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Sample records for early lepeophtheirus salmonis

  1. Pacific and Atlantic Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1838) are allopatric subspecies: Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis and L. salmonis oncorhynchi subspecies novo.

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    Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Torrissen, Ole; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-03-14

    The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a parasitic copepod that infects salmonids in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although considered as a single species, morphological and biological differences have been reported between lice from the two oceans. Likewise, studies based on nucleotide sequencing have demonstrated that sequence differences between Atlantic and Pacific L. salmonis are highly significant, albeit smaller than the divergence observed between congeneric copepod species. We demonstrated reproductive compatibility between L. salmonis from the two oceans and successfully established F2 hybrid strains using separate maternal lines from both the Pacific and Atlantic. The infection success for the F2 hybrid strains were similar to results typically observed for non hybrid lice strains in the rearing facility used. Lepeophtheirus salmonis COI and 16S sequences divergence between individuals from the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans was high compared to what may be expected within a copepod species and phylogenetic analysis showed that they consistently formed monophyletic clades representing their origin from the Pacific or Atlantic oceans. Lepeophtheirus salmonis from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are reproductively compatible at least until adults at the F2 hybrid stage, and should not be regarded as separate species based on reproductive segregation or sequence divergence levels. Reported biological and genetic differences in L. salmonis seen in conjunction with the reported genetic diversity commonly observed between and within species demonstrate that Atlantic and Pacific L. salmonis should be regarded as two subspecies: Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis and L. salmonis oncorhynchi subsp. nov.

  2. Elemental analysis of Scottish populations of the ectoparasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis

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    Shinn, A.P.; Bron, J.E.; Gray, D.J.; Sommerville, C.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional nebulisation ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), was used to determine the concentration of a broad range of elements in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Lice samples were collected from Atlantic salmon in seven localities (4 fish farms and 3 wild salmon

  3. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P.A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of

  4. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance.

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    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-02-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance.

  5. Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen., n. sp., (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae

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    Freeman Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A microsporidian was previously reported to infect the crustacean parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837 (Copepoda, Caligidae, on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. in Scotland. The microsporidian was shown to be a novel species with a molecular phylogenetic relationship to Nucleospora (Enterocytozoonidae, but the original report did not assign it to a genus or species. Further studies examined the development of the microsporidian in L. salmonis using electron microscopy and re-evaluated the molecular findings using new sequence data available for the group. Here we report a full description for the microsporidian and assign it to a new genus and species. Results The microsporidian infects subcuticular cells that lie on the innermost region of the epidermal tissue layer beneath the cuticle and along the internal haemocoelic divisions. The mature spores are sub-spherical with a single nucleus and an isofilar polar filament with 5-8 turns in a double coil. The entire development is in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm and is polysporous. During early merogony, a diplokaryotic nuclear arrangement exists which is absent throughout the rest of the developmental cycle. Large merogonial plasmodia form which divide to form single uninucleate sporonts. Sporogonial plasmodia were not observed; instead, binucleate sporonts divide to form two sporoblasts. Prior to final division, there is a precocious development of the polar filament extrusion apparatus which is associated with large electron lucent inclusions (ELIs. Analyses of DNA sequences reveal that the microsporidian is robustly supported in a clade with other members of the Enterocytozoonidae and confirms a close phylogenetic relationship with Nucleospora. Conclusion The ultrastructural findings of the precocious development of the polar filament and the presence of ELIs are consistent with those of the Enterocytozoonidae. However, the confirmed presence

  6. Effect of exposure on salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patursson, Esbern J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We assessed variations in salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms in relationship to their physical exposure to local circulation patterns and flushing with adjacent waters. Factors used in this study to quantify physical exposure are estimates...... of the freshwater exchange rate, the tidal exchange rate and dispersion by tidal currents. Salmon farms were ranked according to the rate of increase in the average numbers of salmon lice per fish. In a multiple linear regression, physical exposure together with temperature were shown to have a significant effect...... threshold of salmon stocking numbers for outbreaks of infection. The study presents a simple method of characterizing salmon farming fjords in terms of their different exposure levels and how they relate to potential self-infection at these sites...

  7. Gene expression analyses of immune responses in Atlantic salmon during early stages of infection by salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis revealed bi-phasic responses coinciding with the copepod-chalimus transition

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    Afanasyev Sergey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, an ectoparasitic copepod with a complex life cycle causes significant losses in salmon aquaculture. Pesticide treatments against the parasite raise environmental concerns and their efficacy is gradually decreasing. Improvement of fish resistance to lice, through biological control methods, needs better understanding of the protective mechanisms. We used a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR to examine the time-course of immune gene expression changes in salmon skin, spleen, and head kidney during the first 15 days after challenge, which encompassed the copepod and chalimus stages of lice development. Results Large scale and highly complex transcriptome responses were found already one day after infection (dpi. Many genes showed bi-phasic expression profiles with abrupt changes between 5 and 10 dpi (the copepod-chalimus transitions; the greatest fluctuations (up- and down-regulation were seen in a large group of secretory splenic proteases with unknown roles. Rapid sensing was witnessed with induction of genes involved in innate immunity including lectins and enzymes of eicosanoid metabolism in skin and acute phase proteins in spleen. Transient (1-5 dpi increase of T-cell receptor alpha, CD4-1, and possible regulators of lymphocyte differentiation suggested recruitment of T-cells of unidentified lineage to the skin. After 5 dpi the magnitude of transcriptomic responses decreased markedly in skin. Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in all studied organs suggested establishment of a chronic inflammatory status. Up-regulation of putative lymphocyte G0/G1 switch proteins in spleen at 5 dpi, immunoglobulins at 15 dpi; and increase of IgM and IgT transcripts in skin indicated an onset of adaptive humoral immune responses, whereas MHCI appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions Atlantic salmon develops rapid local and systemic reactions to L. salmonis, which, however

  8. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

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    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Carmichael, Stephen N; Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  9. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.

