Nancy; Crandell, Jamie; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of family research presents unique challenges to investigators who must delimit what will be included as a family study in the proposed review. In this paper, the authors discuss the conceptual and pragmatic challenges of conducting systematic reviews of the literature on the intersection between family life and childhood chronic conditions. A proposed framework for delimiting the family domain of interest is presented. The framework addresses both topical salience and level of relevance and provides direction to future researchers, with the goal of supporting the overall quality of family research synthesis efforts. For users of synthesis studies, knowledge of how investigators conceptualize the boundaries of family research is important contextual information for understanding the limits and applicability of the results. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  14. Familial Religiosity, Family Processes, and Juvenile Delinquency in a National Sample of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Spencer D.

    2014-01-01

    Personal religiosity has been identified as a protective factor against juvenile delinquency. However, the influence of familial religiosity on delinquent behavior is less known. This study addresses this gap by investigating how family participation in organizational religious activities is related to delinquent involvement in early adolescence.…

  15. Factors associated with work, social life and family life disability in bipolar disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Jurado, Dolores; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2011-04-30

    We analyzed the presence of work, social life and family life disability in 108 outpatients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) diagnosis of bipolar disorder and their association with previous course-of-illness variables and current psychopathology. Work disability was pragmatically defined as being on a disability pension or in the process of obtaining it; social life or family life disability was defined by a score ≥ 7 in the respective subscales of the Sheehan Disability Scale. At least one type of disability (for work, social life or family life) affected 52-54% of the patients; and two types, 37%. By logistic regression and multiple linear regression analyses we determined the variables independently associated with each type of disability: 1) Work disability was significantly associated with previous repeated manic episodes, three or more hospitalizations, with current depressive symptoms and inversely with the educational attainment. 2) Social life disability significantly increased with the number of hospitalizations and was associated with previous repeated depressive episodes and current depressive symptoms. In alternative models, nicotine dependence and lack of social support were significantly associated with work and social life disability respectively. And 3) family life disability significantly increased with number of hospitalizations, CAGE questionnaire score and age; and was associated with previous repeated manic episodes and current depressive symptoms. In conclusion, previous course-of-illness variables, particularly a high number of manic episodes, and current psychopathology - as indicated by the presence of nicotine dependence or depressive symptoms - may be indicators of disability; previous manic episodes appear to affect disability at work or at family life whereas previous depressive episodes seem to be related with social life disability.

  16. Quality of life of adolescents with cancer: family risks and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmer Paige L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the relative contribution of treatment intensity, family sociodemographic risk, and family resources to health-related quality of life (QOL of 102 adolescents in treatment for cancer. Methods Adolescents and parents completed self-report measures of teen QOL, family functioning, and parent-child bonding. Based on parent report of family sociodemographic variables, an additive risk index was computed. A pediatric oncologist rated treatment intensity. Results Simultaneous regression analyses demonstrated the significant contribution of roles in family functioning and quality of parent-child relationship to prediction of psychosocial QOL (parent and teen-reported as well as parent-reported teen physical QOL over and above the contribution of treatment intensity. Family sociodemographic risk did not contribute to QOL in these regression analyses. In additional analyses, specific diagnosis, types of treatment and individual sociodemographic risk variables were not associated with QOL. Parent and teen ratings of family functioning and quality of life were concordant. Conclusions Family functioning, including quality of parent-child relationship, are central and potentially modifiable resistance factors in teen QOL while under treatment for cancer. Even more important than relying on diagnosis or treatment, screening for roles and relationships early in treatment may be an important aspect of determining risk for poor QOL outcomes.

  17. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saridjan, N.S.; Huizink, A.C.; Koetsier, J.A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Hofman, A.; Kirschbaum, C.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in

  18. Body size in early life and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, Md Shajedur Rahman; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei

    2017-07-21

    Body size in early life is inversely associated with adult breast cancer (BC) risk, but it is unclear whether the associations differ by tumor characteristics. In a pooled analysis of two Swedish population-based studies consisting of 6731 invasive BC cases and 28,705 age-matched cancer-free controls, we examined the associations between body size in early life and BC risk. Self-reported body sizes at ages 7 and 18 years were collected by a validated nine-level pictogram (aggregated into three categories: small, medium and large). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models in case-control analyses, adjusting for study, age at diagnosis, age at menarche, number of children, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of BC. Body size change between ages 7 and 18 were also examined in relation to BC risk. Case-only analyses were performed to test whether the associations differed by tumor characteristics. Medium or large body size at age 7 and 18 was associated with a statistically significant decreased BC risk compared to small body size (pooled OR (95% CI): comparing large to small, 0.78 (0.70-0.86), Ptrend size categories between age 7 and 18 . Women who remained medium or large between ages 7 and 18 had significantly decreased BC risk compared to those who remained small. A reduction in body size between ages 7 and 18 was also found to be inversely associated with BC risk (0.90 (0.81-1.00)). No significant association was found between body size at age 7 and tumor characteristics. Body size at age 18 was found to be inversely associated with tumor size (Ptrend = 0.006), but not estrogen receptor status and lymph node involvement. For all analyses, the overall inferences did not change appreciably after further adjustment for adult body mass index. Our data provide further support for a strong and independent inverse relationship between early life body size and BC risk

  19. Web-Based Family Life Education: Spotlight on User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jennifer; Doty, Matthew; Dwrokin, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    Family Life Education (FLE) websites can benefit from the field of user experience, which makes technology easy to use. A heuristic evaluation of five FLE sites was performed using Neilson's heuristics, guidelines for making sites user friendly. Greater site complexity resulted in more potential user problems. Sites most frequently had problems…

  20. Family, housing and well-being in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbers, Daniël Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of many western populations calls for a better understanding of the factors related to well-being in later life. Family and housing are two domains that become increasingly important at older ages. At older ages people generally spend more time in and around the home, and social networks

  1. Quality of Family Life and Mortality in Seventeenth Century Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry into the quality of family life in seventeenth century Dublin is an attempt to understand conditions in the second largest city in the British Isles; further, the era was one of convulsions in the body politic, social, and religious. The Scottish James I and VI (1556 1625) determined that the Irish province closest to Scotland, Ulster,…

  2. Family Life Education--A Perspective on the Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Virginia M.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the need for education about family life, who should teach it and the kinds of information that should be taught. The author feels that parents need to be taught to raise their children to be loving and to accept differences among people. (EJT)

  3. The Unwed Mother: Implications For Family Life Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Joan; Whatley, Alice Elrod

    1973-01-01

    The family life educator is in a strategic position to assist in designing school and community programs for the unwed mother and the child. It appears important that the theories of causation be explored without bias; that prenatal and postnatal care be offered; that mental health consultation, therapy and crisis-therapy be promoted and the…

  4. Web-Based Family Life Education: Spotlight on User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jennifer; Doty, Matthew; Dwrokin, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    Family Life Education (FLE) websites can benefit from the field of user experience, which makes technology easy to use. A heuristic evaluation of five FLE sites was performed using Neilson's heuristics, guidelines for making sites user friendly. Greater site complexity resulted in more potential user problems. Sites most frequently had problems…

  5. Family Life Education--A Perspective on the Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Virginia M.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the need for education about family life, who should teach it and the kinds of information that should be taught. The author feels that parents need to be taught to raise their children to be loving and to accept differences among people. (EJT)

  6. Family Life Education for Young Adolescents. A Quasi-Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Elicia J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The impact of the Family Life Education Program for disadvantaged inner-city minority students (grades seven and eight) was investigated. Compared to the control group, program participants displayed improved knowledge about contraception, reproductive physiology, and adolescent pregnancy outcomes. Implications for school-based sex education…

  7. Expressed Attitudes of Adolescents toward Marriage and Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paige D.; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2003-01-01

    Study examined attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While about one third expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage or had engaged in sex. The adolescents…

  8. Evolutionary aspects of life forms in angiosperm families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P; VanAndel, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution patterns of life forms among extant families, subclasses and classes are described with the aim of detecting evolutionary trends. The explosive diversification of angiosperms constrains the possibilities for detecting such trends. Moreover, the extant groups of seed plants are only

  9. Christian ethical perspectives on marriage and family life in modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    observation that we are “faced with a rapid decline in two-parent families, a ... a Christian should amounts to a life-style of love, stewardship, self-denial and obedience to. God (see Vorster .... (1999:7) indicates that God gives this dignity and esteem precisely because of ..... authoritarian spirit are destructive for fellowship.

  10. Family life transitions among children of immigrants: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.; Milewski, N.

    2011-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the special issue on family life transitions of children of immigrants, i.e. the second generation. We will sketch a picture of the second generation in Europe, discuss the background of these groups, their position in European societies and their transition to adu

  11. Now And Then - Life Trajectories, Family Relationships and Diasporic Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Short version:   The book explores the issues of family relationships; between different generations and among the intimate partners. In addition, the issues of identity are analyzed in the context of late modernity and movements across the borders. Now and Then is a journey across time and space......, the ethnic minority youth’s relationships to their ‘country of residence’ as well as ‘the country of origin’ are explored. The results challenge the existing static concepts about the intergenerational relationships and diasporic identities as they highlight dynamic balances between individualism...... of the narratives. The results of the young adult’s life trajectories about family relations – both vertical as well as horizontal depict initial and current generational conflicts, reduction and resolution as well as patterns of familial ambivalence and interdependence in various domains of their everyday life...

  12. Family change and migration in the life course: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Milewski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an introduction to Special Collection 6 of Demographic Research whose articles investigate the interrelations between the family and migration behaviour of individuals in industrialised countries. We first review the life-course approach and previous research on the interplay between family change and migration. We then describe the contribution of the articles in the collection. This is followed by a discussion of selected issues raised in the papers and an outline of future research avenues. We argue that the life-course approach and event-history analysis offer a fruitful framework to examine how individuals simultaneously structure their family lives and residential trajectories, and thus shape demographic change in society.

  13. Early-life social origins of later-life body weight: the role of socioeconomic status and health behaviors over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-07-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental self-work: governing enactments in family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselott Aarsand

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on lifelong and lifewide learning portray everyday life as a pedagogical space where requirements for how to preferably improve oneself through learning are highly significant. Drawing upon the notion of governmentality, it could be argued that techniques operate within a range of practices to shape, foster and stabilize the assumed adequate ways to perform. Using that particular lens, the case of parenting was investigated to accentuate selves and self-work in narrations on family life in Norway. The analysis illustrates how the techniques of activation and comparison are at work to define, fashion and develop the responsible, involved and attentive parental self, thereby signifying pedagogical claims one should aspire to. However, how this is accomplished differs slightly within the social contexts of family life. Parenting, then, may be discussed as a powerful educative practice for fabricating capable and wellbehaved citizens of contemporary times.

  15. Impact Craters as Habitats for Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Tornabene, L. L.; Banerjee, N. R.; Cockell, C. S.; Flemming, R.; Izawa, M. R. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Pontefract, A.; Parnell, J.; Sapers, H.; Southam, G.

    2012-05-01

    In this contribution we present a case that impact craters on Early Mars would have represented prime habitats for life, and potentially for its origin, and that impact craters, therefore, should be prime exploration targets for future missions.

  16. Early life origins of psychological development and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina

    2009-12-01

    According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.

  17. [Parental self-efficacy in family-centered early intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus; Hintermair, Manfred; Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Parental self-efficacy is seen as an important concern in family-centered early intervention. This article reports the data from 125 parents of young children with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairment or visual impairment. The relationship between parental self-efficacy, parental stress and several parent and child variables is analyzed. The results support the relevance of parental self-efficacy for parental coping. Some recommendations for promoting their experience of participation and partnership in early intervention services are discussed.

  18. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and ...

  19. Allowing Family to be Family: End-of-Life Care in Veterans Affairs Medical Foster Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Chelsea E; Haverhals, Leah M; Jones, Jacqueline; Levy, Cari R

    2016-01-01

    The Medical Foster Home program is a unique long-term care program coordinated by the Veterans Health Administration. The program pairs Veterans with private, 24-hour a day community-based caregivers who often care for Veterans until the end of life. This qualitative study explored the experiences of care coordination for Medical Foster Home Veterans at the end of life with eight Veterans' family members, five Medical Foster Home caregivers, and seven Veterans Health Administration Home-Based Primary Care team members. A case study, qualitative content analysis identified these themes addressing care coordination and impact of the Medical Foster Home model on those involved: (a) Medical Foster Home program supports Veterans' families; (b) Medical Foster Home program supports the caregiver as family; (c) Veterans' needs are met socially and culturally at the end of life; and (d) the changing needs of Veterans, families, and caregivers at Veterans' end of life are addressed. Insights into how to best support Medical Foster Home caregivers caring for Veterans at the end of life were gained including the need for more and better respite options and how caregivers are compensated in the month of the Veteran's death, as well as suggestions to navigate end-of-life care coordination with multiple stakeholders involved.

  20. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather......) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life....

  1. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  2. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  3. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the

  4. Relationships between quality of life and family function in caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Marcos Manuel Á

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain. Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions.

  5. Life stories of families with a terminally ill child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hechter

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Family units with a terminally ill child have a tendency to withdraw and this isolation may lead to problems in their mental health. A tendency with psychologists, clergy and helpers from other professions is to act as ideal experts on the lives of saddened people. From painful personal experience, this does not seem to enable acquiescence. Therefore, the aim of research on families with terminally ill children, was to explore and describe their lives and to develop an approach to facilitate their families to obtain acquiescence. In this article however, attention will be given to the life-world of families with terminally ill children. The research consists of two phases. In phase one the experiences of four families with terminally ill children are explored and described by means of phenomenological, unstructured, in-depth interviews. In phase two an acquiescence approach, which was designed for educational psychologists to facilitate families with terminally ill children to achieve acquiscence, is described. This approach is based on results from phase one. This article focuses on phase one. In this phase four families were interviewed individually, in the privacy of their homes. The interviews were audiotaped, and were transcribed for the purpose of data gathering. The data was analysed according to Tesch’s method and a literature control was performed to verify the results. Guba’s model for the validity of qualitative research was used.

  6. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  7. Implementation of the Integrated Early Childhood Policy in Senegal. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayna, Sylvie

    As part of a UNESCO-sponsored series of studies examining how integrated and coordinated early childhood policies are implemented, this case study focuses on Senegal's integrated early childhood policy. The case study examines the context for policy development and analyzes the structure and resources of the Ministry for the Family and Early…

  8. Family structure and the transition to early parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L; Goldscheider, Frances

    2010-05-01

    With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call "fragile families." The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations.

  9. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, ...

  10. Life-table representations of family dynamics in Sweden, Hungary, and 14 other FFS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a system of descriptions of family-demographic behavior in developed countries. We use life-table techniques in order to describe the experience of men, of women, and of children in processes related to family formation and family dissolution. We develop a large number of descriptive measures, and apply them to survey data from Sweden, Norway, Finland, France, the USA, Austria, Germany (East and West Germany separately, Flanders, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, in order to describe patterns in the family-demographic behavior during the late 1980s - early 1990s. We use Sweden and Hungary as examples when presenting the outline of our system of tabulations and provide results for the whole set of countries in an Appendix to the paper.

  11. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-06-06

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  12. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Françoise Rolland-Cachera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”. Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  13. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lauren M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2017-08-21

    Study aims were to examine: (i) how physical and sexual victimisation in early life are associated with alcohol's harm from others; and (ii) whether respondents' current drinking is a mediator of the association between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others among men and women. Data were from national computer-assisted telephone interviews, using the landline sample (3335 men and 3520 women ages ≥18) from the 2010 US National Alcohol Survey. Harms from someone else's drinking included family/marital problems, financial troubles, assault and vandalism in the past 12 months. Victimisation was measured with severe physical abuse or sexual assault before age 18. Severe physical or sexual victimisation before age 18 was reported by 3.4% of men and 8.1% of women. Significantly more men (5.2%) than women (2.4%) reported assault by other drinkers, and significantly more women reported family/marital (5.3%) and financial problems (2.8%) than did men (2.6 and 1% respectively). Severe early life victimisation was robustly associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing past-year harms from other drinkers for both men and women. Men's drinking partially mediated associations between early life victimisation and recent assaults and vandalism by other drinkers. Early life victimisation may increase risk of harms from someone else's drinking. Health services and interventions that screen for histories of victimisation may help decrease risk of later harms from others' drinking. Reductions in drinking among men with histories of victimisation also could help reduce their exposure to such harms. [Kaplan LM, Greenfield TK, Karriker-Jaffe KJ. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Life in low income families in Scotland: research report

    OpenAIRE

    McKendrick, John H; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Backett-Milburn, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Living on a low income is a problem that the Scottish Executive and UK Parliament want to tackle. Previous work has focused on measuring the number of people living on a low income. This research was commissioned to understand better what life is like for people living in low income families with children in Scotland. It also investigated what people living on a low income think about poverty. The research involved a literature review and 18 focus group interviews with adults, young ...

  15. ESTONIAN TRACES IN THE TREE OF LIFE CONCEPT AND IN THE LANGUAGE FAMILY TREE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Sutrop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the tree model – a well-formed tree is shortly described. After that the language family tree model by August Schleicher is treated and compared with the Charles Darwin’s tree of life diagram and metaphor. The development of the idea of the linguistic trees and the tree of life is considered historically. Earlier models – scala naturae – and tree models, both well-formed and not-well-formed are introduced. Special attention is paid to the scholars connected to Estonia who developed the idea of tree models: Georg Stiernhielm was the first who pictured a language tree already in 1671; Karl Eduard Eichwald published an early tree of animal life in 1829; and Karl Ernst von Baer influenced the tree of life models and diagrams of Charles Darwin.

  16. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    The bacteria that colonize the human body, our microbiota, can influence our health, both positively and negatively. The importance and functions of the microbiota in our intestinal tract have been the focus of several research projects and are widely published. However, there are great gaps in our...... knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...

