Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry....... The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...
Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Liao, Yuyan; Wei, Ying; Terry, Mary Beth
Rapid infant and childhood growth has been associated with chronic disease later in life, including breast cancer. Early life socioeconomic status (SES) influences childhood growth, but few studies have prospective measures from birth to consider the effects of early life growth and SES on breast cancer risk. We used prospectively measured early life SES and growth (percentile weight change in height and weight between each pair of consecutive time points at birth, 4 months, 1 and 7 years). We performed linear regression models to obtain standardized estimates of the association between 1 standard deviation increase in early life SES and growth and adult mammographic density (MD), a strong risk factor for breast cancer, in a diverse birth cohort (n = 151; 37% white, 38% black, 25% Puerto Rican; average age at mammogram = 42.4). In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, prenatal factors, birthweight, infant and childhood growth, and adult body mass index, percentile weight change from 1 year to 7 years was inversely associated with percent MD (standardized coefficient (Stdβ) = -0.28, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.01), and higher early life SES was positively associated with percent MD (Stdβ = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.04-0.43). Similar associations were observed for dense area, but those estimates were not statistically significant. These results suggest opposite and independent effects of early life SES and growth on MD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Claire L. Wood
Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.
Hildebrand, Maria; Øglund, Guro P; Wells, Jonathan C; Ekelund, Ulf
Our aim was to systematically summarize the evidence on whether prenatal, birth and early life factors up to 6 years of age predict sedentary behavior in young people (≤18 years). PRISMA guidelines were followed, and searches were conducted in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE and Web of Science up to December 1, 2015. We included observational (non-intervention) and longitudinal studies, that reported data on the association between one or more of the potential predictors and objectively or subjectively measured sedentary behavior. Study quality was assessed using a formal checklist and data extraction was performed using standardized forms independently by two researchers. More than 18,000 articles were screened, and 16 studies, examining 10 different predictors, were included. Study quality was variable (0.36-0.95). Two studies suggest that heritability and BMI in children aged 2-6 years were significant predictors of sedentary behavior later in life, while four and seven studies suggest no evidence for an association between gestational age, birth weight and sedentary behavior respectively. There was insufficient evidence whether other prenatal, birth and early life factors act as predictors of later sedentary behavior in young people. The results suggest that heritability and early childhood BMI may predict sedentary behavior in young people. However, small number of studies included and methodological limitations, including subjective and poorly validated sedentary behavior assessment, limits the conclusions. The systematic review is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO, 17.10.2014 ( CRD42014014156 ).
Rocchi, S; Reboux, G
In recent years, many birth cohorts have been initiated in Europe, to assess the early life microbiological exposure of children in the indoor environment and better understanding the different effects (adverse/protectors) on health. The results of 12 European cohorts, with different methodologies for exposure and allergic risk assessment are summarized in this review. Four meta-analyzes of cohort are presented too. Microbiological researches in indoor environment seem to turn to a metrology of microbiological exposure, but few studies provide real quantitative data. Thus, the establishment of dose-effect relationship is not possible and can only be done by having a global view of the situation, provided by an identical metrological approach in the different studies, in a large-scale, in the context of large birth cohorts with children followed with strict criteria to establish the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.
of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...
O'Rorke, M A; Black, C; Murray, L J; Cardwell, C R; Gavin, A T; Cantwell, M M
Intrauterine, early life and maternal exposures may have important consequences for cancer development in later life. The aim of this study was to examine perinatal and birth characteristics with respect to Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) risk. The Northern Ireland Child Health System database was used to examine gestational age adjusted birth weight, infant feeding practices, parental age and socioeconomic factors at birth in relation to CMM risk amongst 447,663 infants delivered between January 1971 and December 1986. Follow-up of histologically verified CMM cases was undertaken from the beginning of 1993 to 31st December 2007. Multivariable adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CMM risk. A total of 276 CMM cases and 440,336 controls contributed to the final analysis. In reference to normal (gestational age-adjusted) weight babies, those heaviest at birth were twice as likely to develop CMM OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.1). Inverse associations with CMM risk were observed with younger (birth and both a higher birth order and greater household density OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.37-0.99) and OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.30-1.0) respectively. This large study of early onset melanoma supports a positive association with higher birth weight (imperatively gestational age adjusted) and CMM risk which may be related to factors which drive intrauterine foetal growth. Strong inverse associations observed with higher birth order and household density suggest that early-life immune modulation may confer protection; findings which warrant further investigation in prospective analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik
BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants...... A supplementation (VAS) or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were obtained 2, 6, and 12 months after enrolment. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of early BCG on growth in the first year of life. The effect of early BCG on weight and mid-upper-arm circumference at 2 months tended to be beneficial among girls...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...
Bergh, B.R. Van den; Loomans, E.M.; Mennes, M.
The long-lasting effects of fetal exposure to early life influences (ELI) such as maternal anxiety, stress, and micronutrient deficiencies as well as mediating and moderating factors are quite well established in animal studies, but remain unclear in humans. Here, we report about effects on
Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.
Batty, G D; Horta, B L; Smith, G Davey; Barros, F C; Victora, C
It has recently been hypothesised that acute dehydration in early childhood may "programme" increased blood pressure via salt retention. We examined whether there was an association between episodes of diarrhoea (a proxy for acute dehydration) and later measured blood pressure. In the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study (Brazil), parents/carers reported hospital admissions for diarrhoea in the first 12 and 20 months of study members' lives. Blood pressure was subsequently measured directly in adolescence (aged 15, 18, 19 years) and early adulthood (aged 23 years). We found no evidence of an association between diarrhoea in the first 12 months of life and blood pressure measured at any point in adolescence or early adulthood. These findings were unchanged after adjustment for a range of covariates. Equally null results were apparent when diarrhoea admissions in the first 20 months of life, access to home sanitation and use of piped water were the exposures of interest. Early life proxies for dehydration and diarrhoea were unrelated to later blood pressure in this examination, the most comprehensive to date, of the potential association.
Martens, Dries S.; Gouveia, Sandra; Madhloum, Narjes; Janssen, Bram G.; Plusquin, Michelle; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Lefebvre, Wouter; Forsberg, Bertil; Nording, Malin; Nawrot, Tim S.
Background: As part of the lipidome, oxylipins are bioactive lipid compounds originating from oxidation of different fatty acids. Oxylipins could provide a new target in the developmental origins model or the ability of early life exposure to change biology. Objectives: We studied the association between in utero PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter oxylipin profiles in newborns. Methods: Thirty-seven oxylipins reflecting the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (5-LOX and 12/15-LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways were assayed in 197 cord blood plasma samples from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. Principal component (PC) analysis and multiple regression models were used to estimate associations of in utero PM2.5 exposure with oxylipin pathways and individual metabolites. Results: A principal component representing the 5-LOX pathway (6 metabolites) was significantly positively associated with PM2.5 exposure during the entire (multiple testing–adjusted q-value = 0.05) and second trimester of pregnancy (q = 0.05). A principal component representing the 12/15-LOX pathway (11 metabolites) was positively associated with PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester of pregnancy (q = 0.05). PM2.5 was not significantly associated with the COX pathway during any time period. There was a positive but nonsignificant association between second-trimester PM2.5 and the CYP pathway (q = 0.16). Conclusion: In utero exposure to particulate matter, particularly during the second trimester, was associated with differences in the cord blood levels of metabolites derived from the lipoxygenase pathways. These differences may indicate an effect of air pollution during in utero life on the inflammatory state of the newborn at birth. Oxylipins may be important mediators between early life exposures and health outcomes later in life. Citation: Martens DS, Gouveia S, Madhloum N, Janssen BG, Plusquin M, Vanpoucke C, Lefebvre W, Forsberg B, Nording M, Nawrot TS. 2017. Neonatal
Proper cognitive, physical and anatomical development depend on the correct orchestration of developmental processes and the factors influencing them. Complications and disturbances around birth and during early development may negatively affect development permanently. In this thesis, we studied
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early interventions are recognised as key to improving life chances for children and reducing inequalities in health and well-being, however there is a paucity of high quality research into the effectiveness of interventions to address childhood health and development outcomes. Planning and implementing standalone RCTs for multiple, individual interventions would be slow, cumbersome and expensive. This paper describes the protocol for an innovative experimental birth cohort: Born in Bradford’s Better Start (BiBBS that will simultaneously evaluate the impact of multiple early life interventions using efficient study designs. Better Start Bradford (BSB has been allocated £49 million from the Big Lottery Fund to implement 22 interventions to improve outcomes for children aged 0–3 in three key areas: social and emotional development; communication and language development; and nutrition and obesity. The interventions will be implemented in three deprived and ethnically diverse inner city areas of Bradford. Method The BiBBS study aims to recruit 5000 babies, their mothers and their mothers’ partners over 5 years from January 2016-December 2020. Demographic and socioeconomic information, physical and mental health, lifestyle factors and biological samples will be collected during pregnancy. Parents and children will be linked to their routine health and local authority (including education data throughout the children’s lives. Their participation in BSB interventions will also be tracked. BiBBS will test interventions using the Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs approach and other quasi-experimental designs where TwiCs are neither feasible nor ethical, to evaluate these early life interventions. The effects of single interventions, and the cumulative effects of stacked (multiple interventions on health and social outcomes during the critical early years will be measured. Discussion The focus of the BiBBS cohort is on
Osler, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry....... The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...
Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L
Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. PMID:25649246
Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L
Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of socioeconomic position at 12 years of age (SEP-12 on the variability in cesarean rates later in life.As part of the Portuguese Generation XXI birth cohort we evaluated 7358 women with a singleton pregnancy who delivered at five Portuguese public hospitals serving the region of Porto (April/2005-September/2006. Based on the twelve items that described socioeconomic circumstances at age 12, a latent class analysis was used to classify women's SEP-12 as high, intermediate and low. Multiple Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted risk ratio (RR and respective 95% confidence interval (95% CI.The cesarean rates in high, intermediate and low SEP-12 were, respectively, 40.9%, 37.5% and 40.5% (p = 0.100 among primiparous women; 14.2%, 11.6% and 15.5% (p = 0.04 among multiparous women with no previous cesarean and 78.6%, 72.2% and 70.0% (p = 0.08 among women with a previous cesarean. A low to moderate association between SEP-12 and cesarean rates was observed among multiparous women with a previous cesarean, illustrating that women from higher SEP-12 were more likely to have a surgical delivery (RR = 1.12;95%CI:1.01-1.24 comparing high with low SEP-12 and RR = 1.03:95%CI:0.94-1.14 comparing intermediate with low SEP-12 not explained by potential mediating factors. No such association was found either in primiparous or in multiparous women without a previous cesarean.The association between SEP-12 and cesarean rates suggests the effect of past socioeconomic context on the decision concerning the mode of delivery, but only among women who experienced a previous cesarean. Accordingly, it appears that early-life socioeconomic circumstances drive cesarean rates but the effect can be modified by lived experiences concerning childbirth.
Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Wouters, Inge M.; Torrent, Maties; Gehring, Ulrike; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Thiering, Elisabeth; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Jongste, Johan; Smit, Henriette A.; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvaerinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi
Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early
Casas, L.; Tischer, C.; Wouters, I.M.; Torrent, M.; Gehring, U.; García-Esteban, R.; Thiering, E.; Postma, D.S.; Jongste, J. de; Smit, H.A.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Zock, J.P.; Hyvärinen, A.; Heinrich, J.; Sunyer, J.
Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early
This study examines the relationship between exposure to violent crime in utero and birth weight using longitudinal data from a household survey conducted in Mexico. Controlling for selective migration and fertility, the results suggest that early gestational exposure to the recent escalation of the Mexican Drug War is associated with a substantial decrease in birth weight. This association is especially pronounced among children born to mothers of low socioeconomic status and among children born to mothers who score poorly on a mental health index.
Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L
Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin?angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21?days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and p...
Delpierre, C; Fantin, R; Barboza-Solis, C; Lepage, B; Darnaudéry, M; Kelly-Irving, M
Lifecourse studies suggest that the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be rooted in the early life environment. This study aims to examine the pathways linking early nutritional and psychosocial exposures and the presence of MetS in midlife. Data are from the National Child Development Study including individuals born during 1 week in 1958 in Great Britain and followed-up until now. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was used as a proxy of the early nutritional environment and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) as a proxy for early psychosocial stress. Socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth conditions were extracted as potential confounders. Adult health behaviors, BMI, socioeconomic environment and psychological state were considered as mediating variables. Multivariate models were performed by including variables sequentially taking a lifecourse approach. 37.5 % of men and 19.8 % of women had MetS. Participants with an obese/overweight mother presented a higher risk of MetS than those whose mother had a normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Men exposed to two ACE or more, and women exposed to one ACE, were more at risk of MetS compared to unexposed individuals. After including confounders and mediators, mother's pre-pregnancy BMI was still associated with MetS in midlife but the association was weakened after including participant's adult BMI. ACE was no longer associated with MetS after including confounders in models. The early nutritional environment, represented by mother's pre-pregnancy BMI, was associated with the risk of MetS in midlife. An important mechanism involves a mother-to-child BMI transmission, independent of birth or perinatal conditions, socioeconomic characteristics and health behaviors over the lifecourse. However this mechanism is not sufficient for explaining the influence of mother's pre-pregnancy BMI which implies the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifecourse studies suggest that the metabolic syndrome (MetS may be rooted in the early life environment. This study aims to examine the pathways linking early nutritional and psychosocial exposures and the presence of MetS in midlife. Methods Data are from the National Child Development Study including individuals born during 1 week in 1958 in Great Britain and followed-up until now. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Mother’s pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI was used as a proxy of the early nutritional environment and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE as a proxy for early psychosocial stress. Socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth conditions were extracted as potential confounders. Adult health behaviors, BMI, socioeconomic environment and psychological state were considered as mediating variables. Multivariate models were performed by including variables sequentially taking a lifecourse approach. Results 37.5 % of men and 19.8 % of women had MetS. Participants with an obese/overweight mother presented a higher risk of MetS than those whose mother had a normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Men exposed to two ACE or more, and women exposed to one ACE, were more at risk of MetS compared to unexposed individuals. After including confounders and mediators, mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI was still associated with MetS in midlife but the association was weakened after including participant’s adult BMI. ACE was no longer associated with MetS after including confounders in models. Conclusions The early nutritional environment, represented by mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI, was associated with the risk of MetS in midlife. An important mechanism involves a mother-to-child BMI transmission, independent of birth or perinatal conditions, socioeconomic characteristics and health behaviors over the lifecourse. However this mechanism is not sufficient for
Alduraywish, S A; Lodge, C J; Campbell, B; Allen, K J; Erbas, B; Lowe, A J; Dharmage, S C
There is growing evidence for an increase in food allergies. The question of whether early life food sensitization, a primary step in food allergies, leads to other allergic disease is a controversial but important issue. Birth cohorts are an ideal design to answer this question. We aimed to systematically investigate and meta-analyse the evidence for associations between early food sensitization and allergic disease in birth cohorts. MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched for birth cohorts that have investigated the association between food sensitization in the first 2 years and subsequent wheeze/asthma, eczema and/or allergic rhinitis. We performed meta-analyses using random-effects models to obtain pooled estimates, stratified by age group. The search yielded fifteen original articles representing thirteen cohorts. Early life food sensitization was associated with an increased risk of infantile eczema, childhood wheeze/asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis and young adult asthma. Meta-analyses demonstrated that early life food sensitization is related to an increased risk of wheeze/asthma (pooled OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.0-4.0), eczema (pooled OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.7-4.4) and allergic rhinitis (pooled OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.9-4.9) from 4 to 8 years. Food sensitization in the first 2 years of life can identify children at high risk of subsequent allergic disease who may benefit from early life preventive strategies. However, due to potential residual confounding in the majority of studies combined with lack of follow-up into adolescence and adulthood, further research is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
L. Casas (Lidia); C. Tischer (Christina); I.M. Wouters (Inge M); M. Torrent (Maties); U. Gehring (Ulrike); R. Garcia-Esteban (Raquel); E. Thiering (Eelisabeth); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); A. Borràs-Santos (Alícia); J.P. Zock; A. Hyvärinen (Anne); J. Heinrich (Joachim); J. Sunyer (Jordi)
textabstractBackground: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life.In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations
Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Lombard, Zané; Norris, Shane A
There is growing evidence of variations in adiposity trajectories among individuals, but the influence of early life growth patterns on these trajectories is underresearched in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between early life conditional weight gain and childhood adiposity trajectories. We previously identified distinct adiposity trajectories (four for girls and three for boys) in black South African children (boys = 877; girls = 947). The association between the trajectories and early life growth patterns, and future obesity risk was assessed by multivariate linear and multinomial logistic and logistic regressions. Conditional weight gain independent of height was computed for infancy (0-2 years) and early childhood (2-4 years). Conditional weight gain before 5 years of age was significantly associated with early onset of obesity or overweight (excess weight) BMI trajectories in both boys and girls. In girls, greater conditional weight gain in infancy was associated with increased relative risk of being in the early-onset obese to morbid obese trajectory, with relative risk ratios of 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.17-3.52) compared to belonging to a BMI trajectory in the normal range. Boys and girls in the early-onset obesity or overweight BMI trajectories were more likely to be overweight or obese in early adulthood. Excessive weight gain in infancy and early childhood, independent of linear growth, predicts childhood and adolescent BMI trajectories toward obesity. These results underscore the importance of early life factors in the development of obesity and other NCDs in later life.
Kummeling, Ischa; Stelma, Foekje F.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Snijders, Bianca E. P.; Penders, John; Huber, Machteld; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A.
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic exposure in early life may be associated with atopic disease development either by interfering with bacterial commensal flora or by modifying the course of bacterial infections. We evaluated early life exposure to antibiotics and the subsequent development of eczema, wheeze,
Sarr, Ousseynou; Blake, Alexandra; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Lin; Rabicki, Katherine; Walsh, Joanna C.; Welch, Ian
Key points Postnatal intake of a high saturated fat/high sugar diet, the Western diet (WD), is a risk factor for liver fibrosis. Recently, adverse in utero conditions resulting in low birth weight (LBW) have also been associated with postnatal fibrosis development.We demonstrate that suboptimal in utero conditions resulting in LBW are associated with changes in hepatic profibrotic genes in conjunction with minimal liver fibrosis in young non‐overweight adult guinea pigs.Our results also indicate that WD promotes liver steatosis, enhanced expression of hepatic genes and proteins of the proinflammatory, profibrotic, cell death and collagen deposition pathways in conjunction with mild hepatic fibrosis.Our data highlight that pathways responsible for the initiation of a profibrotic state and ultimately hepatic fibrosis appear different depending upon the insult, an in utero‐induced LBW outcome or a postnatal WD exposure. Abstract Postnatal intake of an energy dense diet, the Western diet (WD), is a strong risk factor for liver fibrosis. Recently, adverse in utero conditions resulting in low birth weight (LBW) have also been associated with postnatal fibrosis development. We assessed the independent and possible synergistic effects of placental insufficiency‐induced LBW and postnatal WD consumption on liver fibrosis in early adulthood, with a specific focus on changes in inflammation and apoptosis pathways in association with fibrogenesis. Male LBW (uterine artery ablation) and normal birth weight (NBW) guinea pig pups were fed either a control diet (CD) or WD from weaning to 150 days. Significant steatosis, mild lobular inflammation, apoptosis and mild stage 1 fibrosis (perisinusoidal or portal) were evident in WD‐fed offspring (NBW/WD and LBW/WD). In LBW/CD versus NBW/CD offspring, increased transforming growth factor‐beta 1 and matrix metallopeptidase mRNA and sma‐ and Mad‐related protein 4 (SMAD4) were present in conjunction with minimal stage 1
Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B.
PURPOSE To determine neurocognitive, educational and psychological functioning during childhood and early-adolescence among survivors of early-life meningitis who are apparently healthy. METHODS In the general population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort, meningitis exposure was determined at age 18 months. The outcomes of IQ, short-term memory, working memory, reading and spelling abilities, psychological and behavioural problems, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and psychotic experiences at ages 9 to 13 years were compared between those exposed and unexposed to meningitis. Individuals with special educational needs were excluded. RESULTS By age 18 months, 67 out of 11,035 children were reported to have suffered from meningitis (0.61%). These children, compared with the unexposed, performed worse on all neurocognitive and educational measures; mean difference in total IQ 7.36 (95% CI 1.60-13.11). Meningitis was associated with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms (p=0.02), psychological and behavioural problems (p=0.09), and increased risk of psychotic experiences; risk ratio 2.22 (95% CI 1.12-4.38). CONCLUSIONS Exposure to meningitis in the early-life is associated with neurocognitive, educational and psychological difficulties during childhood and early-adolescence among survivors who are apparently healthy. Therefore, focusing only on serious neurologic disabilities may underestimate the true impact of early-life meningitis. PMID:25794764
Khandaker, Golam M; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B
To determine neurocognitive, educational, and psychological functioning during childhood and early adolescence among survivors of early life meningitis who are apparently healthy. In the general population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort, meningitis exposure was determined at age of 18 months. The outcomes of intelligence quotient, short-term memory, working memory, reading and spelling abilities, psychological and behavioral problems, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and psychotic experiences at ages 9 to 13 years were compared between those exposed and unexposed to meningitis. Individuals with special educational needs were excluded. By age of 18 months, 67 of 11,035 children were reported to have suffered from meningitis (0.61%). These children, compared with the unexposed, performed worse on all neurocognitive and educational measures; mean difference in total intelligence quotient 7.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.60-13.11). Meningitis was associated with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms (P = .02), psychological and behavioral problems (P = .09), and increased risk of psychotic experiences; risk ratio 2.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.38). Exposure to meningitis in the early life is associated with neurocognitive, educational, and psychological difficulties during childhood and early adolescence among survivors who are apparently healthy. Therefore, focusing only on serious neurologic disabilities may underestimate the true impact of early life meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huffman, Mark D; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S K; Reddy, K Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m  ). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.
Mark D Huffman
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m  . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.
Johnson, Wendy; Corley, Janie; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J
Researchers in many fields are interested in the robust observation that higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with better mental and physical health. Prominent explanations for the association involve effects of stress due to relative material and social adversity in lower socioeconomic environments, but early-life intelligence may also contribute directly to both later-life socioeconomic status and health. Here, we evaluated the effects of early-life IQ on mental and physical health outcomes at age 70, in the context of effects of SES. The Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936 took part in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947, providing a measure of IQ at age 11. They have been extensively surveyed at age 70. Body mass index, constraints on daily life activities, hospital anxiety and depression, number of diseases, level of physical activity, weekly units of alcohol consumption, and pack-years of smoking. SES had apparently direct effects on most outcomes, but age 11 IQ was also involved in several, either directly or because it contributed to SES. Several interactions helped to integrate these associations. High age-11 IQ tended to buffer effects of adverse environments on physical and mental problems in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E
Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ growth standards. Eight rural, indigenous Mam-Mayan villages (n 200, 100% of Mayan indigenous origin) and an urban clinic of Quetzaltenango (n 106, 27% of Mayan indigenous origin), Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.
Buffarini, Romina; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Silveira, Vera M; Miranda, Jaime J; Gonçalves, Helen D; Oliveira, Isabel O; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília F
Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glucose control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, is also related with the incidence of cardiometabolic risk in populations free of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of HbA1c levels according to early-life and contemporary factors in adolescents and adults without diabetes mellitus. HbA1c was measured in adults aged 30 years and adolescents aged 18 years who are participants in the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe the HbA1c mean values according to early-life and contemporary characteristics collected prospectively since birth. The distribution of the HbA1c was approximately normal in both cohorts, with a mean (SD) 5.10% (0.43) in the 1982 cohort, and 4.89% (0.50) in the 1993 cohort. HbA1c mean levels were significantly higher in individuals self-reported as black/brown skin color compared to those self-reported as white in both cohorts. Parental history of diabetes was associated with higher HbA1c mean in adults, while stunting at one year old presented an inverse relation with the outcome in adolescents. No other early and contemporary factors were associated with HbA1c levels in adults or adolescents. We found a consistent relationship between HbA1c and skin color in both cohorts. Further research is needed to understand the role of genomic ancestry on levels of HbA1c concentrations which may inform policies and preventive actions for diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk.
Casas, Lidia; Torrent, Maties; Zock, Jan-Paul; Doekes, Gert; Forns, Joan; Guxens, Mònica; Täubel, Martin; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi
Exposure to biocontaminants is associated with behavioural problems and poorer cognitive function. Our study assesses the associations between early life exposure to home dampness, pets and farm animal contact and cognitive function and social competences in 4-year old children, and the associations between these indoor factors and microbial compounds (bacterial endotoxin and fungal extracellular polysaccharides). A Spanish population-based birth-cohort enrolled 482 children, and 424 of them underwent psychometric testing at 4 years of age, including the McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities (MSCA) and the California Preschool Social Competence Scale (CPSCS). Information on pet ownership, farm animal contact and home dampness was periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. Microbial compounds were measured in living room sofa dust collected at the age of 3 months. Persistent home dampness during early life significantly decreased the general score of MSCA by 4.9 points (95% CI: -8.9; -0.8), and it decreased the CPSCS by 6.5 points (95% CI: -12.2; -0.9) in the child's bedroom. Cat or dog ownership were not associated with the outcomes, but occasional farm animal contact increased the general cognitive score of MSCA by 5.6 points (95% CI: 1.8; 9.3). Cat and dog ownership were associated with higher levels of endotoxins in home dust. None of the measured microbial compounds were related with the psychometric tests scores. In conclusion, damp housing in early life may have adverse effects on neuropsychological development at 4 years old. More research is needed to explore the possible involvement of mycotoxins in the observed results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Smith, Hazel Ann; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead; Murray, Deirdre M; Leahy-Warren, Patricia
to investigate the influence of parental and infant characteristics on exclusive breast feeding from birth to six months of age and breast feeding rates at two, six and 12 months of age in Ireland. secondary data analysis from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study (http://www.baselinestudy.net/). Infants were seen at birth and two, six, and 12 months of age. Maternal and paternal history, neonatal course and feeding data were collected at birth and using parental questionnaires at each time point. 1094 singleton infants of primiparous women recruited at 20 weeks' gestation who were breastfeeding on discharge from the maternity hospital. at discharge from the maternity hospital and at two months, neonatal intensive-care unit admission had the strongest influence on exclusive breast feeding status (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41 at discharge) and at two months (adjusted OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). A shorter duration of breast feeding was significantly associated with younger maternal age, non-tertiary education, Irish nationality and neonatal intensive-care unit admission. There was a significant difference in the duration of any breast feeding between infants who were and were not admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit, 28(10.50, 32) weeks versus 32(27, 40) weeks. Mothers whose maternity leave was between seven and 12 months (adjusted OR=2.76, 95% CI 1.51-5.05) breast fed for a longer duration compared to mothers who had less than six months of maternity leave. admission to the neonatal intensive care unit negatively influenced both exclusivity and duration of breast feeding. Length of maternity leave, and not employment status, was significantly associated with duration of breast feeding. additional support may be required to ensure continued breast feeding in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit. Length of maternity leave is a modifiable influence on breast feeding and offers the opportunity for intervention to improve our rates of breast
Karachaliou, Marianna; Waterboer, Tim; Casabonne, Delphine; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Michel, Angelika; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Chatzi, Leda; Pawlita, Michael; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjose, Silvia
Sparse data exist on the patterns and determinants of acquisition of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in childhood. We measured immunoglobulin G seroreactivity against 10 polyomaviruses (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, HPyV9, HPyV10) and 5 herpesviruses (Epstein Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 8) using multiplex serology on blood samples collected at birth (cord blood, n = 626) and at follow-up at 3 years (n = 81) and 4 years (n = 690) of age among the Rhea birth cohort recruited in Greece from pregnant women in 2007-2008. We used Poisson regression with robust variance to identify determinants of seropositivity at age 4. Seroprevalence of polyomaviruses ranged from 38.5% to 99.8% in cord blood and from 20.9% to 82.3% at age 4. Seroprevalence of EBV, CMV, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and human herpesvirus 8 was 99.4%, 74.9%, 26.2%, 8.0%, and 1.6% in cord blood and 52.5%, 25.8%, 3.6%, 1.4%, and 0% at age 4, respectively. Determinants of seropositivity at age 4 were cord seropositivity (JCPyV, HPyV7, HPyV10, CMV), vaginal delivery (HPyV10), breastfeeding (CMV), younger age at day-care entry (BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, TSPyV, HPyV10, HPyV9, EBV, CMV), and swimming pool attendance (BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV10). Television viewing, parental stress, and hygiene practices were inversely associated with the seroprevalence of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg
PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective o...
van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare
We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather i...
L. van Rossem (Lenie); E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractBackground: Ethnic differences in childhood and adulthood are known, but ethnic differences in preschool overweight and associated factors are less studied. We assessed ethnic differences in pre-school age overweight, and studied the mediating role of early life factors in this
Casas, L.; Torrent, M.; Zock, J.P.; Doekes, G.; Forns, J.; Guxens, M.; Täubel, M.; Heinrich, J.; Sunyer, J.
Exposure to biocontaminants is associated with behavioural problems and poorer cognitive function. Our study assesses the associations between early life exposure to home dampness, pets and farm animal contact and cognitive function and social competences in 4-year old children, and the associations
Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria
Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...
Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.
The effectiveness of selection for improvement in reproductive performance of sheep depends on measure- ment at any early age. For this reason selection of rams and ewes on their birth status, (single or twin), (Kennedy,. 1967; Turner, Hayman, Triffitt and Prunster, 1969), and ewes having multiple births during their first or ...
Works on the problem of quantum birth of the Universe are reviewed. Possible peculiarities of electron-positron annihilation at the early stages of the Universe (s) birth in connection with black holes are considered. Possible concept of Eternity is discussed. (author)
Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...
Sachdeva, Sandeep; Nagar, Mukesh; Tyagi, Ajay; Sachdeva, Ruchi; Kumar, Vijay
Registration of birth is mandatory in India however due to various issues compliance for timely birth registration has been poor. The objective of this study was to determine time elapsed between birth and registration and describe the socio-demographic profile of registered births at a rural center. A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken and all births registered at a primary health center of a block during the period 2010 and 2011 were retrieved and data collection carried using structured proforma based on birth formats under civil registration system (CRS). House to house visit was undertaken to identify births without registration. A total of 340 and 276 births were registered during 2010 and 2011 respectively. Time elapsed between birth and registration was computed to be lower, i.e., 9.38 days (±7.46) during 2011 in-comparison with 10.52 days (±8.73) in 2010. On a positive note, higher level of education and marriage of women beyond legal age of 18 years was noticed in 2011 in comparison with 2010. Overall, institutional birth stood at a very encouraging note (66.2%). All (100%) births during the study period were registered at this (rural) or higher center (urban) depending on the place of delivery. An omission/commission of birth format is highlighted that needs urgent attention of the authorities. Majority (>92%) of birth registration occurred with-in the stipulated period of 21 days as prescribed under CRS and our study indicates early birth registration in a rural area of Haryana, India.
Full Text Available Background: Registration of birth is mandatory in India however due to various issues compliance for timely birth registration has been poor. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine time elapsed between birth and registration and describe the socio-demographic profile of registered births at a rural center. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken and all births registered at a primary health center of a block during the period 2010 and 2011 were retrieved and data collection carried using structured proforma based on birth formats under civil registration system (CRS. House to house visit was undertaken to identify births without registration. Results: A total of 340 and 276 births were registered during 2010 and 2011 respectively. Time elapsed between birth and registration was computed to be lower, i.e., 9.38 days (±7.46 during 2011 in-comparison with 10.52 days (±8.73 in 2010. On a positive note, higher level of education and marriage of women beyond legal age of 18 years was noticed in 2011 in comparison with 2010. Overall, institutional birth stood at a very encouraging note (66.2%. All (100% births during the study period were registered at this (rural or higher center (urban depending on the place of delivery. An omission/commission of birth format is highlighted that needs urgent attention of the authorities. Discussion: Majority (>92% of birth registration occurred with-in the stipulated period of 21 days as prescribed under CRS and our study indicates early birth registration in a rural area of Haryana, India.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the status of women in society over life expectancy at birth. Based on the data of some of the socio-economic variables for 187 countries worldwide, collected by the United Nations within United Nations Development Programme – Human Development Report, we developed a regression model of life expectancy factors. Through empirical testing of the three hypotheses which refer to different aspects of the status of women in society, we found that the employment ratio between women and men has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth, which is, at least at first glance, unexpected. At the same time, the number of teenage births per 100 women aged 15–19 as well as gender inequality has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth.
Rutkowski, Rachel E; Salemi, Jason L; Tanner, Jean Paul; Anjohrin, Suzanne; Cavicchia, Philip; Lake-Burger, Heather; Kirby, Russell S
To investigate the extent to which children with birth defects experience differential likelihood of various injuries and injury-related hospitalizations in early childhood. The Florida Birth Defects Registry was used to identify infants born 2006-2010 with select birth defects. Injury matrices were used to detect injuries in inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency department admissions for each infant up to their third birthday. χ 2 tests were used to compare sociodemographic and perinatal characteristics of children, by presence of an injury-related hospital admission. Adjusted multivariable logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to investigate birth defect and injury associations and related hospital use. We observed a 21% (99% CI: 1.16-1.27) increased odds of injury in children with birth defects. All birth defect subgroups had a statistically significantly increased odds of injury (excluding chromosomal defects), with adjusted ORs ranging from 1.19 to 1.40. The combination of birth defects and injuries resulted in 40% (99% CI: 1.36-1.44) more frequent injury-related hospital visits and a 3-fold (99% CI: 2.76-2.96) increase in time spent receiving inpatient medical care. Over 30% of children with critical congenital heart defects had an injury-related hospital admission. Children born with specific birth defects are at increased likelihood of various injuries during early life. Although the magnitude of this increased likelihood varied by the mechanism by which the injury occurred, the location of the injury, and the type of birth defect, our study findings support a direct association between birth defects and injuries in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaugler-Senden, I.P.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Filius, A.; de Groot, C.J.M.; Steegers, EA; Passchier, J.
Objective.To evaluate the impact of severe, early onset preeclampsia on long-term maternal psychosocial outcome after preterm birth. Methods.Women with severe, early onset preeclampsia before 32 weeks' gestation (cases) admitted in a tertiary university referral center between 1993 and 2004, and
Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko
Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper examines the controversial subject of pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses in wrongful birth and wrongful life cases. The author addresses these issues from a comparative perspective, presents the main arguments for and against awarding damages, and offers a critical analysis of the newly enacted rules of Serbian tort law concerning the birth of a child who would not have been born were it not for negligence on the part of a medical doctor.
"Life after Birth" considers the relationship between the Ku Klux Klan and cinema during the 1920s, highlighting how the Klan used, produced and protested against film in order to recruit members, generate publicity, and define itself as a traditional Protestant American organisation. In my opening chapter I reassess the significance of The Birth of a Nation in the development of the Klan, and introduce a number of other overlooked films, such as The Face at Your Window that Kleagles (Klan re...
Full Text Available Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM and white matter (WM maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001. WM volume in posterior corpus
Craighead, Debra Vela
Early term birth, which occurs at 37 to 38 weeks gestation, is often elective and can carry significant health risks to infants, including short-term and long-term health outcomes. Nurses and other health care providers involved in the care of pregnant women and infants need to be aware of these infants' physiologic vulnerability and potential short- term and long-term care requirements. Nurses can educate patients and raise awareness of the risks associated with early term birth. © 2012 AWHONN.
Trevors, J T
Popular hypotheses that attempt to explain the origin of prebiotic molecules and cellular life capable of growth and division are not always agreed upon. In this manuscript, information on early bacterial life on Earth is examined using information from several disciplines. For example, knowledge can be integrated from physics, thermodynamics, planetary sciences, geology, biogeochemistry, lipid chemistry, primordial cell structures, cell and molecular biology, microbiology, metabolism and genetics. The origin of life also required a combination of elements, compounds and environmental physical-chemical conditions that allowed cells to assemble in less than a billion years. This may have been widespread in the subsurface of the early Earth located at microscopic physical domains.