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    Lars A Hamre

    Full Text Available Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838 causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt. Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.

  10. A screening of multiple classes of pharmaceutical compounds for effect on preadult salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

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    Aaen, S M; Horsberg, T E

    2016-10-01

    The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, is the major obstacle facing a sustainable future for farmers of salmonids in the North Atlantic Ocean. Medicinal compounds have been the most utilized tool to prevent salmon lice infestation; however, the active compounds have become less effective or considered environmentally unfriendly in the past years. Novel medicinal compounds are thus highly desired. In two experiment series, 26 medicinal compounds were screened for their efficacy against salmon lice, in a 30-min exposure and 24-h exposure, respectively. Pyriprole, imidacloprid, cartap and spinetoram were effective at 50 mg L(-1) in the short-time exposure. In the 24-h exposure, pyriprole, propoxur, cartap, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen, nitenpyram, spinetoram, spiromesifen and diflubenzuron induced a high level of immobilization at 5 mg L(-1) . The EC50 values of the effective compounds were calculated in further titration studies for both exposure periods. Several physiological and biochemical pathways were discovered as possible targets for medicinal intervention against the salmon louse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physiological effects of simultaneous, abrupt seawater entry and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation of wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts

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    Wells, A.; Grierson, C.E.; MacKenzie, M.A.; Russon, I.; Middlemiss, C.; Bjorn, P.A.; Finstad, B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Todd, C.D.; Hazon, N.

    2006-01-01

    For wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts, the physiological consequences of abrupt transfer to seawater and simultaneous challenge with copepodid larvae of the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kr�yer, 1837), were investigated in the laboratory. Analysis of osmoregulatory, metabolic,

  12. The influence of sub-lethal levels of zinc on smoltifying Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and on their subsequent susceptibility to infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis

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    Ibrahim, A.; MacKinnon, B.M.; Burt, M.D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Smoltifying Atlantic salmon were treated for 6 weeks in freshwater with 0, 200, and 400 ppb zinc (as Zn SO4). After 6 weeks salmon were transferred to a salt water seapen and exposed to infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis for 14 weeks. Zinc treatment resulted in some physiological changes

  13. Exocrine glands of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae): Distribution, developmental appearance, and site of secretion.

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    Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Hamre, Lars A; Harasimczuk, Ewa; Dalvin, Sussie; Nilsen, Frank; Grotmol, Sindre

    2016-12-01

    Exocrine glands of blood-feeding parasitic copepods are believed to be important in host immune response modulation and inhibition of host blood coagulation, but also in the production of substances for integument lubrication and antifouling. In this study, we aimed to characterize the distribution of different types of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) exocrine glands and their site of secretion. The developmental appearance of each gland type was mapped and genes specifically expressed by glands were identified. Three types of tegumental (teg 1-3) glands and one labial gland type were found. The first glands to appear during development were teg 1 and teg 2 glands. They have ducts extending both dorsally and ventrally suggested to be important in lubricating the integument. Teg 1 glands were found to express two astacin metallopeptidases and a gene with fibronectin II domains, while teg 2 glands express a heme peroxidase. The labial glands were first identified in planktonic copepodids, with reservoirs that allows for storage of glandular products. The last gland type to appear during development was named teg 3 and was not seen before the preadult I stage when the lice become more virulent. Teg 3 glands have ducts ending ventrally at the host-parasite contact area, and may secrete substances important for the salmon lice virulence. Salmon lice teg 3 and labial glands are thus likely to be especially important in the host-parasite interaction. Proteins secreted from the salmon louse glands to its salmonid host skin or blood represents a potential interface where the host immune system can meet and elicit effective responses to sea lice antigens. The present study thus represents a fundamental basis for further functional studies and identification of possible vaccine candidates. J. Morphol. 277:1616-1630, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. High level efficacy of lufenuron against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) linked to rapid impact on moulting processes.

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    Poley, Jordan D; Braden, Laura M; Messmer, Amber M; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Whyte, Shona K; Macdonald, Alicia; Rodriguez, Jose; Gameiro, Marta; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Wadowska, Dorota W; Koop, Ben F; Hosking, Barry C; Fast, Mark D

    2018-03-13

    Drug resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a global issue for Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Multiple resistance has been described across most available compound classes with the exception of the benzoylureas. To target this gap in effective management of L. salmonis and other species of sea lice (e.g. Caligus spp.), Elanco Animal Health is developing an in-feed treatment containing lufenuron (a benzoylurea) to be administered prior to seawater transfer of salmon smolts and to provide long-term protection of salmon against sea lice infestations. Benzoylureas disrupt chitin synthesis, formation, and deposition during all moulting events. However, the mechanism(s) of action are not yet fully understood and most research completed to date has focused on insects. We exposed the first parasitic stage of L. salmonis to 700 ppb lufenuron for three hours and observed over 90% reduction in survival to the chalimus II life stage on the host, as compared to vehicle controls. This agrees with a follow up in vivo administration study on the host, which showed >95% reduction by the chalimus I stage. Transcriptomic responses of salmon lice exposed to lufenuron included genes related to moulting, epithelial differentiation, solute transport, and general developmental processes. Global metabolite profiles also suggest that membrane stability and fluidity is impacted in treated lice. These molecular signals are likely the underpinnings of an abnormal moulting process and cuticle formation observed ultrastructurally using transmission electron microscopy. Treated nauplii-staged lice exhibited multiple abnormalities in the integument, suggesting that the coordinated assembly of the epi- and procuticle is impaired. In all cases, treatment with lufenuron had rapid impacts on L. salmonis development. We describe multiple experiments to characterize the efficacy of lufenuron on eggs, larvae, and parasitic stages of L. salmonis, and provide the most comprehensive

  15. Immunostimulation of Salmo salar L., and its effect on Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) P-glycoprotein mRNA expression following subsequent emamectin benzoate exposure.