  17. Family quality of life among families of children with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hae Ji; Hwang, Seonyeong; Ahn, Youngmee; Lim, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) may cause emotional distress and impairs the quality of life (QoL) in children and their families. Objective We examined family QoL of children with AD and explored associated factors such as disease severity and psychosocial factors among parents of children with AD. Methods Study participants were 78 children (1 month to 16 years old) diagnosed with AD and their parents visiting an outpatient clinic of the Department of Pediatrics in Inha University Hospital. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and medical record review. Parents completed the Dermatitis Family Impact questionnaire (DFI), the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Korean Parenting Stress Index. For children aged below 6-year-old, parents were asked to complete the Infants' Dermatologic Quality of Life. SCOring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 Generic Core Scale were also completed. Results The mean age of parents and children were 37.4 ± 5.3 years and 65.1 ± 45.7 months, respectively. Among them, 87.2% of parents were mothers and 60.3% of children were boys. The mean score of DFI was 11.2 ± 6.0. The mean SCORAD score was 28.3 ± 16.1. Family who experienced strong negative emotionality had a 3.8 times higher probability of experiencing a lower QoL than parents who did not (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; p = 0.041). Family of children with higher severity of AD had a 6.6 times (OR, 6.55; p = 0.018) higher probability of experiencing a low family QoL than their less-severe counterparts. Families of girls with AD had a lower QoL (OR, 8.40; p = 0.003) than families of boys. Conclusion Family QoL among parents of children with AD was low and associated with parent’s psychosocial characteristics as well as disease severity of the children. Considering parental involvement in AD management for children, emotional

  18. Teenage life. Sex education should start early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, W A; Epema, E; Lubega, M

    1993-01-01

    The findings of a survey conducted among 4510 young men and women 15-24 years old in six districts of Uganda revealed a need for more comprehensive reproductive health services for adolescents and earlier introduction of sex education. By age 15 years, 52% of males and 38% of females were already sexually active. In the three years preceding the survey, 45.3% of males and 13.4% of females had had three or more sexual partners. Although 78.2% of males and 56.6% of females had heard of condoms, only 12.7% of males and 0.4% of females reported current condom use. The overwhelming majority (83.9% of males and 87.0% of females) were not using any contraceptive method and there was widespread agreement that condom use communicates a lack of respect for one's partner. Awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)--especially acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, syphilis, and gonorrhea--was high, and 21.4% of males and 7.8% of females admitted to a history of at least one STD. Earlier initiation of sex education in the school curriculum might increase awareness of the importance of condom use before young people become sexually active and thus help to close the gap between knowledge and practice. Also urged are reproductive health care services for adolescents that integrate sex education, STD diagnosis and treatment, and family planning.

  19. Small Science: Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-06-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of science learning are afforded at home during this early period of life? The study reported in this paper sought to investigate the scientific development of infants-toddlers (10 to 36 months) growing up in Bangladeshi families living in Australia and Singapore. Four families were studied over 2 years. Digital video observations were made of everyday family life and analysed using Vygotsky's theoretical framework of everyday concepts and scientific concepts (51 h of digital observations). While there are many possibilities for developing scientific concepts in infants-toddlers' everyday life, our study found four categories of what we have called small science: multiple possibilities for science; discrete science; embedded science and counter intuitive science. The findings of this study contribute to the almost non-existent literature into infants and toddlers' scientific development and advance new understandings of early childhood science education.

  20. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  1. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    A large proportion of atopy develops in childhood and early life exposures are suspected to play a considerable role in the inception. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early life exposures and development of atopic disease in children. We performed a case-cohort study...... of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p feeding was longer in subjects...

  3. Social Class, Family Formation, and Delinquency in Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.; Swisher, Raymond R.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolesce...

  4. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  5. Immune-mediated diseases and microbial exposure in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Bønnelykke, K; Stokholm, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The non-communicable disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in early life where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system......, and certain exposures may have detrimental effects in the earliest life, but no or even beneficial effects later. The human microbiome and infections are candidates as intermediary in the interaction between the host and the environment. The evidence seems inconsistent as infections as well as particular...... colonization patterns in neonates drive both short-term and long-term asthma symptoms, while, on the other hand, the composition of the microbiome in early life may protect against asthma and allergy in later life. This apparent contradiction may be explained by a deeper disease heterogeneity than we...

  6. Life Satisfaction of University Students in Relation to Family and Food in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata; Grunert, Klaus G.; Germán Lobos; Marianela Denegri; Clementina Hueche; Héctor Poblete

    2017-01-01

    Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL) are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL), and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a ...

  7. Advancing family health through the Garden of Eatin': on-site food gardens in early childhood education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia; Yeh, Jarmin; Sigal, Byron

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional practices develop over the life course. Developing healthy habits at an early age can contribute to combating increasing child obesity rates. Through a range of activities that rely on the presence of an on-site food garden, North Bay Children's Center (NBCC), an early childhood education program, has enacted a "culture of health" into all aspects of the curriculum to promote healthy eating practices among children, families, teachers and staff. NBCC's garden program serves as a model in early childhood education and as a community-based intervention to improve family health and prevent child obesity.

  8. Expansion of transducin subunit gene families in early vertebrate tetraploidizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, David; Sundström, Görel; Ocampo Daza, Daniel; Abalo, Xesús M; Larhammar, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Hundreds of gene families expanded in the early vertebrate tetraploidizations including many gene families in the phototransduction cascade. We have investigated the evolution of the heterotrimeric G-proteins of photoreceptors, the transducins, in relation to these events using both phylogenetic analyses and synteny comparisons. Three alpha subunit genes were identified in amniotes and the coelacanth, GNAT1-3; two of these were identified in amphibians and teleost fish, GNAT1 and GNAT2. Most tetrapods have four beta genes, GNB1-4, and teleosts have additional duplicates. Finally, three gamma genes were identified in mammals, GNGT1, GNG11 and GNGT2. Of these, GNGT1 and GNGT2 were found in the other vertebrates. In frog and zebrafish additional duplicates of GNGT2 were identified. Our analyses show all three transducin families expanded during the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and the beta and gamma families gained additional copies in the teleost-specific genome duplication. This suggests that the tetraploidizations contributed to visual specialisations.

  9. THE FAMILY CALCIFOLIACEAE EMEND.,MISSISSIPPIAN-EARLY PENNSYLVANIAN ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Fasciellaceae was created as a group of red algae. It was emended as a tribe Fascielleae of incertae sedis algae, and related to the tribe Calcifolieae Shuysky emend. Vachard & Cózar. The tribes Fascielleae and Calcifolieae both constitute the family Calcifoliaceae emend. This family is actually a homogeneous group, and could be more or less closely related with some questionable Moravamminales and Aoujgaliales: Claracrustaceae, Labyrinthoconaceae and Donezellaceae. All these microfossils were successively considered as green algae, red algae, "phylloid" algae, or fibres of calcispongia. The genera included in Fascielleae are: Fasciella, Praedonezella, and ?Kulikaella. The genera Calcifolium, Falsocalcifolium and Frustulata are included in the Calcifolieae. The phylogeny of the Calcifoliaceae is reconstructed. Thus, the family appears to be ancestrally linked, in the early Mississippian and even earlier in the Devonian, to Kulikaella, Stacheoidella, Pseudostacheoides, Pokorninella and Precorninella. The Calcifoliaceae are important for the zonation of the Late Mississippian-earliest Pennsylvanian (early Bashkirian interval (Asbian to Siuransky in the carbonate platform facies from western Palaeotethys and Ural Oceans.

  10. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Kimberly A; Scot E Dowd; Georgios N. Stamatas; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first yea...

  11. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  12. GAY RELATIONSHIPS AS ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF FAMILY-MARRIAGE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Perlińska

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available My research and deliberation made in this study show that homosexuality is only one of the signs of human diversity - one from innumerable number of personality features. Therefore, one cannot talk about "gay identity", "homosexual personality", because, as far as I am concerned, it doesn't exist. Artificially generted gay population is only a group of peple being much different from one another and having only one common feature - their sexual orientation. Besides they differ from one another as much as one man from another. Gay relationships take on countless forms, but all of them, as the results of my research indicate, fulfil the majority of family in traditional point of view functions. The deliberation points out at one more conclusion - one cannot examine gay relationships as a separate model of family-marriage life. It should be forgotten about their different psyhosexual orientation and treat their trlationships, together with other interpersonal relationships, equally. Only from such position one can discern in their specific alternative models of family-marriage life.

  13. The Family Alliance Model: A Way to Study and Characterize Early Family Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Favez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the family alliance (FA model, which is designed to conceptualize the relational dynamics in the early family. FA is defined as the coordination a family can reach when fulfilling a task, such as playing a game or having a meal. According to the model, being coordinated as a family depends on four interactive functions: participation (all members are included, organization (members assume differentiated roles, focalization (family shares a common theme of activity, affect sharing (there is empathy between members. The functions are operationalized through the spatiotemporal characteristics of non-verbal interactions: for example, distance between the partners, orientation of their bodies, congruence within body segments, signals of readiness to interact, joint attention, facial expressions. Several standardized observational situations have been designed to assess FA: The Lausanne Trilogue Play (with its different versions, in which mother, father, and baby interact in all possible configurations of a triad, and the PicNic Game for families with several children. Studies in samples of non-referred and referred families (for infant or parental psychopathology have highlighted different types of FA: disorganized, conflicted, and cooperative. The type of FA in a given family is stable through the first years and is predictive of developmental outcomes in children, such as psychofunctional symptoms, understanding of complex emotions, and Theory of Mind development.

  14. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, I R

    1998-01-01

    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  15. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress....

  16. Scattered Families : Transnational family life of Afghan refugees in the Netherlands in the light of the human rights based protection of the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, P.H.A.M

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on family life of Afghan refugees in the Netherlands, within and across borders. While family life constitutes a foundation in the lives of human beings, the disruption of the family through external causes has a huge impact on the people involved. In the case of refugees, many of

  17. Scattered Families : Transnational family life of Afghan refugees in the Netherlands in the light of the human rights based protection of the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, P.H.A.M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165624647

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on family life of Afghan refugees in the Netherlands, within and across borders. While family life constitutes a foundation in the lives of human beings, the disruption of the family through external causes has a huge impact on the people involved. In the case of refugees, many of

  18. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie A. Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

  19. Intergenerational Similarity of Religiosity Over the Family Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Joohong; Silverstein, Merril; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2017-01-01

    Research consistently shows that parents influence children's religiosity. However, few studies acknowledge that there is within-group variation in the intergenerational transmission of religiosity. In this article, we examine whether and how congruence in religiosity between generations changes over the family life course and identifies unique parent-child trajectory classes. We used eight waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Generations, including 1,084 parent-child dyads beginning in 1971 when the children were adolescents and young adults, followed up to 2005. Growth mixture models (GMM) were tested. GMM revealed four temporal patterns: stable similar, child weakens, child strengthens, and child returns. Results showed that children who were married were more likely to be members of the child-returns class than members of the stable-similar class. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of the separation-individuation process and the life-course framework for understanding intergenerational differences and their stability over time.

  20. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-09-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life.

  1. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  2. The Influence of Early Life Conditions on Social Perceptions of Women in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers, Jazmin J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women are key contributors to an organizational environment, though the stereotypic perceptions about powerful women are common and often negative. Factors such as wage gap differentials between men and women imply that women are not of the same value to an organization’s success as men. Many empirical studies have examined perceptions about women in positions such as managers, CEOs, supervisors or directors. These studies have not, however, focused on how early life environments, and variables related to an individual’s upbringing, might influence the self-perceptions of these women and the roles they play in the workplace. The purpose of this research is to identify 1 perceptions about women in today’s workplace; 2 how individuals’ early life experiences correlate with their later perceptions about women in the workplace, and 3 how early life influences affect women as organizational leaders in groups and dyads. As such, it is hypothesized that this correlational study will discover that early life conditions, such as the quality of education, household income, and demographic data from both male and female genders will influence common attitudes about women in the workplace. The present research also aims to help employees become more aware of company perceptions and to improve gender communication in the workplace. Examining the workplace perceptions of men and women formed by early life influences, and specifically, researching how women work as leaders in an organizational setting can provide information that will be useful in corporate environments. Significant early life predictors can also be used as data for families and schools raising young women to become leaders in the corporate world.

  3. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  4. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic...

  5. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  6. Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peske, Patric O.

    Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

  7. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and the environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We describe the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell, Ptychobranchus jonesi, and compare methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on conglutinate-producing mussel species. Both the glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on the 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate 90% for at least 5 days. Directly feeding conglutinates to fishes allowed us to estimate natural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts using an inoculation bath. Each method for measuring fecundity produced similar estimates but the regression, which estimated fecundity based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment, was most practical. The distribution information, coupled with early life history description and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials, may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi, specifically during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  8. Family income dynamics, early childhood education and care, and early child behavior problems in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from ages 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower income families.

  9. Evaluation of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, and quality of life in their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Duman

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Acne vulgaris does not have an effect on quality of life and the risk of anxiety or depression. In the cases of acne, when the quality of life decreases, the risk of depression as well as anxiety increases and the quality of life of the family members is negatively affected. Acne vulgaris negatively affects the quality of life of the family members of the patients.

  10. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS......: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake...... programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved...

  11. Heritability Estimates of Endophenotypes of Long and Health Life: The Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteini, Amy M; Fallin, M Daniele; Kammerer, Candace M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of gene variants that contribute to exceptional survival may provide critical biologic information that informs optimal health across the life span. METHODS: As part of phenotype development efforts for the Long Life Family Study, endophenotypes that represent exceptional......3 was made up of cognitive measures (h(2) = 36%). PC4 and PC5 contained measures of blood pressure and cholesterol, respectively (h(2) = 25% and 16%). CONCLUSIONS: These PCs analysis-derived endophenotypes may be used in genetic association studies to help identify underlying genetic mechanisms...

  12. Entry into the Postparental Phase of the Family Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wawrzyniak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche BeiträgeThe article examines entry into the postparental phase of the family life cycle, which is the familial situation when all children have moved out of the parental household. We position this event chronologically within the life course and examine the probability of occurrence. Using panel data (3 survey waves covering a period of 40 years of a cohort of former North-Rhine Westphalian grammar school pupils, event history models (Cox regression are employed to analyse what factors accelerate or decelerate the transition. This revealed that the parent’s individual biography (in particular the age at the own move out, age at the birth of the first child and the number of children has a major impact on the time of occurrence, while the occupational history has no effect. In addition, sons delay the transition, while children’s academic studies and occupation accelerate it.

  13. Nurturing Creativity in Early Childhood Education: Families Are Part of It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Nissenberg, Shari A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of nurturing creativity in early childhood education, focusing on family influences on creativity. Summarizes research on familial impact on creativity, including the role of the family's adaptability, parental discipline style, parental rejection, and family pressure toward creativity. Suggests ways early childhood…

  14. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  15. Spanish Family Quality of Life Scales: Under and over 18 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gine, Climent; Vilaseca, Rosa; Gracia, Marta; Mora, Joaquin; Orcasitas, Jose Ramon; Simon, Cecilia; Torrecillas, Ana Maria; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Pro, Maria Teresa; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Mas, Joana Maria; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simo-Pinatella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers, professionals, and families have shown increasing concern with the family quality of life (FQoL) of people with intellectual disability (ID) and their families. The goals of this research were (a) to explore how Spanish families understand FQoL by developing 2 different measurement tools for families with a member with ID…

  16. Spanish Family Quality of Life Scales: Under and over 18 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gine, Climent; Vilaseca, Rosa; Gracia, Marta; Mora, Joaquin; Orcasitas, Jose Ramon; Simon, Cecilia; Torrecillas, Ana Maria; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Pro, Maria Teresa; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Mas, Joana Maria; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simo-Pinatella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers, professionals, and families have shown increasing concern with the family quality of life (FQoL) of people with intellectual disability (ID) and their families. The goals of this research were (a) to explore how Spanish families understand FQoL by developing 2 different measurement tools for families with a member with ID…

  17. DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-14

    Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism.

  18. Applying family life cycle concepts in psychological practice with children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Family life cycle models offer a framework for understanding family development and defining ‘normative’ transitions within this developmental progression. As such, family life cycle models have the potential to inform clinical practice: by allowing case presentations to be contextualised in terms of broader systemic and temporal processes, and possible disruptions to expected transitions. This article critically considers how family life cycle models, and the notion of normative transition, ...

  19. On the possibility of life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

  20. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  1. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  2. Familial early onset sarcoidosis with bone cysts and erosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, Norbert; Max, Regina; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin [University of Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Division of Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Autschbach, Frank [University of Heidelberg, Department of Pathology, Heidelberg (Germany); Libicher, Martin [University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Early onset sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which is characterized by synovitis, polyarthritis, skin and eye involvement. We report the skeletal features of one patient with a family history and clinical symptoms suggestive of early onset sarcoidosis (EOS) which was confirmed by skin biopsy. Radiographs reveal postarthritic deformities of the MCP joints, contractures, a coarsened trabecular pattern at the PIP joints and small bone cysts resembling osteitis cystoides multiplex. Similar lesions were described in radiographs of the older sister and an uncle of our patient. This is the first report demonstrating bone cysts and erosions which could be a diagnostic feature in this rare disease and may help to differentiate other rheumatoid disorders. (orig.)

  3. Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litonjua Augusto A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. Objective To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and 4 months of life. Nine infants were diagnosed with eczema by the age of 6 months (cases and 12 infants were not (controls. After conducting denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of stool samples, we compared the microbial diversity of cases and controls using the number of electrophoretic bands and the Shannon index of diversity (H' as indicators. Results Control subjects had significantly greater fecal microbial diversity than children with eczema at ages 1 (mean H' for controls = 0.75 vs. 0.53 for cases, P = 0.01 and 4 months (mean H' for controls = 0.92 vs. 0.59 for cases, P = 0.02. The increase in diversity from 1 to 4 months of age was significant in controls (P = 0.04 but not in children who developed eczema by 6 months of age (P = 0.32. Conclusion Our findings suggest that reduced microbial diversity is associated with the development of eczema in early life.