Idrovo, Alvaro Javier
To ascertain if the effect of income inequality on life expectancy at birth in Mexico is mediated by corruption, used as a proxy of social capital. An ecological study was carried out with the 32 Mexican federative entities. Global and by sex correlations between life expectancy at birth were estimated by federative entity with the Gini coefficient, the Corruption and Good Government Index, the percentage of Catholics, and the percentage of the population speaking indigenous language. Robust linear regressions, with and without instrumental variables, were used to explore if corruption acts as intermediate variable in the studied relationship. Negative correlations with Spearman's rho near to -0.60 (p Corruption and Good Government Index correlated with men's life expectancy at birth with Spearman's rho -0.3592 (p mediated by corruption levels and other related cultural factors.
Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao
Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink
A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter
BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG...... vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age.......94). The effect was also similar in the two sexes and across study sites. The results were essentially identical in the per-protocol analysis and after adjustment for baseline characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccination at birth did not reduce the risk of hospitalisation for somatic acquired disease until 15...
Aubenque, M; Damiani, P
Using information available at the end of 1979, the authors present and analyze data on expectation of life at birth in 119 countries. Differences between developing and developed countries, trends over time, sex differentials, and limits on life expectancy are examined. The analysis reveals limits of approximately 73 years for men and 80 for women in the most developed countries. In France, which displays excessive male mortality, expectation of life increases more slowly for men. The authors attribute these sex differentials both to biological factors and to behavioral factors and ways of life.
Stout, Molly J; Zhou, Yanjiao; Wylie, Kristine M; Tarr, Phillip I; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G
, diversity, and evenness during pregnancy (P preterm birth is associated with increased vaginal microbiome instability compared to term birth. No distinct taxa were associated with preterm birth. In a predominantly African-American population, a significant decrease of vaginal microbial community richness and diversity is associated with preterm birth. The timing of this suppression appears early in pregnancy, between the first and second trimesters, suggesting that early gestation may be an ecologically important time for events that ordain subsequent term and preterm birth outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung
The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (?3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and Kore...
Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine
Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...
Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P
We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, F Y; Yan, S Q; Huang, K; Mao, L J; Pan, W J; Ge, X; Han, Y; Hao, J H; Tao, F B
Objective: To evaluate the relations between hypertensive disorders (HDP) in pregnancy and early-term birth. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women were consecutively recruited. Demographic information was collected in early pregnancy. HDP was diagnosed in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. On the basis of precise evaluation on gestation age, early-term birth was defined as gestational age of 37-38 weeks+6 days. Logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between HDP and early-term birth. Results: The current study included 3 260 pregnant women, with the rates of HDP, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and pre-eclampsia as 6.0% ( n =194), 4.2% ( n =137) and 1.8% ( n =57), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, no significant differences between pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and earlyterm birth ( OR =1.49, 95% CI : 0.94-2.36) were found. Pre-eclampsia appeared to have increased the risk of early-term birth ( OR =4.46, 95% CI : 2.09-9.54). Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia could significantly increase the risk of early-term birth. This finding suggested that early detection and intervention programs were helpful in reducing the risk of early-term birth.
Gaugler-Senden, Ingrid P M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Filius, Anika; De Groot, Christianne J M; Steegers, Eric A P; Passchier, Jan
To evaluate the impact of severe, early onset preeclampsia on long-term maternal psychosocial outcome after preterm birth. Women with severe, early onset preeclampsia before 32 weeks' gestation (cases) admitted in a tertiary university referral center between 1993 and 2004, and women with preterm delivery without preeclampsia (controls), matched for age, parity, gestational age at delivery, ethnicity, and year of delivery. Women who consented to participation received three questionnaires in 2008 concerning depression (Zung Depression Scale: score range 0-20; 20 items with 2-point frequency scale: no = 0 and yes = 1), posttraumatic stress symptoms (Impact of Event Scale: score range 0-75; 15 items with 4-point frequency scale: not at all = 0, rarely = 1, sometimes = 3 and often = 5. Scores > 19 are regarded as high symptom levels), and social aspects (Social Readjustment Rating Scale: selection of six items concerning relational aspects with husband/partner, employer, or future family planning). Included in the study were 104 cases and 78 controls (response rate 79% and 58%, respectively). There was no difference in depression scores between cases (5.4 ± 4.0) and controls (5.4 ± 4.3). Patients with severe, early onset preeclampsia had significantly higher scores of posttraumatic stress symptoms (28.7 ± 8.6 vs. 25.7 ± 7.9). The majority of women among both cases and controls had high-posttraumatic stress symptom levels (88% vs. 79%). No differences could be found in relational aspects. Women with preterm birth due to severe, early onset preeclampsia experience more often posttraumatic stress symptoms on average 7 years after the pregnancy compared to women with preterm birth without preeclampsia.
Anic, Gabriella M; Madden, Melissa H; Sincich, Kelly; Thompson, Reid C; Nabors, L Burton; Olson, Jeffrey J; LaRocca, Renato V; Browning, James E; Pan, Edward; Egan, Kathleen M
Exposure to common infections in early life may stimulate immune development and reduce the risk for developing cancer. Birth order and family size are proxies for the timing of exposure to childhood infections with several studies showing a reduced risk of glioma associated with a higher order of birth (and presumed younger age at infection). The aim of this study was to examine whether birth order, family size, and other early life exposures are associated with the risk of glioma in adults using data collected in a large clinic-based US case-control study including 889 glioma cases and 903 community controls. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on family structure, childhood exposures and other potential risk factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between early life factors and glioma risk. Persons having any siblings were at significantly lower risk for glioma when compared to those reporting no siblings (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.44-0.93; p=0.020). Compared to first-borns, individuals with older siblings had a significantly lower risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.91; p=0.004). Birth weight, having been breast fed in infancy, and season of birth were not associated with glioma risk. The current findings lend further support to a growing body of evidence that early exposure to childhood infections reduces the risk of glioma onset in children and adults.
Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.
Kobayashi, Shinobu; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Takehara, Kenji; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Hatoko; Nagata, Chie; Mori, Rintaro
GRADE; we downgraded evidence for study design limitations, imprecision, and where we carried out meta-analysis, for inconsistency.One trial with 209 women compared early labour assessment with direct admission to hospital. Duration of labour from the point of hospital admission was reduced for women in the assessment group (mean difference (MD) -5.20 hours, 95% confidence interval (CI) -7.06 to -3.34; 209 women, low-quality evidence). There were no clear differences between groups for the number of women undergoing caesarean section or instrumental vaginal birth (risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.72, very low quality evidence; and, RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.26, very low quality evidence, respectively). Serious maternal morbidity was not reported. Women in the early assessment group were slightly less likely to have epidural anaesthesia (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.98, low-quality evidence), and considerably less likely to have oxytocin for labour augmentation (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.86) and this group also had increased satisfaction with their care compared with women in the immediate admission group (MD 16.00, 95% CI 7.53 to 24.47). No babies were born before admission to hospital and only one infant had a low Apgar score at five minutes after the birth (very low quality evidence). Admission to neonatal special care was not reported.Three studies examined home assessment and midwifery support versus telephone triage. One trial reported the duration of labour; home visits did not appear to have any clear impact compared with usual care (MD 0.29 hours, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.72; 1 trial, 3474 women, low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference for the rate of caesarean section (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.17; 3 trials, 5170 women; I² = 0%; moderate-quality evidence) or the rate of instrumental vaginal birth (average RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.15; 2 trials, 4933 women; I² = 69%; low-quality evidence). One trial reported birth before arrival at hospital or
Holst, D; Schuller, A A
The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. The material comprised data from random samples of three birth-cohorts living in the counties of Sør- and Nord-Trøndelag in 1983. The birth-cohorts were 1929-1938, 1939-1948 and 1959-1960. In 2006 two samples were drawn from the 1929-1938 and 1959-1960 birth-cohort. The data collection comprised standard clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. The early oral health environment and social status and gender were related to oral health in 1983 by multiple regressions. The impact of social status was studied in combined datafiles from 1983 and 2006. The oral health environment in childhood was important for adults' oral health. The attention from parents and the local environment lead to a better oral health outcome in adulthood. Social status affected choices leading to better oral health. Regular dental visits were important especially for the eldest birth-cohort. Good oral health behaviours early and during adulthood were also important for oral health. Judged by number of tooth surfaces the difference between social status groups had not increased by 2006. A life-course perspective provides an opportunity to understand oral health over time. The present study supports the assumption that oral health is continuously exposed to environmental and behavioural risks that lead to accumulated diseases in the dental tissues.
Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study.
Cooper, Philip J; Chico, Martha E; Guadalupe, Irene; Sandoval, Carlos A; Mitre, Edward; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Barreto, Mauricio L; Rodrigues, Laura C; Strachan, David P; Griffin, George E
Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and the first 2 years of life) on the
Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study
Sandoval Carlos A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3 during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to
Diep H. Ha
Full Text Available Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars. Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months. Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1 and 1.8 (1.2–2.6 against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3. The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8. Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.
Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Spencer, Andrew John; Thomson, William Murray; Golley, Rebecca K; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Scott, Jane A
Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No) at age 6-9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars). Household income quartiles, mother's sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6-9 months). Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI) for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2-3.1) and 1.8 (1.2-2.6) against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2-2.3). The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5-0.8). Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.
Birth to three early intervention is unique time in the life of a family of a child with a disability in that confidence and competence of the parents can be addressed as part of the intervention goals and objectives. Locus of control is a quality measure of a parent's perception of their ability to be their child's teacher, advocate, and champion…
Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang
Taiwan has over the past three decades been experiencing demographic changes that may pose important concerns for children's quality of life. This study examines the relationships and potential pathways between family structure transitions and early childhood development. Our analysis is based on 19,499 children from the 2005 birth cohort who…
Conclusions: MAGeT-Brain is capable of segmenting hippocampi accurately in preterm neonates, even at early-in-life. Hippocampal asymmetry with a larger right side is demonstrated on early-in-life images, suggesting that this phenomenon has its onset in the 3rd trimester of gestation. Hippocampal volume assessed at the time of early-in-life and term-equivalent age is linearly associated with GA at birth, whereby smaller volumes are associated with earlier birth.
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter
vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age....... Randomisation was stratified by prematurity. The primary study outcome was number of all-cause hospitalisations analysed as repeated events. Hospitalisations were identified using The Danish National Patient Register. Data were analysed by Cox proportional hazards models in intention-to-treat and per...... compared with 1003 hospitalisations among 2133 control children (mean 0.47), resulting in a HR comparing BCG versus no BCG of 1.05 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.18) (intention-to-treat analysis). The effect of BCG was the same in children born at term (1.05 (0.92 to 1.18)) and prematurely (1.07 (0.63 to 1.81), p=0...
Han, Yan; Mao, Lei-Jing; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Ren, Ling-Ling; Hong, Shu-Qing; Gao, Hui; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Pan, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Zhu, De-Fa; Tao, Fang-Biao
We aim to investigate associations of maternal serum anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) with duration of gestation. We aim to investigate whether maternal TPOAb positivity is associated with the risk of premature or early term birth. This was a prospective birth cohort study performed in an iodine sufficient area of China. Serum samples were collected from 2931 women at both the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and TPOAb levels were measured. Data on gestational age at birth was obtained from delivery records. The prevalence of early term birth was 23.8%, while the prevalence of premature birth was 4.2%. The prevalence of TPOAb positivity was 12.1% in the first trimester and was 7.2% in the second trimester. Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with lgTPOAb both in the first trimester (β, -0.283, 95% CI -0.408, -0.158; P < 0.001) and in the second trimester (β, -0.174, 95% CI -0.319, -0.030; P = 0.018), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. There was a positive association of TPOAb positivity with the risk of early term birth both in the first (OR = 1.691, 95% CI 1.302, 2.197) and second trimesters (OR = 1.644, 95% CI 1.193, 2.264), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. TPOAb positivity in the second trimester was associated with a 1.863-fold higher risk of premature birth (OR = 1.863, 95% CI 1.009, 3.441), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Our results show that TPOAb is associated with shorter duration of gestation and with higher risk of premature and early term birth.
Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...
Li, Leah; Manor, Orly; Power, Chris
Genetics and environmental conditions early in life are known to influence height. However, evidence is restricted to studies conducted at a specific age, and thus the effect on the entire growth trajectory has been neglected. The objective was to determine when parental height and factors early in offspring life start to affect offspring height, when these variables have the strongest effect, and whether these variables persist to adulthood. Longitudinal data from the 1958 British birth cohort (all of whom were born during 1 wk in March 1958), including height measurements at 7, 11, 16, and 33 y of age, were analyzed by using multivariate multilevel response models. Parental height, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, parental divorce, and socioeconomic factors were all significantly associated with childhood height, but their effects differed thereafter. Parental height and birth weight were most strongly associated with offspring height, and their effects persisted (adjusted increase in adult height: 2 cm for 1 SD of maternal or paternal height, or 1 kg of birth weight). Socioeconomic disadvantage (manual social class, large family size, and overcrowded households) was associated with substantial deficits of 2-3 cm (adjusted estimates) in height at 7 y. Catch-up growth was apparent but was insufficient to overcome the initial insult on growth; the adjusted deficit was as high as 1 cm in adulthood. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds have a delayed pattern of growth before the pubertal spurt, which is followed by catch-up growth. The health consequences of this pattern of growth need to be examined in future studies.
Lucie A. Low
Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.
Lokate, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Berg, van den S.W.; Peeters, P.H.; Gils, van C.H.
Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In
Kristensen, Matilde Bylov
Emerging epidemiologic data supports the hypothesis that early life colonization is a key player in development of a balanced immune system. Events in early life, as birth mode and infant diet, are shown to influence development of immune related diseases, like asthma, diabetes and inflammatory...... studies show a role for various myeloid derived and immune suppressive cellular subsets in the newborn. In the present work we showed the presence of a prominent group of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in the neonate murine spleen. The presence of these cells were dependent on the colonizing microbiota, as germfree...... bowl disease, later in life. The intestinal epithelium makes up a physical and biochemical barrier between the bacteria in the gut lumen and the immune cells in the submocusal tissue. This monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) makes up an extremely large surface and is highly important...
Bergsjø, P; Daltveit, A K
Between 1972 and 1993 the number of hospitals and maternity homes providing obstetric help in Norway fell from 158 to 67. Most of the decline is explained by the closing down of maternity homes and obstetrical units in small hospitals, partly due to a reduction in number of births and partly to a deliberate drive towards giving birth in larger units. 16 of the 19 counties of Norway contained four or fewer obstetric institutions in 1993. Nevertheless, most of the 60,000 births took place in institutions with between 500 and 2,999 births annually. Births at home accounted for 0.3%, and births during transport for 0.2% of the total in 1990 and 1993.
Full Text Available Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS, a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677 at age 28-30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28-30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from -0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data.
de Almeida, M F B; Moreira, L M O; Vaz dos Santos, R M; Kawakami, M D; Anchieta, L M; Guinsburg, R
The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of early deaths associated with birth asphyxia of very low birth weight infants between 2005 and 2010, in Brazil. This population study enrolled all live births with birth weight from 400 to 1499 g, gestational age ⩾ 22 weeks, without malformations that died up to 6 days after birth with perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was defined if intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia at birth or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the death certificate. Active search was carried out in 27 Brazilian federative units. For every 1000 live births of very low birth weight infants without congenital malformations, 40.25 and 32.38 died with birth asphyxia in the first week after birth, respectively, in 2005 and 2010 (Pasphyxia to early neonatal death of these infants was approximately 10 to 12% all study years. Reduction of birth asphyxia in very low birth weight infants is essential to reducing neonatal mortality in Brazil.
Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.
The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga
Wang, C Jason; Elliott, Marc N; Rogowski, Jeannette; Lim, Nelson; Ratner, Jessica A; Schuster, Mark A
To determine whether eligible extremely-low-birth-weight children ( or =24 weeks, and survival for the first 120 days of life. We created a linked data set with data from Early Intervention (1996-2001), Vital Records (1996-1998), death certificates, and Medicaid. Each child was followed from birth to 3 years old, the program eligibility period. A total of 54% of ELBW children were enrolled in EI at any time from birth to 36 months. Even among children ever enrolled in Medicaid (83% of all ELBW children), only 63% were enrolled in EI. Being born in a multiple gestational birth, having heavier birth weight (750 to 999 g), and having ever enrolled in Medicaid were positively associated with EI enrollment. Among Medicaid patients for whom perinatal data were available, additional risk adjustment showed that EI enrollment was more likely with birth in level 3 hospitals, birth weight 750 to 999 g, Neonatal Medical Index severity level V (most severe), and longer initial length of hospital stay. Only about half of eligible ELBW children in South Carolina were enrolled-much lower than reported elsewhere. Efforts are needed to understand why eligible infants are not being enrolled and to develop strategies to remedy the situation.
Patel, Ravi M; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Carlton, David P; Clark, Reese; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian
To test the hypothesis that early caffeine treatment on the day of birth, compared with later treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW, caffeine in the first week of life. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to compare the risk of CPAP failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation or surfactant therapy on DOL 1-6, by timing of caffeine treatment as either early (initiation on DOL 0) or routine (initiation on DOL 1-6). We identified 11 133 infants; 4528 (41%) received early caffeine and 6605 (59%) received routine caffeine. Median gestational age was lower in the early caffeine group, 29 weeks (25th, 75th percentiles; 28, 30) vs the routine caffeine group, 30 weeks (29, 31); P caffeine groups: 22% vs 21%; adjusted OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.18). Early caffeine treatment on the day of birth was not associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life for VLBW infants initially treated with CPAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adair, Linda S; Fall, Caroline H D; Osmond, Clive; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G
Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We investigated body-mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose concentration, height, years of attained schooling, and related categorical indicators of adverse outcomes in young adults. With linear and logistic regression models, we assessed how these outcomes relate to birthweight and to statistically independent measures representing linear growth and weight gain independent of linear growth (relative weight gain) in three age periods: 0-2 years, 2 years to mid-childhood, and mid-childhood to adulthood. We obtained data for 8362 participants who had at least one adult outcome of interest. A higher birthweight was consistently associated with an adult body-mass index of greater than 25 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1·28, 95% CI 1·21-1·35) and a reduced likelihood of short adult stature (0·49, 0·44-0·54) and of not completing secondary school (0·82, 0·78-0·87). Faster linear growth was strongly associated with a reduced risk of short adult stature (age 2 years: 0·23, 0·20-0·52; mid-childhood: 0·39, 0·36-0·43) and of not completing secondary school (age 2 years: 0·74, 0·67-0·78; mid-childhood: 0·87, 0·83-0·92), but did raise the likelihood of overweight (age 2 years: 1·24, 1·17-1·31; mid-childhood: 1·12, 1·06-1·18) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·12, 1·06-1·19; mid-childhood: 1·07, 1·01-1·13). Faster relative weight gain was associated with an increased risk of adult overweight (age 2 years: 1·51
Nynke R van den Broek
Full Text Available Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection.Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116 with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth.No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30 or syphilis (p = 0.12 between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85-0.97; p = 0.005 and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82-0.97; p = 0.006 had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198-3.80; p = 0.01. Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05-3.79; p = 0.04. Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03-2.90; p = 0.04 and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08-3.52; p = 0.03 were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks.Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment. Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour.
Manabi Paul; Sreejani Sen Majumder; Shubhra Sau; Anjan K. Nandi; Anindita Bhadra
Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of popul...
Black, Dan A; Hsu, Yu-Chieh; Taylor, Lowell J
Many studies link cross-state variation in compulsory schooling laws to early-life educational attainment, thereby providing a plausible way to investigate the causal impact of education on various lifetime outcomes. We use this strategy to estimate the effect of education on older-age mortality of individuals born in the early twentieth century U.S. Our key innovation is to combine U.S. Census data and the complete Vital Statistics records to form precise mortality estimates by sex, birth cohort, and birth state. In turn we find that virtually all of the variation in these mortality rates is captured by cohort effects and state effects alone, making it impossible to reliably tease out any additional impact due to changing educational attainment induced by state-level changes in compulsory schooling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B
Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.
Wolke, Dieter; Baumann, Nicole; Busch, Barbara; Bartmann, Peter
Parents of preterm children experience increased distress early in their children's lives. Whether the quality of life of parents of preterm children is comparable to that of parents of term children by the time their offspring reach adulthood is unknown. What precursors in their offspring's childhood predict parental quality of life? A prospective whole-population study in Germany followed very preterm (VP) (parents (VP or VLBW: N = 219; term: N = 227) from birth to adulthood. Parental quality of life was evaluated with the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment and the Satisfaction with Life questionnaire when their offspring were adults (mean age 27.3 years, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.2 to 27.3). Childhood standard assessments of VP or VLBW and term offspring included neurosensory disability, academic achievement, mental health, and parent-child and peer relationships. Overall quality of life of parents of VP or VLBW adults was found to be comparable to parents of term individuals ( P > .05). Parental quality of life was not predicted by their children being born VP or VLBW, experiencing disability, academic achievement, or the parent-child relationship in childhood but by their offspring's mental health (B = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.22) and peer relationships (B = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.16) in childhood. As a testament to resilience, parents of VP or VLBW adults had quality of life comparable to parents of term adults. Support and interventions to improve mental health and peer relationships in all children are likely to improve parents' quality of life. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
á Rogvi, Rasmus; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm
Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased blood pressure in childhood, but the association with clinical disease in early adulthood is less certain. The Danish Medical Birth Registry has registered all births in Denmark since 1973, b...
Ryan, Rebecca M.
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, the present study tested whether the benefits of a marital birth for early child development diminish as parents' risk of having a nonmarital birth increases (N = 2,285). It was hypothesized that a child's likelihood of being born to unmarried parents is partly a function of father…
Badriah Ali Alansi
CONCLUSIONS: Current study indicated that early preterm births differed from preterm as a whole; primigravida, multiple gestations and a history of placental abruption are independent risk factors for them.
Korhonen, Päivi; Haataja, Paula; Ojala, Riitta; Hirvonen, Mikko; Korppi, Matti; Paassilta, Marita; Uotila, Jukka; Gissler, Mika; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Outi
To assess the incidence and risk factors of asthma and atopic dermatitis by seven years of age after early-term (ET) (37 +0 -38 +6 weeks), full-term (FT) (39 +0 -40 +6 weeks), late-term (LT) (41 +0 -41 +6 weeks), and especially post-term (PT) (≥42 weeks) birth. Altogether, 965 203 infants born between 1991 and 2008 in Finland were investigated in ET, FT, LT, and PT groups. Data on asthma medication reimbursement and hospital visits for atopic dermatitis were retrieved from national health databases. The frequencies of asthma medication reimbursement in the ET, FT, LT, and PT groups were 4.5%, 3.7%, 3.3%, and 3.2%, respectively. Hospital visits due to atopic dermatitis were most common after PT birth. Compared with FT births, ET births were associated with an increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20, 1.17-1.23), while LT (aOR, 95%CI 0.91, 0.89-0.93) births and PT (aOR, 95%CI 0.87, 0.83-0.92) births decreased this risk. PT birth (aOR, 95%CI 1.06, 1.01-1.10) predicted atopic dermatitis. From a population point of view, the most relevant risk factors for asthma were male sex, ET birth, smoking during pregnancy and birth by elective cesarean section, and for atopic dermatitis male sex, first delivery, birth in a level II hospital and birth by cesarean section. Early-term birth was a predictor of asthma, and PT birth was associated with atopic dermatitis. Counseling against smoking and following strict indications for planned ET deliveries and cesarean sections may be means to reduce the risk of later asthma. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.
The paper assesses the effects of maize yields just prior to birth (in utero), in the first and the second years of life on adult life productivity and efficiency of maize farmers born between 1984 and 1995 in rural Malawi. To ensure that early life maize yields are not confounded by omitted local chacteristics, they are transformed into relative maize yields by using a cumulative gamma distribution. I find that maize yield just prior to birth significantly increases maize output in a farmer'...
Background: Postnatal growth monitoring is useful in assessing the health of preterm babies but their growth patterns have not been sufficiently studied in Africans. Aim: To describe the growth achievements of preterm, low birth weight, appropriately-sized, Nigerian infants. Study design: The subjects were prospectively ...
Jacob, Josephine; Lehne, Moritz; Mischker, Andrea; Klinger, Normen; Zickermann, Claudia; Walker, Jochen
Preterm birth is one of the main causes for infant morbidity and mortality. Apart from negative health outcomes, preterm birth also produces significant health care expenditures. This study evaluates the costs associated with preterm birth in different health sectors during the first 3 years of infants' lives. In a retrospective observational study based on claims data from a German statutory health insurance company, average costs for medication, hospital treatment, ambulatory treatment, and non-medical remedies during the first 3 years after birth were analyzed for early preterm, late preterm, and full-term births. Costs associated with preterm births were generally higher than for full-term births, with the highest costs for the hospital treatment of early preterm births. Cost differences tended to decrease in the second and third year after birth except for ambulatory treatment costs, which decreased for late preterm and full-term births but not for early preterm births. The study shows that preterm birth is associated with increased health care costs, particularly during the first year after birth, indicating that the implementation of adequate programs and policies for preventing preterm birth is not only desirable from a medical but also from a health economic perspective.
Ellison, Marcia A; Hall, Janet E
To determine the quality-of-life domains most impacted by multiple births. Focus groups, qualitative research. Human volunteers in a medical research environment.Forty-three mothers, 29 raising multiple-birth children, 13 raising singletons, identified from random and convenience samples. None. Maternal self-reports of the psychosocial sequelae of multiple or singleton births, based on qualitative data analysis of transcribed group discussions. The quality-of-life domains that were most impacted by raising multiple birth children were social stigma, pregnancy loss, marital satisfaction, children's health, unmet family needs, parenting stress, maternal depression, and the infertility experience. Qualitative methods identified two novel quality-of-life domains in iatrogenic multiple birth families: social stigma and compounded losses. An unexpected finding was the potential for increased marital solidification as parents coped with the inordinate stresses of multiple births. As anticipated, children's health, unmet family needs, maternal depression, and parental stress were key areas of concern. In addition, the infertility experience had a lasting impact. These findings are significant, given that at least 38% of all assisted conceptions result in a multiple birth. This study lays the groundwork for further research on the impact of iatrogenic multiple births.
Martin, William F
Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause.
Thea van Roode
Full Text Available This study examines the influence of socioeconomic circumstances in childhood (childhood SES and adulthood (adult SES on timing of first birth by age 37.A longitudinal study of a 1972-1973 New Zealand birth cohort collected information on socioeconomic characteristics from age 3-32 and reproductive histories at 21, 26, 32 and 38; information on first birth was available from 978 of the original 1037. Relative Risks (RR and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated using Poisson regression to examine first live birth prior to age 21, from 21-25, from 26-31, and from 32-37, by socioeconomic characteristics at different ages.Overall, 68.5% of men had fathered a child and 75.9% of women had given birth, by age 37; with overall differences in parenthood to age 31 for men, and 37 for women evident by childhood SES. While parenthood by age 20 was strongly associated with lower childhood SES for both sexes, first entry into motherhood from 32-37 was more likely with higher adult SES at age 32 (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for medium and RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3 for high compared with low. Education also differientated age at parenthood, with those with higher education more likely to defer fatherhood past age 31, and motherhood past age 25 followed by a period of increased likelihood of motherhood for women with higher levels of education from age 32-37 (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.87-2.2 and RR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6 for medium and high respectively compared with low.SES varies across the lifecourse, and SES at the time has the strongest association with first births at that time. Low childhood SES drives adolescent parenthood, with resulting cumulative differences in parenthood past age 30. Those with more education and higher adult SES are deferring parenthood but attempt to catch up in the mid to late thirties.
Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G
There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.
Perkiömäki, Nelli; Auvinen, Juha; Tulppo, Mikko P; Hautala, Arto J; Perkiömäki, Juha; Karhunen, Ville; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Huikuri, Heikki V; Kiviniemi, Antti M
Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects. At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD) from R-R intervals (RRi) and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking) and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status) potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function. In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014) and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, pmid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less favourable cardiovascular autonomic regulation and potentially to an elevated cardiovascular risk in later life.
Mischke, Mona; Arora, Tulika; Tims, Sebastian
AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health long-lastingly. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life...... synbiotics protected mice against WSD-induced excessive fat accumulation throughout life, replicable in two independent European animal facilities. Adult insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia were improved and most pronounced gene expression changes were observed in the ileum. We observed subtle changes...... as preventive measure to ameliorate obesity risk and improve metabolic health throughout life....
Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Kristina; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Jan
Early-term birth (gestational age, 37-38 weeks) has been associated with increased infant mortality relative to later-term birth, but mortality beyond infancy has not been studied. We examined the association between early-term birth and mortality through young adulthood. We conducted a national cohort study of 679,981 singleton births in Sweden in 1973-1979, followed up for all-cause and cause-specific mortality through 2008 (ages 29-36 years). There were 10,656 deaths in 21.5 million person-years of follow-up. Among those still alive at the beginning of each age range, early-term birth relative to those born at 39-42 weeks was associated with increased mortality in the neonatal period (0-27 days: adjusted hazard ratio = 2.18 [95% confidence interval = 1.89-2.51]), postneonatal period (28-364 days: 1.66 [1.44-1.92]), early childhood (1-5 years: 1.29 [1.10-1.51]), and young adulthood (18-36 years: 1.14 [1.05-1.24]), but not in late childhood/adolescence (6-17 years: 0.97 [0.84-1.12]). In young adulthood, early-term birth was strongly associated with death from congenital anomalies and endocrine disorders, especially diabetes (2.89 [1.54-5.43]). In this large national cohort study, early-term birth was independently associated with increased mortality in infancy, early childhood, and young adulthood. Lowest short-term and long-term mortality was among those born at 39-42 weeks.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H
Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schou Andersen, C; Schmidt Morgen, C; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Oken, E; Gillman, M W; Sørensen, T I A
Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. We studied 27,821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ⩾ 85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. A total of 17,721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.05; P=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.10; P=0.047). Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy.
Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA
Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894
Menezes Ana MB
Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.
Recent studies indicate that persistent achievement gaps among children begin as early as 18 months, years before most publicly funded prekindergarten programs offer enrollment. Early childhood development necessitates more than access to pre-K at age four. Proper brain development requires adequate nutrition, access to quality healthcare, and…
Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.
Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust . The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable
Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin
Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of nongenetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birth weight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the interrelationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations, and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA.
Yeo, Jung Hee; Chun, Nami
The purpose of this study was to identify influence of childbirth experience and postpartum depression on quality of life in women after birth. Two hundred and eleven postpartum women were asked to complete the questionnaires on their childbirth experience during their admission and on their postpartum depression and quality of life between one to three weeks after birth. Initial data were collected from February 1 to May 30, 2011 at two obstetric hospitals in Busan, Korea. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hierarchical multiple regression. The women's childbirth experience and postpartum depression were identified as factors influencing quality of life after birth. The model explained 50% of the variables. Results suggest that childbirth educators should include strategies to increase a positive childbirth experience and to decrease postpartum depression in their education programs in order to improve women's quality of life.
Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.
Rabah M. Shawky
Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.
Deformations have been attributed to supernatural causes since antiquity. Cerebral palsy was associated with God's wrath, witchcraft, the evil eye, or maternal imagination. Greek scholars recommended prevention by tight swaddling, a custom that persisted into modern times. In the Middle Ages, the midwife's negligence was held responsible as was difficult teething. Morgagni described in 1769 that the neonatal brain can liquefy, and Bednar described leukomalacia in 1850 as a distinct disorder of the newborn. In 1861, Little associated cerebral palsies with difficult or protracted labor and neonatal asphyxia, but he was challenged by Freud, who in 1897 declared that most cases are prenatal in origin. In 1868, Virchow demonstrated inflammatory changes, a view recently confirmed by Leviton and Nelson. Although a causal relationship of cerebral palsy to the birth never has been established, the habit to put the blame for cerebral palsy on someone remained a frequent attitude.
Schaefer, Jonathan D; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1-0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett
The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization.
Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C; Lähteenmäki, P; Träger, C; Stokland, T; Grell, K; Gustafson, G; Kogner, P; Sehested, A; Schüz, J
An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease. In a large case-control study nested in the populations of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland of 4.4 million children, we studied the association of birth order and seasonal variation of birth with subsequent risk for CNS tumours. We identified 3983 children from the national cancer registries, and information on exposure was obtained from the high-quality national administrative health registries. We investigated the association between childcare attendance during the first 2 years of life and the risk for CNS tumours in a subset of Danish children with CNS tumours, using information from the Danish Childcare database. We observed no association between birth order and risk of CNS tumours overall (odds ratio (OR) for second born or later born vs first born, 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10) or by histological subgroup, and children with CNS tumours did not show a seasonal variation of birth that was distinct from that of the background population. Childcare attendance compared with homecare showed a slightly increased OR (1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.86) for CNS tumours, with the highest risk observed in children attending a crèche. The strongest association was observed for embryonal CNS tumours. We found no effect of age at enrolment or duration of enrolment in childcare. These results do not support the hypothesis that the burden of exposure to infectious disease in early childhood has an important role in the aetiology of paediatric CNS tumours.
Alansi, Badriah Ali; Mukhtar, Hytham Bahaeldin; Alazizi, Maher Ahmad; Zuiran, Amjad Ahmad; Al-Atawi, Areej Mohammed; Al-Sabah, Badriah Abdulrahman; Al-Yami, Shrooq Salem
To investigate risk factors for early preterm birth. A retrospective comparative study was conducted at Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period from January to December 2010. Five hundred and ninety-five patient's files and delivery registry logbooks were reviewed, the following information was collected; demographic data, current and past obstetric histories. Then the early and late preterm births were compared for various risk factors. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22) was used. The Chi-square and t-test were used to test the statistical significance and a P-valuepreterm birth was found to be 2.5% in our study group. Women at risk for early preterm birth were: primigravidas (33.7% vs. 26.2% for control), P-value 0.039, OR 1.429 and 95% CI 0.982 - 2.079); multiple gestations (87.7% vs. 95.1% for control, P-value 0.002, OR 0.368 and 95% CI 0.196 - 0.688); and patients with a prior history of placental abruption (3.7% vs. 1.0% for control, P-value 0.027, OR3.928 and 95% CI 1.1360 - 13.586). Current study indicated that early preterm births differed from preterm as a whole; primigravida, multiple gestations and a history of placental abruption are independent risk factors for them.
Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Gan, Wan Ying; Tan, Kit-Aun
The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Infants are followed-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Pre-natal factors that include mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, blood glucose and blood pressure during pregnancy, infant's gestational age, birth weight and head circumference at birth are obtained from patient card. Post-natal factors assessed at each follow-up are feeding practices, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements and cognitive development of infants. Iron status is assessed at 6 months, while infant temperament and home environment are assessed at 12 months. Maternal intelligence is assessed at 18 months. Early life nutritional programming is of current interest as many longitudinal studies are actively being conducted in developed countries to investigate this concept. The concept however is relatively new in developing countries such as Malaysia. This study will provide useful information on early nutrition and infant development in the first two years of life which can be further followed up to identify factors that track into childhood and contribute to growth and cognitive deviations.
Martin J Blaser
Full Text Available Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among H. pylori+ men.We examined a long-term cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 28 y, and performed a nested case-control study among those carrying H. pylori or the subset carrying the most virulent cagA+ H. pylori strains to address whether family structure predicted cancer development. We found that among the men who were H. pylori+ and/or cagA+ (it is possible to be cagA+ and H. pylori- if the H. pylori test is falsely negative, belonging to a large sibship or higher birth order was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma late in life. For those with cagA+ strains, the risk of developing gastric cancer was more than twice as high (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0 among those in a sibship of seven or more individuals than in a sibship of between one and three persons.These results provide evidence that early-life social environment plays a significant role in risk of microbially induced malignancies expressing five to eight decades later, and these findings lead to new models to explain these interactions.
Barton, Michelle; Shen, Alex; O'Brien, Karel; Robinson, Joan L; Davies, H Dele; Simpson, Kim; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Langley, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Sauve, Reginald; Synnes, Anne; Tan, Ben; de Repentigny, Louis; Rubin, Earl; Hui, Chuck; Kovacs, Lajos; Yau, Yvonne C W; Richardson, Susan E
Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days). All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, candidiasis enrolled from 2001 to 2003 were included in this study. Factors associated with occurrence and outcome of EOD in ELBW infants were determined. Forty-five ELBW infants and their 84 matched controls were included. Fourteen (31%) ELBW infants had EOD. Birth weight <750 g, gestation <25 weeks, chorioamnionitis, and vaginal delivery were all strongly associated with EOD. Infection with Candida albicans, disseminated disease, pneumonia, and cardiovascular disease were significantly more common in EOD than in LOD. The EOD case fatality rate (71%) was higher than in LOD (32%) or controls (15%) (P = .0001). The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment and mortality combined was similar in EOD (86%) and LOD (72%), but higher than in controls (32%; P = .007). ELBW infants with EOD have a very poor prognosis compared to those with LOD. The role of perinatal transmission in EOD is supported by its association with chorioamnionitis, vaginal delivery, and pneumonia. Dissemination and cardiovascular involvement are common, and affected infants often die. Empiric treatment should be considered for ELBW infants delivered vaginally who have pneumonia and whose mothers have chorioamnionitis or an intrauterine foreign body. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: email@example.com.
Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I
The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination.
Jedrychowski, Wiesław; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Mróz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Edwards, Susan; Musiał, Agnieszka
The main goal of the study was to assess the pattern of risk factors having an impact on the onset of early wheezing phenotypes in the birth cohort of 468 two-year-olds. A secondary objective was to investigate a possible association between early persistent wheezing and infant's length at birth. Approximately one third of the children in the study sample experienced wheezing in the first two years of life, and in about two third of cases (67%), the symptom developed within the first year of life. The early wheezing was easily reversible and in about 70% of the affected infants, the symptom receded in the second year of life. The adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) of persistent wheezing increased with maternal atopy (RRR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.35-7.27), house dampness (RRR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.26-12.3), parity (RRR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.51-4.32) and prenatal ETS exposure (RRR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05-1.22), but was inversely associated with the infant's length at birth (RRR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99). The data support the hypothesis that wheezing phenotypes in early childhood and possibly later in life may already be programmed in the prenatal and early postnatal period when the respiratory system is completing its growth and maturation.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.
Socioeconomic status, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and adiposity in early adult life: an analysis using structural equation modeling Situação sócio-econômica, peso ao nascer, tabagismo na gravidez e adiposidade na vida adulta jovem: uma análise utilizando-se modelagem com equações estruturais
Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
Full Text Available We describe here an example of structural equation modeling in epidemiology. The association between birth weight and adiposity in early adult life, adjusted for the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy and socioeconomic status at birth, was evaluated. Data involving 2,063 adults from the 1978/1979 Ribeirão Preto cohort study were used. Adiposity was measured by body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (STSS. Models were submitted to maximum likelihood estimation, separately for men and women. Birth weight had a small and significant effect on adiposity in men (standardized coefficient, SC = 0.08 and women (SC = 0.09. Smoking during pregnancy did not influence adiposity in men (SC = 0.004, but its effect was marginally significant in women (SC = 0.07; P = 0.056. Socioeconomic status at birth had a small and positive effect on adiposity in men (SC = 0.08 and a moderate and negative effect in women (SC = -0.16. In this young adult population, BMI, WC and STSS used alone or in combination were valid estimators of body adiposity.O objetivo desse artigo é apresentar um exemplo da modelagem com equações estruturais. Foi avaliada associação entre peso ao nascer e adiposidade na vida adulta jovem, ajustando-se para número de cigarros fumados na gravidez e situação sócio-econômica ao nascimento. Dados de 2.063 adultos da coorte de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, de 1978/1979 foram utilizados. A adiposidade foi medida pelo índice de massa corporal (IMC, circunferência da cintura, e somatório das pregas cutâneas subescapular e a tricipital. Os modelos foram estimados por máxima verossimilhança, separadamente para homens e mulheres. O peso ao nascer teve efeito pequeno e significante na adiposidade em homens (CP - coeficiente padronizado = 0,08 e mulheres (CP = 0,09. Tabagismo materno durante a gravidez não influenciou a adiposidade em homens (CP = 0,004, mas em mulheres a
Ryan, Rebecca M
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, the present study tested whether the benefits of a marital birth for early child development diminish as parents' risk of having a nonmarital birth increases (N = 2,285). It was hypothesized that a child's likelihood of being born to unmarried parents is partly a function of father characteristics that predict his capacity to promote child development. Results partially supported hypothesis. A positive association emerged between parental marriage and cognitive outcomes at age 3 only for children whose parents were likely to be married at the child's birth, suggesting average differences between children in married and unmarried families may overestimate the benefit of marriage in subpopulations most impacted by nonmarital birth. © 2012 The Author. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Gamborg, Michael; Andersen, Per Kragh; Baker, Jennifer L
The inverse associations between birth weight and later adverse health outcomes and the positive associations between adult body size and poor health imply that increases in relative body size between birth and adulthood may be undesirable. In this paper, the authors describe life course path...... analysis, a method that can be used to jointly estimate associations between body sizes at different time points and associations of body sizes throughout life with health outcomes. Additionally, this method makes it possible to assess both the direct effect and the indirect effect mediated through later...
El Marroun, Hanan; Zeegers, Mijke; Steegers, Eric A P; van der Ende, Jan; Schenk, Jacqueline J; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Post-term birth, defined as birth after pregnancy duration of 42 weeks, is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. The long-term consequences of post-term birth are unknown. We assessed the association of post-term birth with problem behaviour in early childhood. The study was performed in a large population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Pregnant mothers enrolled between 2001 and 2005. Of a cohort of 5145 children, 382 (7%) were born post-term, and 226 (4%) were born preterm. Parents completed a standardized and validated behavioural checklist (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL/1.5-5) when their children were 1.5 and 3 years old. We examined the relation between gestational age (GA) at birth, based on early fetal ultrasound examination, and problem behaviour with regression analyses, adjusting for socio-economic and pregnancy-related confounders. A quadratic relationship between GA at birth and problem behaviour indicates that both preterm and post-term children have higher behavioural and emotional problem scores than the term born children. Compared with term born children, post-term born children had a higher risk for overall problem behaviour [odds ratio (OR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-3.36] and were almost two and a half times as likely to have attention deficit / hyperactivity problem behaviour (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.38-4.32). Post-term birth was associated with more behavioural and emotional problems in early childhood, especially attention deficit / hyperactivity problem behaviour. When considering expectant management, this aspect of post-term pregnancy should be taken into account.
Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael
BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...
Mark H. Vickers
Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how
Vickers, Mark H
The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be
Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects.At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD from R-R intervals (RRi and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function.In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014 and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, p<0.001, as well as with standing BRS (r = -0.092, p = 0.006. These observations were verified using relevant birth weight categories (<2,500 g; 2,500-3,999 g; ≥4,000 g. In women, birth weight was positively correlated with seated BRS (r = 0.081, p = 0.010, but none of the other measures of cardiovascular autonomic function. These correlations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.05 for all.In men, higher birth weight was independently associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function at mid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less
Nyurguyana S. Baisheva
Full Text Available Protection of maternal and child health is a special health care industry. It largely determines the future of the nation. Therefore, it is an important matter of the state. This article presents an analysis of cases of very early preterm births (VEPB and their outcomes in 2012-2014 in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (RS (Y. Retrospective analysis of the cases of VEPB and of the status of health of the babies born before 28 weeks of gestation was conducted during the research. The group at risk of VEPB consisted of women with burdened obstetric and gynecological history. The main causes of VEPB were premature amniorrhexis in pregnant women with carriage of infections and life-threatening severe pre-eclampsia. In the structure of morbidity of very preterm babies the first place among the main diseases belongs to perinatal lesion of CNS, the second place belongs to respiratory distress syndrome, and the third place to infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the structure of death, 57.1 % of fatal cases are babies with a term of gestation less than 28 weeks. The causes of mortality were respiratory distress syndrome, congenital pneumonia, and intraventricular hemorrhage.
Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from an uncontrolled T cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Causal factors include a combination of genetics, early life incidents and the food we eat. The involved adaptive immune response can be down regulated by a regulatory...... treated with the antibiotic vancomycin in four weeks from birth. Diabetes incidence and onset time were compared with a control group and we found that neonate vancomycin treatment attenuates T1D. By changing the gut flora composition in the beginning of life we also demonstrated a disruption....... An interplay that is likely to represent a critical environmental component to diabetes induction. In a period after birth alterations of the early microbial colonization of the gut therefore can be expected to have an immense impact on diabetes progression later in life. In this study neonate NOD mice were...
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Doering, Jennifer J.; Willett, Marjorie; Ruminski, Christine; Spring, Molly
The positive impact of healthy relationships on child development is widely accepted. A healthy relationship between mother and child is at risk when a mother experiences symptoms of birth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mothers of children with special needs are at high risk for this disorder and early intervention (EI)…
Bolduc, Jonathan; Evrard, Melanie
Children from birth to five are generally enthusiastic about music. However, because many early-childhood educators (ECEs) feel that they have insufficient knowledge to foster musical development, music education practices are not equivalent across ECEs. This study aimed to identify and determine the frequency of music activities used by ECEs. In…
Jin, Hong-Xing; Wang, Rong-Shan; Chen, Shu-Jun; Wang, Ai-Ping; Liu, Xi-Yong
Iron deficiency in infancy is associated with a range of clinical and developmentally important issues. Currently, it is unclear what is the optimal timing to administer prophylactic enteral iron supplementation in preterm and very low birth weight infants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate early compared with late iron supplementation in low birth weight infants. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to May 10, 2014 for studies that compared the benefit of early and late iron supplementation in infants of low birth weight. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using the leave one-out approach and the quality of the included data was assessed. The data base search and detailed review identified four studies that were included in the meta-analysis. The number of included patients was 246 (n=121 for early supplementation and n=125 for late supplementation) and the majority were premature infants. Across studies, early supplementation ranged from as early as enteral feeding was tolerated to 3 weeks, and late supplementation ranged from 4 weeks to about 60 days. Early treatment was associated with significantly smaller decreases in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels (Psupplementation (P=0.022). There was no difference between early and late supplementation in the number of patients with nectorizing enteroclitis (>bell stage 2) (P=0.646). Sensitivity analysis indicated no one study overly influenced the findings and that the data was reliable. In conclusion, early iron supplementation resulted in less a decrease in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels in infants with low birth rate. However, caution should be used when treating infants with iron so as not to result in iron overload and possibly negative long-term effects on neurodevelopment.
Hart, Roger J; Doherty, Dorota A; Keelan, Jeffrey A
CONTEXT: The impact of early life events on testicular function in adulthood is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To study the early influences of fetal growth, exposures to cigarette smoke in utero and cord blood estrogens, and the influences of growth and adiposity in childhood through adolescence......; on testicular function in adulthood. DESIGN: Male members of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) were contacted at 20-22 years of age. Of 913 contacted, 423 (56%) agreed to participate; 404 underwent a testicular ultrasound, 365 provided a semen sample, and reproductive hormones were measured (384...... = .003) in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to maternal smoking and higher cord blood estrogens at delivery were associated with a reduced sperm output in adulthood. Optimal adult testicular function depends on being born at or above average weight, and maintaining optimal growth and adiposity...
Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 4-12 ISSN 1804-8137 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : wrongful life * wrongful conception * wrongful birth Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.ilaw.cas.cz/medlawjournal/index.php/medlawjournal/article/view/55
Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia
Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.
In this paper, I argue that Thomson's famous attempt to reconcile the fetus's putative right to life with robust abortion rights is not tenable. Given her view, whether or not an abortion violates the fetus's right to life depends on the abortion procedure utilised. And I argue that Thomson's view implies that any late term abortion that involves feticide is impermissible. In particular, this would rule out the partial birth abortion technique which has been so controversial of late.
José Manuel Hernández Garre
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the main representations, experiences and coping strategies developed by health professionals involved in perinatal bereavement care. A qualitative and phenomenological approach was used conducting a series of semi-structured interviews to professionals of different categories of obstetric areas of three public hospitals in the region of Murcia. The stories talk about of professionals trained for the life they have to face death, talk about of a lack of institutional training to the professionals react drawing on the experience, empathy or self-taught. They talk about painful situations that are experienced by clinicians with hints of tragedy, speak of care directed to the psychological management of mourning, talks about the transition from coping models duels based on avoidance and emotional detachment to others centered on the verbalization of experience and contact with the stillborn.
Groeneweg-Koolhoven, Isis; Ploeg, Merel; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda WJH; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Rhebergen, Didi; Exel, Eric van
Background: Late-life depression is thought to differ in clinical presentation from early-life depression. Particularly, late-life depression is considered to be more characterized by apathy than is early-life depression. Lacking convincing evidence, this study examines the presence and associated
History of hospital is one of main fields of researches in medical history. Besides writing a history of an individual hospital, considerable efforts have been made to trace the origin of hospital. Those who quest for the origin of hospital are faced with an inevitable problem of defining hospital. As the different definition can lead to a different outcome, it is important to make a clear definition. In this article, the hospital was defined as an institution in which patients are housed and given medical treatments. According to the definition, the Great Basilius is regarded to have created the first hospital in 369 CE. The creation of hospital is considered to be closely related with Christian philantrophy. However, the question is raised against this explanation. As the religious philantrophy does not exclusively belong to the Christianity alone, more comprehensive and persuasive theory should be proposed to explain why the first hospital was created in the Christian World, not in the Buddhistic or other religious world. Furthermore, in spite of sharing the same Christian background, why the first hospital appeared in Byzantine Empire, not in Western Roman Empire, also should be explained. My argument is that Asclepius cult and the favorable attitude toward medicine in Greek world are responsible to the appearance of the first hospital in Byzantine Empire. The evangelic work of Jesus was heavily depended on healing activities. The healing activities of Jesus and his disciples were rivalled by Asclepius cult which had been widely spread and practiced in the Hellenistic world. The temples of Asclepius served as a model for hospital, for the temples were the institution exclusively reserved for the patients. The exclusive housing of patients alone in the temples of Asclepius is clearly contrasted with the other early forms of hospitals in which not only patients but also the poor, foreigners and pilgrims were housed altogether. Toward the healing god Asclepius
Full Text Available History of hospital is one of main fields of researches in medical history. Besides writing a history of an individual hospital, considerable efforts have been made to trace the origin of hospital. Those who quest for the origin of hospital are faced with an inevitable problem of defining hospital. As the different definition can lead to a different outcome, it is important to make a clear definition. In this article, the hospital was defined as an institution in which patients are housed and given medical treatments. According to the definition, the Great Basilius is regarded to have created the first hospital in 369 CE. The creation of hospital is considered to be closely related with Christian philantrophy. However, the question is raised against this explanation. As the religious philantrophy does not exclusively belong to the Christianity alone, more comprehensive and persuasive theory should be proposed to explain why the first hospital was created in the Christian World, not in the Buddhistic or other religious world. Furthermore, in spite of sharing the same Christian background, why the first hospital appeared in Byzantine Empire, not in Western Roman Empire, also should be explained. My argument is that Asclepius cult and the favorable attitude toward medicine in Greek world are responsible to the appearance of the first hospital in Byzantine Empire. The evangelic work of Jesus was heavily depended on healing activities. The healing activities of Jesus and his disciples were rivalled by Asclepius cult which had been widely spread and practiced in the Hellenistic world. The temples of Asclepius served as a model for hospital, for the temples were the institution exclusively reserved for the patients. The exclusive housing of patients alone in the temples of Asclepius is clearly contrasted with the other early forms of hospitals in which not only patients but also the poor, foreigners and pilgrims were housed altogether. Toward the
Lee, Soon Min; Chang, Meayoung; Kim, Ki-Soo
Neonatal sepsis remains one of the most important causes of death and co-morbidity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to determine the current incidences of early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS), the distribution of pathogens, and the impact of infection on co-morbidities in VLBW infants. We analyzed the data including sepsis episode from 2,386 VLBW infants enrolled in Korean Neonatal Network from January 2013 to June 2014. We defined EOS as a positive blood culture occurring between birth and 7 days of life and LOS after 7 days of life. Sepsis was found in 21.1% of VLBW infants. The risk of sepsis was inversely related to birth weight and gestational age. EOS was found in only 3.6% of VLBW infants, however the mortality rate was as high as 34.1%. EOS was associated with the increased odds for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. The vast majority of EOS was caused by Gram-positive organisms, particularly coagulase-negative staphylococci (30.6%). LOS developed in 19.4% of VLBW infants with a 16.1% mortality rate. Pathogens in LOS were dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (38.3%). Twenty-five percent and fifty percent of first LOS episode occurred after 12 days and 20 days from birth, respectively. Younger and smaller VLBW infants showed the earlier occurrence day for the 25% of first LOS episode. This study provides a recent nationwide epidemiology of sepsis in VLBW infants in Korea. Based on this study, successful strategies to reduce infections would improve survival and reduce morbidity.
Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blanchard, Ray; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.
Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands’ position (e.g., first-born, middle-born, last-born) within their sibships. Fraternal birth order refers to their position among male siblings only. Such research was extended in this study to a large group of early-onset gender dysphor...
van den Berg, Gerard J; Gupta, Sumedha
This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Weiye; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Li; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Li, Xiating; Xiao, Mei; Hao, Liping; Yang, Xuefeng; Yang, Nianhong; Wei, Sheng
To examine the association between sleep duration in early pregnancy and fetal growth in a prospective cohort study of 3567 Chinese women. Pregnant women at 8-16 weeks of gestation were interviewed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire to assess sleep duration. Birth weight and birth length were measured by a midwife in the delivery room at birth; low birth weight (LBW) was defined as birth weight sleep duration was 8.39 ± 1.13 h/day. A total of 1290 women sleeping ≥9 h/day, 1563 sleeping 8 to sleeping 7 to sleeping sleeping 8 to sleeping sleeping sleeping habit or with a history of abortion (all p for interaction sleep duration in early pregnancy was associated with birth length. Our findings indicate that midday napping may be a protective factor for birth length among pregnant women with shorter sleep duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lund Line K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.
Lund, Line K; Vik, Torstein; Lydersen, Stian; Løhaugen, Gro C C; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Indredavik, Marit S
Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight Quotient (AQ), the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Revised, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale III assessment. The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.
Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed
Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung
The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (≥3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed for this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad's scale. Studies were included if they examined the effect of the early use of caffeine compared with the late use of caffeine. Two reviewers screened the candidate articles and extracted the data from the full-text of all of the included studies. We included a total of 59,136 participants (range 58,997-59,136; variable in one study) from a total of 5 studies. The risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 0.902; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.828 to 0.983; P=0.019), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR, 0.507; 95% CI, 0.396 to 0.648; Pcaffeine group. Early caffeine use was not associated with a risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and NEC requiring surgery. This meta-analysis suggests that early caffeine use has beneficial effects on neonatal outcomes, including mortality and BPD, without increasing the risk of NEC.
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.
Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo
This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Can, Gülay; Bilgin, Leyla; Tatli, Burak; Saydam, Reyhan; Coban, Asuman; Ince, Zeynep
The objective of this study was to assess low-risk very low birth weight (VLBW) children, before the era of modern neonatal intensive care in Turkey, during adolescence. Forty-one VLBW adolescents were compared with 40 adolescents who had normal birth weight. The physical and neuromotor development, educational achievement and psychosocial status were assessed at a mean age of 17 +/- 1.6 years. VLBW adolescents were shorter than normal birth weight adolescents (p = 0.01). A major neurological abnormality (cerebral palsy) was seen in 12% and a minor neurological abnormality (tremor, coordination, behavioral and speech disorders) in 17%. VLBW adolescents had higher rates of visual problems (56% vs. 5%). School failure was present in 27%. There were no differences in behavioral problems or quality of life between the two groups, but VLBW adolescents did have a lower self-esteem score. Neurodevelopment and growth sequelae were a significant problem in VLBW adolescents. As early intervention might help to prevent or ameliorate potential problems, long-term follow-up is essential.
Vakrilova, L; Sluncheva, B; Emilova, Z; Pramatarova, T; Jarukova, N; Radulova, P; Chitrova, S; Petrova, G
Newborn infants with birth weight 1500 g and less (VLBW/ELBW) have higher nutritional needs, but enteral feeding is often insufficient or impossible. Parenteral nutrition (PN) as an important component of intensive care with them minimizes the risk of nutritional deficiency. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of early PN administration in VLBW/ELBW infants. The prospective study includes 23 newborn babies with birthweight below 1500 g who were admitted to the NICU from 01.03. to 20.04. 2009. With all babies a PN was started from the first day of life with dextrose and amino acid solutions, adding lipid solutions in gradually increasing quantity on the second day. During the first 20 days of life for each baby were calculated on a daily basis the exact quantities of energy and the essential nutritional substances as well as the balance among them. All babies were followed up for weight gain, presence or absence of complications, related with parenteral nutrition as well as for: blood sugar, acid-base status, total serum protein, electrolytes, urea, triglycerides, billirubin, alkaline phosphatase, ASAT ALAT RESULTS: We found that due to the small infusion volumes during the first days, the minimal daily needed nutrition levels are reached at day 4-5. Nutritional intake at day 7-10 in most children is enough for growth. A positive mean weight gain for the whole group 6.6 g/kg/d (SD 6.2) is observed. Negative weight gain during the first 20 days is observed only with two critically ill babies with substantial reduction of infusion volume. In 9 babies a transient increase in urea levels was observed during the first week, 5 babies had an increase in triglycerides as a symptom of bad lipid tolerance. In 7 babies on prolonged total PN an increase in alkaline phosphatase is observed. Conclusions. Early and sufficient PN in newborn babies below 1500 g guarantees the daily intake of energy and essential nutritive substances for adequate growth and is a basic component of
Perumal, Nandita; Roth, Daniel E; Perdrizet, Johnna; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Bassani, Diego G
Postmenstrual and/or gestational age-corrected age (CA) is required to apply child growth standards to children born preterm (age). Yet, CA is rarely used in epidemiologic studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may bias population estimates of childhood undernutrition. To evaluate the effect of accounting for GA in the application of growth standards, we used GA-specific standards at birth (INTERGROWTH-21st newborn size standards) in conjunction with CA for preterm-born children in the application of World Health Organization Child Growth Standards postnatally (referred to as 'CA' strategy) versus postnatal age for all children, to estimate mean length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z scores at 0, 3, 12, 24, and 48-months of age in the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. At birth (n = 4066), mean LAZ was higher and the prevalence of stunting (LAZ age (mean ± SD): - 0.36 ± 1.19 versus - 0.67 ± 1.32; and 8.3 versus 11.6%, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk (PAR) of stunting due to preterm birth were attenuated and changed inferences using CA versus postnatal age at birth [OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 (95% CI 0.95, 1.82) vs 14.7 (95% CI 11.7, 18.4); PAR 3.1 vs 42.9%]; differences in inferences persisted at 3-months. At 12, 24, and 48-months, preterm birth was associated with stunting, but ORs/PARs remained attenuated using CA compared to postnatal age. Findings were similar for weight-for-age z scores. Population-based epidemiologic studies in LMICs in which GA is unused or unavailable may overestimate the prevalence of early childhood undernutrition and inflate the fraction of undernutrition attributable to preterm birth.
Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha
Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. design, setting, participants, and outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA.
World-wide, many fetuses and infants are exposed to methylxanthines via maternal consumption of coffee and other beverages containing these substances. Methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and aminophylline) are also commonly used as a medication for apnea of prematurity.The metabolism of methylxanthines is impaired in pregnant women, fetuses and neonates, leading to accumulating levels thereof. Methylxanthines readily passes the placenta barrier and enters all tissues and thus may affect the fetus/newborn at any time during pregnancy or postnatal life, given that the effector systems are mature.At clinically relevant doses, the major effector system for methylxanthines is adenosine receptors. Animal studies suggest that adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune system are developed at birth, but that cerebral adenosine receptors are not fully functional. Furthermore animal studies have shown protective positive effects of methylxanthines in situations of hypoxia/ischemia in neonates. Similarly, a positive long-term effect on lung function and CNS development was found in human preterm infants treated with high doses of caffeine for apneas. There is now evidence that the overall benefits from methylxanthine therapy for apnea of prematurity outweigh potential short-term risks.On the other hand it is important to note that experimental studies have indicated that long-term effects of caffeine during pregnancy and postnatally may include altered behavior and altered respiratory control in the offspring, although there is currently no human data to support this.Some epidemiology studies have reported negative effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes related to maternal ingestion of high doses of caffeine, but the results are inconclusive. The evidence base for adverse effects of caffeine in first third of pregnancy are stronger than for later parts of pregnancy and there is currently insufficient evidence to advise women to restrict
Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita
Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of population growth and factors affecting early life mortality in free-ranging dogs. We observed high rates of mortality, with only ~19% of the 364 pups from 95 observed litters surviving till the reproductive age; 63% of total mortality being human influenced. While living near people increases resource availability for dogs, it also has deep adverse impacts on their population growth, making the dog-human relationship on streets highly complex.
El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija
Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1.
Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.
A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.
temperatures, suggesting that prey availability had some influence on the growth pattern. The relatively low mortality rates of eggs and larvae,and high larval growth rates compared to other studies, indicate that this fjord affords especially favorable conditions for the early life stages of cod....... These conditions may result in a strong recruitment, which again might be the background of the relatively high cod spawning stock biomass found in Kapisigdlit. Since different species of fish may vary in their spawning strategies and adaptations to physical and biological conditions, the larval assemblages...... regimes, relative inflowof Atlantic water, temperature increase, glacial melting and runoff from land, the environment off West Greenland will undergo significant changes in the future. This thesis points out that in fjord systems, where such processes might change the timing and magnitude of freshwater...
Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Dalgård, Christine; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.
Objective To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. Methods From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076); exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343); exposure only postnatally (n = 140); and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188). Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. Results Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15–1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58–1.97, respectively). Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09–1.50) compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. Conclusions Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants. PMID:25310824
Full Text Available The brain has a remarkable capacity for reorganization following injury, especially during the first years of life. Knowledge of structural reorganization and its consequences following perinatal injury is sparse. Here we studied changes in brain tissue volume, morphology, perfusion, and integrity in children with hemiplegia compared to typically developing children, using MRI. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated reduced total cerebral volume, with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and reduced total white matter volumes, with no differences in total gray matter volume, compared to typically developing children. An increase in cortical thickness at the hemisphere contralateral to the lesion (CLH was detected in motor and language areas, which may reflect compensation for the gray matter loss in the lesion area or retention of ipsilateral pathways. In addition, reduced cortical thickness, perfusion, and surface area were detected in limbic areas. Increased CSF volume and precentral cortical thickness and reduced white matter volume were correlated with worse motor performance. Brain reorganization of the gray matter within the CLH, while not necessarily indicating better outcome, is suggested as a response to neuronal deficits following injury early in life.
Zenaida R. Ravanera
completion, work start, home-leaving, cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth - are examined using data from the 1995 Canadian General Social Survey of the Family. The trends in the timing and spread of each event, the length of transition to adulthood, and the trajectories to marriage indicate that the early life courses of Canadian men have changed tremendously with more diversified family behaviours and significant increases in ages at school completion and at start of regular work.
Lapsley, Hilary; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J
This research report presents findings on 'start in life' from a qualitative study of 90-year-olds from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. The study aimed to contextualise the LBC1921 cohort in time and place, describe cohort members' experiences of family and schooling and stimulate further inquiry into the relationships between 'start in life' and risk and resilience factors relating to longevity and healthy ageing. Scottish education and family life in the early 1930s are briefly described. Life review questionnaire: A qualitative Life Review Questionnaire was developed, requiring free-text handwritten responses. Its 'Start in Life' section focused on schooling and family support. Wave 4 of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 involved testing 129 members near to their 90(th) birthday. They reside largely in Edinburgh and its environs. The Life Review Questionnaire was administered to 126 participants, 54 % women. Qualitative analysis: Thematic analysis was the qualitative technique used to categorise, code and extract meaning from questionnaire text. Narratives were extracted from the data to present illustrative stories. Narratives of start in life gave contextual description. Thematic analysis showed LBC1921 members enjoying their schooling, highlighting teachers, academic achievement, school activities and school friendships. Personal qualities, family circumstances and aspects of schooling sometimes hindered educational performance. Family life was recalled mostly with warmth and parents were often portrayed as valuing education and supporting learning and development. Family adversity from poverty, parental illness and parental death was often mitigated by support from parents (or the remaining parent). Overall, most cohort members believed that they had got off to a good 'start in life'. This qualitative investigation of 'start in life' adds context and richness to quantitative investigations of the sizeable LBC1921 cohort, stimulating fresh insights and hypotheses
Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira
To estimate the national rate of early-term live births in Brazil and to evaluate the effect of birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation, as compared with 39 and 40 weeks' gestation on infant outcomes according to precursors of birth and the existence of maternal/fetal medical conditions. National perinatal population-based cohort study. 266 maternity services located in the five Brazilian macroregions. 18 652 singleton live newborns from 37 0/7 to 40 6/7 weeks of gestation. Resuscitation in delivery room, oxygen therapy, transient tachypnoea, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), hypoglycaemia, use of antibiotics, phototherapy, phototherapy after hospital discharge, neonatal death and breastfeeding. Early terms accounted for 35% (95% CI 33.4% to 36.7%) of all live births. Among provider-initiated births in women without medical conditions, infants of 37 and 38 weeks' gestation had higher odds of oxygen therapy (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.93, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.98 and AOR 1.92 95% CI 1.18 to 3.13), along with admission to NICU (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.41 and AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.60), neonatal death (AOR 14.40, 95% CI 1.94 to 106.69 and AOR 13.76,95% CI 2.84 to 66.75), hypoglycaemia in the first 48 hours of life (AOR 7.86, 95% CI 1.95 to 31.71 and AOR 5.76, 95% CI 1.63 to 20.32), transient tachypnoea (AOR 2.98, 95% CI 1.57 to 5.65 and AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.48) and the need for phototherapy within the first 72 hours of life (AOR 3.59, 95% CI 1.95 to 6.60 and AOR 2.29, 95% CI 1.49 to 3.53), yet lower odds of breastfeeding up to 1 hour after birth (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86 and AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) and exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.89 and AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99). Birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation increased the risk of most adverse infant outcomes analysed, especially among provider-initiated births and should be avoided before 39 weeks' gestation in healthy pregnancies. © Article
Mejbel, Hebah S; Simons, Andrew M
Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally "hard" termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking "turions" prior to freeze-over. The problem for S. polyrhiza is that diversified dormancy behavior must be generated among clonally produced, genetically identical offspring. Variation in phenology has been observed in the field, but its sources are unknown. Here, we investigate sources of phenological variation in turion production , and test the hypothesis that diversification in turion phenology is generated within genetic lineages through effects of parental birth order. As expected, phenotypic plasticity to temperature is expressed along a thermal gradient; more interestingly, parental birth order was found to have a significant and strong effect on turion phenology: Turions are produced earlier by late birth-order parents. These results hold regardless of whether turion phenology is measured as first turion birth order, time to first turion, or turion frequency. This study addresses a question of current interest on potential mechanisms generating diversification, and suggests that consistent phenotypic differences across birth orders generate life history variation.
Øglund, Guro Pauck; Hildebrand, Maria; Ekelund, Ulf
The purpose of this systematic review was to explore whether birth weight, early growth and motor development act as determinants of physical activity in children and youth. We performed a systematic literature search on the possible early life determinants. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between birthweight and objectively measured physical activity. We identified 9 studies examining birth weight, in which none of the studies with objectively measured physical activity observed an association between birth weight and physical activity. The meta-analysis confirmed this result (b=-3.08, 95% CI -10.20, 4.04). The 3 studies examining early growth and physical activity in youth differ in methodology and the results are inconsistent. Two studies suggest an association between earlier motor development and physical activity and sport participation in youth. This was not confirmed in a third study. Our meta-analysis suggests that birth weight is not an important determinant of physical activity in youth. Available data does not allow firm conclusions whether early growth and motor development act as determinants of physical activity in youth.
Kikuchi, Masao; Wickman, Larysa; Rabah, Raja; Wiggins, Roger C
Podocyte depletion, which drives progressive glomerulosclerosis in glomerular diseases, is caused by a reduction in podocyte number, size or function in the context of increasing glomerular volume. Kidneys obtained at autopsy from premature and mature infants who died in the first year of life (n = 24) were used to measure podometric parameters for comparison with previously reported data from older kidneys. Glomerular volume increased 4.6-fold from 0.13 ± 0.07 μm 3 x10 6 in the pre-capillary loop stage, through 0.35 μm 3 x10 6 at the capillary loop, to 0.60 μm 3 x10 6 at the mature glomerular stage. Podocyte number per glomerulus increased from 326 ± 154 per glomerulus at the pre-capillary loop stage to 584 ± 131 per glomerulus at the capillary loop stage of glomerular development to reach a value of 589 ± 166 per glomerulus in mature glomeruli. Thus, the major podocyte number increase occurs in the early stages of glomerular development, in contradistinction to glomerular volume increase, which continues after birth in association with body growth. As glomeruli continue to enlarge, podocyte density (number per volume) rapidly decreases, requiring a parallel rapid increase in podocyte size that allows podocyte foot processes to maintain complete coverage of the filtration surface area. Hypertrophic stresses on the glomerulus and podocyte during development and early rapid growth periods of life are therefore likely to play significant roles in determining how and when defects in podocyte structure and function due to genetic variants become clinically manifest. Therapeutic strategies aimed at minimizing mismatch between these factors may prove clinically useful.
О. V. Lebedeva
Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the association of perinatal factors with the early neonatal mortality in newborns with very low (VLBW and extremely low birth weight (ELBW.Methods: The statistical data was carried out, that is analysis of 17 perinatal factors of 28 newborns with an ELBW with gestation of 23–27 weeks and 18 newborns with a VLBW with gestation of 28–32 weeks, who died in the first 7 days of life. The comparison group consisted of 25 newborns with an ELBW and 56 children with a VLBW with gestation of 25–27 and 28–32 weeks, respectively, who survived the early neonatal period. The association of risk factors with the early neonatal mortality was assessed by means of a multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. A critical p error level was set equal to 0.05. Results: In newborns with a VLBW the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality depended on a gestation term (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.56–11.71; р = 0.002 and emergency Caesarean section (OR 7.48, 95% CI 1.28–43.74; р = 0.008. A vaginal birth increased the survival chance (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01–0.86; р = 0.032. Newborns with an ELBW had the following factors of the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality: gestational age (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.06–7.73; р = 0.038, Apgar score at the 5th minute (OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99–3.69; р = 0.050 and presence of chorioamnionitis (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.0–29.53; p = 0.048. An elective Caesarean section increased the survival chance (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.001–0.44; p = 0.048. Conclusion: Summarizing the obtained data, we can conclude that besides a gestational age the risk of early neonatal mortality in newborns with a VLBW may be increased due to the emergency Caesarean section, with an ELBW — due to a low Apgar score at the 5th minute and the presence of mother's chorioamnionitis. A vaginal birth in newborns with a VLBW and an elective Caesarean section in children with an ELBW increase survival chances.
Idrovo, Alvaro J
The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1), urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2), ecological resilience (FC3), and free-plague environments (FC4). Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.
Alvaro J. Idrovo
Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1, urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2, ecological resilience (FC3, and free-plague environments (FC4. Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.
Elgar, Frank J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Currie, Candace
A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls
Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda L.
This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and…
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...
Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G
Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David
The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.
Lahti, M; Eriksson, J G; Heinonen, K; Kajantie, E; Lahti, J; Wahlbeck, K; Tuovinen, S; Pesonen, A-K; Mikkonen, M; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Räikkönen, K
Late preterm births constitute the majority of preterm births. However, most evidence suggesting that preterm birth predicts the risk of mental disorders comes from studies on earlier preterm births. We examined if late preterm birth predicts the risks of severe mental disorders from early to late adulthood. We also studied whether adulthood mental disorders are associated with post-term birth or with being born small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age, which have been previously associated with psychopathology risk in younger ages. Of 12 597 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants, born 1934-1944, 664 were born late preterm, 1221 post-term, 287 SGA, and 301 LGA. The diagnoses of mental disorders were identified from national hospital discharge and cause of death registers from 1969 to 2010. In total, 1660 (13.2%) participants had severe mental disorders. Individuals born late preterm did not differ from term-born individuals in their risk of any severe mental disorder. However, men born late preterm had a significantly increased risk of suicide. Post-term birth predicted significantly increased risks of any mental disorder in general and particularly of substance use and anxiety disorders. Individuals born SGA had significantly increased risks of any mental and substance use disorders. Women born LGA had an increased risk of psychotic disorders. Although men born late preterm had an increased suicide risk, late preterm birth did not exert widespread effects on adult psychopathology. In contrast, the risks of severe mental disorders across adulthood were increased among individuals born SGA and individuals born post-term.
Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schou Andersen, C; Schmidt Morgen, C
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may...... be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 27,821 children born to mothers...... participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex...
Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hoekstra, Maarten; Gerritsen, Jorrit; de Jongste, Johan C.
Rationale: The relation between birth weight and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children remains unclear. Previous studies focused on a relation at separate ages. A longitudinal analysis may lead to a better understanding. Objectives: To estimate the effect of birth weight on the development and
Erica S. LeCounte
Full Text Available Purpose: Life expectancy at birth is used as a barometer of the health and well-being of a population. Life expectancies vary widely across Wisconsin counties. While much of the analysis of life expectancy in Wisconsin has focused on counties, there may be important differences in life expectancy within counties by zip code. Methods: To calculate life expectancy, death count data and population estimates were entered into an abridged life table using the Chiang methodology. Data were linked with measures from the American Community Survey to examine the relationship between life expectancy and zip code characteristics. Results: Life expectancy varies greatly across zip codes in Milwaukee County. Overall, there was a 12-year difference in the life expectancy of children born into zip codes with the lowest and highest life expectancy: 53206 (71.3 years and 53217 (83.2 years. There was a strong positive correlation between life expectancy and median household income (r = 0.784, P < 0.0001, educational attainment of a bachelor’s degree or higher (r = 0.741, P < 0.0001 and the socioeconomic index combining education and income (r = 0.819, P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Disparities in life expectancy within Milwaukee County are stark and correlate with differences in social and economic factors. To improve health outcomes such as life expectancy, health care practitioners and health care systems must become more involved in activities at the social and policy levels to improve social and economic conditions that would allow their patients to live healthier and longer lives.
Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
allergic disease at 6 yr of age. In an ongoing population-based birth cohort study of 562 children, follow-up visits were performed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36, and 72 months. Visits included an interview, physical examination, SPTs, and S-IgE measurements for 12 food and inhalant allergens. The frequency...... from 3 and 12 months, respectively. Early food sensitization (S-IgE) between 3 and 18 months was found to be significantly (p Children with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or rhinoconjunctivitis......, and sensitization at 6 yr, were sensitized to food allergens to a large extent (53%, 42%, and 47%, respectively) already at 6 months. Early inhalant sensitization (S-IgE) did not increase the risk of later allergic disease. Early atopic dermatitis (0-18 months) was also highly associated with subsequent allergic...
Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Dratva, Julia; Röösli, Martin; Perez, Laura
Birth outcomes are relevant for future children's heath. Capitalising on a natural experimental design in Switzerland, we evaluated how regional smoking bans introduced at different time points affected birth outcomes, including preterm and early-term births. We used birth registry data of all singleton neonates born in Switzerland (2007-2012). We developed canton-specific interrupted time-series followed by random meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits of smoking bans on preterm (Switzerland with cantons that adopted more comprehensive smoking bans achieving greater benefits. Early-term births constitute a previously ignored though important group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available This study compared the effects of major violent and nonviolent opposition campaigns for regime change, on predicted life expectancy at birth. The study measured life expectancy five and ten years after the campaign ended, so that deaths which occurred during the campaign would not be included in the metric, and thus enabling the study of changes made in the state on the social determinants affecting longevity, after the campaign was over. Life expectancy is one of the best reported World Development Indicators and is considered to be a good indication of the overall health and general living conditions of the state and therefore is an ideal indicator to reflect the changes made in the state following a major campaign. The results of this analysis showed that states have a hard time recovering from a major opposition campaign and initially drop behind the growth trend in the world average for predicted life expectancy at birth. But, the type of campaign that was waged and whether it was successful, greatly affects the state’s ability to recover. Encouragingly by a decade after the campaign ends, states that experienced a nonviolent campaign that was successful had caught up to the world average and inched ahead of it. This shows that on this important development indicator, new governments that were ushered into power by nonviolent social movements, had made positive changes in the state that enabled it to surpass world averages.
Dik, Miranda; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein; Jonker, Cees
Physical activity has shown to be inversely associated with cognitive decline in older people. Whether this association is already present in early life has not been investigated previously. The association between early life physical activity and cognition was studied in 1,241 subjects aged 62-85
Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
BACKGROUND: We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship. METHODS: A cohort...... with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years. The latter relation was attenuated when educational status at age 18 years and adult social class were adjusted for, while birth characteristics and childhood activities had minor influence. Having an unskilled father at birth, low education, few...... intellectual and many social activities in childhood as well as low adult social class were associated with decline in cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Adverse social circumstances early in life were associated with lower cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, as well as with a decline between...
Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya
Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…
Harm J. Krugers
Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.
Allinson, James P; Hardy, Rebecca; Donaldson, Gavin C; Shaheen, Seif O; Kuh, Diana; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A
Both adverse early-life exposures and adult smoking can negatively influence adult lung function trajectory, but few studies consider how the impact of early-life exposures may be modified by subsequent smoking. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development is a nationally representative cohort, initially of 5,362 individuals, followed since enrollment at birth in March 1946. Using data collected prospectively across life and multilevel modeling, we investigated how the relationships between early-life exposures (infant lower respiratory infection, manual social class, home overcrowding, and pollution exposure) and FEV 1 and FVC trajectories between ages 43 and 60-64 years were influenced by smoking behavior. Among 2,172 individuals, there were synergistic interactions of smoking with infant respiratory infection (P = 0.04) and early-life home overcrowding (P = 0.009), for FEV 1 at 43 years. Within smoker-stratified models, there were FEV 1 deficits among ever-smokers associated with infant lower respiratory infection (-108.2 ml; P = 0.001) and home overcrowding (-89.2 ml; P = 0.002), which were not evident among never-smokers (-15.9 ml; P = 0.69 and -13.7 ml; P = 0.70, respectively). FVC modeling, including 1,960 individuals, yielded similar results. FEV 1 decline was greater in smokers (P smoking nor early-life exposures were associated with FVC decline. Besides accelerating adult FEV 1 decline, cigarette smoking also modifies how early-life exposures impact on both midlife FEV 1 and FVC. These findings are consistent with smoking impairing pulmonary development during adolescence or early adulthood, thereby preventing catch-up from earlier acquired deficits.
Ortega-García, Juan A; Gutierrez-Churango, Jorge E; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel F; Martínez-Aroca, Miguel; Delgado-Marín, Juan L; Sánchez-Solis, M; Parrilla-Paricio, J J; Claudio, Luz; Martínez-Lage, Juan F
We aimed to assess the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy on the head circumference (HC) at birth of otherwise healthy neonates. A follow-up study from the first trimester of pregnancy to birth was carried out in 419 neonates. An environmental reproductive health form was used to record data of substance exposure obtained during the first obstetric visit at the end of the first trimester. A multiple linear regression model was created for this purpose. Alcohol intake during pregnancy and medical ionizing radiation exposure were the most significant predictors of HC. The mothers' alcohol consumption increased with the mothers' and fathers' education level, net family income and fathers' alcohol consumption. In contrast, maternal smoking decreased with increasing mothers' and fathers' education level and net family income. About 13% of the surveyed embryos were exposed to illegal drugs. Mild to moderate alcohol consumption diminishes the at-birth HC of theoretically healthy newborns in a linear form. There was no threshold dose. We perceived a need for increasing the awareness, and for training, of health care professionals and parents, in regard to risks of alcohol consumption and for recommending abstinence of these substances in both parents during pregnancy. It should also be remembered that medical ionizing radiation should be performed only during the first half of the cycle in fertile women. We think that our study has an important social impact as it affords data for implementing policies for promoting "healthy pregnancies".
Oribe, Madalen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Santa Marina, Loreto; Villar, María; Dorronsoro, Miren; Amiano, Pilar; Ibarluzea, Jesús
To estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EB) during the first 6 months of life in the Gipuzkoa birth cohort, identify the reasons for abandonment of EB, and establish the associated factors. The study population consisted of 638 pregnant women from the INMA-Gipuzkoa (Infancia y Medio Ambiente, www.proyectoinma.org) birth cohort, who were followed up from the third trimester of pregnancy until the child was aged 14 months. To determine the factors related to abandonment of EB, logistic regression models were used in two different stages (4 months or early stage and 6 months or late stage). The prevalence of EB within the Gipuzkoa cohort was 84.8% after hospital discharge, 53.7% at 4 months of life and 15.4% at 6 months of life. The reasons given by the mothers for early EB cessation were: breastfeeding problems, low weight gain and hypogalactia. Other factors influencing the early phase were the intention to provide EB, parity, area of residence and social class. Abandonment in the late stage was influenced by the length of maternity leave. From a public health perspective, the results of this study could help health professionals to develop strategies to support breastfeeding mothers, taking into account the main reasons for early and late abandonment. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P
Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.
Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.
Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…
Pedro Neves Tavares
Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.
Wang, Hui; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary
Self-esteem is an important determinant of adolescent mental health. Prior adiposity may be a factor in the development of self-esteem. However, the association of adiposity with self-esteem is inconsistent, perhaps because adiposity and self-esteem tend to be socially patterned, making it unclear whether observed associations are biologically based or contextually specific. Multivariable partial least squares regression was used to assess the adjusted association of birth weight and childhood body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3 and 9 months and at 3, 7, 9 and 11 years and changes in BMI z-score with self-esteem at ∼11 years, assessed from the self-reported Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort, which has little social patterning of adiposity. Whether the associations varied by sex also was assessed. Self-esteem score was available for 6,520 girls and boys (78.5% follow-up). Birth weight z-score, BMI z-scores at 3 and 9 months and at 3, 7, 9, and 11 years, and successive BMI z-score changes had little association with self-esteem at ∼11 years, adjusted for socio-economic position. In a developed, non-Western setting, life course BMI does not appear to be a factor in the development of self-esteem in early adolescence, suggesting that observed associations to date may be contextually specific rather than biologically based. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Marschik, Peter B.; Lemcke, Sanne; Einspieler, Christa; Zhang, Dajie; Bölte, Sven; Townend, Gillian S.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.
ABSTRACT Purposes: Typically, early (pre-diagnostic) development in individuals later diagnosed with Rett syndrome (RTT) has been investigated retrospectively using parent reports, medical records and analysis of home videos. In recent years, prospective research designs have been increasingly applied to the investigation of early development in individuals with late phenotypical onset disorders, for example, autism spectrum disorder. Methods: In this study, data collected by the Danish National Birth Cohort lent itself to prospective exploration of the early development of RTT, in particular early motor-, speech-language, and socio-communicative behaviors, mood, and sleep. Results and Conclusions: Despite limitations, this quasi prospective methodology proved promising. In order to add substantially to the body of knowledge, however, specific questions relating to peculiarites in early development could usefully be added to future cohort studies. As this involves considerable work, it may be more realistic to consider a set of indicators which point to a number of developmental disorders rather than to one. PMID:28534656
Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Matijasevich, Alícia; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C
To investigate the association of family income at birth with BMI among young adults who have been followed since birth. A birth cohort study. In 1982, all children born in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were included in a perinatal survey and visited at ages 1, 2, 4, 15, 18-19 and 23 years. Cohort members (n 4297) were traced and interviewed in 2004-2005. In all follow-ups, participants were weighed and measured, and BMI and prevalence of obesity were calculated for each age. Family income was obtained in minimum wages in 1982 and as a continuous variable, in reais, in later follow-ups. Skin colour was self-reported in 2004-2005. Mean BMI and prevalence of obesity differed between males and females. In males, a direct relationship was found throughout life and among females this relationship was modified by age. During childhood, BMI was higher among girls from higher income groups and this association was inversed at age 23 years. At this same age, mean BMI among black women was 1·3 kg/m2 higher than among white women, even after adjustment for current family income. The findings show in men that the relationship between income and BMI is similar to that seen in less developed areas, whereas among adult women the relationship is similar to that observed in developed countries. In addition to the effect of socio-economic status, skin colour also has an influence on the BMI of adult women.
Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ferro, Mark A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J
While the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood varies from person to person, little research has examined how differences in early developmental processes might affect these pathways. This study examined how early motor skill development interacted with preterm birth status to predict self-esteem from adolescence through the early 30s. We addressed this using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight (self-report, and self-esteem was reported during three follow-up periods (age 12-16, age 22-26, and age 29-36). We found that birth weight status moderated the association between early motor skills and self-esteem. Stable over three decades, the self-esteem of normal birth weight participants was sensitive to early motor skills such that those with poorer motor functioning manifested lower self-esteem, while those with better motor skills manifested higher self-esteem. Conversely, differences in motor skill development did not affect the self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood in individuals born at extremely low birth weight. Early motor skill development may exert differential effects on self-esteem, depending on whether one is born at term or prematurely.
Vrijkotte Tanja GM
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during
Lokugamage, A U; Hotopf, M; Hardy, R; Mishra, G; Butterworth, S; Wadsworth, M E J; Kuh, D
Jacobs and Bovasso reported (Psychological Medicine 2000, 30, 669-678) that maternal death in childhood and chronic severe depression in adulthood were associated with subsequent breast cancer. We have examined the effects of parental loss in childhood and psychiatric disorder in adult life on breast cancer risk using a national birth cohort study. Eighty-three cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in a study of 2253 women followed from birth to age 59 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether breast cancer rates were higher in women who experienced parental death and divorce before age 16, psychiatric disorders between 15 and 32 years, symptoms of anxiety and depression at 36 years, or use of antidepressant medication at 31 or 36 years than in women who did not have these experiences. There was no overall association between parental death, parental divorce or psychiatric disorder and the incidence of breast cancer. There was some evidence that women with more severe psychiatric disorders between the ages of 15 and 32 years were more likely to develop breast cancer early. The interaction between parental divorce and severe psychiatric disorder was non-significant (p=0.1); however, the group who experienced both these events had an increased breast cancer risk compared with those who experienced neither [hazard ratio (HR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-6.19]. Our study does not provide strong support for the hypothesis that early loss or adult psychiatric disorders are associated with breast cancer. A meta-analysis is needed that uses data from all available cohort studies and investigates possible interactive effects on breast cancer risk.
Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary
Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327). Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.
Man Ki Kwok
Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.
Full Text Available This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.
This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.
Ruys, Charlotte A; van der Voorn, Bibian; Lafeber, Harrie N; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Finken, Martijn J J
Preterm birth has been associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity as well as cardiometabolic diseases and neurodevelopmental impairments later in life. We assessed cortisol from term age to age 8 y in children born preterm, to explore the development of HPA-axis activity in association with intrauterine and early-postnatal growth until 6 mo. corrected age. In 152 children born at a gestational age ≤32 wks. and/or with a birth weight ≤1,500g, random serum cortisol was assessed at term age (n=150), 3 mo. (n=145) and 6 mo. corrected age (n=144), and age 8 y (n=59). Salivary cortisol was assessed at age 8 y (n=75): prior to bedtime, at awakening, 15min after awakening, and before lunch. Cortisol was analyzed in association with birth weight-standard deviation score (SDS), being born small for gestational age (SGA), and combinations of intrauterine and postnatal growth: appropriate for gestational age (AGA) with or without growth restriction (AGA GR+ or AGA GR-) at 6 mo. corrected age, and SGA with or without catch-up growth (SGA CUG+ or SGA CUG-) at 6 mo. corrected age. Cross-sectional associations at all time points were analyzed using linear regression, and longitudinal associations were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Longitudinally, birth weight-SDS was associated with cortisol (β [95%CI]): lower cortisol over time was seen in infants with a birth weight ≤-2 SDS (-50.69 [-94.27; -7.11], p=0.02), infants born SGA (-29.70 [-60.58; 1.19], p=0.06), AGA GR+ infants (-55.10 [-106.02; -4.17], p=0.03) and SGA CUG- infants (-61.91 [-104.73; -19.10], p=0.01). In cross-sectional analyses at age 8 y, no associations were found between either serum or salivary cortisol and birth weight-SDS, SGA-status, or growth from birth to 6 mo. corrected age. In children born preterm, poor intrauterine and postnatal growth were associated with lower cortisol in early infancy, but not at age 8 y. Even though HPA-axis activity no longer
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in adult intensive care have highlighted the importance of insulin and improved glucose control on survival, with 32% reduction in mortality, 22% reduction in intensive care stay and halving of the incidence of bacteraemia. Very low birth weight infants requiring intensive care also have relative insulin deficiency often leading to hyperglycaemia during the first week of life. The physiological influences on insulin secretion and sensitivity, and the potential importance of glucose control at this time are not well established. However there is increasing evidence that the early postnatal period is critical for pancreatic development. At this time a complex set of signals appears to influence pancreatic development and β cell survival. This has implications both in terms of acute glucose control but also relative insulin deficiency is likely to play a role in poor postnatal growth, which has been associated with later motor and cognitive impairment, and fewer β cells are linked to risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Methods A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of early insulin replacement in very low birth weight babies (VLBW, birth weight Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78428828. EUDRACT Number 2004-002170-34
del Ciampo, Ieda Regina Lopes; Oliveira, Tainara Queiroz; del Ciampo, Luiz Antonio; Sawamura, Regina; Torres, Lidia Alice Gomes Monteiro Marin; Augustin, Albin Eugenio; Fernandes, Maria Inez Machado
To report a case of a preterm infant with complex meconium ileus at birth and cystic fibrosis. A male infant was born by vaginal delivery at 33 weeks and 5 days of gestational age with respiratory distress and severe abdominal distension. The exploratory laparotomy in the first day of life identified meconium ileus and secondary peritonitis. Ileal resection and ileostomy were performed, followed by reconstruction of the bowel transit at 20 days of life. At 11 days of life, the first immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was 154 ng/mL (reference value=70), and oral pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy was started. After 23 days, the second IRT was 172 ng/mL (reference value=70). At 35 days of age he was discharged with referrals to primary care and to a special clinic for CF for the determination of sweat chloride. He was received in the outpatient clinic for neonatal screening for CF at 65 days of life presenting malnutrition and respiratory distress. The sweat chloride test was performed, with a positive result (126mEq/L). This case illustrates the rapid evolution of CF in a premature patient with complex Meconium ileus as the first clinical manifestation. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
As a result of the health transition, there have been sustained gains in the average length of life (Vallin and Meslé 2009), starting as far as more than 150 years ago in some human populations. For instance, the maximum recorded levels of life expectancy at birth illustrate a linear increase since...... lower levels of living standards and a later introduction of improvements in medicine and sanitation. This study aims to illustrate the evolution of life expectancy at birth in four different countries (England and Wales 1841-1905, France 1816-1905, Norway 1846-1905, and Sweden 1800-1905) and in the 2nd...
Ragnarsdottir, Laufey Dís; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Thorisdottir, Ingibjorg Eva; Allegrante, John P; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Early-life risk factors, such as family disruption, maltreatment, and poverty, can negatively impact children's scholastic abilities; however, most previous studies have relied on cross-sectional designs and retrospective measurement. This study investigated the relation between cumulative risk factors during the early life course and subsequent academic achievement in a cohort of children and adolescents. Data for this study were based on registry-data material from the LIFECOURSE study of 1151 children from the 2000 birth cohort in Reykjavik, Iceland, assembled in 2014-2016. Multiple lifetime risk factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy, parent's disability status, being born to a young mother, number of children in the household, family income, number of visits to school nurses, and reports of maltreatment, were assessed. Latent class analysis and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to predict academic achievement in the 4th and 7th grades. Individuals with no risk factors reported the highest average academic achievement in the 4th (M=66 points, SD=17) and 7th grades (M=67 points, SD=15). There was a significant main effect for 4th-grade risk factors and academic achievement (F [7, 1146]=12.06, pachievement scores in 7th grade (F [7, 1146]=15.08, pacademic achievement at both grade levels. We conclude that academic achievement declines in proportion to the number of risk factors in early life. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To investigate the association between fetal growth between first and early second trimester ultrasound scan and the risk of severe small for gestational age (SGA birth.This cohort study included 69 550 singleton pregnancies with first trimester dating and an early second trimester growth scan in Stockholm and Gotland Counties, Sweden between 2008 and 2014. Exposure was difference in biparietal diameter growth between observed and expected at the second trimester scan, calculated by z-scores. Risk of birth of a severe SGA infant (birth weight for gestational age by fetal sex less than the 3rd centile was calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis and presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR.Parietal growth less than 2.5 percentile between first and second trimester ultrasound examination was associated with elevated risk of being born severe SGA. (aOR 1.67; 95% Confidence Interval 1.28-2.18. The risks of preterm severe SGA (birth before 37 weeks and term severe SGA (birth 37 weeks or later were at similar levels, and risk of severe SGA were also elevated in the absence of preeclampsia, hypertensive diseases or gestational diabetes.Fetuses with slow growth of biparietal diameter at ultrasound examination in early second trimester exhibit increased risk of being born SGA independent of gestational age at birth and presence of maternal hypertensive diseases or diabetes mellitus.
Simic, Marija; Stephansson, Olof; Petersson, Gunnar; Cnattingius, Sven; Wikström, Anna-Karin
To investigate the association between fetal growth between first and early second trimester ultrasound scan and the risk of severe small for gestational age (SGA) birth. This cohort study included 69 550 singleton pregnancies with first trimester dating and an early second trimester growth scan in Stockholm and Gotland Counties, Sweden between 2008 and 2014. Exposure was difference in biparietal diameter growth between observed and expected at the second trimester scan, calculated by z-scores. Risk of birth of a severe SGA infant (birth weight for gestational age by fetal sex less than the 3rd centile) was calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis and presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR). Parietal growth less than 2.5 percentile between first and second trimester ultrasound examination was associated with elevated risk of being born severe SGA. (aOR 1.67; 95% Confidence Interval 1.28-2.18). The risks of preterm severe SGA (birth before 37 weeks) and term severe SGA (birth 37 weeks or later) were at similar levels, and risk of severe SGA were also elevated in the absence of preeclampsia, hypertensive diseases or gestational diabetes. Fetuses with slow growth of biparietal diameter at ultrasound examination in early second trimester exhibit increased risk of being born SGA independent of gestational age at birth and presence of maternal hypertensive diseases or diabetes mellitus.
Pirkle, Catherine M; de Albuquerque Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício; Alvarado, Beatriz; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria
Early maternal age at first birth and elevated parity may have long-term consequences for the health of women as they age. Both are known risk factors for obstetrical complications with lifelong associated morbidities. They may also be related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. We examine the relationship between early maternal age at first birth, defined as ≤18 years of age, multiparity (>2 births), and poor physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery≤8) in community samples of women between 65 and 74 years of age from Canada, Albania, Colombia, and Brazil (N=1040). Data were collected in 2012 to provide a baseline assessment for a longitudinal cohort called the International Mobility in Aging Study. We used logistic regression and general linear models to analyse the data. Early maternal age at first birth is significantly associated with diabetes, chronic lung disease, high blood pressure, and poor physical performance in women at older ages. Parity was not independently associated with chronic conditions and physical performance in older age. After adjustment for study site, age, education, childhood economic adversity and lifetime births, women who gave birth at a young age had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17-2.64) the odds of poor SPPB compared to women who gave birth>18 years of age. Adjustment for chronic diseases attenuated the association between early first birth and physical performance. Results were weaker in Colombia and Brazil, than Canada and Albania. This study provides evidence that adolescent childbirth may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases and physical limitations in older age. Results likely reflect both the biological and social consequences of early childbearing and if the observed relationship is causal, it reinforces the importance of providing contraception and sex education to young women, as the consequences of early pregnancy may be life-long.
Houwing, Danielle J; Buwalda, Bauke; Zee, van der Eddy; de Boer, Sietse F; Olivier, Jocelien D A
The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human
Janzi, Magdalena; Kull, Inger; Sjöberg, Ronald; Wan, Jinghong; Melén, Erik; Bayat, Narges; Ostblom, Eva; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Nilsson, Peter; Hammarström, Lennart
Selective IgA deficiency in early life is quite common in Caucasian populations, but it is unclear whether it increases the risk of infections and allergic diseases during childhood. Serum IgA levels were measured in 2423 children at 4 years of age in a Swedish population based birth cohort (BAMSE). Parental questionnaires were repeatedly sent out during the child's first 8 years of life, collecting information about infections and allergic diseases. 14 children (1:173) were found to be IgA deficient at 4 years of age. These children had an increased risk of pseudocroup at year 1 (pIgA sufficient children. No increased risk was observed in the partial IgA deficiency group. The findings suggest that selective IgA deficiency may increase the risk of parentally reported pseudocroup and food hypersensitivity during early childhood.
Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard
. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the presence...... of an early life disease activity prior to clinical symptoms to understand the anteceding pathophysiological steps towards childhood asthma and allergy. The thesis is built on seven studies from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000) birth cohort examining biomarkers of disease...... activity in 411 asymptomatic neonates in cord blood (I-II), urine (III), exhaled breath (IV-V) and infant lung function (VI-VII) in relation to the subsequent development of asthma and allergy during the first seven years of life. In papers I-II, we studied cord blood chemokines and 25(OH)-vitamin D, which...
Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M.; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J.; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish
Early life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering early life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother’s milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370
Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish
Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history.
Lee, Jan Hau; Greenberg, Rachel G; Quek, Bin H; Clark, Reese H; Laughon, Matthew M; Smith, P Brian; Hornik, Christoph P
In very low birth weight infants, persistence of a patent ductus arteriosus results in morbidity and mortality. Therapies to close the ductus are effective, but clinical outcomes may depend on the accuracy of diagnosis and the timing of administration. The objective of the present study was to characterise the association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants. This retrospective cohort study used electronic health record data on inborn infants of gestational age ⩽28 weeks and birth weight patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 31,712/48,551 (65%). The diagnosis was more common in infants who had undergone early echocardiography (14,549/15,971 [91%] versus 17,163/32,580 [53%], ppatent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.15). Early echocardiography was associated with an increased diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, but not with decreased mortality.
Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Munthali, Richard J; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
Early growth is associated with blood pressure measured on one occasion, but whether early life growth patterns are associated with longitudinal blood pressure trajectories is under-researched. Therefore, we sought to examine the association between early growth and blood pressure trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Blood pressure was measured on 7 occasions between ages 5 and 18 years in the Birth to Twenty cohort study, and conditional variables for growth in infancy and mid-childhood were computed from anthropometric measures (n=1937, 52% girls). We used a group-based trajectory modeling approach to identify distinct height-adjusted blood pressure trajectories and then tested their association with growth between birth and mid-childhood adjusting for several covariates. Three trajectory groups were identified for systolic and diastolic blood pressure: lower, middle, and upper in boys and girls, separately. In boys, predictors of the middle or upper systolic blood pressure trajectories versus the lower trajectory were in birth weight (odds ratio 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.58-0.96] per SD) and relative weight gain in infancy (4.11 [1.25-13.51] per SD). In girls, greater relative weight gain and linear growth in both infancy and mid-childhood were consistently associated with an almost 2-fold higher likelihood of being in the upper versus lower systolic blood pressure trajectory. The associations for the diastolic blood pressure trajectories were inconsistent. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying children at risk of progression to high blood pressure. Accelerated growth in infancy and mid-childhood may be a key target for early life intervention in prevention of elevated blood pressure progression. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM in six-months-old children.The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more" maternal reported episodes of OM at age six months. In total 37 factors were assessed, covering prenatal, maternal, perinatal and postnatal factors.At age six months 5.3% (95% CI 5.1-5.5 of the children had experienced one or more episodes of OM. From the regression analysis, 11 variables were associated with a risk of OM. When a Bonferroni correction was introduced, gender, prematurity, parity, maternal age, maternal self-estimated health, taking penicillin during pregnancy, and terminating breastfeeding before age six months, was associated with a risk of early OM. The adjusted ORs of OM for boys versus girls was 1.30 (95% CI 1.18-1.44. The OR having one sibling versus no siblings was 3.0 (95% CI 2.64-3.41. If the woman had been taking penicillin during pregnancy, the OR was 1.35 (95% CI 1.15-1.58. Children born before 38th gestational week had an increased OR for early OM of 1.49 (95% CI 1.21-1.82. Children of young women had an increased OR of early OM compared to children of older women. Additionally, children of women who rated their own health low compared to those rating their health as high, had an increased OR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.10-1.74. Finally, children being breastfeed less than 6 months, had an increased OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.28-1.58 compared to children being breastfeed beyond 6 months.These findings indicate that prenatal factors are of less importance regarding early OM before the age of six months. Postnatal risk factors seem to pose the main risk of early OM.
Daniels, JL; Rowland, AS; Longnecker, MP; Crawford, P; Golding, J
Summary Prenatal exposure to high levels of mercury, radiation, and inflammation have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes such as increases in preterm delivery, low birthweight, and delayed neurodevelopment. Few data are available to evaluate the potential effects of prenatal low-level exposure to these factors as might occur during dental care. We evaluated maternal dental history prior to and during pregnancy in relation to birth outcomes and early communicative development among offspring in a large cohort (n=7375) of British children born in 1991–1992. Dental history was assessed by questionnaire. The child’s communicative development was assessed using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory at 15 months of age. Total mercury was measured in umbilical cord tissue for a subset of the children. Overall, dental care, including amalgam fillings, was not associated with birth outcomes or language development. Having x-rays taken during pregnancy was not associated with birthweight measured continuously (β=14.7, p=0.4), but was associated with slightly increased odds of having a term, low birthweight baby (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.0–3.4). More detailed evaluation of the potential adverse effects of elective dental treatment during pregnancy, particularly dental x-rays, may be warranted. PMID:17697075
Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; van Bakel, Hedwig; Koldewijn, Karen; Kok, Joke; van Baar, Anneloes
For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is designed to assist parents to support and enhance their infant's regulatory competence and development. The intervention consisted of 6-8 home visits during the first 8 months after birth. Seventy-eight mothers of very preterm infants (attachment representations were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI). The interviews resulted in a classification of the attachment representations into balanced or non-balanced. 30% of the mothers had non-balanced attachment representations. Qualitative content analysis of the answers showed that negative feelings when first seeing their baby and negative or ambivalent feelings in the first weeks at home with their baby are related to non-balanced attachment representations. The WMCI revealed no differences between the intervention and control group. Early support for mothers of very preterm born infants to develop a healthy mother-infant relationship is recommended especially for mothers who report negative first experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Niclasen, Janni
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM) in six-months-old children. METHOD: The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more......" maternal reported episodes of OM at age six months. In total 37 factors were assessed, covering prenatal, maternal, perinatal and postnatal factors. RESULTS: At age six months 5.3% (95% CI 5.1-5.5) of the children had experienced one or more episodes of OM. From the regression analysis, 11 variables were...... for boys versus girls was 1.30 (95% CI 1.18-1.44). The OR having one sibling versus no siblings was 3.0 (95% CI 2.64-3.41). If the woman had been taking penicillin during pregnancy, the OR was 1.35 (95% CI 1.15-1.58). Children born before 38th gestational week had an increased OR for early OM of 1.49 (95...
Sloan, F A; Costanzo, P R; Belsky, D; Holmberg, E; Malone, P S; Wang, Y; Kertesz, S
Heavy drinking in early adulthood among Blacks, but not Whites, has been found to be associated with more deleterious health outcomes, lower labor market success and lower educational attainment at mid-life. This study analysed psychosocial pathways underlying racial differences in the impact of early heavy alcohol use on occupational and educational attainment at mid-life. Outcomes in labor market participation, occupational prestige and educational attainment were measured in early and mid-adulthood. A mixture model was used to identify psychosocial classes that explain how race-specific differences in the relationship between drinking in early adulthood and occupational outcomes in mid-life operate. Data came from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, a longitudinal epidemiologic study. Especially for Blacks, heavy drinking in early adulthood was associated with a lower probability of being employed in mid-life. Among employed persons, there was a link between heavy drinking for both Whites and Blacks and decreased occupational attainment at mid-life. We grouped individuals into three distinct distress classes based on external stressors and indicators of internally generated stress. Blacks were more likely to belong to the higher distressed classes as were heavy drinkers in early adulthood. Stratifying the data by distress class, relationships between heavy drinking, race and heavy drinking-race interactions were overall weaker than in the pooled analysis. Disproportionate intensification of life stresses in Blacks renders them more vulnerable to long-term effects of heavy drinking.
Susanne Eifer Møller
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076; exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343; exposure only postnatally (n = 140; and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188. Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.97, respectively. Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03. When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09-1.50 compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for
Kuh, D; Muthuri, S; Cooper, R; Moore, A; Mackinnon, K; Cooper, C; Adams, J E; Hardy, R; Ward, K A
Previous studies of menopausal age and length of reproductive life on bone are limited by retrospective reproductive histories, being cross-sectional, or lacking gold standard bone technologies or information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or surgical treatment. The objective of the study was to investigate age at menopause, length of reproductive life, and HRT use in relation to volumetric and areal bone mineral density (vBMD, aBMD), bone size, and strength in women aged 60-64 years. This was a birth cohort study that followed up for 64 years with prospective measures of age at menarche and menopause and monthly HRT histories. The study was conducted in England, Scotland, and Wales. Participants included 848 women with a known type of menopause and bone measures at 60-64 years. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements of the distal radius total and trabecular vBMD were measured. Diaphyseal radius total and medullary cross-sectional area, cortical vBMD, and polar strength strain index (SSI); dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of aBMD at the lumbar spine and total hip were also measured. A 10-year increase in age at natural (but not surgical) menopause was associated with 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3%-15.1%, P = .02) greater trabecular vBMD and a 6.0% (95% CI 0.51%-11.5%, P = .03) greater total vBMD; findings were similar for length of reproductive life. A 10-year difference in HRT use was associated with a 6.0% (95% CI 2.6%-9.3%, P menopause and longer reproductive life persisted into early old age. HRT use was associated with greater radius cortical vBMD and polar SSI and aBMD.
Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Ravasi, Maura; Giannì, Maria L; Porro, Matteo; Bonzini, Matteo; Gangi, Silvana; Mosca, Fabio
Infants born preterm are at high risk for the onset of cognitive dysfunctions at school age. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early neurodevelopmental assessment and the risk of adverse cognitive outcome in extremely low birth weight children. We enrolled all newborns (January 2002 - April 2007) consecutively admitted to our Institution, with a birthweight age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales Revised. The same children were re-assessed at school age through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Children with impaired Griffiths General Quotient (i.e., age showed a significantly lower Full Scale Intelligence Quotient at 7 years of chronological age when compared to children who scored in the normal range at 1 year ( p Eye and Hand Coordination Sub-quotients were specifically associated with poorer Performance or Verbal Intelligence Quotients, respectively ( p age. Larger confirmation studies are needed.
Mortensen, Martin Steen
knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...... or not. Manuscript I examines the composition and stability of vaginal microbiota, as well as how the mothers’ microbiota contribute to the early bacterial colonization of their infants. In this study, we first confirmed that the vaginal microbiota of the women in the COPSAC2010 cohort represent...