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    Igboeli, O O; Purcell, S L; Wotton, H; Poley, J; Burka, J F; Fast, M D

    2013-03-01

    Control of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, relies heavily on chemotherapeutants. However, reduced efficacy of many treatments and need for integrated sea lice management plans require innovative strategies. Resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), a major sea lice parasiticide, has been linked with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. We hypothesized that host immunostimulation would complement EMB treatment outcome. Lepeophtheirus salmonis-infected Atlantic salmon were fed immunostimulatory or control feeds. Sea lice were collected for 24-h EMB bioassays 1 and 2 weeks prior to commencement of EMB treatment of the fish. Two weeks after cessation of immunostimulant-treated feed, EMB was administered at 150 μg kg(-1) fish biomass for 7 days. The bioassay revealed stage, gender and immunostimulant-related differences in EMB EC(50) . Sea lice attached to salmon with a history of immunostimulation exhibited significantly greater survival than those on control feeds, despite similar levels of EMB in host tissues. Lepeophtheirus salmonis from salmon with a history of immunostimulation also exhibited higher P-gp mRNA expression as well as greater survivability compared to controls. Administration of immunostimulants prior to EMB treatment caused increased expression of P-gp mRNA which could have consequently caused decreased efficacy of the parasiticide. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis

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    Jonassen Inge

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated

  17. Lepeophtheirus salmonis: characterization of prostaglandin E(2) in secretory products of the salmon louse by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry.

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    Fast, M D; Ross, N W; Craft, C A; Locke, S J; MacKinnon, S L; Johnson, S C

    2004-01-01

    Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes serious disease outbreaks in both wild and farmed salmonids. As the relationship between L. salmonis and its hosts is not well understood, the current investigation was undertaken to investigate whether any immunomodulatory compounds could be identified from secretions of L. salmonis. By incubating live L. salmonis adults with the neurotransmitter dopamine in seawater, we were able to obtain secretions from the parasite. These were analyzed by RP-HPLC column, as well as LC-MS. L. salmonis secretions contained a compound with the same retention time and mass of PGE(2). The identity of this compound as PGE(2) was confirmed by MS-in source dissociation. The concentrations of PGE(2) in L. salmonis secretions ranged from 0.2 to 12.3 ng/individual and varied with incubation temperature and time kept off the host. Prostaglandin E(2) is a potent vasodilator and thought to aid in parasite evasion from host immune responses. This is the first reported evidence of prostaglandin production in parasitic copepod secretions and its implications for the host-parasite relationship are discussed.

  18. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

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    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The distribution of exocrine glands in Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, S.; Bron, J.E.; Sommerville, C.

    2000-01-01

    The morphology, function and distribution of exocrine glands of copepods have rarely been studied in detail and almost nothing is known about them in the sea lice species L. salmonis and C. elongatus. This study utilised a novel application of a light-microscopy staining technique to reveal a

  20. Simulated environmental transport distances of Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Loch Linnhe, Scotland, for informing aquaculture area management structures.

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    Salama, N K G; Murray, A G; Rabe, B

    2016-04-01

    In the majority of salmon farming countries, production occurs in zones where practices are coordinated to manage disease agents such as Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To inform the structure of zones in specific systems, models have been developed accounting for parasite biology and system hydrodynamics. These models provide individual system farm relationships, and as such, it may be beneficial to produce more generalized principles for informing structures. Here, we use six different forcing scenarios to provide simulations from a previously described model of the Loch Linnhe system, Scotland, to assess the maximum dispersal distance of lice particles released from 12 sites transported over 19 day. Results indicate that the median distance travelled is 6.1 km from release site with management areas developed for infectious salmon anaemia control may also have properties appropriate for salmon lice management in Scottish coastal waters. Additionally, general numerical descriptors of the simulated relative lice abundance reduction with increased distance from release location are proposed. © 2015 Crown copyright. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of the vertically transmitted microsporidian Facilispora margolisi and the parasiticide emamectin benzoate on salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

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    Poley, Jordan D; Sutherland, Ben J G; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2017-08-17

    Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi), an economically and ecologically important ectoparasitic copepod that can impact wild and cultured salmonids. Vertical transmission of F. margolisi was demonstrated by using PCR and in situ hybridization to identify and localize microsporidia in female L. salmonis and their offspring. Spores and developmental structures of F. margolisi were identified in 77% of F 1 generation copepods derived from infected females while offspring from uninfected females all tested negative for the microsporidia. The transcriptomic response of the salmon louse to F. margolisi was profiled at both the copepodid larval stage and the pre-adult stage using microarray technology. Infected copepodids differentially expressed 577 transcripts related to stress, ATP generation and structural components of muscle and cuticle. The infection also impacted the response of the copepodid to the parasiticide emamectin benzoate (EMB) at a low dose of 1.0 ppb for 24 h. A set of 48 transcripts putatively involved in feeding and host immunomodulation were up to 8-fold underexpressed in the F. margolisi infected copepodids treated with EMB compared with controls or either stressor alone. Additionally, these infected lice treated with EMB also overexpressed 101 transcripts involved in stress resistance and signalling compared to the other groups. In contrast, infected pre-adult lice did not display a stress response, suggesting a decrease in microsporidian virulence associated with lice maturity. Furthermore, copepodid infectivity and moulting was not affected by the microsporidian infection. This study demonstrated that F. margolisi is transmitted vertically between salmon