  4. Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Vivienne A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma experienced early in life increases the risk of developing a number of psychological and/or behavioural disorders. It is unclear, however, how genetic predisposition to a behavioural disorder, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, modifies the long-term effects of early life trauma. There is substantial evidence from family and twin studies for susceptibility to ADHD being inherited, implying a strong genetic component to the disorder. In the present study we used an inbred animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, to investigate the long-term consequences of early life trauma on emotional behaviour in individuals predisposed to developing ADHD-like behaviour. Methods We applied a rodent model of early life trauma, maternal separation, to SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain from which SHR were originally derived. The effects of maternal separation (removal of pups from dam for 3 h/day during the first 2 weeks of life on anxiety-like behaviour (elevated-plus maze and depressive-like behaviour (forced swim test were assessed in prepubescent rats (postnatal day 28 and 31. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results The effect of maternal separation on SHR and WKY differed in a number of behavioural measures. Similar to its reported effect in other rat strains, maternal separation increased the anxiety-like behaviour of WKY (decreased open arm entries but not SHR. Maternal separation increased the activity of SHR in the novel environment of the elevated plus-maze, while it decreased that of WKY. Overall, SHR showed a more active response in the elevated plus-maze and forced swim test than WKY, regardless of treatment, and were also found to have higher basal plasma corticosterone compared to WKY. Maternal separation increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone in SHR females only, possibly through adaptive

  5. Diversity of the human skin microbiome early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-10-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function.

  6. Epigenetics and early life origins of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Walker, Sheila O; Hong, Xiumei; Bartell, Tami R; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-02-01

    In light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored. Given the unique properties of the epigenome-functionality during critical time windows, such as the intrauterine period, heritability, and reversibility-enhancing our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may offer new opportunities for the development of novel early prediction and prevention paradigms. This may present an unparalleled opportunity to offer maternal and child health professionals important tools with the translational value to predict, detect, and prevent disease at an early age, long before its clinical occurrence, and as such, break lifelong and transgenerational cycles of disease. In doing so, modern technology can be leveraged to make great contributions to population health, quality of life, and reducing the burdensome economic costs of noncommunicable diseases in developing countries.

  7. Family life under pressure? Parents' paid work and the quantity and quality of parent-child and family time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even though family life and paid work are often considered as difficult to reconcile, prior research found that family time is relatively unaffected by the demands paid work imposes upon employed parents. This dissertation investigates this puzzling finding by exploring how parents protect family li

  8. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S; Watts, Gerald F; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L; Defesche, Joep C; Descamps, Olivier S; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Santos, Raul D; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-09-21

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is 10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8-10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and

  9. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S.; Watts, Gerald F.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Santos, Raul D.; Stalenhoef, Anton F.H.; Steinhagen- Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is 10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8–10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and

  10. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  11. Prospective association between negative life events and initiation of sexual intercourse: the influence of family structure and family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Aspy, Cheryl B; Tolma, Eleni L; John, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We examined the prospective association between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse and the influence of family structure and family income on this association. We followed up a randomly selected sample (n=649) of ethnically diverse parents and their children aged 12 to 17 years over a 5-year period. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine the relation between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse. Family structure and family income were assessed as confounders. Negative life events were significant predictors of time to initiation of sexual intercourse in adolescents. After controlling for demographic variables, youths reporting 1 negative life event had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.40 times greater and youths reporting 2 or more negative life events had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.61 times greater compared with youths reporting no negative life events. Family structure and family income were not significant confounders of the relation between initiation of sexual intercourse and negative life events. Interventions to prevent initiation of sexual intercourse should focus on youths with recent negative life events, regardless of family income and structure.

  12. Does shared family background influence the impact of educational differences on early mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Mortensen, Laust H; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms behind social differences in mortality rates have been debated. The authors examined the extent to which shared family background and health in early life could explain the association between educational status and all-cause mortality rates using a sibling design. The study...... hazard ratios for mortality according to educational level. Conventional cohort and intersibling analyses were carried out and conducted separately for deaths occurring before and after the age of 45 years, respectively. The cohort analyses showed an inverse association between educational status and all...... selection and confounding by factors shared by siblings explained only a minor part of the association between educational level and all-cause mortality....

  13. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwafi Hani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. Results In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW. We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. Conclusions These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies.

  14. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  15. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults.

  16. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  17. Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Ariza-Cosano, Ana; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Leininger, Sven; Yang, Ally; Torruella, Guifré; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Hughes, Timothy R.; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are among the most important. Until recently, T-box transcription factors were thought to be exclusively present in metazoans. Here, we report the presence of T-box genes in several nonmetazoan lineages, including ichthyosporeans, filastereans, and fungi. Our data confirm that Brachyury is the most ancient member of the T-box family and establish that the T-box family diversified at the onset of Metazoa. Moreover, we demonstrate functional conservation of a homolog of Brachyury of the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki in Xenopus laevis. By comparing the molecular phenotype of C. owczarzaki Brachyury with that of homologs of early branching metazoans, we define a clear difference between unicellular holozoan and metazoan Brachyury homologs, suggesting that the specificity of Brachyury emerged at the origin of Metazoa. Experimental determination of the binding preferences of the C. owczarzaki Brachyury results in a similar motif to that of metazoan Brachyury and other T-box classes. This finding suggests that functional specificity between different T-box classes is likely achieved by interaction with alternative cofactors, as opposed to differences in binding specificity. PMID:24043797

  18. Moderator Role of Self-Esteem on the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitci, Asim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the moderator effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction domains (family, friends and school) and depression in early adolescents were examined. The participants consisted of 255 students, aged from 11 to 15 years, from three junior high schools in Turkey. Data were collected using the Rosenberg…

  19. Moderator Role of Self-Esteem on the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitci, Asim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the moderator effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction domains (family, friends and school) and depression in early adolescents were examined. The participants consisted of 255 students, aged from 11 to 15 years, from three junior high schools in Turkey. Data were collected using the Rosenberg…

  20. Proposal of indexes to evaluate Family Quality of Life, Partnership, and Family support needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Balcells-Balcells

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on the families of persons with Intellectual Disability (ID has focused on the factors that contribute to the improvement of their Family Quality of Life (FQoL, such as the support they get and their partnership with professionals. However, due to the complexity of the variables related to FQoL and support needs and adequacy, measuring these constructs is difficult and multidimensional. To do this, the aim of this study is to generate new indexes through a series of instruments and assess their feasibility to improve the evaluation process and not reduce the situation to single measurements. We applied 3 instruments adapted to the Spanish population --- Service Inventory, Beach Center Family-Professional Partnership Scale, and Beach Center FQOL --- to a sample of 202 families of children with ID and we studied the indexes. The results show that the new indexes were designed to make FQoL measurements more easily manageable and interpretable. In fact, we found a statistical significant correlation between partial indexes (p < .001 in relation to the total score and very high sensibility of the indexes in relation to the degree of disability (p < .001. They also facilitate

  1. Giving Life Gives Me Life: An Action Research Experience with Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilyn Arce-Chavarría

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a participatory action research project.  It expresses my experiences with nine of the fourteen families of students attending the special education school where I work.  Students are in Early Intervention (0-3 years old, Kinder Garden (3-6 and a half years old and the first cycle of elementary school (6 years and 6 months to 9 years old. Six of the participating families included a father and a mother, while the other three only included the mother. I met six times with the families for afternoon coffee over the course of a year.  These gatherings evidenced the need for synchronizing the work done at home with the work offered in the occupational therapy service of which I am in charge, in order to support families in developing their children’s every day skills.  This involves a process of analysis and reflection, which leads to the transformation of those of us who lived this experience.  The paper also presents the families’ reality first from their individual standpoint and later in synchronization with the group, change that was exhibited after sharing with the other families.  Important findings include the need for having a stronger relationship between the school and the families, creating a space for emotional growth for parents, finding similarities between families that would motivate them to be more involved, taking advantage of time, creating personal space for reflection and, last but not least, daring to change.

  2. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below.

  3. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future cardiovascular status. This thesis is basically aimed at exploring the effects of several possible postnatal determinantson the developing cardiovascular system. These early life determinants perhaps immed...

  4. Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Maier, A B; Slagbom, P E

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated in immunosenescence and mortality in the elderly. Little is known about how and when susceptibility to CMV infection is determined. We measured CMV seroprevalence in two genet......--even under continuous within-partnership exposure--appears to be more strongly influenced by early-life environment than by genetic factors and adult environment....

  5. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  6. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  7. Early childhood family intervention and long-term obesity prevention among high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

  8. The teaching of population and family life education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaegbu, A

    1985-06-01

    The experience of many countries in Asia, Latin America, the Arab Region, and Africa South of Sahara has shown that the inquiry and discovery learning method is more effective in teaching population and family life education than other traditional methods. The inquiry or inductive method 1) defines the problem, 2) formulates hypotheses, 3) collects relevant data, 4) tests the hypothesis and analyzes the data, 5) draws conclusions, and 6) generalizes or applies the conclusion. The values clarification level of teaching has the objective of enabling the learners to explore the connection between the subject matter and their own feelings, attitudes, and behavior. The Rath clarification model consists of 7 steps that students need to follow before it can be claimed that learners have clarified or derived their values. Using group discussion technics, students outline and choose from conflicting values for large versus small family size. Role-playing is the spontaneous practice of roles--assuming them in order to practice the behavior required in various cultural situations. Guidelines for role-playing include 1) setting a climate, 2) selecting role-players, 3) preparing the audience, 4) the enactment, 5) discussing and evaluating the role-playing, 6) the re-enactment, and 7) sharing experiences and generalizing. Tables included are 1) population size of some African Countries in 1982 and 2) socioeconomic indicators of those same countries.

  9. DOES MIGRATION DISRUPT FERTILITY? A TEST USING THE MALAYSIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher King Manner,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The disruption hypothesis suggests that migration interrupts fertility during the period of the move. This may be due to the psychological and physiological consequences of the stressful situation associated with the movement itself or the fairly common separate living arrangements of spouses during the early stages of the migration process. In this study, we examine the disruption hypothesis using the Malaysian Family Life Survey life history data. We used ordinary least squares and censored regression models to test the effect of marital separation on fertility surrounding the time of migration. While migrants do appear to experience more temporary separations than non-migrants, our analysis failed to indicate any disruptive effect associated with migration.

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.

  11. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  12. Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, Matthew; McGowan, Patrick O; Sasaki, Aya; Huang, Tony C T; Hallett, Michael T; Meaney, Michael J; Turecki, Gustavo; Szyf, Moshe

    2012-10-16

    Early life experience is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. However, it is unlikely that such effects completely capture the evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms of early adaptation to environment. Here we present DNA methylation profiles spanning 6.5 million base pairs centered at the NR3C1 gene in the hippocampus of humans who experienced abuse as children and nonabused controls. We compare these profiles to corresponding DNA methylation profiles in rats that received differential levels of maternal care. The profiles of both species reveal hundreds of DNA methylation differences associated with early life experience distributed across the entire region in nonrandom patterns. For instance, methylation differences tend to cluster by genomic location, forming clusters covering as many as 1 million bases. Even more surprisingly, these differences seem to specifically target regulatory regions such as gene promoters, particularly those of the protocadherin α, β, and γ gene families. Beyond these high-level similarities, more detailed analyses reveal methylation differences likely stemming from the significant biological and environmental differences between species. These results provide support for an analogous cross-species epigenetic regulatory response at the level of the genomic region to early life experience.

  13. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  14. Early Life on Earth: the Ancient Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, F.

    2004-07-01

    The evidence for early life and its initial evolution on Earth is lin= ked intimately with the geological evolution of the early Earth. The environment of the early Earth would be considered extreme by modern standards: hot (50-80=B0C), volcanically and hydrothermally active, a= noxic, high UV flux, and a high flux of extraterrestrial impacts. Habitats = for life were more limited until continent-building processes resulted in= the formation of stable cratons with wide, shallow, continental platforms= in the Mid-Late Archaean. Unfortunately there are no records of the first appearance of life and the earliest isotopic indications of the exist= ence of organisms fractionating carbon in ~3.8 Ga rocks from the Isua greenst= one belt in Greenland are tenuous. Well-preserved microfossils and micro= bial mats (in the form of tabular and domical stromatolites) occur in 3.5-= 3.3 Ga, Early Archaean, sedimentary formations from the Barberton (South Afri= ca) and Pilbara (Australia) greenstone belts. They document life forms that = show a relatively advanced level of evolution. Microfossil morphology inclu= des filamentous, coccoid, rod and vibroid shapes. Colonial microorganism= s formed biofilms and microbial mats at the surfaces of volcaniclastic = and chemical sediments, some of which created (small) macroscopic microbi= alites such as stromatolites. Anoxygenic photosynthesis may already have developed. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes ratios are in the r= ange of those for organisms with anaerobic metabolisms, such as methanogenesi= s, sulphate reduction and photosynthesis. Life was apparently distribute= d widely in shallow-water to littoral environments, including exposed, evaporitic basins and regions of hydrothermal activity. Biomass in t= he early Archaean was restricted owing to the limited amount of energy t= hat could be produced by anaerobic metabolisms. Microfossils resembling o= xygenic photosynthesisers, such as cyanobacteria, probably first occurred in

  15. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  16. Family perceptions of early hearing, detection, and intervention systems: listening to and learning from families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesGeorges, Janet

    2003-01-01

    As universal newborn hearing systems (screening, diagnosis, intervention) are being established around the world, the success of children who are identified to be deaf and hard of hearing is critically impacted by parent's reactions, acceptance, and advocacy for their child. It is imperative for professionals who are creating systems for Early Hearing, Detection, and Intervention to understand and learn from families' experiences in order to improve this process. This manuscript will identify the areas in which parents have spoken out about the professionals they have encountered through the system: what parents wish for in a healthy, productive relationship with professionals; and how parents can play a part in advocating for a system in which families needs are met so that infants identified to be deaf or hard of hearing can reach their full potential.

  17. Family-Centered Early Intervention Visual Impairment Services through Matrix Session Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…

  18. Personality, family history, and competence in early adult romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle; Conger, Rand D

    2005-03-01

    The present investigation tested how well family characteristics and the personality traits assessed by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (A. Tellegen, 1982) measured in late adolescence predict aspects of romantic relationships in early adulthood. Nurturant-involved parenting practices and personality traits were related to observed negative interactions and to couples' reports of relationship quality. These results from a prospective longitudinal study suggest that the origins of competence in romantic relationships can be found both in individual differences in personality (especially in negative emotionality) and in differences in developmental experiences. Discussion further develops an account of relationship success and dysfunction that integrates proximal factors, such as couple interactions, with more distal factors such as personality and socialization experiences. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Empowering family members in end-of-life care decision making in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Annette M

    2009-01-01

    Critical care nurses are often faced with working with families during the end-of-life care of a loved one. Often there is indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients when faced with making these difficult decisions. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe origins of indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients who are faced with end-of-life care decisions. Strategies to empower family members during this crucial time are also discussed.

  20. PSEN1 and PRNP gene mutations: co-occurrence makes onset very early in a family with FTD phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Livia; Anfossi, Maria; Gallo, Maura; Geracitano, Silvana; Cola, Rosanna; Puccio, Gianfranco; Curcio, Sabrina A M; Frangipane, Francesca; Mirabelli, Maria; Clodomiro, Alessandra; Di Lorenzo, Raffaele; Smirne, Nicoletta; Maletta, Raffaele; Iapaolo, David; Bruni, Amalia C

    2011-01-01

    Prion protein (PRNP) gene mutations have recently been associated with clinical pictures resembling Frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We describe a novel seven extra-repeat insertional mutation in the PRNP gene in a family affected by early-onset autosomal dominant FTD previously reported as caused by a PSEN1 mutation in which there was inconsistency between clinical picture and genotype. Both mutations were pathogenic and showed a variable penetrance when present separately; when occurring together, the onset was very early, within the third decade of life. Genetic screening of the PRNP gene becomes of major importance in early onset autosomal dominant dementia.

  1. A Framework for Studying Family Socialization over the Life Cycle: The Case of Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmuss, Debra; Seltzer, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Uses lifetime perspective on family socialization as framework for understanding effects of divorce and remarriage on family violence. Identifies three family socialization experiences (family of origin, family in transition, and current family) that shape behavior. Recommends extending framework to investigate other family transitions and…

  2. Long and atypical working hours and the impact on intimate family life social activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.

    marriages or in general the intimate social activities of families. That is, some research point to the fact that having atypical working hours in families might have positive influence on family social activities, like supporting possibilities for the number of activities in which mothers and/or fathers...... through our longitudinal survey study of everyday family and work-life. So in short, this paper will present and discuss an analysis of the relationship between work life and intimate family life social activities as they evolve over time and across households....

  3. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families.

  4. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  5. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

  6. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Kober, Olivia I; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C; Marchesi, Julian R; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3-5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

  7. Quality of life and adjustment in youths with asthma: the contributions of family rituals and the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Silva, Neuza; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the relationships among family ritual meaning, cohesion, conflict, and health-related quality of life (both specific to chronic health conditions and in general), and the emotional and behavioral problems reported by youths with asthma. Participants included 149 Portuguese children and adolescents between the ages of 8 and 18 who had been diagnosed with asthma and attended outpatient services at three public hospitals. The results showed that stronger family ritual meaning predicted a more positive family environment (i.e., higher cohesion levels and lower conflict levels), better health-related quality of life, and fewer emotional and behavior problems in youths. Furthermore, family cohesion and conflict mediated the links between family ritual meaning and health-related quality of life, and emotional and behavioral problems. These results did not change after controlling for participant age, gender, and asthma severity. The findings of this study suggest that family ritual meaning contributes to the adaptation of youths with asthma via its positive association with the family environment. The implications for multicontextual interventions with families are briefly discussed with regard to the positive role of family rituals and of their potential as a modifiable factor in families with increased health challenges.

  8. La Familia: Curriculum Unit. Latino Family Life Education Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo

    This teaching guide comprises eight lessons designed to enhance the self-esteem of Latino students, grades 5 through 8, through the exploration of family, family traditions and values, and the affirmation of family strengths. Student objectives include the following: (1) define family; (2) describe similarities and differences among Latino…

  9. This Harlem life: black families and everyday life in the 1920s and 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephen; White, Shane; Garton, Stephen; White, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article uses Probation Department files to reconstruct the lives of five ordinary residents of Harlem. It highlights what that black metropolis offered those outside the political and cultural elite, who have dominated historical scholarship, showing how ordinary blacks negotiated the challenges of life in northern neighborhoods, and drew on institutions and organizations, to establish and sustain new lives. We offer the kind of individualized perspective on everyday life that other scholars have provided for high culture, but which does not exist for other realms of existence in Harlem, even in early twentieth century sociological studies of black life. Where scholars seeking to distinguish the neighborhood from a slum have pointed to the prevailing pride and self-confidence of its residents, this article directs attention to more immediate, concrete supports that sustained and enriched life in Harlem. Relationships with spouses, children, siblings and cousins sustained individuals faced with the social reality of living in overcrowded, deteriorating, disease infested housing, subject to the racism of white police, politicians and employers; so too did friendships made in nightclubs, speakeasies, dances and movie theatres, and membership of churches, fraternal organizations, social clubs, and sports clubs and teams.