Daysal, N. Meltem
Ample empirical evidence links adverse conditions during early childhood (the period from conception to age five) to worse health outcomes and lower academic achievement in adulthood. Can early-life medical care and public health interventions ameliorate these effects? Recent research suggests th...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 10. Early Planetary Environments and the Origin of Life - Early Planetary Environments. P V Sukumaran. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 10 October 2001 pp 16-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
any comparative studies but merely to look at the early life of Einstein and to see, in howsoever imprecise a way ... In later life, Einstein had little to say about his childhood and much seems to have escaped his memory .... Untemch which was the leading pedagogical journal in mathematics in Germany at the time. He tried to ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Early Planetary Environments and the Origin of Life - Origin of Life on Earth. P V Sukumaran. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 4-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell; Greisen, Gorm; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Ravn, Henrik
The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age. Randomisation was stratified by prematurity. The primary study outcome was number of all-cause hospitalisations analysed as repeated events. Hospitalisations were identified using The Danish National Patient Register. Data were analysed by Cox proportional hazards models in intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child compared with 1003 hospitalisations among 2133 control children (mean 0.47), resulting in a HR comparing BCG versus no BCG of 1.05 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.18) (intention-to-treat analysis). The effect of BCG was the same in children born at term (1.05 (0.92 to 1.18)) and prematurely (1.07 (0.63 to 1.81), p=0.94). The effect was also similar in the two sexes and across study sites. The results were essentially identical in the per-protocol analysis and after adjustment for baseline characteristics. BCG vaccination at birth did not reduce the risk of hospitalisation for somatic acquired disease until 15 months of age in this Danish study population. NCT01694108, results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Odberg, Morten Duus; Elgen, Irene Bircow
To compare the quality of life (QOL), academic achievements and social functioning of 134 non-handicapped low birth weight (LBW, birth weight 3000 g) young adults. Population-based longitudinal follow-up study. The Norwegian version of the originally US child health questionnaire, child form 87 (CHQ-CF87), a generic health instrument was applied to measure different physical and psychosocial concepts of QOL. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were applied to the cohort to register different aspects of social functioning and academic performance. The LBW group reported well-being in the different aspects of QOL. The LBW group was socially well functioning. The college attendance was similar in the two groups, but more LBW young adults had dropped out of school or attended individually adjusted classes. Performance in mathematics for the LBW women attending academic college was lower. With this exception, the academic performance was comparable in the two groups. Except a somewhat higher rate of school dropouts, the overall outcome of school performance, QOL and social functioning in the LBW young adults was comparable to that of the NBW control group. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Corbo, Vincent; Salat, David H; Amick, Melissa M; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E
Studies have shown that early life trauma may influence neural development and increase the risk of developing psychological disorders in adulthood. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the impact of early life trauma on the relationship between current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cortical thickness/subcortical volumes in a sample of deployed personnel from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. A group of 108 service members enrolled in the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) were divided into those with interpersonal early life trauma (EL-Trauma+) and Control (without interpersonal early life trauma) groups based on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were analyzed using the FreeSurfer image analysis package. Thickness of the paracentral and posterior cingulate regions was positively associated with PTSD severity in the EL-Trauma+ group and negatively in the Control group. In the EL-Trauma+ group, both the right amygdala and the left hippocampus were positively associated with PTSD severity. This study illustrates a possible influence of early life trauma on the vulnerability of specific brain regions to stress. Changes in neural morphometry may provide information about the emergence and maintenance of symptoms in individuals with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Wells, Jonathan C K; Figueiroa, José N; Alves, Joao G
Patterns of fetal growth predict non-communicable disease risk in adult life, but fetal growth variability appears to have a relatively weak association with maternal nutritional dynamics during pregnancy. This challenges the interpretation of fetal growth variability as 'adaptation'. We hypothesized that associations of maternal size and nutritional status with neonatal size are mediated by the dimensions of the maternal pelvis. We analysed data on maternal height, body mass index (BMI) and pelvic dimensions (conjugate, inter-spinous and inter-cristal diameters) and neonatal gestational age, weight, length, thorax girth and head girth ( n = 224). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent maternal predictors of neonatal size, and the mediating role of neonatal head girth in these associations. Pelvic dimensions displaced maternal BMI as a predictor of birth weight, explaining 11.6% of the variance. Maternal conjugate and inter-spinous diameters predicted neonatal length, thorax girth and head girth, whereas inter-cristal diameter only predicted neonatal length. Associations of pelvic dimensions with birth length, but not birth weight, were mediated by neonatal head girth. Pelvic dimensions predicted neonatal size better than maternal BMI, and these associations were mostly independent of maternal height. Sensitivity of fetal growth to pelvic dimensions reduces the risk of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, potentially a strong selective pressure during secular trends in height. Selection on fetal adaptation to relatively inflexible components of maternal phenotype, rather than directly to external ecological conditions, may help explain high levels of growth plasticity during late fetal life and early infancy.
Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian
: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake...... and the role of different dietary protein sources and amino acids has increased, but intervention studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms. Avoiding high-protein intake in early life holds promise as a preventive strategy for childhood obesity.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS...
Natama, Hamtandi Magloire; Rovira-Vallbona, Eduard; Somé, M Athanase; Zango, Serge Henri; Sorgho, Hermann; Guetens, Pieter; Coulibaly-Traoré, Maminata; Valea, Innocent; Mens, Petra F; Schallig, Henk D F H; Kestens, Luc; Tinto, Halidou; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna
Infants are thought to be protected against malaria during the first months of life mainly due to passage of maternal antibodies. However, in high transmission settings, malaria in early infancy is not uncommon and susceptibility to the infections varies between individuals. This study aimed to determine malaria morbidity and infection during early childhood in rural Burkina Faso. Malariometric indices were determined over 1-year follow-up in a birth cohort of 734 infants living in Nanoro health district. Clinical malaria episodes were determined by passive case detection at peripheral health centres while asymptomatic malaria infections were identified during 4 cross-sectional surveys at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Plasmodium falciparum infections were detected by rapid diagnostic test and/or light microscopy (LM) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). In total, 717 clinical episodes were diagnosed by qPCR over 8335.18 person-months at risk. The overall malaria incidence was 1.03 per child-year and increased from 0.27 per child-year at 0-3 months of age to 1.92 per child-year at 9-12 months of age. Some 59% of children experienced at least one clinical episode with a median survival time estimated at 9.9 months, while 20% of infants experienced the first episode before 6 months of age. The majority of the clinical episodes were attributable to microscopic parasitaemia (84.2%), and there was a positive correlation between parasite density and age (Spearman's rho = 0.30; P disease during the first year of life in Nanoro, calling for intensified efforts to control malaria in rural Burkina Faso.
Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have focused on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid weight gain (RWG during infancy, the dose-response relationship has not yet been confirmed, and very few studies have included Asian populations. Using a record-linkage method, we examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and RWG in infants at around 4 months of age to clarify the dose-response relationship. Methods: Two databases were used: maternal check-ups during pregnancy and early infancy check-ups (between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014 in Okinawa, Japan were linked via IDs and provided to us after unlinkable anonymizing. For 10,433 subjects (5229 boys and 5204 girls, we calculated the change in infants' weight z-score by subtracting the z-score of their birth weight from their weight at early infancy check-ups. Smoking exposure was categorized into five groups. We used Poisson regression to examine the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with RWG in early infancy. Results: Overall, 1524 (14.6% were ex-smoker and 511 (4.9% were current smoker. Compared with the reference category of non-smokers, the adjusted risk ratio of RWG was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.32 for ex-smokers, 1.18 (95% CI, 0.93–1.50 for those who smoked 1–5 cigarettes per day, 1.57 (95% CI, 1.24–2.00 for those who smoked 6–10 cigarettes per day, and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.51–3.01 for those who smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day. There was a clear dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Our study suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated in a dosedependent manner with increased risk of RWG in early infancy.
Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.; Jankowski, Jeffery; Maugeri, Umberto; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Skarupa, Anita; Edwards, Susan; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona
The main purpose of the study was to answer the question whether young children without clinical diagnosis of asthma but experiencing early wheezing disorders and therefore being at high risk of developing asthma may have cognitive deficits. In the ongoing birth cohort study wheezing symptoms were recorded postpartum over two first years of age and subsequently cognitive status of children at the age of 3 years was assessed with the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). In the statistical analysis a wide range of modifying and confounding factors (maternal education, gender of children, prenatal exposure to lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were considered to assess the independent effect of early wheezing phenotypes on cognitive development of children. The MDI score correlated inversely with the number of wheezing days recorded over 24 months (r = −0.13, p=0.007), lead cord blood concentration (r = − 0.12, p = − 0.02), number of siblings (r = − 0.17, p = 0.0006) and the number of cigarettes smoked daily by other household members at home over the pregnancy period (r = − 0.18, p = 0.0002). While the children who experienced wheezing over the first year of age showed deficit of 2 MDI scores (beta coeff. = −2.31, 95%CI: −4.63 to 0.02), those with persistent wheezing had the score deficit of 4 points (beta coeff. = − 4.41, 95%CI: −8.27 to −0.55). To our knowledge, it is the first report in the literature showing that early wheezing is associated the cognitive deficit in a community-recruited very young children. Observed cognitive deficit in early wheezers may be caused by RSV infections or can be related to lower lung function attributed to persistent wheezing, which reducing oxygen supply would affect rapidly developing brain. PMID:19548966
Budge, H; Sebert, S; Sharkey, D; Symonds, M E
It is now apparent that one key factor determining the current obesity epidemic within the developed world is the extent to which adipose tissue growth and function can be reset in early life. Adipose tissue can be either brown or white, with brown fat being characterised as possessing a unique uncoupling protein (uncoupling protein 1) that enables the rapid generation of heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. In large mammals this function is recruited at approximately the time of birth, after which brown fat is lost, not normally reappearing again throughout the life cycle. The origin and developmental regulation of brown fat in large mammals is therefore very different from that of small mammals in which brown fat is retained throughout the life cycle and may have the same origin as muscle cells. In contrast, white adipose tissue increases in mass after birth, paralleled by a rise in glucocorticoid action and macrophage accumulation. This process can be reset by changes in the maternal nutritional environment, with the magnitude of response being further determined by the timing at which such a challenge is imposed. Importantly, the long-term response within white adipocytes can occur in the absence of any change in total fat mass. The present review therefore emphasises the need to further understand the developmental regulation of the function of fat through the life cycle in order to optimise appropriate and sustainable intervention strategies necessary not only to prevent obesity in the first place but also to reverse excess fat mass in obese individuals.
Persson, Lars Åke; Arifeen, Shams; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Frongillo, Edward A; Yunus, Md
Nutritional insult in fetal life and small size at birth are common in low-income countries and are associated with serious health consequences. To test the hypothesis that prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) and an early invitation to food supplementation would increase maternal hemoglobin level and birth weight and decrease infant mortality, and to assess whether a combination of these interventions would further enhance these outcomes. A randomized trial with a factorial design in Matlab, Bangladesh, of 4436 pregnant women, recruited between November 11, 2001, and October 30, 2003, with follow-up until June 23, 2009. Participants were randomized into 6 groups; a double-masked supplementation with capsules of 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS containing a daily allowance of 15 micronutrients, including 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, was combined with food supplementation (608 kcal 6 days per week) randomized to either early invitation (9 weeks' gestation) or usual invitation (20 weeks' gestation). Maternal hemoglobin level at 30 weeks' gestation, birth weight, and infant mortality. Under 5-year mortality was also assessed. Adjusted maternal hemoglobin level at 30 weeks' gestation was 115.0 g/L (95% CI, 114.4-115.5 g/L), with no significant differences among micronutrient groups. Mean maternal hemoglobin level was lower in the early vs usual invitation groups (114.5 vs 115.4 g/L; difference, -0.9 g/L; 95% CI, -1.7 to -0.1; P = .04). There were 3625 live births out of 4436 pregnancies. Mean birth weight among 3267 singletons was 2694 g (95% CI, 2680-2708 g), with no significant differences among groups. The early invitation with MMS group had an infant mortality rate of 16.8 per 1000 live births vs 44.1 per 1000 live births for usual invitation with 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid (hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18-0.78). Early invitation with MMS group had an under 5
Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Tavendale, Roger
Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) was one of the discovery cohorts of the association between eczema and variants in the filaggrin coding gene (FLG). Here, we study the FLG-associated risk of asthma symptoms in early life and describe the temporal relationship in the de......Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) was one of the discovery cohorts of the association between eczema and variants in the filaggrin coding gene (FLG). Here, we study the FLG-associated risk of asthma symptoms in early life and describe the temporal relationship...... diagnosed prospectively by the investigators. FLG variants R501X and Del4 were determined in 382 Caucasians. Filaggrin variants increased risk of developing recurrent wheeze, asthma and asthma exacerbations (hazard ratio 1.82 [1.06-3.12], p = 0.03), which was expressed within the first 1.5 yr of life...... fully in the first year of life (point prevalence ratio for age 0-5 was 1.75 [1.29-2.37]; p-value = 0.0003) contrasting the increased risk of specific sensitization by age 4 (odds ratio 3.52 [1.72-7.25], p = 0.0007) but not age 1.5. This study describes a FLG-associated pattern of atopic diseases...
Pudrovska, Tetyana; Anikputa, Benedicta
Objectives. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we examine (a) how socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 affects all-cause mortality at ages 54–72, and (b) whether the effect of early-life SES is consistent with the critical period, accumulation of risks, social mobility, and pathway models. We also explore gender differences in the effect of early-life SES and life-course mechanisms.
Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten
Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......-economic and family factors. The AL index was based on 9 cardiovascular, metabolic and immune biomarkers. Results. Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. Conclusions...
Prentice, Ann; Kuh, Diana L; Adams, Judith E; Ambrosini, Gina L
ABSTRACT Evidence for the contribution of individual foods and nutrients to bone health is weak. Few studies have considered hypothesis‐based dietary patterns and bone health. We investigated whether a protein‐calcium‐potassium–rich (PrCaK‐rich) dietary pattern over the adult life course, was positively associated with bone outcomes at 60 to 64 years of age. Diet diaries were collected at ages 36, 46, 53, and 60 to 64 years in 1263 participants (661 women) from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. DXA and pQCT measurements were obtained at age 60 to 64 years, including size‐adjusted bone mineral content (SA‐BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). A food‐based dietary pattern best explaining dietary calcium, potassium, and protein intakes (g/1000 kcal) was identified using reduced rank regression. Dietary pattern Z‐scores were calculated for each individual, at each time point. Individual trajectories in dietary pattern Z‐scores were modeled to summarize changes in Z‐scores over the study period. Regression models examined associations between these trajectories and bone outcomes at age 60 to 64 years, adjusting for baseline dietary pattern Z‐score and other confounders. A consistent PrCaK‐rich dietary pattern was identified within the population, over time. Mean ± SD dietary pattern Z‐scores at age 36 years and age 60 to 64 years were –0.32 ± 0.97 and 2.2 ± 1.5 (women) and –0.35 ± 0.98 and 1.7 ± 1.6 (men), respectively. Mean trajectory in dietary pattern Z‐scores ± SD was 0.07 ± 0.02 units/year. Among women, a 0.02‐SD unit/year higher trajectory in dietary pattern Z‐score over time was associated with higher SA‐BMC (spine 1.40% [95% CI, 0.30 to 2.51]; hip 1.35% [95% CI, 0.48 to 2.23]), and vBMD (radius 1.81% [95% CI, 0.13 to 3.50]) at age 60 to 64 years. No statistically significant associations were found in men. During adulthood, an increasing score for a dietary
Takizawa, R; Danese, A; Maughan, B; Arseneault, L
We aimed to test whether childhood bullying victimization increases risk for age-related disease at mid-life using biological markers including inflammation and adiposity, independent of other childhood risk factors and key adult variables. The present study was a 50-year prospective longitudinal birth cohort study of all births in Britain in 1 week in 1958. Exposure to bullying was assessed prospectively when participants were aged 7 and 11 years (27.7% occasionally bullied; 14.6% frequently bullied). Blood inflammation biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen] and adiposity [body mass index (BMI) and waist:hip ratio] were measured at age 45 years. Participants who had been frequently bullied in childhood showed increased levels of CRP at mid-life [β = 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.10] and higher risk for clinically relevant inflammation cut-off [CRP > 3 mg/l: 20.4% v. 15.9%, odds ratio (OR) = 1.35, 95% CI 1.12-1.64]. Women who were bullied in childhood had higher BMI than non-bullied participants and were at increased risk of being obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: occasionally bullied: 26.0% v. 19.4%, OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.18-1.77; frequently bullied: 26.2% v. 19.4%, OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83). Findings remained significant when controlling for childhood risk factors (e.g. parental social class; participants' BMI and psychopathology in childhood) and key adult variables (e.g. adult social class, smoking, diet and exercise). Bullied children show increases in risk factors for age-related disease in middle adulthood, independent of co-occurring childhood and adult risks. Given the high prevalence of bullying victimization in childhood, tackling this form of psychosocial stress early in life has the potential of reducing risk for age-related disease and its associated burden.
Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna
Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....
Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E; van der Post, J A M; van Wely, M; Bloemenkamp, K W M; Hoek, A; Kuchenbecker, W K; Verhoeve, H R; Scheepers, H C J; Rombout-de Weerd, S; Koks, C; Zwart, J J; Broekmans, F; Verpoest, W; Christiansen, O B; Post, M; Papatsonis, D N M; Verberg, M F G; Sikkema, J; Mol, B W; Bisschop, P H; Goddijn, M
Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of levothyroxine administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20th week of gestation. The primary outcome is live birth, defined as the birth of a living fetus beyond 24weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes are ongoing pregnancy at 12weeks, miscarriage, preterm birth, (serious) adverse events, time to pregnancy and survival at 28days of neonatal life. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multicenter randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, S E
Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a 'mismatch' between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in countries where an excess of infants are born with low birth weight and where there is a rapid transition to nutritional adequacy or excess in adulthood. Here, I will review data from work conducted in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and the 'experiment of nature' that seasonality in this region provides, we have investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs.
Kormos, C E; Wilkinson, A J; Davey, C J; Cunningham, A J
Research has demonstrated an association between low birth weight (LBW; intelligence quotient (IQ) outcomes in childhood and early adolescence. We systematically evaluated whether this association persists into late adolescence and early adulthood and also assessed the influence of age of IQ assessment on effect size. During Stage 1 (meta-analysis of data on adolescents/adults), we searched for relevant articles in PsychINFO, PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL, ProQuest and ERIC until February 2011 (no lower limit). Studies which assessed full-scale IQ among LBW individuals (analysis provided a pooled estimate of the difference in IQ scores between LBW and NBW individuals. Publication bias was assessed using Rosenthal's classic fail-safe N and Duval and Tweedie's Trim and Fill. During Stage 2, we added data from the Kerr-Wilson et al. meta-analysis (which included data from children; in Meta-analysis of the association between preterm delivery and intelligence. Journal Public Health 2011;33:1-8) to our sample from Stage 1 and conducted a meta-regression to evaluate the effect of age of IQ assessment. Using a total of 15 studies in Stage 1, it was demonstrated that NBW individuals scored an average of 7.63 IQ points higher than LBW individuals, CI = 5.95-9.31. After adjusting for publication bias, NBW samples demonstrated an IQ of 4.98 points higher than LBW samples, CI = 3.20-6.77. Furthermore, age at IQ assessment was a significant moderator of the association between birth weight and IQ, in that the effect size decreased from childhood into young adulthood. Cognitive impairments associated with LBW persist into adolescence and early adulthood; however, the influence of LBW on IQ decreases from childhood to young adulthood. These conclusions must be interpreted with caution due to unmeasured variables and possible influence from publication bias. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions
Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey
Early neonatal mortality within the first 24 hours contributes substantially to overall neonatal mortality rates. The definition of birth asphyxia (BA) is imprecise, and reliable cause-specific mortality data are limited; thus the estimated proportion of BA-related deaths globally remains questionable. The objective was to determine the presumed causes of neonatal death within the first 24 hours in a rural hospital in Northern Tanzania. This is a prospective descriptive observational study conducted in the delivery room and adjacent neonatal area. Research assistants were trained to observe and record events related to labor, neonatal resuscitation, and 24-hour postnatal course. BA was defined as failure to initiate spontaneous respirations and/or 5-minute Apgar score neonatal area. Forty-nine infants died secondary to BA (61%), prematurity (18%), LBW (8%), infection (2%), congenital abnormalities (8%), and unclear reason (2%). The 5-minute Apgar score was ≥7 in 50% of the infants who died secondary to BA. Most cases of early neonatal mortality were related to BA, and prematurity and LBW are additional important considerations. Reducing perinatal mortality requires a multifaceted approach with attention to issues related to BA, potential complications of prematurity, and LBW. The 5-minute Apgar score is a poor surrogate of BA.
Casas, L; Sunyer, J; Tischer, C; Gehring, U; Wickman, M; Garcia-Esteban, R; Lehmann, I; Kull, I; Reich, A; Lau, S; Wijga, A; Antó, J M; Nawrot, T S; Heinrich, J; Keil, T; Torrent, M
Exposure to indoor allergens during early life may play a role in the development of the immune system and inception of asthma. To describe the house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentrations in bedroom dust during early life and to evaluate its associations with HDM sensitization, wheezing, and asthma, from birth to school age, in 5 geographically spread European birth cohorts. We included 4334 children from INMA-Menorca (Spain), BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and MAS (Germany), and PIAMA-NHS (the Netherlands). Dust samples were collected from bedrooms during early life and analyzed for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1). HDM concentrations were divided into four categories. Sensitization was determined by specific IgE. Wheezing and asthma information up to 8/10 years was collected through questionnaires. We performed mixed-effects logistic regression models and expressed associations as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. House dust mite concentrations varied across cohorts. Mean allergen concentrations were highest in INMA-Menorca (geometric mean (GM) Der p1 = 3.3 μg/g) and LISAplus (GM Der f1 = 2.1 μg/g) and lowest in BAMSE (GM Der p1 = 0.1 μg/g, Der f1 = 0.3 μg/g). Moderate and high HDM concentrations were significantly (P-values life plays a role in the development of allergic sensitization but not in the development of respiratory outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg
Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pdiversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly
Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Kohl, Kevin D; Rohr, Jason R
Changes in the early-life microbiota of hosts might affect infectious disease risk throughout life, if such disruptions during formative times alter immune system development. Here, we test whether an early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota affects later-life resistance to infections by manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles and challenging them with parasitic gut worms as adults. We find that tadpole bacterial diversity is negatively correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs: adult frogs that had reduced bacterial diversity as tadpoles have three times more worms than adults without their microbiota manipulated as tadpoles. In contrast, adult bacterial diversity during parasite exposure is not correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs. Thus, in this experimental setup, an early-life disruption of the microbiota has lasting reductions on host resistance to infections, which is possibly mediated by its effects on immune system development. Our results support the idea that preventing early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota might confer protection against diseases later in life.Early-life microbiota alterations can affect infection susceptibility later in life, in animal models. Here, Knutie et al. show that manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles leads to increased susceptibility to parasitic infection in adult frogs, in the absence of substantial changes in the adults' microbiota.
Yilmaz, Fikriye; N Tekin, Rukiye
Few studies on the effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of adults have been conducted in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of older adults. We administered a questionnaire to 350 adults, aged 50-89 years, living in Cankaya, Ankara. The questionnaire covered sociodemographic characteristics, early life characteristics, health status, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Ageing scale. Data were analyzed using χ 2 tests, independent samples t-tests, one-way anova, and binary logistic regression analysis. The analyses showed that the most important risk factors for chronic disease were being ≥65 years (odds ratio (OR) = 2.34), having a chronic health problem before 18 years of age (OR = 2.48), experiencing prolonged hospitalization or bed rest before 18 years of age (OR = 2.65), and experiencing parental unconcern during early life (OR = 2.13) (P quality of life (P life factors are among the important determinants of the health and quality of life of older adults in Turkey. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Cherrie, Mark P C; Shortt, Niamh K; Mitchell, Richard J; Taylor, Adele M; Redmond, Paul; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Pearce, Jamie R
International evidence suggests that green space has beneficial effects on general and mental health but little is known about how lifetime exposure to green space influences cognitive ageing. Employing a novel longitudinal life course approach, we examined the association between lifetime availability of public parks and cognitive ageing. Lifetime residential information was gathered from the participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 using a "life-grid" questionnaire at age 78 years. Parks information from 1949, 1969 and 2009 was used to determine a percentage of parks within a 1500 m buffer zone surrounding residence for childhood, adulthood, and later adulthood periods. Linear regressions were undertaken to test for association with age-standardised, residualised change in cognitive function (Moray House Test score) from age 11 to 70 years, and from age 70 to 76 (n = 281). The most appropriate model was selected using the results of a partial F-test, and then stratified by demographic, genetic and socioeconomic factors. The local provision of park space in childhood and adulthood were both important in explaining the change in cognitive function in later life. The association between childhood and adulthood park availability and change in the Moray House Test Score from age 70 to 76 was strongest for women, those without an APOE e4 allele (a genetic risk factor), and those in the lowest socioeconomic groups. Greater neighbourhood provision of public parks from childhood through to adulthood may help to slow down the rate of cognitive decline in later life, recognising that such environmental associations are always sensitive to individual characteristics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hulzebos, Christian V.; Bos, Arend F.; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J.
Aim: To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. Methods: In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the
Using a rich sample created from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we investigate the extent to which the relationship between body size at birth and early childhood cognitive skills is mediated by physical development indicators. Consistent with existing evidence from other countries, we find a significant relationship between body…
van Gelein Vitringa, V. M.; Jaspers, R.T.; Mullender, M.G.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; van der Sluijs, J.A.
Aim Shoulder deformities in children with a birth brachial plexus injury (BBPI) are caused by muscle imbalances; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the early interactions between shoulder muscles and shoulder joint development.Method In a
Early experiences with food flavors lead up to children’s food preferences and develop long-lasting flavor preferences and healthy eating habits. The process of flavor learning begins during pregnancy by the foods eaten by mothers which pass to the amniotic fluid. Some flavors coming from the mother’s diet that pass to the amniotic fluid are detected by the fetus. This flavor learning continues after birth with breastfeeding, since the human milk is composed of flavors which reflect the foods...
Lamb, Molly M; Dabelea, Dana; Yin, Xiang; Ogden, Lorraine G; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M
Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity. The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows children from birth that are at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. We examined longitudinal data for 1,178 DAISY subjects (mean age at last follow-up: 6.59 years (range: 2.0-11.5 years). Birth size and diabetes exposure in utero were collected in the enrollment interview. Infant diet information was collected via interviews throughout infancy. Infant weight gain and childhood BMI were measured at clinic visits. Male [corrected] gender, diabetes exposure in utero, larger size for gestational age, shorter breastfeeding duration, and more rapid infant weight gain predicted higher childhood BMI. Formal mediation analysis suggests the effect of shorter breastfeeding duration on childhood BMI may be mediated by more rapid infant weight gain. Also, the effect of diabetes exposure in utero on childhood BMI may be mediated by larger size for gestational age. We identified strong interrelationships between early life factors and childhood BMI. Understanding these pathways may aid childhood obesity prevention efforts. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C
Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value education and income, and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and male gender (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.
Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C
of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin......A large proportion of atopy develops in childhood and early life exposures are suspected to play a considerable role in the inception. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early life exposures and development of atopic disease in children. We performed a case-cohort study.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p feeding was longer in subjects...
Barros, Fernando C; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Aluísio J; Menezes, Ana B; Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G
The number of cesarean sections (CSs) is increasing in many countries, and there are concerns about their short- and long-term effects. A recent Brazilian study showed a 58% higher prevalence of obesity in young adults born by CS than in young adults born vaginally. Because CS-born individuals do not make contact at birth with maternal vaginal and intestinal bacteria, the authors proposed that this could lead to long-term changes in the gut microbiota that could contribute to obesity. We assessed whether CS births lead to increased obesity during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood in 3 birth cohorts. We analyzed data from 3 birth-cohort studies started in 1982, 1993, and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Subjects were assessed at different ages until 23 y of age. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios with adjustment for ≤15 socioeconomic, demographic, maternal, anthropometric, and behavioral covariates. In the crude analyses, subjects born by CS had ∼50% higher prevalence of obesity at 4, 11, and 15 y of age but not at 23 y of age. After adjustment for covariates, prevalence ratios were markedly reduced and no longer significant for men or women. The only exception was an association for 4-y-old boys in the 1993 cohort, which was not observed in the other 2 cohorts or for girls. In these 3 birth cohorts, CSs do not seem to lead to an important increased risk of obesity during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood.
Joshua R Cummings
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits
von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J
Investment traits--the tendency to seek out and engage in cognitive activity--might affect intellectual growth across the life span, specifically the development from fluid to crystallized intelligence. Here we explore how childhood IQ at age 11 years, IQ at age 79, and the investment trait Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) at age 81 affect the mean level and change in verbal fluency scores, used as an indicator of crystallized intelligence, across the ages 79, 83, and 87 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (maximum N = 569; Deary, Whiteman, Starr, Whalley, & Fox, 2004). A first latent growth model showed significant variance in the mean level of verbal fluency and significant decline in verbal fluency from age 79 to age 87. The rate of change was invariant across study participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. A second model found that IQ at age 11 significantly predicted IQ at age 79 (β = .66; p IQ at age 11 and 79 and TIE accounted for 25.5% of the variance in verbal fluency. A final model identified the TIE subfactor of intellectual curiosity as a significant mediator of the effect of IQ on verbal fluency; the TIE subfactors abstract thinking, reading, and problem solving showed no significant associations. In summary, TIE--in particular, intellectual curiosity--significantly mediated the effects of IQ on crystallized intelligence in old age. Because there was no significant between-subjects variance in verbal fluency trajectories in the current study, neither TIE nor IQ were associated with individual differences in cognitive decline.
Cummings, Joshua R; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Kirk, E Christopher; Rehorek, Susan J; DeLeon, Valerie B; Smith, Timothy D
Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta) to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius), compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits of nocturnal species, mainly emerge during postnatal development.
Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio
Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.
Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 38-57 ISSN 1804-8137 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : wrongful life actions * wrongful birth actions * bioethics Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.ilaw.cas.cz/medlawjournal/index.php/medlawjournal/article/view/58
Spallek, Jacob; Grosser, Angelique; Höller-Holtrichter, Chantal; Doyle, Ina-Merle; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Razum, Oliver
The heterogeneity among the German population is increasing. Sociodemographic differentials (eg, in education and migrant status) have been associated with health disparities. Life course studies show that a considerable part of these disparities is determined by exposures during pregnancy and early childhood. The BaBi study was established in 2012 to investigate the production of health disparities from foetal life to childhood in the city of Bielefeld, Germany. Between 2013 and 2016, detailed information on socioeconomic characteristics, migration background, lifestyle factors, environmental factors, healthcare use, and health status of 995 newborns, including 24 twins, and their families was collected using standardised instruments. Data collection started during pregnancy or shortly after birth with a computer-assisted personal interview of the pregnant woman/mother. Follow-up data will be collected until 2018 by computer-assisted telephone interviews around the first, second and after the third birthday of the child and by linking routine healthcare data. Blood samples are collected from a small subsample of 50 mothers for a substudy about stress during pregnancy (BaBi-Stress study). The study was approved by the ethical committee of the Medical Faculty of Muenster University and the Data Protection Board of Bielefeld University. Results will be published in scientific journals. Data sets and questionnaires will be made accessible for researchers based on access proposals and data usage contracts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B
The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different 'internal' and 'external' cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions.
Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Mohamadi, Bita; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohamad; Aliyan Moghadam, Narges
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and later occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. A prospective cohort study that measured maternal serum CRP levels in 778 pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy was performed in the city of Noor (north Iran), and included follow-up of patients up to time of delivery. Preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth were defined as the occurrence of membranes rupture and birth, respectively before 37 weeks of gestation. Of the 778 pregnancies studied, 19 (2.41%) preterm premature rupture of membranes and 58 (7.3%) preterm births were seen. Median CRP levels in preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth cases were much higher than in term deliveries (7 and 6.8 respectively vs 2.4 mg/L; 66.67 and 64.76, respectively vs 24.38 nmol/L). CRP levels >4 mg/L had statistically significant relationships with preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR 5.91, 95% CI 2.07-16.89) and preterm birth (OR 8.95, 95% CI 4.60-17.43). With a cut-off level of 4 mg/L of CRP, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LR(+) and LR(-) ) for preterm birth were 81, 70, 2.70, 0.28%, respectively, and for preterm premature rupture of membranes they were 79, 67, 2.41 and 0.31%, respectively. It seems that the inflammatory marker, CRP, can be used in the early stages of pregnancy to identify women at risk of experiencing preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm birth. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Bente Johanne Vederhus
Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals.Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years.Results. All eligible EP (n = 35 and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89% and 29 (83% at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales.Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth.
Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M
OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to determine whether lack of breast-feeding or a short duration of breast-feeding during infancy is associated with an elevated risk of hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life. METHOD: The study was a prospective longitudinal birth cohort design...... of early weaning was 1.47. Elevated relative risks were also associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (1.52) and unwanted pregnancy status (1.59). Other independent predictors were male gender, maternal psychiatric hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnosis, and low parental social status....... CONCLUSIONS: Independent of a number of other risk factors for alcoholism, a significant association between early weaning and elevated risk of hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses was observed....
Bønnelykke, Klaus; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Sevelsted, Astrid
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections in the first years of life are associated with later asthma, and this observation has led to a focus on the potential causal role of specific respiratory viruses, such as rhinoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus, in asthma development. However......, many respiratory viruses and bacteria trigger similar respiratory symptoms and it is possible that the important risk factors for asthma are the underlying susceptibility to infection and the exaggerated reaction to such triggers rather than the particular triggering agent. OBJECTIVE: We sought...... to study the association between specific infections in early life and development of asthma later in childhood. METHODS: Three hundred thirteen children were followed prospectively in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies of Asthma in Childhood2000 high-risk birth cohort. Nine respiratory virus types...
Dunning, Lorna; Kroon, Max; Fourie, Lezanne; Ciaranello, Andrea; Myer, Landon
Polymerase chain reaction testing at birth ("birth-testing") is suggested by new World Health Organization guidelines for rapid diagnosis of infants infected with HIV in utero. However, there are few data on the implementation of this approach in sub-Saharan Africa, and whether birth testing affects uptake of subsequent routine early infant diagnosis (EID) testing at 6-10 weeks of age is unknown. We reviewed 575 consecutive infants undergoing targeted high-risk birth testing in Cape Town, South Africa, and matched those testing HIV negative at birth (n = 551) to HIV-exposed infants who did not receive birth testing (n = 551). Maternal and infant clinical and demographic data, including EID testing uptake, were abstracted from routine records. Overall, 3.8% of all birth tests conducted were positive while later EID testing positivity rates were 0.5% for those infants testing HIV negative at birth and 0.4% for those without birth testing. Infants who underwent birth testing were less likely to present for later EID compared with those without a birth test (73% vs. 85%; P testing also presented for later EID at a significantly older age (mean age, 60 vs. 50 days; P testing in this setting appears high, neonates testing HIV negative at birth may be less likely to present for subsequent EID testing. For birth testing implementation to contribute to overall EID program goals, structured interventions are required to support follow-up EID services after negative birth test results.
O'Connor, George T; Lynch, Susan V; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Kattan, Meyer; Wood, Robert A; Gergen, Peter J; Jaffee, Katy F; Calatroni, Agustin; Bacharier, Leonard B; Beigelman, Avrahman; Sandel, Megan T; Johnson, Christine C; Faruqi, Ali; Santee, Clark; Fujimura, Kei E; Fadrosh, Douglas; Boushey, Homer; Visness, Cynthia M; Gern, James E
Environmental exposures in early life appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma, but the potentially modifiable exposures that lead to asthma remain uncertain. We sought to identify early-life environmental risk factors for childhood asthma in a birth cohort of high-risk inner-city children. We examined the relationship of prenatal and early-life environmental factors to the occurrence of asthma at 7 years of age among 442 children. Higher house dust concentrations of cockroach, mouse, and cat allergens in the first 3 years of life were associated with lower risk of asthma (for cockroach allergen: odds ratio per interquartile range increase in concentration, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.86; P < .01). House dust microbiome analysis using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing identified 202 and 171 bacterial taxa that were significantly (false discovery rate < 0.05) more or less abundant, respectively, in the homes of children with asthma. A majority of these bacteria were significantly correlated with 1 of more allergen concentrations. Other factors associated significantly positively with asthma included umbilical cord plasma cotinine concentration (odds ratio per geometric SD increase in concentration, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09; P = .048) and maternal stress and depression scores. Among high-risk inner-city children, higher indoor levels of pet or pest allergens in infancy were associated with lower risk of asthma. The abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in house dust was associated with increased or decreased asthma risk. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and higher maternal stress and depression scores in early life were associated with increased asthma risk. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.
McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa
Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Attreed, Sarah E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Heaney, Christopher D
Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity-including the specific mechanisms in humans-is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines.
Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie
The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:27629365
Park, Min Hae; Sovio, Ulla; Viner, Russell M.; Hardy, Rebecca J.; Kinra, Sanjay
Background Overweight and obesity in adulthood are established risk factors for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the contribution of overweight in childhood to later cardiovascular risk is less clear. Evidence for a direct effect of childhood overweight would highlight early life as an important target for cardiovascular disease prevention. The aim of this study was to assess whether overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence contribute to excess cardiovascular risk in adults. Methods and findings Data from three British birth cohorts, born in 1946, 1958 and 1970, were pooled for analysis (n = 11,447). Individuals were categorised, based on body mass index (BMI), as being of normal weight or overweight/obese in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Eight patterns of overweight were defined according to weight status at these three stages. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the associations of patterns of overweight with self-reported type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood (34–53 years). Compared to cohort members who were never overweight, those who were obese in adulthood had increased risk of all outcomes. For type 2 diabetes, the odds ratio was higher for obese adults who were also overweight or obese in childhood and adolescence (OR 12.6; 95% CI 6.6 to 24.0) than for those who were obese in adulthood only (OR 5.5; 95% CI 3.4 to 8.8). There was no such effect of child or adolescent overweight on hypertension. For CHD, there was weak evidence of increased risk among those with overweight in childhood. The main limitations of this study concern the use of self-reported outcomes and the generalisability of findings to contemporary child populations. Conclusions Type 2 diabetes and to a lesser extent CHD risk may be affected by overweight at all stages of life, while hypertension risk is associated more strongly with weight status in adulthood. PMID:23894679
Park, Min Hae; Sovio, Ulla; Viner, Russell M; Hardy, Rebecca J; Kinra, Sanjay
Overweight and obesity in adulthood are established risk factors for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the contribution of overweight in childhood to later cardiovascular risk is less clear. Evidence for a direct effect of childhood overweight would highlight early life as an important target for cardiovascular disease prevention. The aim of this study was to assess whether overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence contribute to excess cardiovascular risk in adults. Data from three British birth cohorts, born in 1946, 1958 and 1970, were pooled for analysis (n = 11,447). Individuals were categorised, based on body mass index (BMI), as being of normal weight or overweight/obese in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Eight patterns of overweight were defined according to weight status at these three stages. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the associations of patterns of overweight with self-reported type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood (34-53 years). Compared to cohort members who were never overweight, those who were obese in adulthood had increased risk of all outcomes. For type 2 diabetes, the odds ratio was higher for obese adults who were also overweight or obese in childhood and adolescence (OR 12.6; 95% CI 6.6 to 24.0) than for those who were obese in adulthood only (OR 5.5; 95% CI 3.4 to 8.8). There was no such effect of child or adolescent overweight on hypertension. For CHD, there was weak evidence of increased risk among those with overweight in childhood. The main limitations of this study concern the use of self-reported outcomes and the generalisability of findings to contemporary child populations. Type 2 diabetes and to a lesser extent CHD risk may be affected by overweight at all stages of life, while hypertension risk is associated more strongly with weight status in adulthood.
Chistyakova, G; Gazieva, I; Remizova, I; Ustyantseva, L; Lyapunov, V; Bychkova, S
We conducted a study of markers of endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis regulation, as well as the identification of the main lymphocyte populations, activated CD3 + CD95 + -cells and cytokine-producing CD4 + IFN-γ + -, CD4 + IL-4 + -lymphocytes in the 1st trimester of gestation in women with ART-induced pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancy. We used the same indicators to assess the immune status of ELBW infants at birth and at the post-conceptual age of 38-40 weeks. It was determined that the risk factors of very early preterm delivery are: threatened miscarriage, chronic placental insufficiency, endothelial dysfunction, increased spontaneous production of intracellular cytokines. Adverse perinatal outcomes in ELBW infants from ART-induced pregnancy are associated with lower anthropometric measures, low Apgar scores high level of inflammatory infections (pneumonia), grade II intraventricular hemorrhage, movement disorders in the form of lower paraparesis. Immune status of those infants is characterized by the increase in the number of CD8 + - and CD3 - CD16 + CD56 + -lymphocytes, the expression level of Fas-receptor by T-cells, and the increased production of intracellular and serum IFNγ against the decrease in the number of CD4 + -cells, which indicates enhancing of cytotoxic effector potential and proinflammatory orientation of cell responses.
Flores, M.; Kalwij, Adriaan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090663497
We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages
Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S
Seizures are very common in the early periods of life and are often associated with poor neurologic outcome in humans. Animal studies have provided evidence that early life seizures may disrupt neuronal differentiation and connectivity, signaling pathways, and the function of various neuronal networks. There is growing experimental evidence that many signaling pathways, like GABAA receptor signaling, the cellular physiology and differentiation, or the functional maturation of certain brain regions, including those involved in seizure control, mature differently in males and females. However, most experimental studies of early life seizures have not directly investigated the importance of sex on the consequences of early life seizures. The sexual dimorphism of the developing brain raises the question that early seizures could have distinct effects in immature females and males that are subjected to seizures. We will first discuss the evidence for sex-specific features of the developing brain that could be involved in modifying the susceptibility and consequences of early life seizures. We will then review how sex-related biological factors could modify the age-specific consequences of induced seizures in the immature animals. These include signaling pathways (e.g., GABAA receptors), steroid hormones, growth factors. Overall, there are very few studies that have specifically addressed seizure outcomes in developing animals as a function of sex. The available literature indicates that a variety of outcomes (histopathological, behavioral, molecular, epileptogenesis) may be affected in a sex-, age-, region-specific manner after seizures during development. Obtaining a better understanding for the gender-related mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure comorbidities will be necessary to develop better gender and age appropriate therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The work of Marx has often been treated as an ontology and metaphysics of labor, and this “ontology” has often been resisted in the name of life. In particular, in a series of recent theoretical works, the “savage ontology of life,” as Foucault names it, has been posed against the “limits” of political economy and Marx. This claim to escape the bind of labor and of Marx is critiqued by a return to the early Marx and the early Derrida to explore a different reading of the binding of life to la...
Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas N
BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitm......BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during...... during the first 3 mo....
Groeneweg-Koolhoven, Isis; Ploeg, Merel; Comijs, Hannie C; Wjh Penninx, Brenda; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Rhebergen, Didi; Exel, Eric van
Late-life depression is thought to differ in clinical presentation from early-life depression. Particularly, late-life depression is considered to be more characterized by apathy than is early-life depression. Lacking convincing evidence, this study examines the presence and associated socio-demographic/clinical characteristics of apathy in older compared to younger depressed persons. This cross-sectional study used data from two naturalistic cohort studies, i.e. the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) and the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). These studies included 605 persons (aged 18-93 years) with a major depressive disorder, divided into 217 early-life (Apathy was considered present if a score of ≥14 on the Apathy Scale. Apathy was strongly associated with age: it was more frequently present in persons with late-life depression (74.5%) than in those with early-life depression (53.5%). Independent of age, the following characteristics were associated with the presence of apathy: male gender, low education, use of benzodiazepines, chronic diseases, and more severe depression. Of all potential risk factors, only former and current smoking was associated with the presence of apathy in older depressed persons but not in younger depressed persons (p-value for age interaction = 0.01). No causal relationships can be drawn due to the cross-sectional design of the study. In depressed individuals, clinically relevant apathy was more frequently present in older compared to younger persons. Both age groups showed largely the same associated risk factors. Apathy was independently associated with older age, male gender and more severe depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leenders, Erika K S M; de Waard, Marita; van Goudoever, Johannes B
Providing parenteral amino acids to very-low-birth-weight infants during the first weeks of life is critical for adequate growth and neurodevelopment. However, there is no consensus about what dose is appropriate or when to initiate supplementation. As a result, daily practice varies among neonatal intensive care units. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of early parenteral amino-acid supplementation (within 24 h of birth) versus later initiation and high dose (>3.0 g/kg/day) versus a lower dose on growth and morbidities. A systematic review and meta-analysis of publications identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was conducted. Randomized controlled studies were eligible if information on growth was available. The search identified 14 studies. No differences were observed in growth or morbidity after early or high-dose amino-acid supplementation, but for several outcomes, meta-analysis was not possible due to study heterogeneity. Initiation of amino acids within the first 24 h of life appeared to be safe and well tolerated, and leads more rapidly to a positive nitrogen balance. Administering a high dose (>3.0 g/kg/day) or an early dose (≤24 h) of parenteral amino acids is safe and well tolerated but does not offer significant benefits on growth. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials in preterm infants are needed to study the effects of early and high-dose amino acids on growth and morbidity more consistently and extensively. The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
The impact of environmental gradients on the early life inshore migration of the short-finned squid Illex illecebrosus. JAA Perez, Rk O'dor. Abstract. Recruitment of the short-finned squid Illex illecebrosus to adult feeding grounds on the shelf off eastern Canada constitutes an important transition from warm food-limited Gulf ...
Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.
Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…
Investigating the physical-chemical setting of early life is a challenging task. In this contribution, the author attempted to introduce a provocative concept from cosmology - cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is the residual thermal radiation from a hot early Universe - to the field. For this purpose, the author revisited a recently deduced biomarker, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars in bacteria. In vitro, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars reflects and captures residual thermal radiation in thermochemical processes and therefore is somewhat analogous to CMB. In vivo, the formation process of the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars on the peptidoglycan of prokaryotic cell wall is parallel to in vitro processes, suggesting that the 1,6-anhydro bond is an ideal CMB-like analogue that suggests a hot setting for early life. The CMB-like 1,6-anhydro bond is involved in the life cycle of viruses and the metabolism of eukaryotes, underlying this notion. From a novel perspective, the application of the concept of the CMB to microbial ecology may give new insights into a hot environment, such as hydrothermal vents, supporting early life and providing hypotheses to test in molecular palaeontology. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ley, Delphine; Desseyn, Jean Luc; Mischke, Mona; Knol, Jan; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric
A growing body of evidence supports the concept of perinatal programming through which the perinatal environment affects the development of the fetus and infant, thereby modifying the risk profile for disease later in life. Increasing attention is focusing on the role of the early environment in the
Joergensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald F
, diagnostic methods, degrees of abnormal flora, antibiotic dose regimens, routes of administration, host susceptibilities, host response, gestational age at time of treatment, outcome parameters and definitions of success and outcomes. To address this confusion, a number of systematic reviews......INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in high-income countries. The etiology of preterm birth is multifactorial but there is overwhelming evidence to implicate infection as a major cause. Abnormal genital tract flora in early pregnancy is predictive....../meta-analysis, which targeted the use of clindamycin before 22 weeks gestation, in women with objective evidence of abnormal genital tract flora, demonstrated that clindamycin produced a significant decrease in late miscarriage and preterm birth....
Vivian Rosa Vázquez Martínez; Cristobal Jorge Torres González; Alina Luisa Díaz Dueñas; Grisel Torres Vázquez; Dariel Diaz Díaz; Rafael de la Rosa López
Background: congenital anomalies contribute significantly to mortality during early stages of life; they are the leading cause of infant death in developed countries.Objective: to determine the characteristics of congenital anomalies among live births. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos in 2012. Thirty-seven women who had live-born neonates with congenital anomalies were studied. The variables analyzed were: parental age, skin color, order of birth, famil...
Danielle M. Carkin
Full Text Available Objective to investigate the impact of delinquency conduct on adult criminal career by the example of delinquent boys in the 1958 Philadelphia Birth Cohort. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors predetermined the following research methods formallogical comparativelegal and sociological. nbsp Results by the example of delinquent boys in the 1958 Philadelphia Birth Cohort the authors investigate the nature of delinquency conduct offensebyoffense and its relationship to adult crime status. Although it is convenient to think of an offender39s delinquency career as a whole such a career actually consists of one or more specific offenses and offense conduct can be worth studying in its own right. Thus it is necessary to determine whether the timing type severity court disposition and so on of these juvenile offenses can be used to predict adult career pathways. An extensive review of the literature revealed that investigations of early offense conduct and its connection to adult crime are exceedingly scarce. Scientific novelty for the first time the research proves that the facility disposition appears to have a criminogenic effect. The juvenile court dispositions are significantly predictive of the adult pathsmdashthe less severe the disposition the less adult crime. At the time of the second offense age is found significant in that the younger the individual is at the time of the second offense the greater the chances are that the individual will receive a higher score in the adult path variable. The younger the individual is at the time of the third offense the more likely he is to score higher in the adult paths. Thus to decrease the adult crime rates it is necessary to work with delinquent criminals before they commit their third crime. Besides it is substantiated that the strongest
Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío
There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.
Muthuri, S.; Cooper, R.; Moore, A.; Mackinnon, K.; Cooper, C.; Adams, J. E.; Hardy, R.; Ward, K. A.
Context: Previous studies of menopausal age and length of reproductive life on bone are limited by retrospective reproductive histories, being cross-sectional, or lacking gold standard bone technologies or information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or surgical treatment. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate age at menopause, length of reproductive life, and HRT use in relation to volumetric and areal bone mineral density (vBMD, aBMD), bone size, and strength in women aged 60–64 years. Design: This was a birth cohort study that followed up for 64 years with prospective measures of age at menarche and menopause and monthly HRT histories. Setting: The study was conducted in England, Scotland, and Wales. Participants: Participants included 848 women with a known type of menopause and bone measures at 60–64 years. Main Outcome Measures: Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements of the distal radius total and trabecular vBMD were measured. Diaphyseal radius total and medullary cross-sectional area, cortical vBMD, and polar strength strain index (SSI); dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of aBMD at the lumbar spine and total hip were also measured. Results: A 10-year increase in age at natural (but not surgical) menopause was associated with 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3%–15.1%, P = .02) greater trabecular vBMD and a 6.0% (95% CI 0.51%–11.5%, P = .03) greater total vBMD; findings were similar for length of reproductive life. A 10-year difference in HRT use was associated with a 6.0% (95% CI 2.6%–9.3%, P changed little on adjustment. Estimates for aBMD were consistent with those for peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Conclusions: The positive effects on trabecular vBMD of later natural menopause and longer reproductive life persisted into early old age. HRT use was associated with greater radius cortical vBMD and polar SSI and aBMD. PMID:27472291
Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C
A large proportion of atopy develops in childhood and early life exposures are suspected to play a considerable role in the inception. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early life exposures and development of atopic disease in children. We performed a case-cohort study...... test reactivity to 10 common aeroallergens was measured using standard techniques. Atopic disease was defined as a history of hayfever and/or asthma concomitantly with a positive skin-prick test. Logistic regression showed that parental atopy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1...... with atopic heredity (p = 0.017), whereas smoking exposure during pregnancy (p = 0.019) and in the 1st year of life (p = 0.018) was less prevalent. Wheezy bronchitis was equally frequent among subjects with and without atopic predisposition (p = 0.893). Wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years seems...
Menzies, Stefanie K; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha; Sandoval, Carlos; Broncano, Nely; Guadalupe, Irene; Cooper, Philip J
Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infect more than 2 billion humans worldwide, causing significant morbidity in children. There are few data on the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in pre-school children. To investigate risk factors for infection in early childhood, we analysed data prospectively collected in the ECUAVIDA birth cohort in Ecuador. Children were recruited at birth and followed up to 3 years of age with periodic collection of stool samples that were examined microscopically for STH parasites. Data on social, demographic, and environmental risk factors were collected from the mother at time of enrollment. Associations between exposures and detection of STH infections were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Data were analysed from 1,697 children for whom a stool sample was obtained at 3 years. 42.3% had at least one STH infection in the first 3 years of life and the most common infections were caused by A. lumbricoides (33.2% of children) and T. trichiura (21.2%). Hookworm infection was detected in 0.9% of children. Risk of STH infection was associated with factors indicative of poverty in our study population such as Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and low maternal educational level. Maternal STH infections during pregnancy were strong risk factors for any childhood STH infection, infections with either A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura, and early age of first STH infection. Children of mothers with moderate to high infections intensities with A. lumbricoides were most at risk. Our data show high rates of infection with STH parasites during the first 3 years of life in an Ecuadorian birth cohort, an observation that was strongly associated with maternal STH infections during pregnancy. The targeted treatment of women of childbearing age, in particular before pregnancy, with anthelmintic drugs could offer a novel approach to the prevention of STH infections in pre-school children.
Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.
Infants born preterm have increased risk for learning disabilities yet we lack assessments to successfully detect these disabilities in early life. We followed 23 full-term and 29 preterm infants from birth through 24 months to assess for differences in and stability of learning abilities across time. Measures included the Bayley-III cognitive…
van den Berg, Gerrit; van Eijsden, Manon; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Gemke, Reinoud
The objective of this study is first to examine the relation of maternal education and growth velocity during the first year of life and early childhood (1-5 years). The second objective is to determine the potential explanatory role of standardized birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy,
Full Text Available To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes.This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, and neonatal seizure.The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97% and specificity (99% in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95% and specific (97%. The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95% but not sensitive (67% and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81% and low specificity (81% in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02 and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01.The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates.
Dalili, Hosein; Nili, Firouzeh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Hardani, Amir Kamal; Shariat, Mamak; Nayeri, Fatemeh
Objectives To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and neonatal seizure. Results The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%) in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95%) and specific (97%). The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95%) but not sensitive (67%) and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (81%) in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02) and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01). Conclusions The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates. PMID:25811904
Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Frongillo, Edward A
Low birthweight increases the risk of infant mortality, morbidity and poor development. Maternal nutrition and stress influence birth size, but their combined effect is not known. We hypothesised that an early-invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation programme could reduce the negative influence of prenatal maternal stress on birth size, and that effect would differ by infant sex. A cohort of 1041 pregnant women, who had delivered an infant, June 2003-March 2004, was sampled from among 3267 in the randomised controlled trial, Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 weeks gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation to start food supplements (2.5 MJ d(-1) ; 6 days a week) either early (∼9 weeks gestation; early-invitation group) or at usual start time for the governmental programme (∼20 weeks gestation; usual-invitation group). Morning concentration of cortisol was measured from one saliva sample/woman at 28-32 weeks gestation to assess stress. Birth-size measurements for 90% of infants were collected within 4 days of birth. In a general linear model, there was an interaction between invitation time to start the food supplementation programme and cortisol with birthweight, length and head circumference of male infants, but not female infants. Among the usual-invitation group only, male infants whose mothers had higher prenatal cortisol weighed less than those whose mothers had lower prenatal cortisol. Prenatal food supplementation programmes that begin first trimester may support greater birth size of male infants despite high maternal stress where low birthweight is a public health concern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rejane de Souza Reis
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The population-based cancer registries (PBCR and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC] have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL in Brazil. Methods: A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i characteristics of the child at birth and (ii characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10 and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00. Conclusions: The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide.
Reis, Rejane de Souza; Silva, Neimar de Paula; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Camargo, Beatriz; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S
The population-based cancer registries (PBCR) and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC]) have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL) in Brazil. A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i) characteristics of the child at birth and (ii) characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models. EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10) and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00). The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda
This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and sibling interactions (i.e., positive engagement and antagonism) and parental discipline strategies (i.e., child-centred and parent-centred discipline) at 4 and 8 months in the first year of siblinghood. Structural equation modelling analyses revealed that children's ToM before the birth of the sibling predicted children's positive engagement with the infant sibling, whereas children's antagonistic behaviours towards the infant sibling negatively predicted children's ToM at 12 months, but only when mothers used low levels of child-centred discipline. These findings emphasize the role of parents in the development of young children's social- cognitive understanding in the context of sibling interactions even as early as the first year after the sibling's birth.
Full Text Available Due to the dynamic developmental processes during pregnancy, infancy, childhood and adolescence, exposure to PFASs is hypothesized to have the most pronounced negative effects during this period. In this review we critically evaluate the current state of the science regarding human early life exposure processes (until 18 years of age to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs. Efficient placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs results in relatively high prenatal exposure compared with many neutral organic contaminants. The few biomonitoring studies that specifically target infants, toddlers and other children suggest relatively high serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA in early life with peak concentrations occurring sometime before the child reaches 20 months. This peak in serum concentrations is most likely explained by exposure via breastfeeding, ingestion of house dust and/or specific contact events with consumer products leading to high body weight normalized estimated daily intakes (EDIs. Although children have higher EDIs of PFASs than adults, these are not always reflected by higher serum levels of PFASs in children in cross-sectional biomonitoring studies due to the confounding effect of age and birth cohort, and different exposure histories due to production changes. Longitudinal exposure studies measuring internal and external exposure (for multiple pathways and PFASs at several time points during early life are strongly encouraged to understand temporal changes in exposure of individual children. A better quantitative understanding of early life exposure processes would help to improve the validity of epidemiological studies and allow informed decisions regarding setting of regulatory thresholds and appropriate mitigation actions.
Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.
Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust . The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)
Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio; Di Sanzo, Mariantonia; La Russa, Raffaele; Scopetti, Matteo; Severi, Filiberto M; Turillazzi, Emanuela
Prenatal diagnosis based on different technologies is increasingly used in developed countries and has become a common strategy in obstetric practice. The tests are crucial in enabling mothers to make informed decisions about the possibility of terminating pregnancy. They have generated numerous bioethical and legal controversies in the field of 'wrongful life' claims (action brought by or on behalf of a child against the mother or other people, claiming that he or she has to endure a not-worth-living existence) and 'wrongful birth' claims (action brought by the mother or parents against the physician for being burdened with an unwanted, often disabled child, which could have been avoided). The possibility which exists nowadays to intervene actively by programming and deciding the phases linked to procreation and birth has raised several questions worldwide. The mother's right to self-determination could be an end but whether or not this right is absolute is debatable. Freedom could, with time, act as a barrier that obstructs intrusion into other people's lives and their personal choices. Therapeutic choices may be manageable in a liberal sense, and the sanctity of life can be inflected in a secular sense. These sensitive issues and the various points of view to be considered have motivated this review. Literature searches were conducted on relevant demographic, social science and medical science databases (SocINDEX, Econlit, PopLine, Medline, Embase and Current Contents) and via other sources. Searches focused on subjects related to bioethical and legal controversies in the field of preimplantation and prenatal diagnosis, wrongful birth and wrongful life. A review of the international state of law was carried out, focusing attention on the peculiar issue of wrongful life and investigating the different jurisdictional solutions of wrongful life claims in a comparative survey. Courts around the world are generally reluctant to acknowledge wrongful life claims due to
Hackmon, Rinat; Librach, Clifford; Burwick, Richard; Rodrigues, Nicole; Farine, Dan; Berger, Howard
Traditionally, physiological variation in fetal weight is believed to emerge during the latter half of pregnancy. Although recent evidence suggests that crown-rump length (CRL) and nuchal translucency (NT) measured at 11-14 weeks correlate with abnormal fetal growth, findings have been limited by dating accuracy in spontaneous gestations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether CRL or NT measurements correlated with term birth weight (BW) or BW ratio in a cohort of IVF pregnancies, in which the date of conception is precisely known. This retrospective cohort study included 227 term, singleton IVF pregnancies. Subjects were included if they had an early first-trimester ultrasound examination and subsequent nuchal translucency (NT) screening. The difference between the measured and the expected CRL and the biparietal diameter (BPD) and NT measurement were calculated and correlated with the actual term BW or BW ratio. The BW ratio was calculated using the actual BW and the expected BW for GA. The difference between measured and expected mid-first-trimester CRL, and the BPD at NT assessment, correlated with BW ratio at delivery (r Spearman = 0.15, P = 0.023 and r Spearman = 0.27, P < 0.001, respectively). Absolute NT measurements and NT percentiles (adjusted for CRL) correlated with BW ratio at delivery (r Spearman = 0.18, r = 0.14, and P = 0.005 and 0.038, respectively). In this well-dated IVF population, we report a significant correlation between BW ratio and first-trimester CRL, BPD, and NT measurements. These findings support the hypothesis that physiological variation in BW can be reflected by variation in first-trimester fetal measurements. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at high risk for the onset of cognitive dysfunctions at school age. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early neurodevelopmental assessment and the risk of adverse cognitive outcome in extremely low birth weight children. We enrolled all newborns (January 2002 – April 2007 consecutively admitted to our Institution, with a birthweight < 1000 g. Exclusion criteria were genetic abnormalities, severe neurofunctional impairment, and/or neurosensory disabilities. Ninety-nine children were assessed at 1 year of corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales Revised. The same children were re-assessed at school age through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Children with impaired Griffiths General Quotient (i.e., <1 SD at 1 year of corrected age showed a significantly lower Full Scale Intelligence Quotient at 7 years of chronological age when compared to children who scored in the normal range at 1 year (p < 0.01. Considering the Griffiths Sub-quotients separately, a poor score in the Performance or in the Personal-Social Sub-quotients at 1 year was associated with significantly worse cognitive outcomes both in the Verbal and in the Performance Intelligence Quotients at 7 years (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively. A score <1 SD in the Locomotor or in the Eye and Hand Coordination Sub-quotients were specifically associated with poorer Performance or Verbal Intelligence Quotients, respectively (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that a poor score on the Griffiths Scales at 1 year is associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment at school age. Larger confirmation studies are needed.
Holst, D; Schuller, A A
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material
Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.
Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.
... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...
Fuentes, Isabella M; Christianson, Julie A
Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes) report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes. This increased comorbidity between chronic pelvic pain syndromes, and with pain disorders of disparate body regions, as well as with mood disorders, can be influenced by disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the response to stress and influences the perception of pain. Experiencing trauma, neglect, or abuse in early life can permanently affect the functioning of the HPA axis. As such, a significant proportion of patients suffering from comorbid chronic pelvic pain syndromes report a history of early life stress or trauma. Here we will report on how these early life experiences influence chronic pelvic pain in patients. We will also discuss various rodent models that have been developed to study this phenomenon to understand the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysfunction, as well as potential underlying mechanisms connecting these syndromes to one another.
Isabella M. Fuentes
Full Text Available Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS, vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes. This increased comorbidity between chronic pelvic pain syndromes, and with pain disorders of disparate body regions, as well as with mood disorders, can be influenced by disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which regulates the response to stress and influences the perception of pain. Experiencing trauma, neglect, or abuse in early life can permanently affect the functioning of the HPA axis. As such, a significant proportion of patients suffering from comorbid chronic pelvic pain syndromes report a history of early life stress or trauma. Here we will report on how these early life experiences influence chronic pelvic pain in patients. We will also discuss various rodent models that have been developed to study this phenomenon to understand the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysfunction, as well as potential underlying mechanisms connecting these syndromes to one another.
Fuentes, Isabella M.; Christianson, Julie A.
Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes) report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes. This increased comorbidity between chronic pelvic pain syndromes, and with pain disorders of disparate body regions, as well as with mood disorders, can be influenced by disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the response to stress and influences the perception of pain. Experiencing trauma, neglect, or abuse in early life can permanently affect the functioning of the HPA axis. As such, a significant proportion of patients suffering from comorbid chronic pelvic pain syndromes report a history of early life stress or trauma. Here we will report on how these early life experiences influence chronic pelvic pain in patients. We will also discuss various rodent models that have been developed to study this phenomenon to understand the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysfunction, as well as potential underlying mechanisms connecting these syndromes to one another. PMID:29434541
Dominic S. Fareri
Full Text Available Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation, can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction.
Patchen, Loral; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Astone, Nan M
Examine the association of age at first birth with body mass index (BMI), and explore the role of young maternal age and subsequent obesity. This study analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative longitudinal study of US families. Analyses were conducted using a mixed effects longitudinal linear regression with a random intercept to examine the effect of aging, age at first birth, and minority status using nested data. Study criteria yielded a final sample of 146 women with 707 observations. BMI. Age at first birth exhibited a significant association with BMI. The association of age at first birth with BMI was greatest for women age 21 and younger. Overall, women who experienced their first birth at age 21 or younger had a BMI 5 units greater than women who delayed childbearing until at least age 30 (point estimate, 5.02; P = .02; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-9.40). Young maternal age at first birth might be associated with increased BMI. Minority women also experience their first birth at younger ages compared with white women, suggesting possible linkages between the timing of reproductive events and obesity disparities. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nordheim, Trond; Rustøen, Tone; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Nakstad, Britt
Being a parent of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant can be stressful. We aimed to describe parental hope 42months after the birth of a VLBW infant and determine whether there is an association between hope and parenting stress with quality of life (QoL), respectively. Fifty-nine parents of VLBW infants completed questionnaires about hope, parenting stress and QoL. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the selected variables. To compare groups, t-test was used and Cohen's d for effect size was calculated. Parents of VLBW infants were more hopeful than the general population (phope were both independently associated with QoL (phope (p=0.041) and higher parenting stress (p=0.041) than parents of infants with birth weight 1000-1500g. Hope and parenting stress were both independent determinants of QoL. Parents of the presumably sickest infants had less hope and higher parenting stress than parents of VLBW infants with a birth weight over 1000g. Hope should be further explored as a coping mechanism in parents of VLBW infants. The clinical implications of the strong association between hope, parenting stress and QoL remain to be determined, but reducing stress and strengthening hope seem to be important. This should be taken into account both at hospital discharge and at follow-up, especially for lower-birth-weight infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Green, A; Andersen, P K; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen
To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...... of 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log...
Malat, Jennifer; Jacquez, Farrah; Slavich, George M
There has been a long-standing interest in better understanding how social factors contribute to racial disparities in health, including birth outcomes. A recent emphasis in this context has been on identifying the effects of stress exposure and protective factors experienced over the entire lifetime. Yet despite repeated calls for a life course approach to research on this topic, very few studies have actually assessed how stressors and protective factors occurring over women's lives relate to birth outcomes. We discuss this issue here by describing how challenges in the measurement of lifetime stress exposure and protective factors have prevented researchers from developing an empirically-based life course perspective on health. First, we summarize prevailing views on racial inequality and birth outcomes; second, we discuss measurement challenges that exist in this context; and finally, we describe both new tools and needed tools for assessing lifetime stress exposure and suggest opportunities for integrating information on stress exposure and psychosocial protective factors. We conclude that more studies are needed that integrate information about lifetime stress exposures and the protective factors that promote resilience against such exposures to inform policy and practice recommendations to reduce racial disparities in birth outcomes.
Lemcke, Sanne; Parner, Erik T; Bjerrum, Merete; Thomsen, Per H; Lauritsen, Marlene B
Studies have shown that children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in their first years of life might show symptoms in main developmental areas and that these signs might be sensed by the parents. The present study investigated in a large birth cohort if children later diagnosed with ASD had deviations at 6 and 18 months in areas such as the ability to self-regulate emotions, feeding, and sleeping. The study was based on prospective information collected from 76,322 mothers who participated in the Danish National Birth Cohort. When the children reached an average age of 11 years, 973 children with ASD and a control group of 300 children with intellectual disability (IDnoASD) were identified via Danish health registries. Associations were found between short periods of breast-feeding and the children later diagnosed with ASD and IDnoASD as well as associations at 18 months to deviations in regulation of emotions and activity. The similarities in these associations emphasize how difficult it is to distinguish between diagnoses early in life. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Bharadwaj, Prashant; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Mullins, Jamie T; Neidell, Matthew
Little is known about the long-term effects of air pollution exposure and the root causes of asthma. We use exposure to intense air pollution from the 1952 Great Smog of London as a natural experiment to examine both issues. To determine whether exposure to extreme air pollution in utero or soon after birth affects asthma development later in life. This was a natural experiment using the unanticipated pollution event by comparing the prevalence of asthma between those exposed to the Great Smog in utero or the first year of life with those conceived well before or after the incident and those residing outside the affected area at the time of the smog. Prevalence of asthma during childhood (ages 0-15) and adulthood (ages >15) is analyzed for 2,916 respondents to the Life History portion of the English Longitudinal Study on Aging born from 1945 to 1955. Exposure to the Great Smog in the first year of life increases the likelihood of childhood asthma by 19.87 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.37-36.38). We also find suggestive evidence that early-life exposure led to a 9.53 percentage point increase (95% CI, -4.85 to 23.91) in the likelihood of adult asthma and exposure in utero led to a 7.91 percentage point increase (95% CI, -2.39 to 18.20) in the likelihood of childhood asthma. These results are the first to link early-life pollution exposure to later development of asthma using a natural experiment, suggesting the legacy of the Great Smog is ongoing.
Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.
The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.
Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C. R.
Stromatolites in the Pilbara region of Western Australia constitute the earliest outcrop-scale evidence of life on Earth (Figure 1). The stromatolites in the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) provide an important analog for searching for fossil evidence of early life on Mars, as Noachian aged sediments on Mars were formed under similar environmental conditions. Stromatolites represent possibly the best evidence that could be collected by a rover because they form recognizable macroscopic structures and are often associated with chemical and microscopic evidence.
Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen
We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or
Bánhidy, Ferenc; Dakhlaoui, Abdallah; Dudás, István; Czeizel, Andrew E
Objective. To evaluate the rate of preterm birth and low birth weight in the newborns of pregnant women with early and late onset pre-eclampsia according to folic acid supplementation. Study design. Birth outcomes of newborns were evaluated in 1,017 (2.7%) pregnant women with medically recorded pre-eclampsia and 37,134 pregnant women without pre-eclampsia as reference in the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996, in addition these study groups were differentiated according to the supplementation of high dose of folic acid alone from early pregnancy. Results. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia associated with a higher rate of preterm birth (10.2% versus 9.1%) and low birthweight (7.9% versus 5.6%). There was a lower risk of preterm birth (6.8%) of newborn infants born to pregnant women with early onset pre-eclampsia after folic acid supplementation from early pregnancy though the rate of low birthweight was not reduced significantly. There was no significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth and low birthweight in pregnant women with late onset pre-eclampsia after folic acid supplementation. Conclusion. The rate of preterm birth in pregnant women with early onset pre-eclampsia was reduced moderately by high doses of folic acid supplementation from early pregnancy.
Delnord, Marie; Blondel, Béatrice; Prunet, Caroline; Zeitlin, Jennifer
To investigate whether risk factors for preterm (term birth (37 and 38 weeks gestation) are similar. Nationally representative cross-sectional study of births. France in 2010. Live singleton births (n=14 326). Preterm and early-term birth rates overall and by mode of delivery (spontaneous and indicated). Risk factors were maternal sociodemographic characteristics, previous preterm birth, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking, assessed using multinomial regression models with full-term births 39 weeks and over as the reference group. There were 5.5% preterm and 22.5% early-term births. Common risk factors were: a previous preterm delivery (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 8.2 (95% CI 6.2 to 10.7) and aRRR 2.4 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.0), respectively), short stature, underweight (overall and in spontaneous deliveries), obesity (in indicated deliveries only), a low educational level and Sub-Saharan African origin. In contrast, primiparity was a risk factor only for preterm birth, aRRR 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.2), while higher parity was associated with greater risk of early-term birth. Most population-level risk factors were common to both preterm and early-term birth with the exception of primiparity, and BMI which differed by mode of onset of delivery. Our results suggest that preterm and early-term birth share similar aetiologies and thus potentially common strategies for prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Martinez, Leonardo; le Roux, David M; Barnett, Whitney; Stadler, Attie; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting. We followed up their children for tuberculosis from birth until April 1, 2017, or age 5 years. All children received BCG vaccination at birth. Tuberculin skin tests were administered to children at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of age, and at the time of a lower respiratory tract infection. An induration reaction of 10 mm or more was considered to be a tuberculin skin test conversion. To prevent boosting, we censored children with a reactive, negative tuberculin skin test. Among 915 mother-child pairs (201 [22%] HIV-positive mothers and two [tuberculosis, and 0·7 (0·4-1·0) for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis. Isoniazid preventive therapy was effective in averting disease progression (adjusted hazard ratio 0·22, 95% CI 0·08-0·63; ptuberculosis than were those without one (2·27, 1·42-3·62; ptuberculosis infection and disease. Multifaceted interventions, such as isoniazid preventive therapy and tuberculosis screening of infants with LRTIs, beginning early in life, are needed in high-burden settings. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Medical Research Council South Africa, and National Research Foundation South Africa.