  2. Commercial trials using emamectin benzoate to control sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

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    Stone, J; Sutherland, I H; Sommerville, C; Richards, R H; Varma, K J

    2000-06-19

    Two trials were conducted at commercial salmon farms to evaluate the efficacy of emamectin benzoate (Slice, 0.2% aquaculture pre-mix, Schering-Plough Animal Health) as a treatment for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) and Caligus elongatus Nordmann infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Trials were carried out in 15 m2 commercial sea pens, at temperatures of 5.5 to 7.5 degrees C and 10.8 to 13.8 degrees C. Each pen was stocked with 14,000 to 17,500 fish with mean weights of 0.44 to 0.74 and 1.33 to 1.83 kg. Fish were naturally infested with sea lice at the start of each trial. At Day -1, samples of 10 or 15 fish were taken from each pen to determine pre-treatment numbers of lice. Emamectin benzoate was administered in feed, to 4 replicate pens, at a dose of 50 micrograms kg-1 biomass d-1 for 7 consecutive days (Days 0 to 6). Sea lice were counted again, between Days 7 and 77, and comparisons made with untreated control fish. Despite adverse weather conditions, wide variations in fish weights and exposure to new infestations, treatment was effective against chalimus and motile stages of L. salmonis. In the autumn trial, efficacy at Day 27 was 89%, and lice numbers remained lower on treated fish than on control fish 64 d from the start of treatment. In the winter trial, reductions in lice numbers at low temperatures were slower but good efficacy was achieved by Day 35. Although control fish had to be treated with hydrogen peroxide at Day 21, fish treated only with emamectin benzoate on Days 0 to 6 still had 89% fewer lice than control fish at Day 35. There were very few C. elongatus present, but at the end of both trials numbers were lower on treated fish. No adverse effects were associated with treatment of fish with emamectin benzoate.

  3. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic position of two new species in Rhabdoviridae infecting the parasitic copepod, salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

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    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11,600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses.

  4. Genomic Characterization and Phylogenetic Position of Two New Species in Rhabdoviridae Infecting the Parasitic Copepod, Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11 600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses. PMID:25402203

  5. A fixed-dose approach to conducting emamectin benzoate tolerance assessments on field-collected sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, S K; Westcott, J D; Elmoslemany, A; Hammell, K L; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    In New Brunswick, Canada, the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses an on-going management challenge to the health and productivity of commercially cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. While the in-feed medication, emamectin benzoate (SLICE® ; Merck), has been highly effective for many years, evidence of increased tolerance has been observed in the field since late 2008. Although bioassays on motile stages are a common tool to monitor sea lice sensitivity to emamectin benzoate in field-collected sea lice, they require the collection of large numbers of sea lice due to inherent natural variability in the gender and stage response to chemotherapeutants. In addition, sensitive instruments such as EC(50) analysis may be unnecessarily complex to characterize susceptibility subsequent to a significant observed decline in efficacy. This study proposes an adaptation of the traditional, dose-response format bioassay to a fixed-dose method. Analysis of 657 bioassays on preadult and adult stages of sea lice over the period 2008-2011 indicated a population of sea lice in New Brunswick with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate. A seasonal and spatial effect was observed in the robustness of genders and stages of sea lice, which suggest that mixing different genders and stages of lice within a single bioassay may result in pertinent information being overlooked. Poor survival of adult female lice in bioassays, particularly during May/June, indicates it may be prudent to consider excluding this stage from bioassays conducted at certain times of the year. This work demonstrates that fixed-dose bioassays can be a valuable technique in detecting reduced sensitivity in sea lice populations with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate treatments. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Optimization and field use of a bioassay to monitor sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity to emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Jillian D; Stryhn, Henrik; Burka, John F; Hammell, K Larry

    2008-04-01

    A bioassay for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity towards emamectin benzoate (EMB) was validated for field use. A probit regression model with natural responsiveness was used for the number of affected (moribund or dead) sea lice in bioassays involving different concentrations of EMB. Bioassay optimization included an evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of sea lice responsiveness to EMB and an evaluation of gender-related differences in susceptibility. Adoption of a set of bioassay response criteria improved the concordance (evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient) between raters' assessments and the model estimation of EC50 values (the 'effective concentration' leading to a response of 50% of the lice not prone to natural response). An evaluation of gender-related differences in EMB susceptibility indicated that preadult stage female sea lice exhibited a significantly larger sensitivity towards EMB in 12 of 19 bioassays compared to preadult males. In order to evaluate sea lice sensitivity to EMB in eastern Canada, the intensive salmon farming area in the Bay of Fundy in southwestern New Brunswick was divided into 4 distinct regions based on industry health management practices and hydrographics. A total of 38 bioassays were completed from 2002 to 2005 using populations of preadult stage sea lice collected from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farms within the 4 described regions. There was no significant overall effect of region or year on EC50 values; however, analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of time of year on EC50 values in 2002 and a potential effect in 2004 to 2005. Although the range of EC50 values obtained in this 3 yr study did not appear sufficient to affect current clinical success in the control of sea lice, the results suggest a seasonal- or temperature-associated variation in sensitivity to EMB. This will need to be considered if changes in EMB efficacy occur in the future.

  7. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis using RAD sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N Carmichael

    Full Text Available The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837 is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  8. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic position of two new species in Rhabdoviridae infecting the parasitic copepod, salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnfinn Lodden Økland

    Full Text Available Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11,600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses.