  10. Exercise, pain, perceived family support, and quality of life in Korean patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2005-02-01

    Relations of habitual exercise and pain, perceived family support, and the quality of life in patients with functional class II for ankylosing spondylitis were explored. In a cross-sectional study perceived pain, family support, and quality of life were compared for 30 patients (23 women and 7 men whose mean age was 28.3 yr.+/-8.6 yr.) practicing exercise regularly and for 38 sedentary patients (31 women and 7 men whose mean age was 27.2+/-6.7 yr.). Exercising patients reported significantly lower pain, greater perceived family support, and increased quality of life than their sedentary peers. Pain ratings were significantly negatively correlated with the quality of life in both groups (r = -.26 in exercisers and r = -.50 in sedentary patients) and control group's perceived family support was significantly correlated .44 with quality of life. These results encourage further study of the associations of habitual exercise with perceived pain, family support, and quality of life.

  11. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  12. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  13. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p ... with atopic heredity (p = 0.017), whereas smoking exposure during pregnancy (p = 0.019) and in the 1st year of life (p = 0.018) was less prevalent. Wheezy bronchitis was equally frequent among subjects with and without atopic predisposition (p = 0.893). Wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years seems...

  14. Early Life Microbiota, Neonatal Immune Maturation and Hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    and the commensals in the gut. Hematopoietic stem cells from the fetal liver seed the fetal spleen and bone marrow in perinatal phase. Granulocytosis in neonate mice and man just after birth is a natural event of early life hematopoiesis and likely contributes to elevated counts of neutrophil-like cells...... bowl disease, later in life. The intestinal epithelium makes up a physical and biochemical barrier between the bacteria in the gut lumen and the immune cells in the submocusal tissue. This monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) makes up an extremely large surface and is highly important...... in the peripheral blood of newborns. Granular myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have recently been described in human cord blood. MDSC are potential immunosuppressive cells often described in cancer, inflammation and during sepsis. They evolve from immature myeloid cells during hematopoiesis. Several recent...

  15. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  16. In vivo research using early life stage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Rita; Bhogal, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Early life stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken.

  17. Gender and Family Disparities in Suicide Attempt and Role of Socioeconomic, School, and Health-Related Difficulties in Early Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kénora Chau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt (SA is common in early adolescence and the risk may differ between boys and girls in nonintact families partly because of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. This study explored the gender and family disparities and the role of these covariates. Questionnaires were completed by 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including sex, age, socioeconomic factors (family structure, nationality, parents’ education, father’s occupation, family income, and social support, grade repetition, depressive symptoms, sustained violence, sexual abuse, unhealthy behaviors (tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug use, SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent’s life course. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. SA affected 12.5% of girls and 7.2% of boys (P<0.001. The girls living with parents divorced/separated, in reconstructed families, and with single parents had a 3-fold higher SA risk than those living in intact families. Over 63% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. No family disparities were observed among boys. Girls had a 1.74-time higher SA risk than boys, and 45% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and mental difficulties and violence. SA prevention should be performed in early adolescence and consider gender and family differences and the role of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties.

  18. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393). © FPI, Inc.

  19. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seico eBenner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED, and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior.

  20. The Association between Adolescent Life Satisfaction, Family Structure, Family Affluence and Gender Differences in Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Dallago, Lorenza; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to examine young people's life satisfaction in the context of the family environment, using data from the 2006 HBSC: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland (N = 5,126). Multilevel linear regression analyses were carried out for 11-, 13- and 15-year old boys and girls, with outcome measure ridit-transformed life satisfaction. The…

  1. Lifetime fitness consequences of early-life ecological hardship in a wild mammal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harry H; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Mwanguhya, Francis; Businge, Robert; Kyabulima, Solomon; Hares, Michelle C; Inzani, Emma; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Mwesige, Kenneth; Nichols, Hazel J; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Thompson, Faye J; Cant, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Early-life ecological conditions have major effects on survival and reproduction. Numerous studies in wild systems show fitness benefits of good quality early-life ecological conditions ("silver-spoon" effects). Recently, however, some studies have reported that poor-quality early-life ecological conditions are associated with later-life fitness advantages and that the effect of early-life conditions can be sex-specific. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of the variability of early-life ecological conditions on later-life fitness. Here, we test how the mean and variability of early-life ecological conditions affect the longevity and reproduction of males and females using 14 years of data on wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo). Males that experienced highly variable ecological conditions during development lived longer and had greater lifetime fitness, while those that experienced poor early-life conditions lived longer but at a cost of reduced fertility. In females, there were no such effects. Our study suggests that exposure to more variable environments in early life can result in lifetime fitness benefits, whereas differences in the mean early-life conditions experienced mediate a life-history trade-off between survival and reproduction. It also demonstrates how early-life ecological conditions can produce different selection pressures on males and females.

  2. Families Speak to Early Childhood Teachers: Impressions and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Suzanne B.; Dykes, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Investigators interviewed 54 families of children with disabilities ages seven through nine to examine the expectations that families of young children hold for their child's teacher. Responses themes were examined to determine if a pattern existed between families of different groups of children. Results reveal many families expressed true…

  3. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…

  4. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  6. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life... information technology. To Submit Comments and For Further Information: To obtain a copy of the data... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health,...

  7. The Relation between Work-Family Balance and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Collins, Karen M.; Shaw, Jason D.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between work-family balance and quality of life was assessed for 353 accounting professionals. Those who spent more time on family than work experienced higher quality of life than balanced individuals, who experienced higher quality than those who spent more time on work. Findings were similar for level of involvement balance and…

  8. Work, Family and Life-Course Fit: Does Control over Work Time Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from "work-family" to a multi-dimensional "life-course fit" construct (employees' cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2)…

  9. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  10. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  11. Does family structure matter? Comparing the life goals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child and Family Studies Programme, Department of Social Work, ... (such as poverty in the family) and the media (role models such as successful singers) ... motivation towards certain goals and aspirations has implications for the individual.

  12. Familia Ludens: Reinforcing the Leisure Component in Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthner, Dennis K.

    1975-01-01

    Leisure is examined as a normal and potentially vital component in the contemporary family. Consideration is given to the interplay between work and leisure and the means by which leisure facilitates companionship and family interaction. (Author)

  13. The European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD module and the new facet Family/Family life: reliability and validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Manuela; Sousa, Liliana B; Simões, Mário R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD). The European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD includes a new identified facet, Family/Family life. A convenience sample of older adults was recruited (N = 921). The assessment protocol included demographics, self-perceived health, depressive symptoms (GDS-30), cognitive function (ACE-R), daily life activities (IAFAI), health status (SF-12) and QoL (WHOQOL-Bref, EUROHIS-QOL-8 and WHOQOL-OLD). The internal consistency was excellent for the total 24-item WHOQOL-OLD original version and also for the final 28-item European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD version. The test-retest reliability for total scores was good. The construct validity of the European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD was supported in the correlation matrix analysis. The results indicated good convergent/divergent validity. The WHOQOL-OLD scores differentiated groups of older adults who were healthy/unhealthy and without/mild/severe depressive symptoms. The new facet, Family/Family life, presented evidence of good reliability and validity parameters. Comparatively to international studies, the European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD version showed similar and/or better psychometric properties. The new facet, Family/Family life, introduces cross-cultural specificity to the study of QoL of older adults and generally improves the psychometric robustness of the WHOQOL-OLD.

  14. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently…

  15. Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Larroux, Claire; Lu, Daniel R; Mohanty, Kareshma; Chapman, Jarrod; Degnan, Bernard M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2010-01-01

    LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons) indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In Nematostella, Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural

  16. Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LIM homeobox (Lhx transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. Results We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. Conclusions The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In

  17. La Familia: Student Workbook. Latino Family Life Education Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo

    This workbook comprises eight lessons designed to enhance the self-esteem of Latino students, grades 5 through 8, through the exploration of family, family traditions and values, and the affirmation of family strengths. Each lesson begins with an illustration that reflects the content of the lesson and an introductory page. Each introductory page…

  18. [The phenomenon of families who are involved in decision making about life support withdrawal in family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholster, M; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1998-12-01

    The overall objective of this study was to explore and describe the phenomenon of families who are involved in deciding about withdrawal of life-support treatment of a family member. A phenomenon analysis was undertaken in two phases. During the first phase, secondary analysis of primary data was done on the family used in Burger's study (1996: 1-175) and was followed up by phenomenological interviews with families used as member checking from the same circumstances and according to the same criteria that Burger (1996: 1-185) used in her study. Data were analysed in collaboration with an independent coder. The family used as member checking in this study is also used as data control. A literature control was conducted as part of data control. The themes that were identified included were: physical and bodily experiences of families; defence mechanisms used by families to cope with grief; emotional experiences of families; need of knowledge/perceptions/outlook on life/internal conflict/feelings of guilt/ability to make decisions/respect of patient wishes/the effect of time and prior experiences; support needed by an given to families; spiritual and supernatural experiences/hope/acceptance/ability to 'let go' of the patient. In phase two, guidelines were described for psychiatric nurse specialists to mobilise resources for families to promote, maintain and restore their mental health as an integral part of health.

  19. Improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction following the move to single-family room NICU design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jo; DeLand, Marion; Gibbins, Sharyn; MacMillan York, Elizabeth; Robson, Kate

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in staff quality of work life and parent satisfaction when a neonatal intensive care unit moved from an open-bay design to a single-room model of care. This descriptive study measured staff quality of work life and family satisfaction before and at 2 time periods after the relocation of a perinatal centre and the introduction of single-family room care. Differences in work life quality and satisfaction were determined using 2-sample t-tests. There were improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction at both time periods following the move. Lessons learned may be of value to other units considering such a move. A neonatal intensive care unit designed to contribute to parental and staff well-being is a model to be considered for future neonatal designs.

  20. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  1. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  2. The stepwise evolution of early life driven by energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, James G; House, Christopher H

    2006-06-01

    Two main theories have emerged for the origin and early evolution of life based on heterotrophic versus chemoautotrophic metabolisms. With the exception of a role for CO, the theories have little common ground. Here we propose an alternative theory for the early evolution of the cell which combines principal features of the widely disparate theories. The theory is based on the extant pathway for conversion of CO to methane and acetate, largely deduced from the genomic analysis of the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. In contrast to current paradigms, we propose that an energy-conservation pathway was the major force which powered and directed the early evolution of the cell. We envision the proposed primitive energy-conservation pathway to have developed sometime after a period of chemical evolution but prior to the establishment of diverse protein-based anaerobic metabolisms. We further propose that energy conservation played the predominant role in the later evolution of anaerobic metabolisms which explains the origin and evolution of extant methanogenic pathways.

  3. Selection bias in family reports on end of life with dementia in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Steen, van, M.; Deliens, L.; Ribbe, M.W.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Selective participation in retrospective studies of families recruited after the patient's death may threaten generalizability of reports on end-of-life experiences. Objectives: To assess possible selection bias in retrospective study of dementia at the end of life using family reports. Methods: Two physician teams covering six nursing home facilities in the Netherlands reported on 117 of 119 consecutive decedents within two weeks after death unaware of after-death family ...

  4. Verbal communication of families with cancer patients at end of life: A questionnaire survey with bereaved family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Kazuhiro; Shiozaki, Mariko; Hirai, Kei; Morita, Tatsuya; Tatara, Ryuhei; Ichihara, Kaori; Sato, Shinichi; Simizu, Megumi; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyasita, Mitsunori

    2017-06-21

    To clarify the verbal communication of feelings between families and patients in Japanese palliative care units from the perspective of bereaved family members by examining (1) proportions of families' and patients' verbalization of six feelings (gratitude, love, seeking forgiveness, giving forgiveness, wishes after death, and continuing bonds), (2) recognition of receiving these feelings through verbalization from the family's perspective, and (3) the specific attitudes of family members that influence their verbalizations. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 968 bereaved families of cancer patients in palliative care units across Japan. Five hundred thirty-seven responses were analyzed. (1) "Gratitude" was verbalized most often (families: 47%; patients: 61%), and "expressing forgiveness" least often (families: 16%; patients: 11%). (2) Even if the words were not used, 81.2% to 88.2% of families answered that they had received the patient's feelings, and 71.8% to 85.4% of families felt the patient had received their feelings. (3) Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the strongest attitudes determining verbalizing were "not wanting to say farewell without conveying feelings," "a daily basis of expressing," and "heart-to-heart communication" (ishin-denshin). For both families and patients, verbalizing feelings was difficult. Our results showed that families' and patients' verbalizing and receiving of feelings must be aligned to understand their communication at the end of life in Japan. Future research is needed to verify how attitude helps promote or inhibit verbalization. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Meaning in Life, Emotion-Oriented Coping, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Family Cohesion as Predictors of Family Satisfaction among Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Sweeney, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested whether self-efficacy, coping styles, family cohesion, and meaning in life predicted family satisfaction among 64 mothers of children with disabilities. They also examined whether meaning in life mediated the relationship between cohesion and family satisfaction or served as a resource whose effects on family satisfaction were…

  6. Early life stress and later health : Cardiovascular disease and general health among former war evacuees

    OpenAIRE

    Alastalo, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Experienced stress in childhood might have been so severe that it has effects throughout the life course. It has been suggested that early life stress may extend consequences on psychological and physical well-being. Previous findings focusing upon consequences of early life stress are however limited and mostly based upon retrospective studies. Still little is known about the consequences of early life stress, such as war separation on physical health from a longitudinal aspect. This th...

  7. Cooperation and quality of life among Bering Sea fishermen and their families

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    Bering Sea pollock fishing is characterized by high levels of physical risk, uncertainties in wages and schedule, close and extensive interdependence on other workers, and long absences from home. This occupation leads to a way of life which is full of extremes and has unusually strong effects on the family. This study examines the effects of the occupation on the quality of family life and working life through a teamwork perspective. It is a study of the slow breakdown in c...

  8. Molecular Evolution of Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase Proteins in the Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Gregory P.; Andam, Cheryl P.; Alm, Eric J.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) consist of several families of functionally conserved proteins essential for translation and protein synthesis. Like nearly all components of the translation machinery, most aaRS families are universally distributed across cellular life, being inherited from the time of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). However, unlike the rest of the translation machinery, aaRS have undergone numerous ancient horizontal gene transfers, with several independent events detected between domains, and some possibly involving lineages diverging before the time of LUCA. These transfers reveal the complexity of molecular evolution at this early time, and the chimeric nature of genomes within cells that gave rise to the major domains. Additionally, given the role of these protein families in defining the amino acids used for protein synthesis, sequence reconstruction of their pre-LUCA ancestors can reveal the evolutionary processes at work in the origin of the genetic code. In particular, sequence reconstructions of the paralog ancestors of isoleucyl- and valyl- RS provide strong empirical evidence that at least for this divergence, the genetic code did not co-evolve with the aaRSs; rather, both amino acids were already part of the genetic code before their cognate aaRSs diverged from their common ancestor. The implications of this observation for the early evolution of RNA-directed protein biosynthesis are discussed.

  9. Babies of the War: The Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we investigate whether less extreme situations during World War II also affected later-life mortality for cohorts born in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Norway. We argue that these occupied countries experienced a considerable deterioration in daily life situations and show that this resulted in strongly increased mortality rates and lower probabilities of survival until age 55 among civilian populations who had been prenatally exposed to wartime circumstances. However, this mortality effect among the prenatally exposed is entirely concentrated in the first years of life, particularly infanthood. Once we condition on having survived the first years of life, those who had been prenatally exposed do not have higher mortality rates. This suggests that "culling" is important and that effects found in earlier studies may have been biased downward substantially.

  10. Processing and Testing the Quality of Life in Families with Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Askari Shahed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mentally retarded children need more care on quality of life, therefore the family plays an important role, but the results indicate low levels of quality of life for these children and their families. The present study aimed to measure the quality of life in mothers of educable mentally retarded daughter motivated provide a model to measure quality of life and understanding of issues affecting the design. An attempt to investigate and describe the factors affecting the quality of family life with a disability and the relationship between these indicators and how to measure them families with children with mental retardation.   Methods: The research method was descriptive-analytic. The sample consisted of 75 mothers with a mentally retarded daughter who were participated in this study through census sampling. By studying literature, the related texts criteria of quality of life were extracted. All study information of participants was obtained by standard questionnaires. Using correlation analysis techniques, univariate regression, logistic regression analysis were analyzed through structural equations.   Results: The results indicated that the performance of family (family interactions, parenting, mental health and physical capabilities mother (resilience and aggression, personal beliefs and quality of life of families with disabled children influenced it. Personal beliefs are an important determinant of quality of life.   Conclusion: The results of structural equation modeling and corresponding indexes indicated that the proposed model based on experimental data fitting was good and desirable product was in compliance with the conceptual model.    

  11. Life Satisfaction of University Students in Relation to Family and Food in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Grunert, Klaus G.; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Hueche, Clementina; Poblete, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL) are associated with healthy eating habits, family interaction around eating and family support. The present study evaluates the relationship between SWFoL and satisfaction with family life (SWFaL), and their relationship with life satisfaction in university students. We identify the relationship of two different types of family support and student SWFaL and explore a moderator effect of gender. A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 370 students of both genders (mean age 21 years) in Chile, including Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFoL scale, SWFaL scale, and the Family Resources Scale. Using structural equation modeling, we found that students’ life satisfaction was related to SWFaL and food-related life. A high positive relationship was identified between intangible family support and students’ SWFaL, which would have a mediating role between intangible support and life satisfaction. Using multi-group analysis, a moderator effect of gender was not found. These findings suggest that improving SWFoL, SWFaL and intangible family support is important for both female and male students. PMID:28932203

  12. Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants

  13. The relationship between family social support and quality of life in diabetic female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mousavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Life quality of diabetic patients is always affected by psychosocial problems, physical disorders, and life style changes. It seems that the perceived social support could intervene in improving the life quality of these patients. The present study was carried out aiming to examine the relation between family social support and life quality of female patients with diabetes. This was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population included 173 diabetic females who were randomly selected from patients referred to Kermanshah diabetes research center. Data were collected using life quality questionnaire (Short Form-36 as well as perceived social support scale. The data analysis indicated that there is a significant correlation between family support and life quality of patients. Furthermore, concerning the components of life quality, there is a significant correlation between family social support and physical performance, physical limitation, tiredness, emotional health, social performance, pain, and general health of patients. However, no significant relation was found between family support and limitation of patients. Results showed that there is a direct relation between family support and the life quality in females with diabetes. Hence, it can be concluded that giving the family support to the female diabetic patients can increase their quality of life.