Fazlollahi, Mina; Chun, Yoojin; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert A; Burks, A Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Bunyavanich, Supinda
Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multi-center Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected and clinical evaluation, egg specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME), Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P=5.0x10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg allergic subjects (Kruskal Wallis P adj =0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0x10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Middleton, Philippa; Shepherd, Emily; Flenady, Vicki; McBain, Rosemary D; Crowther, Caroline A
Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (9 September 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of planned early birth compared with expectant management (either in hospital or at home) in women with PROM at 37 weeks' gestation or later. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted the data, and assessed risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Twenty-three trials involving 8615 women and their babies were included in the update of this review. Ten trials assessed intravenous oxytocin; 12 trials assessed prostaglandins (six trials in the form of vaginal prostaglandin E2 and six as oral, sublingual or vaginal misoprostol); and one trial each assessed Caulophyllum and acupuncture. Overall, three trials were judged to be at low risk of bias, while the other 20 were at unclear or high risk of bias.Primary outcomes: women who had planned early birth were at a reduced risk of maternal infectious morbidity (chorioamnionitis and/or endometritis) than women who had expectant management following term prelabour rupture of membranes (average risk ratio (RR) 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.72; eight trials, 6864 women; Tau² = 0.19; I² = 72%; low-quality evidence), and their neonates were less likely to have definite or probable early-onset neonatal sepsis (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.92; 16 trials, 7314 infants;low-quality evidence). No clear
Chakr, Valentina C; Llapur, Conrado J; Sarria, Edgar E; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S
Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full-term controls (FT). FT (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; P = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (S(ND)) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in S(ND) between full-term and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goldstein, Richard D; Kinney, Hannah C; Willinger, Marian
In March 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development held a workshop entitled "Sudden Unexpected Death in Fetal Life Through Early Childhood: New Opportunities." Its objective was to advance efforts to understand and ultimately prevent sudden deaths in early life, by considering their pathogenesis as a potential continuum with some commonalities in biological origins or pathways. A second objective of this meeting was to highlight current issues surrounding the classification of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and the implications of variations in the use of the term "SIDS" in forensic practice, and pediatric care and research. The proceedings reflected the most current knowledge and understanding of the origins and biology of vulnerability to sudden unexpected death, and its environmental triggers. Participants were encouraged to consider the application of new technologies and "omics" approaches to accelerate research. The major advances in delineating the intrinsic vulnerabilities to sudden death in early life have come from epidemiologic, neural, cardiac, metabolic, genetic, and physiologic research, with some commonalities among cases of unexplained stillbirth, SIDS, and sudden unexplained death in childhood observed. It was emphasized that investigations of sudden unexpected death are inconsistent, varying by jurisdiction, as are the education, certification practices, and experience of death certifiers. In addition, there is no practical consensus on the use of "SIDS" as a determination in cause of death. Major clinical, forensic, and scientific areas are identified for future research. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
De Long NE
Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals
Full Text Available Several studies have found that shorter stature (height and limb length in late life is associated with dementia and cognitive impairment. The extent to which childhood environment and early life cognitive function accounts for these associations is not clear.We investigated associations of adult trunk height and leg length with cognitive function in middle age, analysing data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development: a cohort followed from birth to age 53, 1677 of whom had data on all covariates. The four cognitive tests measured verbal ability, word list memory, verbal fluency and speed/concentration. Early life environmental measures included parental education, poverty, parental divorce, physical health, cognitive ability at age 15, own education and own adult social class.After adjusting for gender, shorter trunk length was associated with lower cognitive function on all four tests and shorter leg length with lower verbal intelligence and word list memory. These associations were only partially attenuated following adjustment for childhood adversity/health but were substantially accounted for by cognitive ability at age 15.Shorter stature was associated with lower cognitive function at age 53, the majority of this association being accounted for by cognitive function at age 15. Reduced cognitive reserve may well account for later associations between anthropometric measures and dementia.
Stewart, Robert; Hardy, Rebecca; Richards, Marcus
Several studies have found that shorter stature (height and limb length) in late life is associated with dementia and cognitive impairment. The extent to which childhood environment and early life cognitive function accounts for these associations is not clear. We investigated associations of adult trunk height and leg length with cognitive function in middle age, analysing data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development: a cohort followed from birth to age 53, 1677 of whom had data on all covariates. The four cognitive tests measured verbal ability, word list memory, verbal fluency and speed/concentration. Early life environmental measures included parental education, poverty, parental divorce, physical health, cognitive ability at age 15, own education and own adult social class. After adjusting for gender, shorter trunk length was associated with lower cognitive function on all four tests and shorter leg length with lower verbal intelligence and word list memory. These associations were only partially attenuated following adjustment for childhood adversity/health but were substantially accounted for by cognitive ability at age 15. Shorter stature was associated with lower cognitive function at age 53, the majority of this association being accounted for by cognitive function at age 15. Reduced cognitive reserve may well account for later associations between anthropometric measures and dementia.
Full-season demographics (pelagic births and deaths, diapause egg production) provide valuable insights into species persistence and dispersal success. The spiny cladoceran (Bythotrephes) possesses morphological adaptations (spines and thick-walled diapause eggs) that lessen impa...
Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer
Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167
Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...
Osler, Merete; Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the consequences of nonresponse in a follow-up survey for the associations of early life factors with adult depression. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A cohort of 11,532 Danish men born in 1953 had nearly complete follow up for outcomes retrieved from the Danish...... characteristics and four measures of depression were described by odd ratios (OR), estimated by logistic regression. For the register-based measures the effect of nonresponse was described by a relative OR(OR(responders)/OR(entire cohort)=ROR). RESULTS: Nonresponse at 50 years of age was related to having...... a single mother at birth, low educational attainment at age 18, and low cognitive function at ages 12 and 18. Hospitalizations for depression and having claimed a prescription for an antidepressive drug were also most frequent among men who did not respond in the follow up. However, the effect...
Claudia Regina Hentges
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, according to the etiologic agent METHOD: This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. Exclusion criteria: death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, congenital infection (STORCH, presence of early-onset spesis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. RESULTS: 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%. VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p = 0.006; the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit.
Hentges, Cláudia Regina; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Filipouski, Gabriela Ribeiro; Fuentefria, Rubia Nascimento; Marquezotti, Fernanda; Terrazan, Ana Carolina
To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW), according to the etiologic agent. This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight<1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU) with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), congenital infection (STORCH), presence of early-onset sepsis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II) at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281 grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%). VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p=0.006); the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary
Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored re...
Full Text Available In this article New Testament passages referring to the birth of Jesus are related to Celsus’ anti-Christian arguments and the Jewish Toledot Yeshu tradition with a new question: Why it was so difficult to speak about the virgin birth of Jesus? It is argued that the concept of the virgin birth of Jesus was seen to be problematic for two reasons: 1 The concept was liable to result in scurrilous rumours, even scoffing and parodic episodes revolving on its sexual aspects. 2 Every attempt to explain that God was in some way the agent when a young girl conceived came too close to Gen. 6:1–4 – the text which explained in ancient Judaism the origin of the demonic world. Therefore, some New Testament authors (for example, the writer of the Gospel of John deliberately avoided speaking about the virgin birth and instead presented the birth of Jesus in terms of the idea of an incarnated, personified, divine Wisdom. In order to avoid erroneous connotations relating to Gen. 6:1–4, Matthew and Luke followed a tradition where the Holy Spirit (a feminine word in Hebrew and Aramaic played an active role in the pregnancy.
Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S
Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives
Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.
Bullough, Robert V., Jr.
In contrast to the wider education literature, rather little is known about the lives of early childhood education (ECE) teachers and the impact of those lives on their practice. Drawing on surveys completed by Head Start assistant and lead teachers, teacher lifelines, and interviews, and through the lens of life-course theory, the author portrays…
Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid
All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.
Yuan, Changzheng; Gaskins, Audrey J; Blaine, Arianna I; Zhang, Cuilin; Gillman, Matthew W; Missmer, Stacey A; Field, Alison E; Chavarro, Jorge E
Cesarean birth has been associated with higher risk of obesity in offspring, but previous studies have focused primarily on childhood obesity and have been hampered by limited control for confounders. To investigate the association between cesarean birth and risk of obesity in offspring. A prospective cohort study was conducted from September 1, 1996, to December 31, 2012, among participants of the Growing Up Today Study, including 22 068 offspring born to 15 271 women, followed up via questionnaire from ages 9 to 14 through ages 20 to 28 years. Data analysis was conducted from October 10, 2015, to June 14, 2016. Birth by cesarean delivery. Risk of obesity based on International Obesity Task Force or World Health Organization body mass index cutoffs, depending on age. Secondary outcomes included risks of obesity associated with changes in mode of delivery and differences in risk between siblings whose modes of birth were discordant. Of the 22 068 offspring (20 950 white; 9359 male and 12 709 female), 4921 individuals (22.3%) were born by cesarean delivery. The cumulative risk of obesity through the end of follow-up was 13% among all participants. The adjusted risk ratio for obesity among offspring delivered via cesarean birth vs those delivered via vaginal birth was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06-1.26; P = .002). This association was stronger among women without known indications for cesarean delivery (adjusted risk ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.54; P = .004). Offspring delivered via vaginal birth among women who had undergone a previous cesarean delivery had a 31% (95% CI, 17%-47%) lower risk of obesity compared with those born to women with repeated cesarean deliveries. In within-family analysis, individuals born by cesarean delivery had 64% (8%-148%) higher odds of obesity than did their siblings born via vaginal delivery. Cesarean birth was associated with offspring obesity after accounting for major confounding factors. Although additional research is
Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873
Dallé, Ernest; Mabandla, Musa V
This review aims to shed light on the relationship that involves exposure to early life stress, depression and Parkinson's disease (PD). A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed, MEDLINE, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar and relevant data were submitted to a meta-analysis . Early life stress may contribute to the development of depression and patients with depression are at risk of developing PD later in life. Depression is a common non-motor symptom preceding motor symptoms in PD. Stimulation of regions contiguous to the substantia nigra as well as dopamine (DA) agonists have been shown to be able to attenuate depression. Therefore, since PD causes depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, depression, rather than being just a simple mood disorder, may be part of the pathophysiological process that leads to PD. It is plausible that the mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways that mediate mood, emotion, and/or cognitive function may also play a key role in depression associated with PD. Here, we propose that a medication designed to address a deficiency in serotonin is more likely to influence motor symptoms of PD associated with depression. This review highlights the effects of an antidepressant, Fluvoxamine maleate, in an animal model that combines depressive-like symptoms and Parkinsonism.
Lambert, Laura; Culley, Fiona J
Early life is a period of particular susceptibility to respiratory infections and symptoms are frequently more severe in infants than in adults. The neonatal immune system is generally held to be deficient in most compartments; responses to innate stimuli are weak, antigen-presenting cells have poor immunostimulatory activity and adaptive lymphocyte responses are limited, leading to poor immune memory and ineffective vaccine responses. For mucosal surfaces such as the lung, which is continuously exposed to airborne antigen and to potential pathogenic invasion, the ability to discriminate between harmless and potentially dangerous antigens is essential, to prevent inflammation that could lead to loss of gaseous exchange and damage to the developing lung tissue. We have only recently begun to define the differences in respiratory immunity in early life and its environmental and developmental influences. The innate immune system may be of relatively greater importance than the adaptive immune system in the neonatal and infant period than later in life, as it does not require specific antigenic experience. A better understanding of what constitutes protective innate immunity in the respiratory tract in this age group and the factors that influence its development should allow us to predict why certain infants are vulnerable to severe respiratory infections, design treatments to accelerate the development of protective immunity, and design age specific adjuvants to better boost immunity to infection in the lung.
Terrin, Gianluca; Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Chiara, Maria; Pietravalle, Andrea; Aleandri, Vincenzo; Conte, Francesca; De Curtis, Mario
Zinc is a key element for growth and development. In this narrative review, we focus on the role of dietary zinc in early life (including embryo, fetus and preterm neonate), analyzing consequences of zinc deficiency and adequacy of current recommendations on dietary zinc. We performed a systematic search of articles on the role of zinc in early life. We selected and analyzed 81 studies. Results of this analysis showed that preservation of zinc balance is of critical importance for the avoidance of possible consequences of low zinc levels on pre- and post-natal life. Insufficient quantities of zinc during embryogenesis may influence the final phenotype of all organs. Maternal zinc restriction during pregnancy influences fetal growth, while adequate zinc supplementation during pregnancy may result in a reduction of the risk of preterm birth. Preterm neonates are at particular risk to develop zinc deficiency due to a combination of different factors: (i) low body stores due to reduced time for placental transfer of zinc; (ii) increased endogenous losses; and (iii) marginal intake. Early diagnosis of zinc deficiency, through the measurement of serum zinc concentrations, may be essential to avoid severe prenatal and postnatal consequences in these patients. Typical clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency are growth impairment and dermatitis. Increasing data suggest that moderate zinc deficiency may have significant subclinical effects, increasing the risk of several complications typical of preterm neonates (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, and retinopathy), and that current recommended intakes should be revised to meet zinc requirements of extremely preterm neonates. Future studies evaluating the adequacy of current recommendations are advocated. PMID:26690476
Derks, Nienke AV; Krugers, Harm J; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Joëls, Marian; Sarabdjitsingh, R.A.
Early life stress shapes brain development and animal behavior. Neurophysiological properties such as signal transmission and synaptic plasticity are thought to underlie the animal's behavioral performance. We carried out a systematic review to determine how early life stress relates to
Schokker, D.J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.L.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Heilig, H.G.H.J.; Smidt, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smits, M.A.
Background - Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timin Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these
Hatch, Stephani L; Mishra, Gita; Hotopf, Matthew; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana
We examined the extent to which perceived life change following experiences of stressful life events, differentiated by type of stressor, influenced mental health during adulthood. The analytic sample of 2073 cohort members was drawn from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a sample followed since their birth in March 1946. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between stressors reported at 36 and 43 years and common mental disorder at 36, 43, and 53 years. Common mental disorder was measured using the Present State Exam at 36 years, the Psychiatric Symptom Frequency at 43 years, and the 28-item General Health Questionnaire at 53 years. Data spanning across nearly 20 years suggest that stressors perceived to have contributed to a notable life change increased the likelihood of scoring above the cut off score for common mental disorder in comparison to stressors experienced without subsequent life change. Models were adjusted for gender, educational attainment, social class, relationship status, and past episodes of common mental disorder. This relationship appears to be most evident for proximal family and economic stressors and distal interpersonal relationship stressors experienced by close friends and relatives. All study information is based on self-reports and details about the nature of the life change or cognitive attribution style were not available. Appraisals of changes following stressful life events may be more important than the occurrence of stressors alone in assessing the impact of stressful life events on adult mental health.
Schagen, S.E.E.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blanchard, R.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
Several sibship-related variables have been studied extensively in sexual orientation research, especially in men. Sibling sex ratio refers to the ratio of brothers to sisters in the aggregate sibships of a group of probands. Birth order refers to the probands' position (e.g., first-born,
Cauble, Jennifer S; Dewi, Mira; Hull, Holly R
In newborns and children, body fat estimation equations are often used at different ages than the age used to develop the equations. Limited validation studies exist for newborn body fat estimation equations at birth or later in infancy. The study purpose was to validate 4 newborn fat mass (FM) estimation equations in comparison to FM measured by air displacement plethysmography (ADP; the Pea Pod) at birth and 3 months. Ninety-five newborns (1-3 days) had their body composition measured by ADP and anthropometrics assessed by skinfolds. Sixty-three infants had repeat measures taken (3 months). FM measured by ADP was compared to FM from the skinfold estimation equations (Deierlein, Catalano, Lingwood, and Aris). Paired t-tests assessed mean differences, linear regression assessed accuracy, precision was assessed by R 2 and standard error of the estimate (SEE), and bias was assessed by Bland-Altman plots. At birth, FM measured by ADP differed from FM estimated by Deierlein, Lingwood and Aris equations, but did not differ from the Catalano equation. At 3 months, FM measured by ADP was different from all equations. At both time points, poor precision and accuracy was detected. Bias was detected in most all equations. Poor agreement, precision, and accuracy were found between prediction equations and the criterion at birth and 3 months.
Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; van Bakel, Hedwig; Koldewijn, Karen; Kok, Joke; van Baar, Anneloes
Objective: For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is
Hye Sun Hyun
Full Text Available A preterm female infant born at 27 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 990 g developed acute hypotonia, apnea, hypotension and bradycardia mimicking septic shock syndrome at 14h after birth. Laboratory tests indicated a severe hypermagnesemia of 45 mg/dL. The renal function, complete blood count and maternal blood concentrations of magnesium were normal, and the blood cultures were negative. The patient recovered with treatment including exchange transfusion. However, the etiology of the severe hypermagnesemia remains unknown.
Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric; VanDevanter, Nancy
Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. Using qualitative data, we illustrated how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting, sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. Five representative cases from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16-24) who participated in a study about the disease-related adaptive challenges they faced are discussed. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with the disease. The findings revealed that these young women's unmet need for love, protection, and feeling valued left them vulnerable to exploitive relationships with men who were often significantly older and resulted in their HIV infection.
Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Heim, Christine
The rapidly growing research field of developmental programming of health and disease risk investigates the early life origins of individual vulnerability for common, complex disorders that confer a major burden of disease. The present article introduces the concept of developmental programming of disease vulnerability and summarizes studies on the mental and physical health consequences of exposure to childhood trauma and prenatal stress. Biological mechanisms that mediate disease risk after early life stress are discussed. The possibility of transgenerational transmission of effects of childhood trauma in exposed women to their children and potential mechanisms of this transmission are also presented. A substantial number of studies show associations between early life stress and risk for mental and somatic diseases in later life. The underlying mechanisms are currently being studied at the molecular and epigenetic level. Potentially, these findings will allow unprecedented opportunities to improve the precision of current clinical diagnostic tools and the success of interventions. However, there is currently a lack of translation of research findings related to developmental programming to clinical applications.
The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.
Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar
in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...... the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...
Bisgaard, H; Bønnelykke, K; Stokholm, Jacob
The non-communicable disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in early life where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system......-gene interaction is a fascinating paradigm that fosters exiting research and promises a breakthrough in the understanding of the mechanisms driving asthma, allergy and eczema, and potentially also other immune-mediated non-communicable diseases....
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing... the test substance is added and to which the test species is exposed. (6) “Early life stage toxicity...
Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.
Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…
Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Monterio, Ivan
Background. Three randomized trials (RCTs) in low-weight (....46–1.54]), but a significant reduction in weeks 2–4 (MRR = 0.56 [0.31–1.00]). This was consistent in all 3 trials. Verbal autopsies linked early benefit to fewer sepsis-related deaths among BCG-vaccinated boys. Discussion. The marked reduction in mortality in the days after BCG vaccination in boys emphasizes the importance...... of providing BCG soon after birth. Trial registration numbers: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00146302) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00625482)....
Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S
Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival
Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.
Starkey, Leighann; Revenson, Tracey A
Many studies link childhood socioeconomic status (SES) to body mass index (BMI), but few account for the impact of socioeconomic mobility throughout the lifespan. This study aims to investigate the impact of socioeconomic mobility on changes in BMI in childhood. Analyses tested whether  socioeconomic status influences BMI,  changes in socioeconomic status impact changes in BMI, and  timing of socioeconomic status mobility impacts BMI. Secondary data spanning birth to age 9 were analyzed. SES and BMI were investigated with gender, birth weight, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal nativity as covariates. Autoregressive structural equation modeling and latent growth modeling were used. Socioeconomic status in the first year of life predicted body mass index. Child covariates were consistently associated with body mass index. Rate of change in socioeconomic status did not predict change in body mass index. The findings suggest that early socioeconomic status may most influence body mass in later childhood.
Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L; Vissing, Nadja
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to cats and dogs has shown diverging associations with childhood asthma risk, and gene-environment interaction is one possible explanation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated interactions between cat and dog exposure and single nucleotide polymorphism rs7216389 variants...... was the number of episodes with pneumonia and bronchiolitis from 0 to 3 years of age. Exposures included cat and dog ownership from birth and cat and dog allergen levels in bedding at age 1 year. Replication was performed in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort with follow-up until 5 years of age. RESULTS: Cat and....../or dog exposure from birth was associated with a lower prevalence of asthma among children with the rs7216389 high-risk TT genotype (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04-0.71; P = .015), with no effect in those with the CC/CT genotype (adjusted P = .283), demonstrating interaction between cat...
Full Text Available More than any other low- and middle-income country, Brazil has the longest research tradition of establishing, maintaining and exploiting birth cohort studies. This research pedigree is highlighted in the present issue of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, which contains a series of twelve papers from the Ribeirão Preto and São Luis birth cohort studies from the Southeast and Northeast of Brazil, respectively. The topics covered in this raft of reports vary and include predictors of perinatal health and maternal risk factors, early life determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence, use of health services, and a description of dietary characteristics of young adults, amongst other topics. There is also a guide to the background, objectives, sampling and protocols employed across these studies, which, together with similar pieces published in past issues of the Brazilian Journal, serve as a very useful starting point, particularly for potential collaborators. In the fervent hope that further follow-up of these cohorts will take place - we provide our own justification for cohort maintenance and extension in this issue - future data collection could include: genetic material, atherosclerosis, ascertained, for instance, by intima-media thickness, and IQ testing in children - scores from which are emerging as potentially important predictors of adult health outcomes up to six decades later.
Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte
BACKGROUND: Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight...... at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966) and 5414 children born in 1985-1986 (NFBC1986). In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors...
Hartmann, A.C.; Marhaver, K.L.; Chamberland, V.F.; Sandin, S.A.; Vermeij, M.J.A.
When juveniles must tolerate harsh environments early in life, the disproportionate success of certain phenotypes across multiple early life stages will dramatically influence adult community composition and dynamics. In many species, large offspring have a higher tolerance for stressful
Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.
The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.
You, Wen-Peng; Henneberg, Maciej
Prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease is increasing worldwide. We aim to test correlation of T1D prevalence to the reduced natural selection measured by Biological State Index (Ibs). Country-speciﬁc estimates of T1D prevalence, life expectancy, obesity prevalence rate, urbanization rates, per capita sugars consumption and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained. Ibs and country-specific longevity (e50) increase for each country were self-calculated. These data were then matched to T1D prevalence by country for our ecological study among 118 countries. Countries were also grouped to study the associations in different regions. SPSS V.22 was used for correlation analysis. Worldwide, both Ibs and life expectancy at birth (Ibs proxy) were significantly correlated to T1D prevalence in Pearson r (r=0.713, pGlobally, both life expectancy at birth and Ibs exponentially correlated to T1D prevalence. Pearson correlations generally existed in different country categorizations by geographic region, culture background and economic status. Reduced natural selection may have contributed to the increasing T1D prevalence worldwide. T1D epidemiology study in total population may be the practical solution to identify the causes of increasing T1D prevalence.
Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin
What is the factor that affects healthy life expectancy? Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth may be influenced by components of the gender inequality index (GII). Notably, this claim is not tested on the between components of the GII, such as population at least secondary education (PLSE) with ages 25 and older, labor force participation rate (LFPR) with ages 15 and older, and the HLE in the world's countries. Thus, this study estimates the associations between the PLSE, LFPR of components of the GII and the HLE. The data for the analysis of HLE in 148 countries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Information regarding the GII indicators for this study was obtained from the United Nations database. Associations between these factors and HLE were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Although significant negative correlations were found between HLE and the LFPR, positive correlations were found between HLE and PLSE. Finally, the HLE predictors were used to form a model of the components of the GII, with higher PLSE as secondary education and lower LFPR as labor force (R(2) = 0.552, P <0.001). Gender inequality of the attainment secondary education and labor force participation seems to have an important latent effect on healthy life expectancy at birth. Therefore, in populations with high HLE, the gender inequalities in HLE are smaller because of a combination of a larger secondary education advantage and a smaller labor force disadvantage in male-females.
Imke E Mulder
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of the intestinal microbiota in early life corresponds with the development of the mucosal immune system. Recent work on caesarean-delivered infants revealed that early microbial composition is influenced by birthing method and environment. Furthermore, we have confirmed that early-life environment strongly influences both the adult gut microbiota and development of the gut immune system. Here, we address the impact of limiting microbial exposure after initial colonization on the development of adult gut immunity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Piglets were born in indoor or outdoor rearing units, allowing natural colonization in the immediate period after birth, prior to transfer to high-health status isolators. Strikingly, gut closure and morphological development were strongly affected by isolator-rearing, independent of indoor or outdoor origins of piglets. Isolator-reared animals showed extensive vacuolation and disorganization of the gut epithelium, inferring that normal gut closure requires maturation factors present in maternal milk. Although morphological maturation and gut closure were delayed in isolator-reared animals, these hard-wired events occurred later in development. Type I IFN, IL-22, IL-23 and Th17 pathways were increased in indoor-isolator compared to outdoor-isolator animals during early life, indicating greater immune activation in pigs originating from indoor environments reflecting differences in the early microbiota. This difference was less apparent later in development due to enhanced immune activation and convergence of the microbiota in all isolator-reared animals. This correlated with elevation of Type I IFN pathways in both groups, although T cell pathways were still more affected in indoor-reared animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Environmental factors, in particular microbial exposure, influence expression of a large number of immune-related genes. However, the homeostatic effects of
Langer, W L
The origins of the birth control movement in England in the 19th cen tury are discussed. The impact of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" and the activities of such thinkers and reformers as Jermy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Francis Plance, Richard Carlile, Robert Dale Owen, and Charles Knowlton are discussed. The social debate that arose during the century is discussed.
Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes
Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555
Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.
Full Text Available Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED, and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior.
Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund; Rozing, Maarten; Brunsgaard, Helle; Meincke, Rikke Hodal; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Lund, Rikke
Evidence suggests that maternal psychological and social stress during the prenatal period and in childhood represent an important condition that may adversely impact the anatomy and physiology of the developing child with implications for a number of health-related conditions and disorders. In a large prospective study, we aim to address if social stressors in the prenatal and early postnatal periods, as individual exposures as well as their accumulation, are associated with a range of inflammatory markers in late middle-aged offspring. The study sample includes Danish men and women born between 1959 and 1961 (n = 1206) who were members of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank in 2009-2011 (age 49-52). Information on social stressors was collected through an interview with the mothers at the first antenatal visit and postnatal stressor data was collected at year one follow-up. A series of ordinary least square regression models were performed with the stress measures as the exposures and C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) separately as the outcomes. The individual prenatal maternal stressors (being unmarried and having an unwanted pregnancy) and the prenatal index were associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6 among offspring but not with IL-10 or TNF-α. Low social status, but not living away from parents or having an unmarried mother in the first year of life, was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6. The accumulation of social stressors in the early postnatal period was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6 but not IL-10 and TNF-α. The accumulation of stressors in the prenatal and postnatal periods combined was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6, but not with IL-10 or TNF-α. The findings suggest that exposure to the accumulation of prenatal and early life stressors, is associated with higher
Spallek, Jacob; Grosser, Angelique; Höller-Holtrichter, Chantal; Doyle, Ina-Merle; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Razum, Oliver
Introduction The heterogeneity among the German population is increasing. Sociodemographic differentials (eg, in education and migrant status) have been associated with health disparities. Life course studies show that a considerable part of these disparities is determined by exposures during pregnancy and early childhood. The BaBi study was established in 2012 to investigate the production of health disparities from foetal life to childhood in the city of Bielefeld, Germany. Methods and anal...
Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Rønning, John A; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz B
Preterm birth has been associated with increased parenting stress in early infancy, and some reports have found this to be a risk factor for later behavioral problems. There are, however, few studies and conflicting results. Information about the fathers is scarce. Our goal was to study the effects of an early-intervention program on parenting stress after a preterm birth until 1 year corrected age. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted including infants with a birth weight effects of a modified version of the Mother-Infant Transaction Program on parenting stress measured by the Parenting Stress Index. A term control group was also recruited. The Parenting Stress Index was administered to the mothers at 6 and 12 months' corrected age and to the fathers at 12 months' corrected age. The intervention consisted of 8 sessions shortly before discharge and 4 home visits by specially trained nurses focusing on the infant's unique characteristics, temperament, and developmental potential and the interaction between the infant and the parents. Seventy-one infants were included in the preterm intervention group, and 69 were included in the preterm control group. The preterm groups were well balanced. Seventy-four infants were included in the term control group. Compared with the preterm controls, both the mothers and fathers in the preterm intervention group reported significant lower scores in child domain, parent domain, and total stress on all occasions except the mother-reported child domain at 12 months. These differences were not related to birth weight or gestational age. The level of stress among the preterm intervention group was comparable to their term peers. Both parents in the intervention group reported consistently lower scores within the distractibility/hyperactivity, reinforces parents, competence, and attachment subscales compared with the preterm control group. There were no differences in mean summary stress scores between the mothers and fathers in
Stolt, S; Korja, R; Matomäki, J; Lapinleimu, H; Haataja, L; Lehtonen, L
It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary
Breast feeding may contribute to neurological development and hence mental health. However, associations from Western populations are unclear, and most likely confounded by socioeconomic position (SEP), making evidence from other sociocultural settings valuable. We examined whether breast feeding was associated with early adolescent emotional and behavioural problems, self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a non-Western developed setting, where socioeconomic patterning of breast feeding differs from but other postnatal characteristics are similar to Western settings. The adjusted associations of breast feeding with emotional and behavioural problems assessed from parent-reported Rutter z-score at ~11 years (n=5598, 67% follow-up), self-reported self-esteem z-score at ~11 years (n=6937, 84%) and depressive symptoms assessed from self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 z-score at ~13 years (n=5797, 70%) were examined using multivariable linear regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort, 'Children of 1997'. Mothers from families with higher education tended to start but not sustain breast feeding, whereas migrant mothers tended to start and sustain breast feeding. Breast feeding for 3+ months had mostly null associations with Rutter score, self-esteem or depressive symptoms adjusted for sex, age, survey mode, SEP, parents' age, birth weight-for-gestational age, birth order and secondhand smoke exposure, although partial breast feeding for any length of time or exclusive breast feeding for self-esteem (-0.09, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04). In a non-Western developed setting, breast feeding was inconsistently associated with several early adolescent mental health measures suggesting a reflection of setting specific unmeasured confounding.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.
Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.
de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline
Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.
Xu, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhenmei; Li, Lydia; Liu, Jinyu
Existing studies of the 1944-45 Dutch famine found little evidence of the association between early life malnutrition and midlife cognition. Among 2446 rural participants born between 1958 and 1963 in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, we examined effects of exposure to China's 1959-61 Great Leap Forward famine during prenatal and early postnatal life, on four cognitive measures in 2011 (baseline) and changes in cognition between 2011 and 2013 (first follow-up). We obtained difference-in-differences (DID) estimates of the famine effects by exploiting temporal variation in the timing and duration of famine exposure across six birth cohorts born between 1958 and 1963, together with geographical variation in famine severity at the prefecture level. After adjusting for gender, marital status and provincial fixed effects, we found that the 1961 cohort who experienced full-term prenatal and partial-term postnatal exposures to famine had lower scores on the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS), a test of drawing pentagons, and general cognition at age 50 years compared with the unexposed 1963 cohort. Adjusting for education, the famine effects on drawing pentagons and general cognition were fully attenuated, but the effect on TICS persisted. We also found a robust negative famine effect on the longitudinal change in general cognition during the 2-year follow-up in the 1959 cohort. Severe nutritional deprivation during prenatal and postnatal periods has a lasting impact on cognitive performance in Chinese adults in their early 50s. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
Cauley, K A; Hu, Y; Och, J; Yorks, P J; Fielden, S W
The majority of brain growth and development occur in the first 2 years of life. This study investigated these changes by analysis of the brain radiodensity histogram of head CT scans from the clinical population, 0-2 years of age. One hundred twenty consecutive head CTs with normal findings meeting the inclusion criteria from children from birth to 2 years were retrospectively identified from 3 different CT scan platforms. Histogram analysis was performed on brain-extracted images, and histogram mean, mode, full width at half maximum, skewness, kurtosis, and SD were correlated with subject age. The effects of scan platform were investigated. Normative curves were fitted by polynomial regression analysis. Average total brain volume was 360 cm 3 at birth, 948 cm 3 at 1 year, and 1072 cm 3 at 2 years. Total brain tissue density showed an 11% increase in mean density at 1 year and 19% at 2 years. Brain radiodensity histogram skewness was positive at birth, declining logarithmically in the first 200 days of life. The histogram kurtosis also decreased in the first 200 days to approach a normal distribution. Direct segmentation of CT images showed that changes in brain radiodensity histogram skewness correlated with, and can be explained by, a relative increase in gray matter volume and an increase in gray and white matter tissue density that occurs during this period of brain maturation. Normative metrics of the brain radiodensity histogram derived from routine clinical head CT images can be used to develop a model of normal brain development. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.
The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants
Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.
Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard
Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the presence of an early life disease activity prior to clinical symptoms to understand the anteceding pathophysiological steps towards childhood asthma and allergy. The thesis is built on seven studies from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000) birth cohort examining biomarkers of disease activity in 411 asymptomatic neonates in cord blood (I-II), urine (III), exhaled breath (IV-V) and infant lung function (VI-VII) in relation to the subsequent development of asthma and allergy during the first seven years of life. In papers I-II, we studied cord blood chemokines and 25(OH)-vitamin D, which represent a proxy of the inborn immature immune system, the intrauterine milieu, and the maternal immune health during pregnancy. High levels of the Th2-related chemokine CCL22 and high CCL22/CXCL11 ratio were positively correlated with total IgE level during preschool age (II). This suggests an inborn Th2 skewing of the immune system in healthy newborns subsequently developing elevated total IgE antibodies, which is considered to increase the risk of asthma and allergies later in life. Additionally, deficient cord blood 25(OH)-vitamin D levels were associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of recurrent wheeze at age 0-7 years (I). Together, these findings support the concept that early life immune programming in the pre-symptomatic era plays an essential role
Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per
Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...
Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.
Shawon, Md Shajedur Rahman; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei
Body size in early life is inversely associated with adult breast cancer (BC) risk, but it is unclear whether the associations differ by tumor characteristics. In a pooled analysis of two Swedish population-based studies consisting of 6731 invasive BC cases and 28,705 age-matched cancer-free controls, we examined the associations between body size in early life and BC risk. Self-reported body sizes at ages 7 and 18 years were collected by a validated nine-level pictogram (aggregated into three categories: small, medium and large). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models in case-control analyses, adjusting for study, age at diagnosis, age at menarche, number of children, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of BC. Body size change between ages 7 and 18 were also examined in relation to BC risk. Case-only analyses were performed to test whether the associations differed by tumor characteristics. Medium or large body size at age 7 and 18 was associated with a statistically significant decreased BC risk compared to small body size (pooled OR (95% CI): comparing large to small, 0.78 (0.70-0.86), P trend <0.001 and 0.72 (0.64-0.80), P trend <0.001, respectively). The majority of the women (~85%) did not change body size categories between age 7 and 18 . Women who remained medium or large between ages 7 and 18 had significantly decreased BC risk compared to those who remained small. A reduction in body size between ages 7 and 18 was also found to be inversely associated with BC risk (0.90 (0.81-1.00)). No significant association was found between body size at age 7 and tumor characteristics. Body size at age 18 was found to be inversely associated with tumor size (P trend = 0.006), but not estrogen receptor status and lymph node involvement. For all analyses, the overall inferences did not change appreciably after further adjustment for adult body mass index. Our data
Un Lam, Carolina; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen; Yee, Robert; Koh, David; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Cai, Meijin; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith; Gluckman, Peter; Chong, Yap Seng
Early eruption of permanent teeth has been associated with childhood obesity and diabetes mellitus, suggesting links between tooth eruption and metabolic conditions. This longitudinal study aimed to identify pre-, peri- and postnatal factors with metabolic consequences during infancy that may affect the eruption timing of the first primary tooth (ETFT) in children from an ethnically heterogeneous population residing within the same community. Participants were recruited (n = 1033) through the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) birth cohort (n = 1237). Oral examinations were performed at 3-month intervals from 6 to 18 months of age. Crude and adjusted analyses, with generalized linear modelling, were conducted to link ETFT to potential determinants occurring during pregnancy, delivery/birth and early infancy. Overall mean eruption age of the first primary tooth was 8.5 (SD 2.6) months. Earlier tooth eruption was significantly associated with infant's rate of weight gain during the first 3 months of life and increased maternal childbearing age. Compared to their Chinese counterparts, Malay and Indian children experienced significantly delayed tooth eruption by 1.2 and 1.7 months, respectively. Infant weight gain from birth to 3 months, ethnicity and maternal childbearing age were significant determinants of first tooth eruption timing. Early life influences can affect primary tooth development, possibly via metabolic pathways. Timing of tooth eruption is linked to general growth and metabolic function. Therefore, it has potential in forecasting oral and systemic conditions such as caries and obesity.
Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil
Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...
de Vries, Else E; Verlinden, Marina; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Arseneault, Louise; Tiemeier, Henning
Family adversity has been associated with children's bullying behaviors. The evidence is, however, dominated by mothers' perceptions of the family environment and a focus on mothers' behaviors. This prospective population-based study examined whether children's bullying behaviors were associated with mother- and father-reported family adversity, assessed before and after child birth. Peer-nominations were used to assess bullying behaviors of 1298 children in elementary school (mean age 7.5 years). The following paternal risk factors were prospectively associated with children's bullying behaviors: (1) father-reported prenatal family distress, (2) fathers' hostility at preschool age, and (3) fathers' harsh disciplinary practices at preschool age, but effect sizes were relatively small. The effect of maternal risk factors was less consistent, only mother-reported family distress in childhood was associated with children's bullying behaviors. The associations were independent of background family risk factors (i.e., life stress, contextual factors, and other background factors such as parental education and risk taking record) and early childhood externalizing problems. Moreover, our results indicated that father-reported family adversity predicted children's bullying behaviors over and above the background family risk factors, early childhood externalizing problems and mother-reported family adversity. We also demonstrated that the association of fathers' prenatal hostility and family distress with subsequent bullying behavior of their child at school was partly mediated by fathers' harsh disciplinary practices at preschool age. Our findings highlight the importance of fathers' behaviors in the development of children's bullying behaviors.
Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze indicators of physical and mental health components in quality of life of students according to gender and place of birth. Material : the study involved 513 students aged 17 - 22 years old. Depending on the place of birth of the students were grouped into 5 groups: residents of large cities, small cities, towns, and villages; sat. Results : the highest rate of physical activity in girls (91.75 points and men (94.9 points of the major cities. The lowest rates are indicator role activities (47.86 points girls from small towns, vitality index (57.25 points in men hail from towns. The correlation coefficients between the indicators of quality of life of students: high rates of mental health component in comparison with the physical component. Conclusions : it was found that students regardless of sex, physical health component above the psychological component. Gender difference between physical health component is greater among residents of the town. In terms of mental health component of the residents of small towns.
Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J
The co-morbidity of motor coordination and mental health problems is an increasing concern. While links between poor motor coordination and mental health have been examined extensively in individuals born at normal birth weight (NBW; >2500g), relatively little research has examined these associations in special populations, particularly those born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; motor coordination problems and levels of mental health problems from childhood into the fourth decade of life. The present study utilized the oldest known prospectively followed, population-based cohort of ELBW survivors (n=151). This group was born between 1977 and 1982 in Ontario, Canada and was compared to a matched group of NBW controls (n=145). Mental health problems were measured at age 8 using parent and teacher reports, and at age 22-26 and 29-36 using self-reports. Childhood motor coordination was retrospectively reported at age 29-36. In both ELBW and NBW groups, childhood coordination problems were associated with elevated levels of inattention and symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, we observed stronger associations between childhood motor coordination problems and mental health problems in NBW controls at 22-26 and 29-36 years of age than in ELBW survivors. Our findings highlight the importance of recognizing and screening for motor coordination problems not only in vulnerable, at-risk children, but in all children, as motor difficulties appear to be associated with mental health problems well into adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greenley, Rachel Neff; Taylor, H Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Minich, Nori M
To examine longitudinal relations between early adolescent family conflict and late adolescent psychosocial adjustment, and the moderating role of low birth weight. Three groups of adolescents (48 with birth weight parents completed ratings of family conflict at age 11 (Time 1). Parent, teacher, and youth reports of psychosocial functioning were obtained at ages 11 and 17 (Time 2). Birth weight moderated the relationship between Time 1 adolescent-perceived conflict and change in adolescent behavioral functioning. For adolescents with histories of conflict predicted less adaptive changes in teacher-reported total behavior problems and externalizing problems. Small disruptions to the parent-child relationship have negative implications for the later well-being of adolescents with extreme levels of low birth weight. Clinical attention to resolving early adolescent conflict may promote adaptive adjustment.
Brumberg, H L; Shah, S I
Poverty is associated with adverse long-term cognitive outcomes in children. Poverty is also linked with preterm delivery which, in turn, is associated with adverse cognitive outcomes. However, the extent of the effect of poverty on preterm delivery, as well as proposed mechanisms by which they occur, have not been well described. Further, the impact of poverty on preterm school readiness has not been reviewed. As the childhood poverty level continues to increase in the U.S., we examine the evidence around physiological, neurological, cognitive and learning outcomes associated with prematurity in the context of poverty. We use the evidence gathered to suggest an Eco-Bio-Developmental model, emphasizing poverty as a toxic stress which predisposes preterm birth and which, via epigenetic forces, can continue into the next generation. Continued postnatal social disadvantage for these developmentally high-risk preterm infants is strongly linked with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, decreased school readiness, and decreased educational attainment which can perpetuate the poverty cycle. We suggest social remedies aimed at decreasing the impact of poverty on mothers, fathers, and children which may be effective in reducing the burden of preterm birth.
Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.
The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors
O'Brien, Rourke L; Robertson, Cassandra L
New data reveal significant variation in economic mobility outcomes across U.S. localities. This suggests that social structures, institutions, and public policies-particularly those that influence critical early-life environments-play an important role in shaping mobility processes. Using new county-level estimates of intergenerational economic mobility for children born between 1980 and 1986, we exploit the uneven expansions of Medicaid eligibility across states to isolate the causal effect of this specific policy change on mobility outcomes. Instrumental-variable regression models reveal that increasing the proportion of low-income pregnant women eligible for Medicaid improved the mobility outcomes of their children in adulthood. We find no evidence that Medicaid coverage in later childhood years influences mobility outcomes. This study has implications for the normative evaluation of this policy intervention as well as our understanding of mobility processes in an era of rising inequality.
Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that maternal psychological and social stress during the prenatal period and in childhood represent an important condition that may adversely impact the anatomy and physiology of the developing child with implications for a number of health-related conditions...... and postnatal stressor data was collected at year one follow-up. A series of ordinary least square regression models were performed with the stress measures as the exposures and C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) separately as the outcomes...... in the first year of life, was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6. The accumulation of social stressors in the early postnatal period was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6 but not IL-10 and TNF-α. The accumulation of stressors in the prenatal and postnatal periods combined was associated...
Il Rak Choi
Full Text Available <B>Purpose:</B> This study aimed to assess early development in very low birth weight (VLBW infants with mild intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH or those without IVH and to identify the perinatal morbidities affecting early neurodevelopmental outcome. <B>Methods:</B> Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II was used for assessing neurological development in 49 infants with a birth weight <1,500 g and with low grade IVH (?#167;rade II or those without IVH at a corrected age of 12 months. <B>Results:</B> Among the 49 infants, 19 infants (38.8% showed normal development and 14 (28.6% showed abnormal mental and psychomotor development. Infants with abnormal mental development (n=14 were mostly male and had a longer hospitalization, a higher prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, and were under more frequent postnatal systemic steroid treatment compared with infants with normal mental development (n=35, P<0.05. Infants with abnormal psychomotor development (n=29 had a longer hospitalization and more associated PDA compared to infants with normal psychomotor development (n=20, P<0.05. Infants with abnormal mental and psychomotor development were mostly male and had a longer hospitalization and a higher prevalence of PDA and BPD compared to infants with normal mental and psychomotor development (n=19, P<0.05. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, a longer duration of hospitalization and male gender were found to be significant risk factors. <B>Conclusion:</B> Approximately 62% of VLBW infants with low grade IVH or those without IVH had impaired early development.
Neeland, Melanie R; Koplin, Jennifer J; Dang, Thanh D; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L; Prescott, Susan L; Saffery, Richard; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J
Food allergy naturally resolves in a proportion of food-allergic children without intervention; however the underlying mechanisms governing the persistence or resolution of food allergy in childhood are not understood. This study aimed to define the innate immune profiles associated with egg allergy at age 1 year, determine the phenotypic changes that occur with the development of natural tolerance in childhood, and explore the relationship between early life innate immune function and serum vitamin D. This study used longitudinally collected PBMC samples from a population-based cohort of challenge-confirmed egg-allergic infants with either persistent or transient egg allergy outcomes in childhood to phenotype and quantify the functional innate immune response associated with clinical phenotypes of egg allergy. We show that infants with persistent egg allergy exhibit a unique innate immune signature, characterized by increased numbers of circulating monocytes and dendritic cells that produce more inflammatory cytokines both at baseline and following endotoxin exposure when compared with infants with transient egg allergy. Follow-up analysis revealed that this unique innate immune signature continues into childhood in those with persistent egg allergy and that increased serum vitamin D levels correlate with changes in innate immune profiles observed in children who developed natural tolerance to egg. Early life innate immune dysfunction may represent a key immunological driver and predictor of persistent food allergy in childhood. Serum vitamin D may play an immune-modulatory role in the development of natural tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling
Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507
Tagliaferro, T; Bateman, D; Ruzal-Shapiro, C; Polin, R A
To determine whether early radiologic evidence of severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is predictive of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) failure in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants during the first 72 h of age. Retrospective analysis of 235 consecutively inborn ELBW infants who received initial support with CPAP. CPAP success (n=151) and CPAP failure (n=84) groups were designated according to outcome within the first 72 h of age. We assessed the ability of radiologic evidence of severe RDS in the initial chest radiograph, alone and in combination with other variables available in the first hours of life, to predict CPAP failure. Severe RDS had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64, 0.92) for CPAP failure. The combination of severe RDS and gestational age (GA) ⩽ 26 weeks had a PPV of 0.92 (95% CI 0.68, 0.96). Early radiologic evidence of severe RDS is predictive of CPAP failure, especially in infants with GA ⩽ 26 weeks.
Full Text Available Our aim is to explore (1 whether gestational medication use, mode of delivery, and early postnatal exposure correlate with childhood asthma, (2 the dose responsiveness of such exposure, and (3 their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a matched case-control study based on the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide survey that recruited 12-to-14-year-old school children in 14 communities. 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone. Exclusive breastfeeding protected children from asthma. Notably, childhood asthma was significantly associated with maternal medication use during pregnancy, vacuum use during vaginal delivery, recurrent respiratory tract infections, hospitalization, main caregiver cared for other children, and early daycare attendance. Exposure to these factors led to dose responsiveness in relationships to asthma. Most of the exposures revealed a greater impact on early-onset asthma, except for vacuum use and daycare attendance.
Reynolds, Clare M.; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.
The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:26402696
Monteverde, D R; Gómez-Consarnau, L; Suffridge, C; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S A
Coenzymes are essential across all domains of life. B vitamins (B 1 -thiamin, B 2 -riboflavin, B 3 -niacin, B 5 -pantothenate, B 6 -pyridoxine, B 7 -biotin, and B 12 -cobalamin) represent the largest class of coenzymes, which participate in a diverse set of reactions including C 1 -rearrangements, DNA repair, electron transfer, and fatty acid synthesis. B vitamin structures range from simple to complex heterocycles, yet, despite this complexity, multiple lines of evidence exist for their ancient origins including abiotic synthesis under putative early Earth conditions and/or meteorite transport. Thus, some of these critical coenzymes likely preceded life on Earth. Some modern organisms can synthesize their own B vitamins de novo while others must either scavenge them from the environment or establish a symbiotic relationship with a B vitamin producer. B vitamin requirements are widespread in some of the most ancient metabolisms including all six carbon fixation pathways, sulfate reduction, sulfur disproportionation, methanogenesis, acetogenesis, and photosynthesis. Understanding modern metabolic B vitamin requirements is critical for understanding the evolutionary conditions of ancient metabolisms as well as the biogeochemical cycling of critical elements such as S, C, and O. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O'Connell, Brennan; McDougall, Kristin; Homan, Mindy B.
The Colorado River in the southwestern U.S. provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the origins of a continent-scale river system, because deposits that formed prior to and during river initiation are well exposed in the lower river valley and nearby basinal sink. This paper presents a synthesis of regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and micropaleontology from the southern Bouse Formation and similar-age deposits in the western Salton Trough, which we use to interpret processes that controlled the birth and early evolution of the Colorado River. The southern Bouse Formation is divided into three laterally persistent members: basal carbonate, siliciclastic, and upper bioclastic members. Basal carbonate accumulated in a tide-dominated marine embayment during a rise of relative sea level between 6.3 and 5.4 Ma, prior to arrival of the Colorado River. The transition to green claystone records initial rapid influx of river water and its distal clay wash load into the subtidal marine embayment at 5.4-5.3 Ma. This was followed by rapid southward progradation of the Colorado River delta, establishment of the earliest through-flowing river, and deposition of river-derived turbidites in the western Salton Trough (Wind Caves paleocanyon) between 5.3 and 5.1 Ma. Early delta progradation was followed by regional shut-down of river sand output between 5.1 and 4.8 Ma that resulted in deposition of marine clay in the Salton Trough, retreat of the delta, and re-flooding of the lower river valley by shallow marine water that deposited the Bouse upper bioclastic member. Resumption of sediment discharge at 4.8 Ma drove massive progradation of fluvial-deltaic deposits back down the river valley into the northern Gulf and Salton Trough. These results provide evidence for a discontinuous, start-stop-start history of sand output during initiation of the Colorado River that is not predicted by existing models for this system. The underlying controls on punctuated sediment
After birth, the newborn must adapt to the acute challenges of circulatory changes, active respiration, thermoregulation, microbial colonization, and enteral nutrition. Whereas these processes normally occur without clinical complications in neonates born at term, birth at a preterm state...... of gestation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In commercial pig production, perinatal mortality is higher than in any other mammalian species. Asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, sepsis, and gut dysmotility, represent some of the most common findings. The intestine is a particularly sensitive...
Maree, Jacobus G.
The article discusses the changing world of work and the attendant uncertainty and loss of work-life identity. Little research has been done on career development and life design in the early years of a person's life, especially in developing countries characterized by disadvantage. The underlying theoretical models of career development are…
K. Miliku (Kozeta)
textabstractIn this thesis, we examined early life determinants of growth and childhood kidney function.Adverse environmental exposures during early life may lead to fetal growth adaptations and influence on the development of chronic kidney disease in later life,as indicated by many lines of
Early-life is a critical developmental phase during which brain structure and function are shaped 'for life'. When early-life is disturbed by stress-exposure, this lastingly programs our brains and is associated with impaired cognition and predisposition to psychopathology in adulthood.
Barboza Solís, Cristina; Fantin, Romain; Castagné, Raphaële; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle
Understanding how human environments affect our health by "getting under the skin" and penetrating the cells, organs and physiological systems of our bodies is a key tenet in public health research. Here, we examine the idea that early life socioeconomic position (SEP) can be biologically embodied, potentially leading to the production of health inequalities across population groups. Allostatic load (AL), a composite measure of overall physiological wear-and-tear, could allow for a better understanding of the potential biological pathways playing a role in the construction of the social gradient in adult health. We investigate the factors mediating the link between two components of parental SEP, maternal education (ME) and parental occupation (PO), and AL at 44 years. Data was used from 7573 members of the 1958 British birth cohort follow-up to age 44. AL was constructed using 14 biomarkers representing four physiological systems. We assessed the contribution of financial/materialist, psychological/psychosocial, educational, and health behaviors/BMI pathways over the life course, in mediating the associations between ME, PO and AL. ME and PO were mediated by three pathways: educational, material/financial, and health behaviors, for both men and women. A better understanding of embodiment processes leading to disease development may contribute to developing adapted public policies aiming to reduce health inequalities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dr. David M le Roux, MBChB; Landon Myer, PhD; Mark P Nicol, PhD; Heather J Zar, PhD
Background: Childhood pneumonia causes substantial mortality and morbidity. Accurate measurements of pneumonia incidence are scarce in low-income and middle-income countries, particularly after implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. We aimed to assess the incidence, severity, and risk factors for pneumonia in the first year of life in children enrolled in a South African birth cohort. Methods: This birth cohort study is being done at two sites in Paarl, a periurban area of South...
Smarr, Benjamin L; Grant, Azure D; Perez, Luz; Zucker, Irving; Kriegsfeld, Lance J
Modern life involves chronic circadian disruption through artificial light and these disruptions are associated with numerous mental and physical health maladies. Because the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to perturbation, we hypothesized that early-life circadian disruption would negatively impact offspring development and adult function. Pregnant mice were subjected to chronic circadian disruption from the time of uterine implantation through weaning. To dissociate in utero from postnatal effects, a subset of litters was cross-fostered at birth from disrupted dams to control dams and vice versa. Postnatal circadian disruption was associated with reduced adult body mass, social avoidance, and hyperactivity. In utero disruption resulted in more pronounced social avoidance and hyperactivity, phenotypes not abrogated by cross-fostering to control mothers. To examine whether circadian disruption affects development by acting as an early life stressor, we examined birthweight, litter size, maternal cannibalism, and epigenetic modifications. None of these variables differed between control and disrupted dams, or resembled patterns seen following early-life stress. Our findings indicate that developmental chronic circadian disruption permanently affects somatic and behavioral development in a stage-of-life-dependent manner, independent of early life stress mechanisms, underscoring the importance of temporal structure during development, both in utero and early postnatal life.
Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Majewska, Renata; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka
The controversial topic of the early exposure to mercury is regarding ethylmercury, which is present in the thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the early exposure to TCVs and cognitive development in children during the first 9 years of life. The cohort included 318 children vaccinated in an early period (neonatal and up to 6 months) against hepatitis B and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) using formulation with or without thimerosal. The children's development was assessed using the Fagan test (6th month of life), the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)-II (12th-36th month), the Raven test (5th, 8th year), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) (6th, 7th, 9th year). Results were determined by multivariable linear and logistic regression, adjusted to potential confounders. Children exposed and not exposed to TCVs in the neonatal period had similar outcomes of cognitive-developmental tests; only the results of BSID-II at the 36th month and WISC-R at the 9th year were significantly higher for those exposed to TCVs. Developmental test results in children exposed to TCVs up to the 6th month of life also did not depend on thimerosal dose. TCV administration in early infancy did not affect children's cognitive development.
Full Text Available Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II.The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8% had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36 between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08. Those men separated in school age (>7 years and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20 and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05, respectively. Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06. These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women.Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.
Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G
Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20) and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia
; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...
Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else
MUCH OF THE research on life-course determinants of later life health has focused on cumulated effects of socioeconomic disadvantage (Ben-Shlomoand Kuh 2002; Luo and Waite 2005). Family life courses also involve differential exposures to stresses and supports and interact with other health relevant...... domains including socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and social support (Barban 2013; Grundy and Read 2015). The transition to parenthood is a pivotal life-course event whose timing and context may have implications for subsequent family and socioeconomic trajectories and for health (Knoester...... health. For women, pregnancy, parturition, and lactation present physiological challenges that may be greater for young mothers (Pirkle et al. 2014). Young mothers and fathers may also be less resilient in the face of the physical, emotional, and economic stresses involved in raising children and have...
Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit
The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hulzebos, Christian V; Bos, Arend F; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J
To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the first 10 days were evaluated retrospectively. ELBW infants had participated in a randomized controlled trial of early DXM treatment which aimed to assess effects on chronic lung disease. Infants had been treated with DXM (0.25 mg/kg twice daily at postnatal day 1 and 2) or with placebo (normal saline). Analysis was performed on an intention to treat basis. Twenty-five Infants had been randomized into the DXM group; 29 into the placebo group. Mean (±SD) TSB [120 (±19) μmol/L vs. 123 (±28) μmol/L, DXM versus placebo, respectively] and maximum TSB [178 (±23) μmol/L vs. 176 (±48), DXM versus placebo, respectively] concentrations were similar. TSB concentrations peaked 30 h earlier in the DXM group (p ≤ 0.05). The need for PT as well as the duration of PT was similar in both groups. Early DXM treatment does not affect the severity of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in ELBW preterm infants. Our results seem compatible with the concept that factors other than bilirubin conjugation capacity are important for the pathophysiology of neonatal jaundice in ELBW preterm infants. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Møller, Steen Henrik; Pinkalski, Mariann Nakano
The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment.......014). Likewise, the dam calls increased on the separation day, peaking on the first day after separation (D1). The proportion of dams with calls decreased with litter age at separation (P=0.024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after delivery...
Jokela, Markus; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J; Gale, Catharine R; Kivimäki, Mika
To examine whether the association between childhood IQ and later mortality risk was explained by early developmental advantages or mediated by adult sociodemographic factors and health behaviors. Participants were 10 620 men and women from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study whose IQ was assessed at the age of 11 years and who were followed up to age 46. Childhood covariates included birth weight, childhood height at 11 years of age, problem behaviors, father's occupational class, parents' interest in child's education, family size, and family difficulties. Adult risk factors were assessed at ages 23, 33, and 42 years, and they included education, occupational class, marital status, smoking, BMI, alcohol use, and psychosomatic symptoms. Between ages 23 and 46 years, 192 participants died. Higher childhood IQ was related to lower mortality risk (standardized odds ratio [OR]: 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.93]) with no gender differences (OR: 0.81 [95% CI: 0.67-0.98] [men] and 0.79 [95% CI: 0.63-0.98] [women]). Adjusting for parents' interest in child's education attenuated the IQ-mortality association by 15% to 20%, and adult education and psychosomatic symptoms both attenuated the association by 25%. Other covariates were less influential. In a cohort of British men and women, the most important explanatory factors for the lower mortality rate among individuals with high IQ were parental interest in child's education, high adult educational level, and low prevalence of psychosomatic symptoms. However, common sociodemographic risk factors and health behaviors may not be sufficient to explain the association between IQ and early mortality completely.
Hayward, Adam D; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi
The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Megan A Carter
Full Text Available To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors.Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors.FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors.In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.
Amberbir, A; Medhin, G; Abegaz, W E; Hanlon, C; Robinson, K; Fogarty, A; Britton, J; Venn, A; Davey, G
An inverse relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and allergic disease has been reported by a range of independent epidemiological studies, but evidence from longitudinal studies is scarce. We have investigated the effects of H. pylori infection on the incidence and prevalence of allergic diseases and sensitization in a low-income birth cohort. In 2005/2006, a population-based birth cohort was established in Butajira, Ethiopia, and the 1006 singleton babies born were followed up at ages 1, 3, and 5. Symptoms of allergic disease were collected using the ISAAC questionnaire, allergen skin tests performed, and stool samples analysed for H. pylori antigen and geohelminths. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the independent effects of H. pylori measured at age 3 on the incidence of each outcome between ages 3 and 5 years (in those without the outcome at age 3), controlling for potential confounders, and to additionally assess cross-sectional associations. A total of 863 children were followed up to age 5. H. pylori infection was found in 25% of the children at both ages 3 and 5, in 21% at age 5 but not 3, and in 17% at age 3 but not at age 5. H. pylori infection at age 3 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of incident eczema between ages 3 and 5 (adjusted OR, 95% CI, 0.31; 0.10-0.94, P = 0.02). Cross-sectionally at age 5, H. pylori infection was inversely associated with skin sensitization (adjusted OR, 95% CI, 0.26; 0.07-0.92, P = 0.02). These findings provide further evidence to suggest that early-life exposure to H. pylori may play a protective role in the development of allergy. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Slaughter, Laurel A; Bonfante-Mejia, Eliana; Hintz, Susan R; Dvorchik, Igor; Parikh, Nehal A
Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤1,000 g) infants are at high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Conventional brain MRI at term-equivalent age is increasingly used for prediction of outcomes. However, optimal prediction models remain to be determined, especially for cognitive outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of a data-driven MRI scoring system to predict neurodevelopmental impairments. 122 ELBW infants had a brain MRI performed at term-equivalent age. Conventional MRI findings were scored with a standardized algorithm and tested using a multivariable regression model to predict neurodevelopmental impairment, defined as one or more of the following at 18-24 months' corrected age: cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, bilateral deafness requiring amplification, and/or cognitive/language delay. Results were compared with a commonly cited scoring system. In multivariable analyses, only moderate-to-severe gyral maturational delay was a significant predictor of overall neurodevelopmental impairment (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 2.6, 62.0; p cognitive delay, cognitive delay/death, and neurodevelopmental impairment/death. Diffuse cystic abnormality was a significant predictor of cerebral palsy (OR: 33.6, 95% CI: 4.9, 229.7; p impairment. In our cohort, conventional MRI at term-equivalent age exhibited high specificity in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, sensitivity was suboptimal, suggesting additional clinical factors and biomarkers are needed to enable accurate prognostication. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Namaky, Devin; Herzberg, Jessica; Dehoop, Thomas; Jones, Emily; Wedig, Kathy; Marcotte, Michael
This study was undertaken to determine factors that affect depression after delivery of infants at the limits of viability. We hypothesized that expectantly managed mothers would have lower risk of depression several years after delivery. Charts were reviewed for deliveries in the calendar years 2003 through 2005 with a diagnosis of preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes or cervical insufficiency admitted at a gestation between 20 and 25(6/7) weeks. Surveys were sent that included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and questions regarding care around the time of delivery. A total of 176 patients met inclusion criteria. Of those, 36 consented and returned surveys. Of patients who were expectantly managed, none (0%) screened positive for depression, while 11 (38%) patients who were not expectantly management screened positive (p=0.08). Between 36 and 72 returned surveys would be needed for this to be significant, using phospitalization was traumatic, 78% would still attempt to delay birth, 97% would accept tocolysis, 89% agreed their child functioned similar to other children, and 77% were happy with how physicians handled their care. Expectant management may be associated with lower risk of depression. Larger studies evaluating psychosocial effects of interventions are justified.
Winter, Alix S; Sampson, Robert J
To assess the relationships between childhood lead exposure and 3 domains of later adolescent health: mental, physical, and behavioral. We followed a random sample of birth cohort members from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, recruited in 1995 to 1997, to age 17 years and matched to childhood blood test results from the Department of Public Health. We used ordinary least squares regression, coarsened exact matching, and instrumental variables to assess the relationship between average blood lead levels in childhood and impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index in adolescence. All models adjusted for relevant individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics. After adjustment, a 1 microgram per deciliter increase in average childhood blood lead level significantly predicts 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01, 0.12) and 0.09 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.16) SD increases and a 0.37 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.64) point increase in adolescent impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index, respectively, following ordinary least squares regression. Results following matching and instrumental variable strategies are very similar. Childhood lead exposure undermines adolescent well-being, with implications for the persistence of racial and class inequalities, considering structural patterns of initial exposure.
Bérces, A.; Kovács, G.; Lammer, H.; Kolb, Ch.; Rontó, Gy.
Studies of the solar UV environment on Earth 2 0 Gyr to 3 8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B 280 nm - 315 nm and the UV-C 200 nm - 280 nm ranges Since short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B and UV-C range penetrated through the atmosphere to the unprotected early Earth s surface associated biological consequences may be expected We discuss experimental data obtained as follows Radiation sources applied were low pressure Mercury lamp and Xenon 2 kW lamp the wavelength were adjusted by interference filters 200BP10 210BP10 220BP10 230BP10 240BP10 250BP10 260BP10 270BP10 280BP10 290BP10 300BP10 310BP10 320BP10 and the irradiances were measured by OL754 spectroradiometer The photo-reverse effect depends highly on the wavelength of the exposed radiation Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerization while the longer wavelengths prefer the dimerisation In case of polychromatic light like in space or on a planetary surface which is unprotected by an ozone layer the two processes run parallel We could demonstrate experimentally for the case of a uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both dimerization and the reverse process monomerization These results are important for the study of solar UV effects on organisms in the early terrestrial environment as well as for the search for life on Mars since we can show that biological
Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou
with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four...... children with low birth weight (overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). When adjusting for quantity of smoking during...... pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09-1.50) compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight...
Cho, Sang Yeun; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Hyun Ju
To determine the efficacy and safety of early supplementation with 800 IU of vitamin D in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Sixty-six infants with a birth weight less than 1500 g admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Of these, 52 infants were eligible and received 800 IU/day vitamin D from 2 weeks of age. We examined 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25[OH]D) levels from cord blood at birth and serum at 32 and 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. The study infants were divided by cord-blood levels of 25(OH)D at birth into 25(OH)D concentrations birth. Considering the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation in this study, vitamin D intake of 800 IU/day may enhance vitamin D status during early hospitalization in VLBW infants with 25 OHD concentrations birth. The clinical significance of optimal vitamin D intake in VLBW infants needs to be studied in larger controlled studies.
Herberth, Gunda; Weber, Annegret; Röder, Stefan; Elvers, Horst-Dietrich; Krämer, Ursula; Schins, Roel P F; Diez, Ulrike; Borte, Michael; Heinrich, Joachim; Schäfer, Thomas; Herbarth, Olf; Lehmann, Irina
Stressful life events evidently have an impact on development of allergic diseases, but the mechanism linking stress to pathological changes of immune system function is still not fully understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between stressful life events, neuropeptide and cytokine concentrations in children. Within the LISAplus (Life style-Immune system-Allergy) study, blood samples from children of 6 yr of age were analysed for concentration of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), substance P (SP) and the Th1/Th2 cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin (IL)-4. Life events such as severe disease or death of a family member, unemployment or divorce of the parents were assessed with a questionnaire filled in by the parents. For 234 children, blood analysis and questionnaire data regarding life events were available. Children with separated/divorced parents showed high VIP levels and high concentrations of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 in their blood. Severe diseases and death of a family member were neither associated with neuropeptide levels nor with cytokine concentrations. Unemployment of the parents was associated with decreased IFN-gamma concentrations in children's blood but not with neuropeptide levels, whereas children experiencing concomitant severe disease and death of a family member had reduced SP blood levels. The neuropeptide VIP might be a mediator between stressful life events and immune regulation contributing to the Th2 shifted immune response in children with separated/divorced parents. Unemployment of the parents was associated with immune regulation in children on the basis of a still unknown mechanism whereas reduced SP levels seem to have no effect on immune regulation.
Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Monterio, Ivan
.85 (0.46-1.54)), but a significant reduction in weeks 2-4 (MRR=0.56 (0.31-1.00)). This pattern was consistent in all three trials. The verbal autopsies linked the early benefit to fewer sepsis-related deaths among BCG-vaccinated boys. Discussion: The marked reduction in mortality in the first few days......Background: Three randomised trials (RCTs) in low-weight (LW, vaccine non-specifically reduces all-cause mortality in the neonatal period. Methods: Using data from three RCTs of early BCG (N=6,583) we examined potential sex......-differences in the timing of the mortality reduction in the neonatal period, presenting meta-estimates of the main outcome mortality rate ratios (MRR) for BCG-vaccinated and controls. Results: Among controls, boys had a particularly high mortality during the first week after randomisation, the male-female MRR being 2...
Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill
Sensory over-responsivity, a subtype of sensory modulation disorder, is characterized by extreme negative reactions to normative sensory experiences. These over-reactions can interfere with daily activities and cause stress to children and their families. The etiology and developmental course of sensory over-responsivity is still largely unknown. We measured tactile and auditory over-responsivity in a population-based, typically developing sample of twins (N=978) at age two years via a caregiver report temperament questionnaire and again at age seven years via a sensory over-responsivity symptom inventory. Participating twins were treated as singletons although all analyses controlled for clustering within families. Children were divided into four trajectory groups based on risk status at both ages: low symptom (N=768), remitted (N=75), late-onset (N=112), and chronic (N=24). A subset of children who screened positive for SOR in toddlerhood (N = 102) took part in a pilot study focused on sensory over-responsivity at four years of age. Children in the chronic group had more severe symptoms of sensory sensitivity at age four years, including more motion sensitivity, than the other trajectory groups. Children in the chronic group had a younger gestational age and were more likely to be low birth-weight than the low symptom group. Differences between remitted and late-onset groups and the low-symptoms group were inconsistent across measures. Sensory over-responsivity was modestly correlated across ages (r = .22 for tactile over-responsivity and r = .11 for auditory over-responsivity), but symptoms were more stable among children born prematurely or who had more fearful and less soothable temperaments. A clear implication is that assessment over development may be necessary for a valid sensory processing disorder diagnosis, and a speculative implication is that sensory over-responsivity symptoms may be etiologically heterogeneous, with different causes of transient and
Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P; Jankowski, Jeffery; Maugeri, Umberto; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Skarupa, Anita; Edwards, Susan; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona
The main purpose of the study was to answer the question whether young children without clinical diagnosis of asthma but experiencing early wheezing disorders and therefore being at high risk of developing asthma may have cognitive deficits. In the ongoing birth cohort study wheezing symptoms were recorded postpartum over two first years of age and subsequently cognitive status of children at the age of 3 yr was assessed with the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). In the statistical analysis a wide range of modifying and confounding factors (maternal education, gender of children, prenatal exposure to lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were considered to assess the independent effect of early wheezing phenotypes on cognitive development of children. The MDI score correlated inversely with the number of wheezing days recorded over 24 months (r = -0.13, p = 0.007), lead cord blood concentration (r = -0.12, p = -0.02), number of siblings (r = -0.17, p = 0.0006) and the number of cigarettes smoked daily by other household members at home over the pregnancy period (r = -0.18, p = 0.0002). While the children who experienced wheezing over the first year of age showed deficit of 2 MDI scores (beta coeff. = -2.31, 95%CI: -4.63 to 0.02), those with persistent wheezing had the score deficit of 4 points (beta coeff. = -4.41, 95%CI: -8.27 to -0.55). To our knowledge, it is the first report in the iterature showing that early wheezing is associated the cognitive deficit in a community-recruited very young children. Observed cognitive deficit in early wheezers may be caused by RSV infections or can be related to lower lung function attributed to persistent wheezing, which reducing oxygen supply would affect rapidly developing brain.
This article summarizes the life and work of America's most influential counselor and psychotherapist, Carl Rogers. He developed the client-centered, person-centered approach; popularized the term client; pioneered the recording of counseling cases; conducted landmark research on counseling and psychotherapy; and was a leader in the humanistic…
Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D
Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Lin-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Shan-Tair; Huang, Chao-Ching
We examined whether the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is able to identify very low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) as early as 6 months of corrected age. Longitudinal follow-up AIMS assessments were done at 6, 12, and 18 months old for 35 VLBW infants with cystic PVL (cPVL(+)), 70 VLBW infants without cystic PVL (cPVL(-)), and 76 term infants (healthy controls: HC). Corrected age was used for the preterm infants. The cPVL(+) group had significantly lower prone, supine and sitting subscales at age 6, 12, and 18 months than the cPVL(-) group (all p<0.05). The cPVL(-) group showed significantly lower supine, prone, sitting, and standing subscales than the HC group only at age 6 months. At age 6 months, the areas under the receiver operator curve used to discriminate the cPVL(+) infants from cPVL(-) infants were 0.82±0.04 for prone, 0.93±0.02 for supine, 0.83±0.05 for sitting, and 0.62±0.07 for standing. The AIMS may help early identify VLBW infants with cystic PVL at age 6 months old. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Monterio, Ivan; Ravn, Henrik; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell
Three randomized trials (RCTs) in low-weight (BCG) vaccine nonspecifically reduces all-cause mortality in the neonatal period. Using data from 3 RCTs of early BCG (n = 6583) we examined potential sex differences in the timing of the mortality reduction in the neonatal period, presenting metaestimates of the main outcome mortality rate ratios (MRR) for BCG-vaccinated and controls. Among controls, boys had a particularly high mortality during the first week after randomization: male-female MRR 2.71 (95% CI, 1.70-4.50). During the first week, BCG had a marked beneficial effect for boys, reducing mortality 3-fold (MRR [BCG/no BCG] = 0.36 [0.20-0.67]). In weeks 2-4 the effect waned for boys (MRR = 0.91 [0.51-1.69]). In girls, the pattern was opposite with a limited effect in the first week (MRR = 0.85 [0.46-1.54]), but a significant reduction in weeks 2-4 (MRR = 0.56 [0.31-1.00]). This was consistent in all 3 trials. Verbal autopsies linked early benefit to fewer sepsis-related deaths among BCG-vaccinated boys. The marked reduction in mortality in the days after BCG vaccination in boys emphasizes the importance of providing BCG soon after birth. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00146302) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00625482).
Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.
Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004
Kazantseva, L. V.
Mitrofan Khandrykov (1837-1915) headed the department of astronomy and geodesy at Kiev University and was director of the University Observatory more than 30 years. He was the author of a long series of publications, many textbooks in mathematics, astronomy and geodesy for university students. He started some observational and theoretical directions for the observatory, he updated observational instruments, began publishing a periodical scientific publication in the observatory. He trained and prepared a worthy replacement, developed and launched specialized teaching of astronomy in other educational establishments. His biography is found in many national and international encyclopedias. But the facts of personal life of his are poorly understood. Joint research of materials, which collected by Astronomical Museum and which are in other archives, available digitized sources allow to restore some facts from the life of famous former employee Observatory.
Full Text Available Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress response system. Early life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that early life stress produces long-term hyper responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviours. Recently, evidence has emerged on early life stress induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1. We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early life stress induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilisation and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early life stress induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early life stress and later health outcomes will also
Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.
Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and