  9. Delousing efficiency of farmed ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) against Lepeophtheirus salmonis infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Eric; Davie, Andrew; Migaud, Hervé

    2014-08-01

    Cleaner-fish (wrasse, Labridae) are increasingly deployed within the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) industry as a biological control against sea-lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer). Two tank-based trials were performed to test the effect of farmed ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta Ascanius) body mass and supplementary feeding on the delousing of Atlantic salmon post-smolts with an initial infection level of ∼12 lice salmon(-1) and a ∼5% wrasse:salmon ratio. Sea-louse levels below 0.5 lice salmon(-1) were obtained within 84 h, and preferential preying upon larger motile stages was found. The wrasse body mass and the availability of fresh, opened blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) did not significantly affect delousing efficiency. The functional predator response was linear, showing no minimum prey density threshold for sea-louse foraging and no satiation plateau, in spite of the high consumption rates measured. Sea-louse infection levels declined following a one-phase exponential decay model, with a standardised decline time constant of 0.8-1.3% h(-1) for each wrasse stocked per 100 salmon. Farmed ballan wrasse are confirmed as highly effective therapeutic and preventive biological controls against sea-lice. The study supports the current minimum hatchery size target (10 mm total length) and the use of supplementary feeding to sustain the wrasse stocks in operation. The functional predator response and the standardised decline time constant of sea-louse abundance are proposed as useful indicators of delousing efficiency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effectiveness of emamectin benzoate for treatment of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patti G; Hammell, K Larry; Dohoo, Ian R; Revie, Crawford W

    2012-12-03

    Emamectin benzoate (an avermectin chemotherapeutant administered to fish as an in-feed treatment) has been used to treat infestations of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, since 1999. This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of 114 emamectin benzoate treatment episodes from 2004 to 2008 across 54 farms. Study objectives were to establish whether changes in the effectiveness of emamectin benzoate were present for this period, examine factors associated with treatment outcome, and determine variables that influenced differences in L. salmonis abundance after treatment. The analysis was carried out in 2 parts: first, trends in treatment effectiveness and L. salmonis abundance were explored, and second, statistical modelling (linear and logistic regression) was used to examine the effects of multiple variables on post-treatment abundance and treatment outcome. Post-treatment sea lice abundance increased in the later years examined. Mean abundance differed between locations in the Bay of Fundy, and higher numbers were found at farms closer to the mainland and lower levels were found in the areas around Grand Manan Island. Treatment effectiveness varied by geographical region and decreased over time. There was an increased risk for unsuccessful treatments in 2008, and treatments applied during autumn months were more likely to be ineffective than those applied during summer months.

  11. Evidence for changes in the transcription levels of two putative P-glycoprotein genes in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in response to emamectin benzoate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Burka, John F; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2007-05-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoproteins (Pgps) is assumed to be a principal mechanism of resistance of nematodes and arthropods to macrocyclic lactones. Quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) was used to demonstrate changes in transcription levels of two putative P-glycoprotein genes, designated here as SL0525 and SL-Pgp1, in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) following exposure to emamectin benzoate (EMB). Pre-adult L. salmonis were challenged in an EMB bioassay for 24h and gene expression was studied from lice surviving EMB concentrations of 0, 10, and 30ppb. Gene expression was measured using Q-RT-PCR with elongation factor 1 (eEF1alpha) as an internal reference gene. The results show that both target genes, SL0525 and SL-Pgp1, had significantly increased levels of expression with exposure to 10ppb EMB (p=0.11 and p=0.17, respectively) whereas the group exposed to 30ppb was on the verge of being significant (p=0.053) only in the expression of SL-Pgp1. Gene expression for SL0525 and SL-Pgp1 were increased over five-fold at 10ppb EMB. Therefore, the upregulation of these target genes may offer protection by increasing Pgp expression when lice are exposed to EMB. Our optimized Q-RT-PCR can be used to determine if over-expression of these genes could be the basis for development of resistance in sea lice and thus allow suitable alternative chemotherapeutic options to be assessed.

  12. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; Ireland, Jacqueline H; Bekaert, Michaël; Burgess, Stewart Tg; Skuce, Philip J; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Gharbi, Karim; Sturm, Armin

    2013-06-18

    Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but toxic for S lice

  13. The Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate against Infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland, 2002–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE®, Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Conclusions/Significance Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated. PMID:18253496

  14. The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L in Scotland, 2002-2006.

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    Fiona Lees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE(R, Schering Plough Animal Health. The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.

  15. The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W

    2008-02-06

    Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE(R), Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.

  16. Combinatorial effects of administration of immunostimulatory compounds in feed and follow-up administration of triple-dose SLICE® (emamectin benzoate) on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, J; Purcell, S L; Igboeli, O O; Donkin, A; Wotton, H; Fast, M D

    2013-03-01

    Several immunostimulatory feed additives have shown the ability to induce protective responses in Atlantic salmon to infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis. However, even the most encouraging results rarely surpass a 50% protective index in the host. That fact coupled with the well-documented limitations of single-therapy strategies in the effective management of parasitic infections generally make it imperative to identify therapies that can be combined in an integrated pest management approach for sea lice. With this in mind, we hypothesized that immunostimulatory feeds could enhance the protection provided by SLICE® emamectin benzoate (EMB). To test this hypothesis, Atlantic salmon were fed one of two different immunostimulatory feeds (CpG ODN or Aquate®) for c. 7 weeks, challenged with L. salmonis copepodids early within that immunostimulatory feed period and then placed on a triple-dose (150 μg kg(-1) ) feed of SLICE® for 1 week following the completion of the immunostimulatory feeding period. CpG ODN (2 mg kg(-1) ) and the commercial yeast extract (Aquate® 0.2%) inclusion in feeds were able to successfully induce inflammatory gene expression (interleukin-1β) in the head kidneys of infected fish at 13 and 26 days post-exposure (DPE), and 13 DPE, respectively. Lice burdens were lower on fish fed CpG ODN (18%) or Aquate® (19%) diets; however, due to variability, these were not statistically significant over time. Despite no statistically significant reductions in lice numbers, by 33 DPE fish on immunostimulatory feeds had significantly reduced cortisol levels when compared to infected fish on control diet. Cortisol levels in fish receiving an immunostimulatory diet were no different from initial baseline levels prior to infection, whereas the levels in control diet fish were significantly elevated from all other time points. Despite the positive effects on infection of fish fed immunostimulatory feeds, no synergism was observed with follow-up treatment