  14. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  15. Effects of Family Functioning and Parenting Style on Early Entrants' Academic Performance and Program Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…

  16. Effects of Family Functioning and Parenting Style on Early Entrants' Academic Performance and Program Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…

  17. Maternal warmth buffers the effects of low early-life socioeconomic status on pro-inflammatory signaling in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E; Miller, G E; Kobor, M S; Cole, S W

    2011-07-01

    The notion that family support may buffer individuals under adversity from poor outcomes has been theorized to have important implications for mental and physical health, but little is known about the biological mechanisms that explain these links. We hypothesized that adults who grew up in low socioeconomic status (SES) households but who experienced high levels of maternal warmth would be protected from the pro-inflammatory states typically associated with low SES. A total of 53 healthy adults (aged 25-40 years) low in SES early in life were assessed on markers of immune activation and systemic inflammation. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling also was conducted. Low early-life SES individuals who had mothers, who expressed high warmth toward them, exhibited less Toll-like receptor-stimulated production of interleukin 6, and reduced bioinformatic indications of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activity (NF-κB) and immune activating transcription factor activity (AP-1) compared to those who were low in SES early in life but experienced low maternal warmth. To the extent that such effects are causal, they suggest the possibility that the detrimental immunologic effects of low early-life SES environments may be partly diminished through supportive family climates.

  18. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE: We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS: We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS: We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS: Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior.

  19. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior.

  20. Spillover Effects of Early-Life Medical Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard; Daysal, N. Meltem; Simonsen, Marianne;

    2015-01-01

    substantial positive spillovers on all our measures of academic achievement. Our estimates suggest that siblings of focal children who were slightly below the VLBW cutoff have higher 9th grade language and math test scores, as well as higher probability of enrolling in a high school by age 19. Our results......We investigate the spillover effects of early-life medical treatments on the siblings of treated children. We use a regression discontinuity design that exploits changes in medical treatments across the very low birth weight (VLBW) cutoff. Using administrative data from Denmark, we first confirm...... the findings in the previous literature that children who are slightly below the VLBW cutoff have better short- and long-term health, and higher math test scores in 9th grade. We next investigate spillover effects on siblings and find no evidence of an impact on their health outcomes. However, we find...

  1. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  2. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  3. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  4. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin...... test reactivity to 10 common aeroallergens was measured using standard techniques. Atopic disease was defined as a history of hayfever and/or asthma concomitantly with a positive skin-prick test. Logistic regression showed that parental atopy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p breast-feeding was longer in subjects...

  5. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DGR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA, or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors.Keywords: mortality, survival, life expectancy, early-onset, tumors

  6. Family Structure and the Transition to Early Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Goldscheider, Frances

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men’s transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call “fragile families.”...

  7. Podocyte number and density changes during early human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masao; Wickman, Larysa; Rabah, Raja; Wiggins, Roger C

    2017-05-01

    Podocyte depletion, which drives progressive glomerulosclerosis in glomerular diseases, is caused by a reduction in podocyte number, size or function in the context of increasing glomerular volume. Kidneys obtained at autopsy from premature and mature infants who died in the first year of life (n = 24) were used to measure podometric parameters for comparison with previously reported data from older kidneys. Glomerular volume increased 4.6-fold from 0.13 ± 0.07 μm(3) x10(6) in the pre-capillary loop stage, through 0.35 μm(3) x10(6) at the capillary loop, to 0.60 μm(3) x10(6) at the mature glomerular stage. Podocyte number per glomerulus increased from 326 ± 154 per glomerulus at the pre-capillary loop stage to 584 ± 131 per glomerulus at the capillary loop stage of glomerular development to reach a value of 589 ± 166 per glomerulus in mature glomeruli. Thus, the major podocyte number increase occurs in the early stages of glomerular development, in contradistinction to glomerular volume increase, which continues after birth in association with body growth. As glomeruli continue to enlarge, podocyte density (number per volume) rapidly decreases, requiring a parallel rapid increase in podocyte size that allows podocyte foot processes to maintain complete coverage of the filtration surface area. Hypertrophic stresses on the glomerulus and podocyte during development and early rapid growth periods of life are therefore likely to play significant roles in determining how and when defects in podocyte structure and function due to genetic variants become clinically manifest. Therapeutic strategies aimed at minimizing mismatch between these factors may prove clinically useful.

  8. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  9. Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Increases in Adjustment Difficulties across Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…

  10. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  11. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  12. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  13. Trends in Family Life and Children's School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas

    Education professionals have long known that family background is a stronger predictor of academic success than are school or teacher characteristics. The past 30 years have seen a series of drastic alterations in patterns of family living in the United States, and these changes mean that a substantial number of youngsters are being born or are…

  14. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Yoo, S B; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Kim, B T; Park, K; Jahng, J W

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS. Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levels of the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggest that neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increased expressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  15. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardamagna, Ornella; Abello, Francesca; Cagliero, Paola; Lughetti, Lorenzo

    2012-12-21

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic.The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body's "metabolic programming". Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood.The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease.

  16. Programming of hippocampal structure and function by early-life stress: Opportunities for nutritional intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life is a critical developmental phase during which brain structure and function are shaped 'for life'. When early-life is disturbed by stress-exposure, this lastingly programs our brains and is associated with impaired cognition and predisposition to psychopathology in adulthood.

  17. Sir James Reid and the Death of Queen Victoria: An Early Model for End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    An appraisal of the last ten days of Queen Victoria's life, viewed primarily from the perspective of her personal physician, Sir James Reid, is presented. Sir James' clinical encounters with his patient and the Royal Family are examined to reveal his strategic and medical thinking and gauge his level of success in basic palliative aims. It was found that the lack of effective medical interventions, tensions within the Royal Family, the importance of his post to Sir James' professional career, and the political ramifications unavoidably connected with the illness of a head of state, all presented challenges to Reid's efforts to ease the physical and emotional pain of Queen Victoria's dying. Key features of Sir James' approach included reliance on physician-patient and physician-family relationships, emphasis on emotional support for the patient, and the careful selection of interventions for the family. In the first years of the 20th century, an era when the contemporary concepts of palliative care, hospice, and family dynamics did not exist, Sir James' management of the Queen's final illness suggested an early model for end-of-life care. By the end of Queen Victoria's life, Sir James was seen to have preserved his patient's comfort and dignity, at the same time advancing family and societal acceptance of the death of this matriarchal figure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  19. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  20. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience.

  1. The experience of work-life balance across family-life stages in Switzerland: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wepfer, Ariane G; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-01-01

    ... of work-life balance across family-life stages as a consequence of this gendered division of labor. We used data from a survey study on work-life issues and health in four large companies in Switzerland...

  2. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP) or by a single mother (SM). BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10%) and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  3. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  4. Sustainable poverty amelioration through early life education in a peri-urban community of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Abosede

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daycare centres/nurseries have become popular because of the need for working mothers to leave young children with caregivers. However, the high poverty level (54% relative and 35% extreme poverty makes it difficult for disadvantaged parents to pay the high fees charged by the centres. This study describes an attempt to economically empower mothers through the organisation of free early life education in a peri-urban community in Lagos.Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine early life education for under-fives as a means of economic empowerment of mothers and sustainable poverty amelioration. Method: The methodology included a non-randomised selection of 34 disadvantaged mothers by criteria, a prospective intervention utilising community resources to organise early childhood education, an in-depth interview of mothers, and observation of the outcomes over a 5-year period.Results: The result of the study showed that no mother preferred keeping a child older than three years at home. Access to early childhood education gave mothers opportunity to undergo vocational training (1, 2.8% and take up new/additional jobs (12, 35.3%. All mothers and 32 (80% of the participating families more than doubled their income, earning up to twenty thousand Naira (approximately $182 per month from the first year of participation. Finally, selection criteria and periodic assessment of immunisation/growth monitoring records of participants’ children improved compliance with primary health care service utilisation.Conclusion: Organisation of early childhood education had the potential for sustainable poverty amelioration through economic empowerment of mothers.

  5. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayza Alves Clementino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%. The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869 and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284 and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759 were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987. Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families.

  6. Family Rituals and Quality of Life in Children With Cancer and Their Parents: The Role of Family Cohesion and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M Cristina; Kazak, Anne E

    2015-08-01

    Family rituals are associated with adaptive functioning in pediatric illness, including quality of life (QoL). This article explores the role of family cohesion and hope as mediators of this association in children with cancer and their parents. Portuguese children with cancer (N = 389), on- and off-treatment, and one of their parents completed self-report measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect links between family rituals and QoL. When children and parents reported higher levels of family rituals, they also reported more family cohesion and hope, which were linked to better QoL. At the dyadic level, children's QoL was related to parents' family rituals through the child's family cohesion. This model was valid across child's age-group, treatment status, and socioeconomic status. Family rituals are important in promoting QoL in pediatric cancer via family cohesion and hope individually and via family cohesion in terms of parent-child interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Work family-life balance and social investment strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses the options and possibilities of combining work and family life in a universal welfare state, e. g. Denmark. Related to the ability to combine work and family life is the welfare states investment in affordable and high quality day care and a perspective...... on caring for elderly citizens. The theoretical underpinnings of universal welfare states is given and also the reason why it has been important to ensure and be able to combine work and family life. The article shows how Denmark, Sweden and Finland compare with countries from other and different types...

  8. Digital Inequalities of Family Life Information Seeking and Family Well-Being Among Chinese Adults in Hong Kong: A Population Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Wan, Alice; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inequalities in Internet use and health information seeking are well documented, but less is known about information for family life activities. Objective We investigated the social determinants of online family life information seeking behaviors and its associations with family well-being among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods A probability-based telephone survey was conducted in 2012 to record family life information seeking behaviors, including frequency of seeking and payin...

  9. Digital inequalities of family life information seeking and family well-being among Chinese adults in Hong Kong: a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Wan, Alice; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-10-03

    Inequalities in Internet use and health information seeking are well documented, but less is known about information for family life activities. We investigated the social determinants of online family life information seeking behaviors and its associations with family well-being among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. A probability-based telephone survey was conducted in 2012 to record family life information seeking behaviors, including frequency of seeking and paying attention to family life information, levels of trust, and perceived usefulness of family life information. Family well-being was assessed using 3 single items on perceived family harmony, happiness, and health, with higher scores indicating greater well-being. Adjusted odds ratios for family life information seeking behaviors by socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors, and adjusted beta coefficients for family well-being by family life information seeking behaviors were calculated. Of 1537 respondents, 57.57% (855/1537) had ever and 26.45% (407/1537) sought monthly family life information through the Internet. Lower educational attainment and household income, smoking, and physical inactivity were associated with less frequent seeking and paying attention (all Pinformation. Frequent attention and higher level of trust were also associated with greater family harmony (adjusted β=.22, 95% CI .002-.41) and happiness (adjusted β=.23, 95% CI .003-.42), respectively. This is the first study investigating family life information seeking behaviors and suggested inequalities of online family life information seeking behaviors. The association between family life information seeking behavior and family well-being needs to be confirmed in prospective studies.

  10. Work-family enrichment among dual-earner couples: can work improve our family life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marianne G; O'Brien, Karen M

    2013-10-01

    The extent to which resources generated at work and positive affect were associated with enrichment in the family domain among 107 dual-earner couples was investigated. Grounded in work-family enrichment theory (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006), this study examined the indirect effect of workplace organizational support on family satisfaction through positive affect at work. Organizational support for work-family management was associated with positive affect at work for both women and men, and positive affect at work was related to family satisfaction for women. One interpersonal effect emerged: women's positive affect at work was associated with family satisfaction for men. Implications for theory, practice, research, and workplace policy are discussed.

  11. Cumulative family risk predicts increases in adjustment difficulties across early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M

    2013-06-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent families using four waves of annual longitudinal data (51% female youth). Risk factors in four family domains were examined: socioeconomic, parents' psychological realm, marital, and parenting. Cumulative family risk experienced while in 6th grade was associated concurrently with daughters' higher internalizing problems and with increased internalizing problems during early adolescence. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with sons' higher externalizing problems and with daughters' increased externalizing problems over time. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with lower grades and with declining grades over time for both daughters and sons. The number of risk domains also was associated with youths' adjustment difficulties during early adolescence, providing evidence that risk in two-parent families involves more than ineffective parenting. These findings suggest a critical need to provide strong support for families in reducing a variety of stressors across multiple family domains as their children traverse early adolescence.

  12. Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R; Clark, A

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to see why both purchasers and providers of mental health services would be interested in prevention, but will preventive interventions work in practice? This paper discusses the possibility of preventing depressive disorder in late adolescence and early adult life by intervening in childhood and early adolescence. The paper begins with a description of the phenomenology of depression and its risk factors. It then goes on to describe a framework of prevention and within this framework explores whether there is an adequate knowledge base. The general perspective that is presented is one of cautious scepticism. It is argued that difficulties in defining depression and identifying risk factors that can easily be remedied make it unlikely that within the foreseeable future primary prevention programmes will prove to be more effective than treatment and rehabilitation of affected individuals. The possibility that preventive programmes could do harm will also be discussed. The paper concludes with some proposals about appropriate targets for prevention. It is suggested that apart from a few policy areas where there are some relatively harmless measures that could protect from later depression, a balanced preventive programme will give higher priority to treatment services than to those concerned with early intervention.

  13. The family and the ontogenesis of human life: An appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of auto-transcendence still baffles philosophers and scholars of ... role of the family, in a man's journey on earth beginning from his origins through his ... fundamental features of man, namely: Facticity, existentiality and falleness.

  14. Family members' informal roles in end-of-life decision making in adult intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jill R; Schmitt, Madeline; Baggs, Judith Gedney; Norton, Sally A; Dombeck, Mary T; Sellers, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    To support the process of effective family decision making, it is important to recognize and understand informal roles that various family members may play in the end-of-life decision-making process. To describe some informal roles consistently enacted by family members involved in the process of end-of-life decision making in intensive care units. Ethnographic study. Data were collected via participant observation with field notes and semistructured interviews on 4 intensive care units in an academic health center in the mid-Atlantic United States from 2001 to 2004. The units studied were a medical, a surgical, a burn and trauma, and a cardiovascular intensive care unit. Health care clinicians, patients, and family members. Informal roles for family members consistently observed were primary caregiver, primary decision maker, family spokesperson, out-of-towner, patient's wishes expert, protector, vulnerable member, and health care expert. The identified informal roles were part of families' decision-making processes, and each role was part of a potentially complicated family dynamic for end-of-life decision making within the family system and between the family and health care domains. These informal roles reflect the diverse responses to demands for family decision making in what is usually a novel and stressful situation. Identification and description of these informal roles of family members can help clinicians recognize and understand the functions of these roles in families' decision making at the end of life and guide development of strategies to support and facilitate increased effectiveness of family discussions and decision-making processes.

  15. Parent and Family Perception of Engagement: Lessons from Early Years Programs and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Kathryn; Killoran, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how parents and families perceive their own engagement in early years services in three communities in Ontario, Canada. Using an Appreciative Inquiry approach, focus groups, and questionnaires with parents, we investigated parent views of the strengths of early years supports and perceived outcomes of early years services in…

  16. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Moor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Family ties in Europe are affected by demographic trends associated with parenting and partnering, such as a decline in fertility, an increase in childlessness, postponement of parenthood and of partnership formation, the rise of "new" relationship forms and divorce rates. It is unclear how the contemporary family structure and composition are associated with people's mental wellbeing. OBJECTIVE This article examines how ties with parents, siblings, a partner and children are associated with depressive mood of men and women in seven Eastern and Western European countries. METHODS To test our hypotheses we made use of data from the Generations and Gender Surveys. We performed logistic regression analyses to study the associations between people's family ties and depressive mood. RESULTS Our research findings show that family ties can diminish people's depressive feelings. Although we find some gender differences in these associations, we do not find support for the argument that family ties are more important for the mental wellbeing of women than of men. Moreover, our findings support the hierarchical model of family relations in which new ties with partner and children in adulthood gain precedence over the original primary ties with parents and siblings. Finally, we find that the association between family ties and depressive mood is quite similar in Eastern and Western Europe, but being married or having a partner more strongly reduces depressive feelings in Eastern than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS Although we did not dispose of longitudinal data, our research results do provide some indications about how demographic changes, for instance, those affecting family size -- the number of children or siblings -- might be associated with mental wellbeing. Our findings also suggest that the demographic trend of increasing partnership dissolution may have larger consequences for people's mental wellbeing in Eastern

  17. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nienke Moor; Aafke Komter

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Family ties in Europe are affected by demographic trends associated with parenting and partnering, such as a decline in fertility, an increase in childlessness, postponement of parenthood and of partnership formation, the rise of "new" relationship forms and divorce rates. It is unclear how the contemporary family structure and composition are associated with people's mental wellbeing. OBJECTIVE This article examines how ties with parents, siblings, a partner and chi...