  17. A common-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary processes in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungfeldt, Lina Eva Robin; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-05-19

    The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a common-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a common-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other

  18. Early East Asian art history in Vienna and its trajectories: Josef Strzygowski, Karl With, Alfred Salmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Orell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 Josef Strzygowski founded the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ at the University of Vienna, which attracted many students who would continue their careers in museums and at universities and thus established East Asian art history as an academic field. This paper examines these early art historical engagements with East Asian art: First, I discuss the role of East Asian art in Strzygowski’s agenda of broadening art history’s geographical scope beyond Europe and in his argument about the dominance of ‘Nordic’ artistic traditions in Europe and in Asia. Secondly, I introduce the work of two early students at the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ in Vienna, Karl With and Alfred Salmony. Their respective approaches to East Asian art exemplify a range of methodological concerns of their time, from stylistic narratives, the concept of ars una, comparative frameworks, to ideas about cultural or national ‘purity’ in the arts, and an interest in cross-cultural adaption and transformation of motifs and symbolism.

  19. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

    2013-01-01

    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice. PMID:23311746

  20. The egg string attachment mechanism in salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The anatomy of the genital complex and the hook apparatus that keeps the trailing egg strings in position, are illustrated and described. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, it is shown how the sacs are mechanically secured by the penetration of a pair of hooks through the proximal ends

  1. Development of eggs and the planktonic stages of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxaspen, Karin; Næss, Tore

    2000-01-01

    To verify if and to what extent egg and nauplii development of the salmon lice take place during winter, the development from egg to the copepodid stage at 2,3,4,5 and 10°C was examined. Newly extruded egg strings from a winter population of salmon lice were individually placed in 6 ml stagnant

  2. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  3. Piscirickettsia salmonis Imbalances the Innate Immune Response to Succeed in a Productive Infection in a Salmonid Cell Line Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Álvarez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease called "salmon rickettsial syndrome". Attempts to control this disease have been unsuccessful, because existing vaccines have not achieved the expected effectiveness and the antibiotics used fail to completely eradicate the pathogen. This is in part the product of lack of scientific information that still lacks on the mechanisms used by this bacterium to overcome infected-cell responses and survive to induce a productive infection in macrophages. For that, this work was focused in determining if P. salmonis is able to modify the expression and the imbalance of IL-12 and IL-10 using an in vitro model. Additionally, we also evaluated the role the antimicrobial peptide hepcidin had in the control of this pathogen in infected cells. Therefore, the expression of IL-10 and IL-12 was evaluated at earlier stages of infection in the RTS11 cell line derived from Oncorhynchus mykiss macrophages. Simultaneously, the hepcidin expression and location was analyzed in the macrophages infected with the pathogen. Our results suggest that IL-10 is clearly induced at early stages of infection with values peaking at 36 hours post infection. Furthermore, infective P. salmonis downregulates the expression of antimicrobial peptide hepcidin and vesicles containing this peptide were unable to merge with the infective bacteria. Our results suggest that P. salmonis is able to manipulate the behavior of host cytokines and likely might constitute a virulence mechanism that promotes intracellular bacterial replication in leukocytes cells lines of trout and salmon. This mechanism involves the generation of an optimum environment for the microorganism and the downregulation of antimicrobial effectors like hepcidin.

  4. Biofilm generation by Piscirickettsia salmonis under growth stress conditions: a putative in vivo survival/persistence strategy in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sergio H; Gómez, Fernando A; Ramírez, Ramón; Nilo, Luis; Henríquez, Vitalia

    2012-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a bacterial fish pathogen seriously threatening the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry. The biology and life cycle of this bacterium is not completely understood and there are no reports explaining how it survives or persists in marine environments. This work provides descriptive data of P. salmonis behavior when it is exposed to stress conditions, producing large cell aggregates closely resembling typical biofilm structures. In order to track this putative biofilm, we used indirect fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Complex masses were observed over time; the bacteria appear to be embedded within a matrix which disappears when it is exposed to cellulase, suggesting a polysaccharide nature typical of biofilm formation. Two lectins (ConA and WGA) were used to characterize the matrix. Both lectins showed a strong reaction with the structure, validating the exopolysaccharide nature of the matrix. Recently, several studies have demonstrated a correlation between toxin/anti-toxin system expression at initial stages of biofilm formation. In this report, QRT-PCR analysis was used with the P. salmonis toxin/anti-toxin mazEF operon, showing induction of these genes at early stages of biofilm formation, suggesting that said formation may be an adaptive strategy for survival and persistence under stress conditions in marine environments. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins

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    Cristian Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  6. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Cristian; Hernández, Mauricio A; Tandberg, Julia I; Valenzuela, Karla N; Lagos, Leidy X; Haro, Ronie E; Sánchez, Patricio; Ruiz, Pamela A; Sanhueza-Oyarzún, Constanza; Cortés, Marcos A; Villar, María T; Artigues, Antonio; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs) released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  7. Presence of Piscirickettsia salmonis in farmed trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Junin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Yunis A., Jefferson; Anicama D., Jahir; Manchego S., Alberto; Sandoval C., Nieves

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the possible presence ofPiscirickettsia salmonis in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Mantaro river basin, Junin, Peru, by the indirect inmunofluorescence test (IFAT). Kidney and spleen samples were collected from 180 trout from three fish farms. All samples resulted negative to P. salmonis; however, some individuals showed clinical sings of disease as skin ulcer, melanosis, abdominal swelling and exophthalmoses. Also, in the internal organs was f...

  8. Analysis of Piscirickettsia salmonis Metabolism Using Genome-Scale Reconstruction, Modeling, and Testing

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    María P. Cortés

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is an intracellular bacterial fish pathogen that causes piscirickettsiosis, a disease with highly adverse impact in the Chilean salmon farming industry. The development of effective treatment and control methods for piscireckttsiosis is still a challenge. To meet it the number of studies on P. salmonis has grown in the last couple of years but many aspects of the pathogen’s biology are still poorly understood. Studies on its metabolism are scarce and only recently a metabolic model for reference strain LF-89 was developed. We present a new genome-scale model for P. salmonis LF-89 with more than twice as many genes as in the previous model and incorporating specific elements of the fish pathogen metabolism. Comparative analysis with models of different bacterial pathogens revealed a lower flexibility in P. salmonis metabolic network. Through constraint-based analysis, we determined essential metabolites required for its growth and showed that it can benefit from different carbon sources tested experimentally in new defined media. We also built an additional model for strain A1-15972, and together with an analysis of P. salmonis pangenome, we identified metabolic features that differentiate two main species clades. Both models constitute a knowledge-base for P. salmonis metabolism and can be used to guide the efficient culture of the pathogen and the identification of specific drug targets.

  9. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Piscirickettsia salmonis from Chilean and Canadian salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterlei, Alexander; Brevik, Øyvind J; Jensen, Daniel; Duesund, Henrik; Sommerset, Ingunn; Frost, Petter; Mendoza, Julio; McKenzie, Peter; Nylund, Are; Apablaza, Patricia

    2016-03-15

    The study presents the phenotypic and genetic characterization of selected P. salmonis isolates from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout suffering from SRS (salmonid rickettsial septicemia) in Chile and in Canada. The phenotypic characterization of the P. salmonis isolates were based on growth on different agar media (including a newly developed medium), different growth temperatures, antibiotics susceptibility and biochemical tests. This is the first study differentiating Chilean P. salmonis isolates into two separate genetic groups. Genotyping, based on 16S rRNA-ITS and concatenated housekeeping genes grouped the selected isolates into two clades, constituted by the Chilean strains, while the Canadian isolates form a branch in the phylogenetic tree. The latter consisted of two isolates that were different in both genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The phylogenies and the MLST do not reflect the origin of the isolates with respect to host species. The isolates included were heterogeneous in phenotypic tests. The genotyping methods developed in this study provided a tool for separation of P. salmonis isolates into distinct clades. The SRS outbreaks in Chile are caused by minimum two different genetic groups of P. salmonis. This heterogeneity should be considered in future development of vaccines against this bacterium in Chile. Two different strains of P. salmonis, in regards to genetic and phenotypic characteristics, can occur in the same contemporary outbreak of SRS.

  10. Using observed load distributions with a simple model to analyse the epidemiology of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on sea trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G

    2002-06-01

    Sea lice are ectoparasites of salmonids that have been associated with the recent decline in sea trout numbers in north-west Europe. Observed patterns of louse load distribution between sea trout in the seas surrounding the UK, Ireland and Norway and a simple model have been used to analyse the epidemiology of lice. Loads are aggregated and deviate strongly from the Poisson distribution, although less than is observed with many other parasites. The louse numbers on fish from offshore sites are slightly less variable than for fish from coastal sites with comparable mean loads. Analysis of louse development stages and sexes shows that selection between hosts by sea lice plays a limited role. If host selection is absent, then associated poor condition would be caused by, not the cause of, high louse burdens; however the absence of such selection is not proved. Scenarios with infection that is patchy in space and time best generate the aggregated load patterns observed; these patches accord with observed swarms of copepodids. Prevalence patterns may indicate the movement of trout between environments. Control of copepodids in infection 'hot spots', either directly or through control of louse egg production in their catchment, may reduce louse loads on wild sea trout and, in particular, extreme and damaging loads.

  11. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

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    Krasnov Aleksei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13. Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions These results suggest that cortisol-induced stress does not affect the level of infection of Atlantic salmon with the parasite, however, it may retard repair of skin. The cortisol induced changes are in close concordance with the existing concept of wound healing cascade.

  12. Draft genomes and reference transcriptomes extend the coding potential of the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

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    Angela D. Millar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Draft and complete genome sequences from bacteria are key tools to understand genetic determinants involved in pathogenesis in several disease models. Piscirickettsia salmonis is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome (SRS, a bacterial disease that threatens the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry. In previous reports, complete and draft genome sequences have been generated and annotated. However, the lack of transcriptome data underestimates the genetic potential, does not provide information about transcriptional units and contributes to disseminate annotation errors. Results: Here we present the draft genome and transcriptome sequences of four P. salmonis strains. We have identified the transcriptional architecture of previously characterized virulence factors and trait-specific genes associated to cation uptake, metal efflux, antibiotic resistance, secretion systems and other virulence factors. Conclusions: This data has provided a refined genome annotation and also new insights on the transcriptional structures and coding potential of this fish pathogen.How to cite: Millar AD, Tapia P, Gomez FA, et al. Draft genomes and reference transcriptomes extend the coding potential of the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. Electron J Biotechnol 2018;33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbt.2018.04.002. Keywords: Bacterial genomes, Coding potential, Comparative analysis, Draft genome, Piscirickettsia salmonis, Reference transcriptome, Refined annotation, Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome, Salmonids