  18. Hospice family members’ perceptions and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla; Kruse, Robin L.; Albright, David L; Lewis, Alexandria; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the fact that more than 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, end-of-life care has consistently been found to be less than adequate in this setting. Even for those residents on hospice, end-of-life care has been found to be problematic. This study had two research questions; 1) How do family members of hospice nursing home residents differ in their anxiety, depression, quality of life, social networks, perceptions of pain medication, and health compared to family members of community dwelling hospice patients? 2) What are family members’ perceptions of and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home setting? Methods This study is a secondary mixed methods analysis of interviews with family members of hospice nursing home residents and a comparative statistical analysis of standard outcome measures between family members of hospice patients in the nursing home and family member of hospice patients residing in the community. Results Outcome measures for family members of nursing home residents were compared (n=176) with family members of community dwelling hospice patients (n=267). The family members of nursing home residents reported higher quality of life however, levels of anxiety, depression, perceptions of pain medicine, and health were similar for hospice family members in the nursing home and in the community. Lending an understanding to the stress for hospice family members of nursing home residents concerns were found with collaboration between the nursing home and the hospice, nursing home care that did not meet family expectations, communication problems, and resident care concerns including pain management. Some family members reported positive end-of-life care experiences in the nursing home setting. Conclusion These interviews identify a multitude of barriers to quality end-of-life care in the nursing home setting, and demonstrate that support for family members is an essential part of quality end-of-life care for

  19. Living Arrangements and Family Formation Attitudes in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of nonfamily living arrangements and cohabitation on changes in family formation attitudes at the individual level. Results indicate that both the experience and duration of cohabiting arrangements have significant effects on family formation attitudes but fail to show significant consequences of premarital, nonfamily living…

  20. [Family life strategies and their relation with malnutrition in children under 2 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Priego, Araceli Amada; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Abrego-Blas, Rebeca; Orrico-Torres, Efrén Samuel

    2002-01-01

    To identify the role of family life strategies on malnutrition in children aged 6-23 months of age. This case-control study was conducted in 1998 in the municipality of Teolocholco, State of Tlaxcala, Mexico, among families with children aged 6-23 months of age. The sample was conformed by 105 cases and 210 controls. Family life strategies were grouped into five types: family composition, means and distribution of family income, family and social networks, and life preservation strategies. Malnutrition was classified according to height for age. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Data were collected from 605 families, for a total of 445 controls and 160 cases. The predictive model included mother's schooling, overcrowding, time elapsed between childbirths, per capita monthly income, and time devoted to child-rearing activities. Family life strategies determine children's nutritional status; understanding the influence of the family on the children's health status is necessary to develop effective programs aimed at improving the nutritional status of children.

  1. Assessment of the Quality of Life in Families with Children Who Have Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagran, B.; Schmidt, M.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research was conducted, within the framework of the International Family Quality of Life Project, on the quality of life of families with a member who has a disability. We concentrated on the nine specific domains that the family life measure used, and recorded data from five of its six measurement dimensions: "Importance,…

  2. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  3. Graduate Students' Perceptions of Needed Personal Characteristics for Family Life Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Alice Elrod

    1973-01-01

    Graduate seminar students reviewed recommended academic and field work experiences needed by family life educators. Students felt that personal characteristics are intermingled with the subject content and are influential in the process of learning. (Author)

  4. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Latino families experiencing pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, Adrienne

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Latino children with asthma and their parents. Twenty-six parents completed the Pediatric Asthma Caregivers Quality of Life Questionnaire (PACQLQ), the Health Status and Activities Questionnaire for Children with Asthma (HSAQ) and four subscales from the Family Environment Scale. The results indicated that, overall, neither children with asthma nor their parents showed significant impairments in their HRQOL, though higher illness severity was associated with lower child quality of life and lower parent quality of life related to activity limitations. Other child and family variables, including dimensions of family functioning, did not correlate significantly with HRQOL. However, child and parent HRQOL were significantly associated with each other. This study provides additional context for understanding the experiences of Latino families dealing with pediatric asthma.

  5. Infections in early life and premature acute coronary syndrome : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qanitha, Andriany; de Mol, Bastianus Ajm; Pabittei, Dara R; Mappangara, Idar; van der Graaf, Yolanda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072825847; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343075881; Burgner, David P; Uiterwaal, Cuno SPM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/136603947

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections in young children may affect the vasculature and initiate early atherosclerosis. Whether infections experienced in childhood play a part in adult clinical cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We investigated the association between infections in early life and the

  6. Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Caroline A; Grice, Desma M; Tran, Cuong D; Bauer, Denis C; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Phil; Hannan, Garry N

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed 'resilience', in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual's co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia's resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the 'at risk' infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.

  7. Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia S Koe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc., stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

  8. Family history influences the early onset of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung-Hwa; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Jin Dong; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between a positive family history of primary liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Korean HCC patients. METHODS: We studied a total of 2242 patients diagnosed with HCC between January 1990 and July 2008, whose family history of primary liver cancer was clearly described in the medical records. RESULTS: Of the 2242 patients, 165 (7.4%) had a positive family history of HCC and 2077 (92.6%) did not. The male to female ratio was 3.6:1, and the major causes of HCC were chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 75.1%, chronic hepatitis C virus infection in 13.2% and alcohol in 3.1%. The median ages at diagnosis in the positive- and negative-history groups were 52 years (range: 29-79 years) and 57 years (range: 18-89 years), respectively (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, among 1713 HCC patients with HBV infection, the number of patients under 45 years of age out of 136 patients with positive family history was 26 (19.1%), whereas those out of 1577 patients with negative family history was 197 (12.5%), suggesting that a positive family history may be associated with earlier development of HCC in the Korean population (P = 0.0028). CONCLUSION: More intensive surveillance maybe recommended to those with a positive family history of HCC for earlier diagnosis and proper management especially when HBV infection is present. PMID:22690075

  9. Long-term outcome of cognitive functions, emotional behavior, and quality of life in a family with familial hemiplegic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Elfriede; Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Bodner, Thomas; Benke, Thomas; Boesch, Sylvia; Delazer, Margarete

    2012-06-01

    To investigate long-term cognitive outcome, mood, and quality of life in a family with genetically proven familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). FHM is a rare autosomal-dominant subtype of migraine with aura, characterized by some degree of hemiparesis during the aura. In a previous study, we showed preserved and impaired cognitive functions in patients with FHM. Until now, the progression of cognitive dysfunctions has not been known. However, the ability to predict progression is important for counseling patients about education, career, and family life. Seven years after extensive baseline neuropsychological testing, we retested 6 members of a family with FHM, including questionnaires about mood and quality of life. The follow-up assessment revealed no global cognitive decline. All the patients' linguistic abilities and verbal memory remained intact; however, their figural memory, attention, and some aspects of executive function were impaired. Half the patients had a slight deterioration in their visuoconstructional functions. Half had higher scores on the trait and state anxiety measures. Cognitive deficits in a family with FHM persisted, but without marked progression. Worsening of visuoconstructional abilities may be related to executive dysfunction, confirming a disturbance of cerebrocerebellar circuits.

  10. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO THE EDUCATION OF LIFE-MEANINGFUL VALUES OF TEENAGERS AND EARLY ADOLESCENCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinа Zhurba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the conceptual approaches to the upbringing in the education of life-meaningful values of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. The definition of life-meaningful values has been given up. The major problems and contradictions in the upbringing of the Ukrainian children were paid attention to. The dependence of the result of upbringing, from the desire and the participation of all actors: children, parents, teachers is pointed out. Conceptual approaches to education of life values meaning are analyzed on the methodological, theoretical and practical levels. The aspects of the previous researches have been underlined. In this context, a systematic approach determines the integrity of the educational process in primary and high school. Synergetic approach combines the organization and self-organization of the growing personality. Humanistic approach recognizes each child's highest value at school, family, and society. Personal-centered approach provides individual attention to him, to free choice of that or other life-meaningful values. Activity approach provides practice and deed activity of children and shows how the value of the meaning of life affects the behavior of the individual. The theoretical level of substantiation of the concept of education of children of teenagers and early youth gives ability to define key points and concepts. Practical level implies the corresponding experimental activity, the determination of propriate pedagogical conditions, the selection of content, forms and methods of education of teenagers and early adolescence. Conceptual approaches offer the opportunity to develop a modern system of education of the values of the meaning of life of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. Implementation of conceptual approaches aimed at qualitative changes in the education of life-meaningful values among of teenagers and early adolescence.

  11. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi) with host-fish determination and fecundity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We described the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus jonesi and compared methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on this conglutinate-producing mussel species. Glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate 90% for ≥5 d. Feeding conglutinates directly to fishes allowed us to estimate seminatural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts in an inoculation bath. Regressions based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment were the most practical method used to estimate fecundity. Species distribution information, early life-history description, and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  12. Prosocial family processes and the quality of life of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jan S; Knudsen, Kraig J; Aschbrenner, Kelly A

    2006-12-01

    Research on the family's contribution to the quality of life of persons with serious mental illness has largely focused on negative family interactions associated with poorer client outcomes. The purpose of this naturalistic study of aging mothers and adults with schizophrenia was to investigate prosocial family processes that potentially enhance, rather than detract from, the life satisfaction of persons with serious mental illness. The data were drawn from a longitudinal study of aging parents caring for a son or daughter with schizophrenia. This report is based on 122 mother-adult child dyads who participated in the third wave of the study. Mothers completed an in-home interview and questionnaire that included measures of the quality of the relationship between the mother and adult child, maternal warmth, and maternal praise of the adult child. The adult with schizophrenia completed a life satisfaction questionnaire. The adults with schizophrenia had higher life satisfaction when their mothers expressed greater warmth and praise of their son or daughter with schizophrenia and when their mothers reported the quality of their relationship as being close and mutually supportive. Past research has emphasized changing families, most typically by lowering expressed emotion, with little emphasis on the families' strengths, in particular, prosocial family processes that may enhance the life satisfaction of their loved one. As a recovery orientation focuses on the strengths of adults with mental illness, it also should focus equally on the supportive presence of families in the lives of clients.

  13. Early Care and Education for Children in Immigrant Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynn A. Karoly; Gabriella C. Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    A substantial and growing share of the population, immigrant children are more likely than children with native-born parents to face a variety of circumstances, such as low family income, low parental...

  14. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  15. Early family regularity protects against later disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ringoot, Ank P; Ivanova, Masha Y; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J

    2016-07-01

    Infants' temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regularity, conceptualized as the consistency of mealtime and bedtime routines, as a protective factor against the development of oppositional and aggressive behavior. This study used prospectively collected data from 3136 families participating in the Generation R Study. Infant anger or frustration reactions and family regularity were reported by mothers when children were ages 6 months and 2-4 years, respectively. Multiple informants (parents, teachers, and children) and methods (questionnaire and interview) were used in the assessment of children's oppositional and aggressive behavior at age 6. Higher levels of family regularity were associated with lower levels of child aggression independent of temperamental anger or frustration reactions (β = -0.05, p = 0.003). The association between child oppositional behavior and temperamental anger or frustration reactions was moderated by family regularity and child gender (β = 0.11, p = 0.046): family regularity reduced the risk for oppositional behavior among those boys who showed anger or frustration reactions in infancy. In conclusion, family regularity reduced the risk for child aggression and showed a gender-specific protective effect against child oppositional behavior associated with anger or frustration reactions. Families that ensured regularity of mealtime and bedtime routines buffered their infant sons high in anger or frustration reactions from developing oppositional behavior.

  16. RISKS FOR FAMILY LIFE OF RUSSIAN RESERVE MILITARY SERVANTS IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL ADAPTATION TO CIVILIAN LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Viktorovich Razov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the risks for family life of military servants transferred into the reserve. The risks are influenced by a number of factors that have common foundations for Russian families in the context of their functional transformation as well as specific foundations depending on the nature of their formation and development within a close socio-professional system. In this regard, it is necessary to provide social and psychological support to the families of transferred to reserve servicemen, for whom preservation of the family and stable family relationships becomes a pressing problem, as well as professional adaptation to the new social conditions. Specificity of military servants’ families is in the fact that they are directly dependent on the state and public policy, what determines the high importance of state regulation in the field of social adaptation of servicemen and their families. The author shows that the specificity of military families is largely due to the conditions of their formation and development, influenced by the close social system, which determines the uncontested acceptance of the values and norms of the system (the military environment by all members of the family.

  17. Correlates of Bulimia Nervosa: Early Family Mealtime Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra A. F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship of early mealtime experiences to later bulimia in 128 female college students. Found significant group differences among bulimics, nonbulimics, and repeat dieters on early meal experience questionnaire, with bulimic group reporting most negative and unusual experiences. Found significant differences among groups on depression…

  18. A National Look at Children and Families Entering Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Anita A.; Spiker, Donna; Mallik, Sangeeta; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Bailey Jr., Donald B.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS) is the first study of Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) early intervention system with a nationally representative sample of infants and toddlers with disabilities. This article presents national estimates of characteristics of infants and toddlers and their…

  19. Family Life: Literature and Films. An Annotated Bibliography. Supplement to Fourth Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Ronald L., Ed.

    This supplement to the fourth edition of "Family Life Literature and Films: An Annotated Bibliography" includes materials produced since the publication of the fourth edition (see AC 012 492). The materials are listed under nine topic headings, as follows: I. The American Family: Theoretical, Historical, and Subcultural Perspectives; II. Human…

  20. Influences on Marital Satisfaction during the Middle Stages of the Family Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Silverberg, Susan B.

    1987-01-01

    Examined influence of adolescent development, parent-adolescent relationship, and psychological characteristics of midlife adults on marital satisfaction during transitional period of the family life cycle between childhood and adolescence. Marital satisfaction during the family's adolescent years was negatively influenced by distance in the…

  1. Relationships between the Sociodemographic and Family Characteristics, Street Life Experiences and the Hopelessness of Street Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyan, Veli

    2005-01-01

    Throughout its history, street children have been a major concern of Turkish society and have lately been uppermost on social workers agenda. This study examines the relationships between sociodemographic and family characteristics, family relations, street life experiences and the hopelessness of street children. The study focuses on a population…

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in the Family Caregivers of Stroke Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangkun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of family caregivers of Chinese stroke patients. One hundred and twenty-three stroke patients consecutively admitted to a stroke clinic and their 123 family caregivers were recruited. The caregivers' HRQOLs were assessed…

  3. Integration Processes of a Romanian Group in a Huelva Village through Family Life Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Reales, Antonia-María; Aguaded-Gómez, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of Romanian immigrants in Lucena del Puerto (Huelva, Spain) through the life stories of two families of Romanian origin. The experiences of the groups presented in this study were analyzed. Both families were in the town for work, to grow and harvest strawberries. We observed a contrast between idealistic views…

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life in the Family Caregivers of Stroke Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangkun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of family caregivers of Chinese stroke patients. One hundred and twenty-three stroke patients consecutively admitted to a stroke clinic and their 123 family caregivers were recruited. The caregivers' HRQOLs were assessed…

  5. Subjective Experiences of an Art Museum Engagement Activity for Persons with Early Alzheimer’s disease and their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Jason D.; Liptak, Amy; Oakley, Mary Ann; Gogan, Jessica; Varner, Tresa; Lingler, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the subjective experiences of older adults with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease or related cognitive disorders (ADRD) and their family caregivers who participated in an art museum engagement activity. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with 10 persons with ADRD and 10 family caregivers following the completion one-time, three hour engagement activity. Participants also completed a brief satisfaction survey, and associations were examined using nonparametric statistics. Results Three key themes were identified: cognitive stimulation, social connections, and a sense of self. In addition, we identified programmatic issues such as activity-specific concerns and program logistics that could help improve future art program offerings. Past experience with art and perceived social cohesion were correlated with participants’ overall satisfaction with the program. Discussion Efforts aimed at improving the quality of life of those with Alzheimer’s and their family caregivers should consider the potential role of art museums. PMID:25216658

  6. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted.

  7. Making Ethics a Habit in Your Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkel, Susan Neiburg

    1993-01-01

    Suggests family activities related to moral values: (1) instilling the giving habit; (2) using stories and games to trigger moral reflection; (3) encouraging earth ethics; (4) developing the moral opinion habit; (5) making moral reminders part of the home decor; (6) using every opportunity to teach; and (7) sharing holidays with others. (GLR)

  8. Putting Math Into Family Life: What's Possible for Working Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Marlene; Mokros, Jan; Parkes, Alana

    A set of parent-child math activities designed to help busy, working parents do math with their children as part of everyday situations such as cleaning up and making dinner included basic steps, variations, and information on working with children were developed for families with elementary grades children aged approximately 5 to 11 and…

  9. The Socioeconomic Pathways Leading to Romantic Relationship Outcomes: A Genetically Informed Early Life Course Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; O'Neal, Catherine W

    2016-09-01

    The present study tests a multilevel comprehensive model incorporating both life course processes and genetic influences leading to young adults' romantic relationship quality using data from 1,560 adolescents over 13 years in the nationally representative Add Health sample. Results provided evidence of a socioeconomic mediating pathway linking early family and community contexts to young adults' romantic relationship quality, and novel evidence for both direct and interactive genetic associations that relate to these mediating pathways. A cumulative genetic index showed (a) direct associations with young adults' socioeconomic attainment and (b) interactions with community adversity and mothers' marital stability on young adults' achieved socioeconomic context and relationship quality. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  10. Life Stress, Maternal Optimism, and Adolescent Competence in Single Mother, African American Families

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Although research demonstrates many negative family outcomes associated with single-parent households, little is known about processes that lead to positive outcomes for these families. Using 3 waves of longitudinal data, we examined how maternal dispositional optimism and life stressors are associated with parenting and child outcomes in 394 single mother African American families. Confirming prior research, we found that mothers' childhood adversities, current economic pressure, and interna...

  11. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    . National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross...

  12. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment.

  13. Family history influences the early onset of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Hwa Park; Seung-Hee Jeong; Hyeon-Woo Yim; Jin Dong Kim; Si Hyun Bae; Jong Young Choi; Seung Kew Yoon

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between a positive family history of primary liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Korean HCC patients.METHODS:We studied a total of 2242 patients diagnosed with HCC between January 1990 and July 2008,whose family history of primary liver cancer was clearly described in the medical records.RESULTS:Of the 2242 patients,165 (7.4%) had a positive family history of HCC and 2077 (92.6%) did not.The male to female ratio was 3.6:1,and the major causes of HCC were chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 75.1%,chronic hepatitis C virus infection in 13.2% and alcohol in 3.1%.The median ages at diagnosis in the positive-and negative-history groups were 52 years (range:29-79 years) and 57 years (range:18-89 years),respectively (P < 0.0001).Furthermore,among 1713 HCC patients with HBV infection,the number of patients under 45 years of age out of 136 patients with positive family history was 26 (19.1%),whereas those out of 1577 patients with negative family history was 197 (12.5%),suggesting that a positive family history may be associated with earlier development of HCC in the Korean population (P =0.0028).CONCLUSION:More intensive surveillance maybe recommended to those with a positive family history of HCC for earlier diagnosis and proper management especially when HBV infection is present.

  14. Life Satisfaction among Children in Different Family Structures: A Comparative Study of 36 Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…

  15. Early frameshift mutation in PIGA identified in a large XLID family without neonatal lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belet, Stefanie; Fieremans, Nathalie; Yuan, Xuan; Van Esch, Hilde; Verbeeck, Jelle; Ye, Zhaohui; Cheng, Linzhao; Brodsky, Brett R; Hu, Hao; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Brodsky, Robert A; Froyen, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA) protein is a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor pathway. Germline mutations in PIGA located at Xp22.2 are thought to be lethal in males. However, a nonsense mutation in the last coding exon was recently described in two brothers with multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2 (MCAHS2) who survived through birth likely because of the hypomorphic nature of the truncated protein, but died in their first weeks of life. Here, we report on a frameshift mutation early in the PIGA cDNA (c.76dupT; p.Y26Lfs*3) that cosegregates with the disease in a large family diagnosed with a severe syndromic form of X-linked intellectual disability. Unexpectedly, CD59 surface expression suggested the production of a shorter PIGA protein with residual functionality. We provide evidence that the second methionine at position 37 may be used for the translation of a 36 amino acids shorter PIGA. Complementation assays confirmed that this shorter PIGA cDNA was able to partially rescue the surface expression of CD59 in a PIGA-null cell line. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that the early frameshift mutation in PIGA produces a truncated hypomorph, which is sufficient to rescue the lethality in males but not the MCAHS2-like phenotype.

  16. Family, Close Relatives, Friends: Life Satisfaction among Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Arzu; Oztop, Hulya; Dogan, Nuri; Guven, Seval

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of socioeconomic (age, education, marital status, income, and health) and demographic variables and the quantity and quality of relationships with adult children, grandchildren, siblings and friends on life satisfaction of the elderly. Participants were 200 persons older than 60 years of age. Hierarchical…

  17. 2010 Military Family Life Project (MFLP): Tabulations of Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    Summer and/or afterschool programs for children .............................. 364  d.  E-mail contact with my spouse...child participated in summer and/or afterschool programs during their husband/wife’s recent deployment. Spouses were able to mark Yes, .No, or Does not...Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Publishers. McCubbin, H.I., Olson, D., & Larsen, A. (1996). Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales (F

  18. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo

  19. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardamagna Ornella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La

  20. Relation between a career and family life for English hospital consultants: qualitative, semistructured interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumelow, Carol; Littlejohns, Peter; Griffiths, Sîan

    2000-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between work and family life among hospital consultants and their attitude towards the choices and constraints that influence this relation. Design Qualitative study of consultants' experiences and views based on tape recorded semistructured interviews. Setting Former South Thames health region in southeast England. Participants 202 male and female NHS hospital consultants aged between 40 to 50 years representing all hospital medical specialties. Results Three types of relation between work and family life (career dominant, segregated, and accommodating) were identified among hospital consultants. Most consultants had a segregated relation, although female consultants were more likely than male consultants to have a career dominant or an accommodating relation. Many male consultants and some female consultants expressed considerable dissatisfaction with the balance between their career and family life. A factor influencing this dissatisfaction was the perceived lack of choice to spend time on their personal or family life, because of the working practices and attitudes within hospital culture, if they wanted a successful career. Conclusions Consultants are currently fitting in with the profession rather than the profession adapting to enable doctors to have fulfilling professional and personal lives. Current government policies to increase the medical workforce and promote family friendly policies in the NHS ought to take account of the need for a fundamental change in hospital culture to enable doctors to be more involved in their personal or family life without detriment to their career progress. PMID:10827044

  1. [Social and family factors associated with quality of life in children in schools from Piura, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Fiorela E; Vilela-Estrada, Martin A; Meza-Liviapoma, Jessica; Araujo-Chumacero, Mary M; Vilela-Estrada, Ana L; Mejia, Christian R

    2017-04-01

    To determine the socio-familial factors associated with quality of life within the family in children of schools in Piura, Peru. A cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of children between 3 to 6 years in schools in the city of Piura, Perú. The quality of life was measured by the HOME test, with data adjusted to the Machover and Koppitz test, and were also associated with other social and family variables. P values were obtained by generalised linear models, adjusting for the residence of each subject. Of the 431 respondents, 64% (275) were male. The median age was 4 years old. A poor quality of life was observed in 50% of children. Traits of violence (p social and family protective factors were to live with both parents, and the demonstration of affection between both parents and play with both.

  2. Early Childhood Care and Education and Other Family Policies and Programs in South-East Asia. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerman, Sheila B.

    This report describes early childhood care and education (ECCE) and other family support policies and programs in seven southeast Asian countries: Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The report draws primarily on background country reports prepared by officials in these countries to focus on the context in…

  3. The family context of autism spectrum disorders: influence on the behavioral phenotype and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a longitudinal program of research examining the bidirectional influences of the family environment on the behavioral phenotype of autism, and describes a newly developed family psychoeducation program, titled Transitioning Together, designed to reduce family stress, address behavior problems, and improve the overall quality of life of adolescents with autism and their families. A case study is presented that illustrates how Transitioning Together helps reduce family stress and improve the overall quality of the family environment. The article concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on best practices in working with families of children, adolescents, and adults with autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

  5. Long-Term Effects of the Family Check-Up in Early Adolescence on Risk of Suicide in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Arin M; McKillop, Hannah N; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    The impact of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a school-based prevention program, as delivered in public secondary schools on suicide risk across adolescence, was examined. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in the sixth grade and offered a multilevel intervention that included (1) a universal classroom-based intervention, (2) the FCU (Dishion, Stormshak, & Kavanagh, 2011), and (3) family management treatment. Engagement with the FCU predicted significant reductions in suicide risk across adolescence and early adulthood.

  6. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  7. Dietary factors during early life program bone formation in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases; however, evidence for an association between early life dietary factors and bone health in adults is limited. Soy protein isolate (SPI) may be one such dietary factor that promotes bone accretion du...

  8. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets’ early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Hereto, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a back

  9. Early-life stress mediated modulation of adult neurogenesis and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korosi, A.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Oomen, C.A.; Schouten, M.; Krugers, H.; Fitzsimons, C.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience can confer enduring effects on brain structure and function. During early perinatal life the quality of the surrounding environment and experiences, in particular the parent-child relationship, is associated with emotional and cogn

  10. Childhood asthma and early life exposure to indoor allergens, endotoxin and beta(1,3)-glucans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelsen, R.J.; Carlsen, K.C.L.; Granum, B.; Doekes, G.; Haland, G.; Mowinckel, P.; Lovik, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Divergent results have been reported regarding early life exposure to indoor environmental agents and the risk of asthma and allergic sensitization later in life. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether early exposure to indoor allergens, beta(1,3)-glucans and endotoxin modifies the risk of allergi

  11. Early-life stress mediated modulation of adult neurogenesis and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korosi, A.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Oomen, C.A.; Schouten, M.; Krugers, H.; Fitzsimons, C.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience can confer enduring effects on brain structure and function. During early perinatal life the quality of the surrounding environment and experiences, in particular the parent-child relationship, is associated with emotional and

  12. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  13. Communication Matters: Exploring the Intersection of Family and Practitioner End of Life Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M. Omilion-Hodges

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After establishing a baseline understanding of some of the factors that influence and shape family end of life communication, empirical research centered on the communication tendencies of nationally-recognized palliative care clinicians is presented. Because death is no longer confined to the bedroom and individuals are increasingly turning to hospitals and health care institutes to assist with end of life, the role of palliative care practitioners is vital. To that end, common communication-rooted issues that may transpire among various medical personnel are explored. Focus on a shared underlying tension—care vs. cure—links the findings between family and palliative care clinician communication regarding end of life. Practical communication solutions and suggestions are offered to facilitate productive and mindful end of life communication between and among family members and health care practitioners.

  14. Candidate colorectal cancer predisposing gene variants in Chinese early-onset and familial cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.X.; Fu, L.; Voer, R.M. de; Hahn, M.M.; Jin, P.; Lv, C.X.; Verwiel, E.T.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kuiper, R.P.; Sheng, J.Q.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether whole-exome sequencing may serve as an efficient method to identify known or novel colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposing genes in early-onset or familial CRC cases. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 23 Chinese patients from 21 families with non-polyposis CRC

  15. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  16. Putting the Cart before the Horse: Understanding the Family Assessment Process in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of six state-wide policies and procedures used in the family assessment process within early intervention services. This study looked at the administrative understanding of the family assessment federal regulations, state policies and procedures, and local implementation from the perspective…

  17. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

  18. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  19. Combining Family Centeredness and Diversity in Early Childhood Teacher Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fults, Rachel Marie; Harry, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Family-centered care and responsiveness to diversity are issues of great import for early childhood special education teachers. Nevertheless, the research for these related areas is divided throughout the field. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a master's-level course designed to integrate instruction in family-centered…

  20. Contributions of School-Based Parenting and Family Literacy Centres in an Early Childhood Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Kathryn; Trent-Kratz, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, governments are seeking ways to integrate early childhood education and care services as a social policy strategy to maximize child and family outcomes. This study examines the role of a school-based parenting and family literacy program to a system of services in one community in Ontario, Canada. Using an appreciative inquiry…

  1. Family Narratives, Self, and Gender in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Marin, Kelly A.; Fivush, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Past research has suggested that family reminiscing may be a particularly important avenue for the development of children's well-being. In this study, the authors examined the ways in which mothers and fathers scaffold conversations about past emotional events with their preadolescent children. Narratives of positive and negative shared family…

  2. Early family regularity protects against later disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); Ivanova, M.Y. (Masha Y.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.J. Roza (Sabine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInfants’ temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regulari

  3. Families and Educators Supporting Bilingualism in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M. Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the strategies that three Latino families in the U.S. employed in raising their children bilingually in Spanish and English. It also looks at their rationale for bilingualism as well as the challenges the parents failed to anticipate in implementing their strategies. The data were gleaned from comparative case studies over a…

  4. Early Family Influences in the Etiology of Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Stephanie Anne

    The etiology of homosexuality is probably best explained from a multidimensional framework which takes into account socialization, family background, and individual developmental factors. A research review was conducted to examine the influence of parental characteristics in the etiology of homosexuality. The findings of the review support the…

  5. Early Family Influences in the Etiology of Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Stephanie Anne

    The etiology of homosexuality is probably best explained from a multidimensional framework which takes into account socialization, family background, and individual developmental factors. A research review was conducted to examine the influence of parental characteristics in the etiology of homosexuality. The findings of the review support the…

  6. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  7. Biological, familial, and peer influences on dating in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Laura J; Connolly, Jennifer A; Pepler, Debra J; Craig, Wendy M

    2007-12-01

    The current study examined the joint contributions of pubertal maturation, parental monitoring, involvement in older peer groups, peer dating, and peer delinquency on dating in a sample of early adolescent boys and girls. The sample consisted of 784 adolescents (394 boys, 390 girls) enrolled in grades 5, 6, and 7 who were followed for one year. In addition to measures of pubertal maturation and parental monitoring, adolescents and their peer group members completed indices of dating and delinquency. Average dating and delinquency scores for each participant's peer group network were computed. Results indicated that it was the combination of pubertal maturation, peer delinquency, and peer dating that explained increases in early dating. For boys only, parental monitoring was a significant predictor. The more knowledgeable parents were about their boys' activities, the lower the number of dating activities reported. These results highlight the importance of considering the joint effects of these biological and social predictors in understanding early dating. When rapid changes occur in all three domains, early dating is most likely to ensue. The findings of this study have practical importance. Parents and professionals who work closely with youth should attend to the special vulnerability of early maturing adolescents in the face of peer pressure and to the important role of parental monitoring in regulating dating activities.

  8. Accounting for Life-Course Exposures in Epigenetic Biomarker Association Studies: Early Life Socioeconomic Position, Candidate Gene DNA Methylation, and Adult Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007-2009), we investigated associations between early life socioeconomic position (paternal occupation and parental education) and mean adult DNA methylation at 5 frequently studied cardiometabolic and stress-response genes (ABCA1, INS-IGF2, LEP, HSD11B2, and NR3C1). We used multivariable linear regression and marginal structural models to estimate associations under 2 causal structures for life-course exposures and timing of methylation measurement. We also examined whether methylation was associated with adult cardiometabolic phenotype. Higher maternal education was consistently associated with higher HSD11B2 methylation (e.g., 0.5%-point higher in 9-12 years vs. ≤8 years, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 0.8). Higher HSD11B2 methylation was also associated with lower adult weight and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We found that associations with early life socioeconomic position measures were insensitive to different causal assumption; however, exploratory analysis did not find evidence for a mediating role of methylation in socioeconomic position-cardiometabolic risk associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence: an analysis of associated eating disorder factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Krug, Isabel; Granero, Roser; Ramón, Jose M; Badia, Anna; Giménez, Laura; Solano, Raquel; Collier, David; Karwautz, Andreas; Treasure, Janet

    2007-09-01

    To examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and the likelihood of developing an eating disorder (ED) later in life. The sample comprised 261 eating disorder patients [33.5% [N=88] anorexia nervosa (AN), 47.2% [N=123] with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19.3% [N=50] with Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)] and 160 healthy controls from the Province of Catalonia, Spain, who were matched for age and education. All patients were consecutively admitted to our Psychiatry Department and were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Participants completed the Early Eating Environmental Subscale of the Cross-Cultural (Environmental) Questionnaire (CCQ), a retrospective measure of childhood eating attitudes and behaviours. In the control group, also the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used. During childhood and early adolescence, the following main factors were identified to be linked to eating disorders: eating excessive sweets and snacks and consuming food specially prepared for the respondent. Conversely, regular breakfast consumption was negatively associated with an eating disorder. Compared to healthy controls, eating disorder patients report unfavourable eating patterns early in life, which in conjunction with an excessive importance given to food by the individual and the family may increase the likelihood for developing a subsequent eating disorder.

  10. Families, Powered On: Improving Family Engagement in Early Childhood Education through Technology. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Family engagement in the education of young children is associated with numerous positive outcomes for those children, and parents and other family members play an important role as "teachers" during the time children spend outside the classroom. Home-based involvement (e.g., a parent-led educational activity), school-based involvement…

  11. The impact of patients' chronic disease on family quality of life: an experience from 26 specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golics CJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Jane Golics,1 Mohammad Khurshid Azam Basra,2 M Sam Salek,1 Andrew Yule Finlay2 1Centre for Socioeconomic Research, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Dermatology and Wound Healing, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK Background: Previous studies have assessed family quality of life in individual disease areas and specialties. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disease on family members of patients over a wide range of specialties and identify key impact areas. This information is essential in order to reveal the extent of this impact and to allow strategies to be developed to support the family members of patients with chronic disease. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 133 family members of mostly chronically ill patients from 26 medical specialties. Family members were invited to discuss all areas of their lives that had been affected by having an unwell relative. Thematic analysis was carried out using NVivo9® software. Results: Most family members were female (61%, the partner or spouse of the patient (56%, or the parent (22%. Their mean age was 56.1 years (range: 21–85 years and the mean duration of the patient's disease was 8.9 years (range: 1 month to 60 years. Ten key themes of family quality of life were identified from interviews. The median number of themes reported by family members was six (range: 1–10. The key themes included: emotional impact (mentioned by 92% of subjects, daily activities (91%, family relationships (69%, sleep and health (67%, holidays (62%, involvement in medical care and support given to family members (61%, work and study (52%, financial impact (51%, social life (37%, and time planning (14%. Relationships between the themes were identified. Conclusion: This large scale multi-specialty study has demonstrated the significant, yet similar, impact that illness can have on the quality of life of

  12. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  13. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  14. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  15. Service Provider Combinations and the Delivery of Early Intervention Services to Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, Melissa; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Scarborough, Anita A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, this study provides a framework for characterizing the delivery of early intervention services based on the combinations of service providers who work with infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. Five groups of providers were identified. Results showed that the…

  16. Center-Based Early Head Start and Children Exposed to Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; McKelvey, Lorraine; Lopez, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Family conflict is known to be associated with poor development for young children, but many children appear resilient. This study examined the extent to which high-quality center care during early childhood protects children from these negative consequences. Children participating in center-based sites of the Early Head Start…

  17. Service Provider Combinations and the Delivery of Early Intervention Services to Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, Melissa; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Scarborough, Anita A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, this study provides a framework for characterizing the delivery of early intervention services based on the combinations of service providers who work with infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. Five groups of providers were identified. Results showed that the…

  18. A novel healthy blood pressure phenotype in the Long Life Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marron, Megan M; Singh, Jatinder; Boudreau, Robert M; Christensen, Kaare; Cosentino, Stephanie; Feitosa, Mary F; Minster, Ryan L; Perls, Thomas; Schupf, Nicole; Sebastiani, Paola; Ukraintseva, Svetlana; Wojczynski, Mary K; Newman, Anne B

    2017-08-23

    Hypertension tends to run in families and has both genetic and environmental determinants. We assessed the hypothesis that a novel healthy blood pressure (BP) phenotype is also familial and sought to identify its associated factors. We developed a healthy BP phenotype in the Long Life Family Study, a cohort of two-generation families selected for longevity. Participants from the offspring generation (n = 2211, ages 32-88) were classified as having healthy BP if their age-adjusted and sex-adjusted SBP z-score was between -1.5 and -0.5. Offspring on antihypertensive medications were classified as not having healthy BP. Families with at least two offspring (n = 419 families) were defined as meeting the healthy BP phenotype if at least two and at least 50% of their offspring had healthy BP. Among 2211 offspring, 476 (21.5%) met the healthy BP phenotype. When examining the 419 families, only 44 (10.5%) families met the criteria for the healthy BP phenotype. Both offspring and probands from families with healthy BP performed better on neuropsychological tests that place demands on complex attention and executive function when compared with offspring and probands from remaining families. Among families with the healthy BP phenotype compared with families without, a higher proportion of offspring met the American Heart Association definition of ideal cardiovascular health (10.8 versus 3.8%, respectively; driven by BP, smoking status, and BMI components). In this cohort of familial longevity, few families had a novel healthy BP phenotype in multiple members. Families with this healthy BP phenotype may represent a specific pathway to familial longevity.

  19. Reconstructing the Brothers Grimm: new tales for step-family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A C

    1999-01-01

    Step-families are situated within the sociopolitical context of family change and are examined as a prototype of the "post-modern" family. This essay looks at the cultural construction of step-family life and proposes a model for collaboratively reconstructing stories that liberate step-relationships from the legacy of the Brothers Grimm, deconstructing the stories of failure, insufficiency, and neglect. Building on narrative and social constructionist ways of thinking about families, the concept of side-shadowing (a hermeneutic approach from literary/historical criticism) is introduced to elucidate how therapists can help family members discover ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are both more personally satisfying and more congruent with the changed context of family life. Two therapeutic challenges are high-lighted: reconceptualizing what it means to be a step-family and coming to terms with differential attachment in relationships while working with step-families. The essay ends with a fairy tale for the 21st century.

  20. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  1. Selection bias in family reports on end of life with dementia in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Deliens, Luc; Ribbe, Miel W; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2012-12-01

    Selective participation in retrospective studies of families recruited after the patient's death may threaten generalizability of reports on end-of-life experiences. To assess possible selection bias in retrospective study of dementia at the end of life using family reports. Two physician teams covering six nursing home facilities in the Netherlands reported on 117 of 119 consecutive decedents within two weeks after death unaware of after-death family participation in the study. They reported on characteristics; treatment and care; overall patient outcomes such as comfort, nursing care, and outcomes; and their own perspectives on the experience. We compared results between decedents with and without family participation. The family response rate was 55%. There were no significant differences based on participation versus nonparticipation in demographics and other nursing home resident characteristics, treatment and care, or overall resident outcome. However, among participating families, physicians perceived higher-quality aspects of nursing care and outcome, better consensus between staff and family on treatment, and a more peaceful death. Participation was less likely with involvement of a new family member in the last month. Families may be more likely to participate in research with more harmonious teamwork in end-of-life caregiving. Where family participation is an enrollment criterion, comparing demographics alone may not capture possible selection bias, especially in more subjective measures. Selection bias toward more positive experiences, which may include the physician's and probably also the family's experiences, should be considered if representativeness is aimed for. Future work should address selection bias in other palliative settings and countries, and with prospective recruitment.

  2. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Food neophobia, life satisfaction and family eating habits in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to categorize university students based on their association between food neophobia and levels of subjective well-being, in general and in the food domain, and their perception of their family's eating habits. A survey was conducted among 372 university students from southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL, Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4, and Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ. Three student types were distinguished by cluster analysis: Group 1 (26.9% had the highest scores on the FNS, SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 (40.8% had a high score on the FNS but the lowest scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 3 (32.3% had the lowest FNS score and high scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 stood out in having a low score on the FEHQ's component for cohesiveness of family eating. These results suggest that both neophobic and non-neophobic students have positive levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and that satisfaction among neophobic students is related to family eating patterns, especially cohesiveness in family eating.

  4. Food neophobia, life satisfaction and family eating habits in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Höger, Yesli; Orellana, Ligia; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Sanchez, Mercedes; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Grunert, Klaus G; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this study was to categorize university students based on their association between food neophobia and levels of subjective well-being, in general and in the food domain, and their perception of their family's eating habits. A survey was conducted among 372 university students from southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4), and Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ). Three student types were distinguished by cluster analysis: Group 1 (26.9%) had the highest scores on the FNS, SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 (40.8%) had a high score on the FNS but the lowest scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 3 (32.3%) had the lowest FNS score and high scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 stood out in having a low score on the FEHQ's component for cohesiveness of family eating. These results suggest that both neophobic and non-neophobic students have positive levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and that satisfaction among neophobic students is related to family eating patterns, especially cohesiveness in family eating.

  5. Converging approaches to understanding early onset familial Alzheimer disease: A First Nation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Beattie, B Lynn; Dwosh, Emily; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In 2007, a novel pathogenic genetic mutation associated with early onset familial Alzheimer disease was identified in a large First Nation family living in communities across British Columbia, Canada. Building on a community-based participatory study with members of the Nation, we sought to explore the impact and interplay of medicalization with the Nation’s knowledge and approaches to wellness in relation to early onset familial Alzheimer disease. Methods: We performed a secondary content analysis of focus group discussions and interviews with 48 members of the Nation between 2012 and 2013. The analysis focused specifically on geneticization, medicalization, and traditional knowledge of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, as these themes were prominent in the primary analysis. Results: We found that while biomedical explanations of disease permeate the knowledge and understanding of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, traditional concepts about wellness are upheld simultaneously. Conclusion: The analysis brings the theoretical framework of “two-eyed seeing” to the case of early onset familial Alzheimer disease for which the contributions of different ways of knowing are embraced, and in which traditional and western ways complement each other on the path of maintaining wellness in the face of progressive neurologic disease. PMID:27092264

  6. Evaluating Two Oral Health Video Interventions with Early Head Start Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn B. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor oral health in early childhood can have long-term consequences, and parents often are unaware of the importance of preventive measures for infants and toddlers. Children in rural, low-income families suffer disproportionately from the effects of poor oral health. Participants were 91 parents of infants and toddlers enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS living in rural Hawai'i, USA. In this quasi-experimental design, EHS home visitors were assigned to use either a didactic or family-centered video with parents they served. Home visitors reviewed short segments of the assigned videos with parents over an eight-week period. Both groups showed significant prepost gains on knowledge and attitudes/behaviors relating to early oral health as well as self-reported changes in family oral health routines at a six-week followup. Controlling for pretest levels, parents in the family-centered video group showed larger changes in attitudes/behaviors at posttest and a higher number of positive changes in family oral health routines at followup. Results suggest that family-centered educational videos are a promising method for providing anticipatory guidance to parents regarding early childhood oral health. Furthermore, establishing partnerships between dental care, early childhood education, and maternal health systems offers a model that broadens potential reach with minimal cost.

  7. Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Thomson, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects of family structure on age at first sexual intercourse before marriage for a recent cohort of women. For neither White nor Black women are results consistent with hypotheses positing earlier initiation of sexual activity for women with prolonged exposure to a single-mother or father-absent family. (BF)

  8. Quality of life and health status of dyads of women with lung cancer and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Cooley, Mary E; Brown, Jean K; Williams, Roma D; Chernecky, Cynthia; Padilla, Geraldine; Danao, Leda Layo

    2006-11-27

    To describe and compare the quality of life (QOL) and health status of dyads of women with lung cancer and their family members and to explore the correlates of family members' QOL. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Interview, self-report. 51 dyads consisting of women with lung cancer and their family members. One-time assessment of family members' and patients' QOL, health status, and demographics and patients' clinical characteristics. Family and patient QOL and health status. QOL of the dyads was not significantly related. Poorer physical QOL of family members was associated with older age, comorbid conditions, less education, and alcohol use. Poorer emotional QOL of family members was associated with younger age, depressed mood, and not being a spouse. Fifty-nine percent of family members had comorbid conditions. Significantly more family members continued to smoke and use alcohol. The QOL of family members of patients with lung cancer is diminished when their own health status is compromised. Further study is needed. Additional study is needed to identify family members at risk for diminished QOL and with compromised health status because these factors might affect ability to support patients with lung cancer.

  9. Parental Stress, Socioeconomic Status, Satisfaction with Services, and Family Quality of Life among Parents of Children Receiving Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Heather F.

    2011-01-01

    Family quality of life (FQOL) refers to the degree to which families of individuals with disabilities are able to meet their basic needs, enjoy time together, and pursue leisure interests and activities (Park et al., 2003). Researchers have identified barriers that families of individuals with disabilities encounter as they pursue a life of…

  10. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  11. Resilience Factors in Women with Severe Early-Life Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Karen; Neukel, Corinne; Hagemann, Dirk; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    Early-life maltreatment (ELM) has long-lasting negative consequences and is the most important general risk factor for mental disorders. Nevertheless, a number of maltreated children grow up to become healthy adults and have therefore been called 'resilient'. The aim of the current study is to investigate 'resilience factors' in the context of severe ELM. The study was part of the large multicenter project Understanding and Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Abuse (UBICA). A total of 89 women were examined, 33 with ELM and at least one lifetime mental disorder (nonresilient), 19 with ELM but without lifetime mental disorders (resilient), and 37 without ELM and without lifetime mental disorders (controls). ELM and other circumstances before the age of 18 years were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) Interview. Additional relevant person and situation factors were measured with the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders (SCID-I), International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Multiple-Choice Vocabulary Intelligence Test (MWT-B). Factor analyses and paired t tests were performed to identify those variables which differentiate best between the three groups. In addition, a discriminant analysis was conducted to detect the accuracy of assigning women to their specific group. The factor analyses revealed 10 resilience factors based on which we could correctly assign 80% of the women to their group in the discriminant analysis. t tests of factor scores showed that resilient and nonresilient maltreated women mainly differed in current individual attributes (e.g. impulsivity, attachment style), while resilient and nonresilient maltreated women differed from controls in both their current individual attributes and their view of their situation as a

  12. Links between Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic Status and Family Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. McKechanie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is often relatively lowered in families of children with additional needs, and this may be particularly the case where additional needs are accompanied by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Here we explore the effects of diagnostic status specifically, comparing families with children with an ASD diagnosis with others who a have additional needs but no signs of ASD; and b have additional needs and signs of ASD but no diagnosis. Mothers (n = 76 of children with additional needs completed standardised questionnaires about quality of life, stress, service provision, child behaviour and presence and severity of ASD traits. In addition, a group of mothers of typically developing young people (n = 17 completed standardised questionnaires on individual and family quality of life and on the behaviour of their son or daughter. Mothers of typically developing young people had significantly higher individual and family quality of life scores than each of the three other groups. Increased severity of ASD was associated with increased maternal stress, which in turn was associated with decreased family and maternal quality of life. The group reporting the lowest quality of life and the highest stress were the mothers of individuals with signs of ASD but no diagnosis. This pattern did not seem to be explained by lack of access to services, or rates of intellectual disability or challenging behaviour in this sub‐group. The finding that poor quality of life and high stress was most apparent in the sub‐group of mothers with children who had signs of ASD but did not have a diagnosis of ASD suggests that an interesting topic for further investigation is whether receipt of a diagnosis itself can positively influence quality of life and levels of maternal stress.

  13. Altruism within the Family: A Comparison of Father and Mother Using Life Happiness and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Qiyan; Ho, Kong Weng; Ho, Kong Chong

    2013-01-01

    Studies on intra-household allocation of resources show that exogenous increase in mothers' income has larger effect on children's outcomes than the same increase in fathers' income, suggesting gender differences may exist in parents' altruism towards their children. Using self-reported life happiness and life satisfaction, we investigate the…

  14. Early-Life State-of-Residence Characteristics and Later Life Hypertension, Diabetes, and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Eisen, Ellen A; Modrek, Sepideh; Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Costello, Sadie; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    We examined how state characteristics in early life are associated with individual chronic disease later in life. We assessed early-life state of residence using the first 3 digits of social security numbers from blue- and white-collar workers from a US manufacturing company. Longitudinal data were available from 1997 to 2012, with 305 936 person-years of observation. Disease was assessed using medical claims. We modeled associations using pooled logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights. We found small but statistically significant associations between early-state-of-residence characteristics and later life hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. The most consistent associations were with income inequality, percentage non-White, and education. These associations were similar after statistically controlling for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and current state characteristics. Characteristics of the state in which an individual lives early in life are associated with prevalence of chronic disease later in life, with a strength of association equivalent to genetic associations found for these same health outcomes.

  15. Quality of life in adult patients with epilepsy and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Jaggi, Sabina; Bonomo, Armanda; Hediger, Hannele; Eggenschwiler, Priska; Krämer, Günther; Oberholzer, Erich

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy is not only a neurological disorder but may also have negative psychosocial consequences on people with epilepsy (PWE) and their relatives. Epilepsy has a major impact on quality of life (QoL) in PWE and family members. However, less is known about the impact of family support and family functioning on quality of life for PWE and family members and their interaction. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate factors that influence QoL in hospitalized adult patients with epilepsy and their relatives. An explorative cross-sectional study has been conducted in a tertiary clinic in Switzerland. Hospitalized adult patients with epilepsy and their relatives were enrolled in the study. Subjective QoL as well as family support and family functioning were measured with patients and family members. Patients and their relatives assessed the patients' support need and their satisfaction with the care provided. In addition, patients were administered a disease-related HRQoL measure (QoLIED-36, Version 2). Backward stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was used to explain variances in patients and relatives' subjective QoL. One hundred and four dyads of patient and family member participated. Subjective QoL in patients and family members differed significantly, as did satisfaction with care delivery. In both groups family support contributed significantly to QoL. In the models 40% of the variance in QoL in patients and relatives could be explained. While the quality of life of the family members was affected by the patients' knowledge about the disease and the reason for their current hospitalization, patient QoL scores had no influence on the QoL of family members. The patients' QoL, however, depended significantly on the QoL of the family members. Interventions should address both PWE and family members and focus on the self-care improvement of PWE and the well-being and coping of family members. A patient-centred approach needs to include both the PWE and

  16. The (re)modernization of family life and the (re)configuration of social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan; Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Dencik, Lars

    was collected during November and December 2014 (n=467) using a web-based adaptation of the original survey. We call this survey SONEFAL, Social Networks and FAmily Life (in Danish IFUSOFF) (Dencik & Westerling 2004). Analysis of the data from wave 1 documents how the 35year old mainly oriented towards......What does processes of reflexive modernization mean for communality in everyday family life? This paper analyzes the change and stability in social networks and family relationship of adults during the period from 2003 to 2014 in Denmark. Based on longitudinal survey data with a panel...... of individuals, borne in 1968 and living in Denmark, this paper analyzes how the centrality of household members and kin relations in the everyday life of adults, have changed during 2003-2014. The first wave of data was collected in 2003 (n=1003) using Computer Assisted Telephone Interview. The second wave...

  17. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  18. Adolescent attitudes and relevance to family life education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Jeeson C

    2010-02-01

    The study was conducted in seven private coeducational English-medium schools in Cochin to understand adolescent attitudes in this part of the country. Queries submitted by students (n=10,660) and responses to separate pretested questionnaires for boys (n=886 received) and girls (n=589 received) were analysed. The study showed a lacuna of knowledge among adolescents with the most frequently asked queries being on masturbation, and sex and sexuality. More than 50% of adolescents received information on sex and sexuality from peers; boys had started masturbating by 12 yr age and 93% were doing so by 15 yr age. Although 73% of girls were told about menstruation by their parents, 32% were not aware, at menarche, that such an event would occur and only 8% were aware of all aspects of maintaining menstrual hygiene. 19% of boys succumbed to peer pressure into reading/viewing pornography; more than 50% of adolescents admitted to having had an infatuation around 13 yrs of age or after. 13% of boys admitted to having been initiated into smoking by friends; mostly between 14-16 yrs age; 6.5% boys had consumed alcohol with peers or at family functions, starting between ages of 15 to 17 yrs. Though >70% of adolescents were aware about AIDS, adequate knowledge about its spread and prevention was lacking.

  19. Phylogeny and life habits of Early Arthropods-Predation in the Early Cambrian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas MAAS; Dieter WALOSZEK; CHEN Junyuan; Andreas BRAUN; WANG Xiuqiang; HUANG Diying

    2004-01-01

    We investigated two new arthropods from the Maotianshan-Shale fauna of southern China in the course of our research on life strategies, particularly predation, in Early Cambrian marine macrofaunal biota. One form clearly belongs to the so-called "great-appendage" arthropods, animals that were, most likely, active predators catching prey with their first pair of large, specialized frontoventral appendages. Based on this, we hypothesize that the new species and many others, if not all, of the "great-appendage" arthropods were derivatives of the chelicerate stem lineage and not forms having branched off at different nodes along the evolutionary lineage of the Arthropoda. Rather, we consider the "great-appendage" arthropods as belonging to a monophyletic clade, which modified autapomorphically their first pair of appendages (antennae in general arthropod terminology) into raptorial organs for food capture. The second new form resembles another Maotianshan-Shale arthropod, Fuxianhuia protensa, in sharing a head made of only two separate segments, a small segment bearing oval eyes laterally, and another bearing a large tergite, which forms a wide shield freely overhanging the subsequent narrow trunk segments. This segment bears a single pair of rather short anteriorly directed uniramous appendages, considered as the "still" limb-shaped antennae. Particularly the evolutionary status of head and limbs of these two forms suggests that both are representatives of the early part of the stem lineage toward the crown-group of Arthropoda, the Euarthropoda. These forms appear rather unspecialized, but may have been but simple predators. This adds to our hypothesis that predation was a common, if not dominant feeding strategy in the Cambrian, at least for arthropods.

  20. "Don't lock me out": life-story interviews of family business owners facing succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Alexandra; Breunlin, Douglas; Panattoni, Katherine; Gustafson, Mara; Ransburg, David; Ryan, Carol; Hammerman, Thomas; Terrien, Jean

    2011-06-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to analyze life-story interviews obtained from 10 family business owners regarding their experiences in their businesses with the goal of understanding the complexities of family business succession. The grounded theory that emerged from this study is best understood as a potential web of constraints that can bear on the succession process. Coding of these interviews revealed four key influences, which seem to have the potential to facilitate or constrain the family business owner's approach to succession. Influence 1, "The business within," captures intrapsychic dynamics of differentiation and control. Influence 2, "The marriage," addresses how traditional gender roles shape succession. Influence 3, "The adult children," examines the role of having a natural (accidental, organic, passively groomed) successor. Influence 4, "The vision of retirement," captures the impact of owners' notions of life post-succession. Family therapists frequently encounter family systems in which the family business is facing succession. Even if succession is not the presenting problem, and even if the business owner is in the indirect (rather than direct) system, this research reminds clinicians of the importance of the family's story about the family business. Therefore, clinical implications and recommendations are included. 2011 © FPI, Inc.