  13. Immunoresponse of Coho salmon immunized with a gene expression library from Piscirickettsia salmonis

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    ALVARO MIQUEL

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the expression library immunization technology to study the protection of Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch to the infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis. Purified DNA from this bacterium was sonicated and the fragments were cloned in the expression vector pCMV-Bios. Two libraries were obtained containing 22,000 and 28,000 colonies and corresponding to approximately 8 and 10 times the genome of the pathogen, respectively. On average, the size of the inserts ranged between 300 and 1,000 bp. The plasmid DNA isolated from one of these libraries was purified and 20 µg were injected intramuscularly into 60 fish followed by a second dose of 10 µg applied 40 days later. As control, fish were injected with the same amount of DNA of the vector pCMV-Bios without insert. The titer of IgM anti-P. salmonis of vaccinated fish, evaluated 60 days post-injection, was significantly higher than that of the control group injected with the vector alone. Moreover, this response was specific against P. salmonis antigens, since no cross reaction was detected with Renibacterium salmoninarum and Yersinia ruckeri. The vaccinated and control fish were challenged 60 days after the second dose of DNA with 2.5 x 10(7 P. salmonis corresponding to 7.5 times the LD50. At 30 days post-challenge, 100% mortality was obtained with the control fish while 20% of the vaccinated animals survived. All surviving fish exhibited a lower bacterial load in the kidney than control fish. The expression library was also tested in Balb/c mice and it was found that the humoral immune response was specific to P. salmonis and it was dependent on the amount of DNA injected

  14. Genomic Prediction Accuracy for Resistance Against Piscirickettsia salmonis in Farmed Rainbow Trout

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    Grazyella M. Yoshida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonid rickettsial syndrome (SRS, caused by the intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, is one of the main diseases affecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss farming. To accelerate genetic progress, genomic selection methods can be used as an effective approach to control the disease. The aims of this study were: (i to compare the accuracy of estimated breeding values using pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (PBLUP with genomic BLUP (GBLUP, single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP, Bayes C, and Bayesian Lasso (LASSO; and (ii to test the accuracy of genomic prediction and PBLUP using different marker densities (0.5, 3, 10, 20, and 27 K for resistance against P. salmonis in rainbow trout. Phenotypes were recorded as number of days to death (DD and binary survival (BS from 2416 fish challenged with P. salmonis. A total of 1934 fish were genotyped using a 57 K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array. All genomic prediction methods achieved higher accuracies than PBLUP. The relative increase in accuracy for different genomic models ranged from 28 to 41% for both DD and BS at 27 K SNP. Between different genomic models, the highest relative increase in accuracy was obtained with Bayes C (∼40%, where 3 K SNP was enough to achieve a similar accuracy to that of the 27 K SNP for both traits. For resistance against P. salmonis in rainbow trout, we showed that genomic predictions using GBLUP, ssGBLUP, Bayes C, and LASSO can increase accuracy compared with PBLUP. Moreover, it is possible to use relatively low-density SNP panels for genomic prediction without compromising accuracy predictions for resistance against P. salmonis in rainbow trout.

  15. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  16. A novel liquid medium for the efficient growth of the salmonid pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and optimization of culture conditions.

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    Mirtha Henríquez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the bacterium that causes Piscirickettsiosis, a systemic disease of salmonid fish responsible for significant economic losses within the aquaculture industry worldwide. The growth of the bacterium for vaccine formulation has been traditionally accomplished by infecting eukaryotic cell lines, a process that involves high production costs and is time-consuming. Recent research has demonstrated that it is possible to culture pure P. salmonis in a blood containing (cell-free medium. In the present work we demonstrate the growth of P. salmonis in a liquid medium free from blood and serum components, thus establishing a novel and simplified bacteriological medium. Additionally, the new media reported provides improved growth conditions for P. salmonis, where biomass concentrations of approximately 800 mg cell dry weight L(-1 were obtained, about eight times higher than those reported for the blood containing medium. A 2- level full factorial design was employed to evaluate the significance of the main medium components on cell growth and an optimal temperature range of 23-27°C was determined for the microorganism to grow in the novel liquid media. Therefore, these results represent a breakthrough regarding P. salmonis research in order to optimize pure P. salmonis growth in liquid blood and serum free medium.

  17. In vitro expression of Sec-dependent pathway and type 4B secretion system in Piscirickettsia salmonis.

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    Cortés, Marcos; Sánchez, Patricio; Ruiz, Pamela; Haro, Ronie; Sáez, Jerson; Sánchez, Fabián; Hernández, Mauricio; Oliver, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2017-09-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Piscirickettsiosis, a disease responsible for considerable mortalities in the Chilean salmon farming industry. Currently, P. salmonis protein translocation across the membrane and the mechanisms by which virulence factors are delivered to host cells are poorly understood. However, it is known that Gram-negative bacteria possess several mechanisms that transport proteins to the periplasmic and extracellular compartments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressional changes of several genes in the P. salmonis Sec-dependent pathway and type 4B secretion system during in vitro infection. Genes homologous and the main proteins belonging to Sec-dependent pathway and Type 4 Dot/Icm secretion system were found in the genome and proteome of P. salmonis AUSTRAL-005 strain. Additionally, several genes of these protein transport mechanisms were overexpressed during in vitro P. salmonis infection in SHK-1 cell line. The obtained data indicate that the Sec-dependent pathway and Type 4B secretion system are biologically active during P. salmonis infection. These mechanisms could contribute to the recycling of proteins into the inner and outer bacterial membrane and in translocate virulence factors to infected cell, which would favor the structural integrity and virulence of this bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Sea of Marmara: New Locality for Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zedam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut and Gabrion, 1988 (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Caligidae from Turkey

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    Alaş Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut and Gabrion, 1988 (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Caligidae an ectoparasite of flatfishes, was reported for the first time in the Sea of Marmara Coasts.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Serum Extracellular Vesicles (EVs from Atlantic Salmon Infected with Piscirickettsia Salmonis

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    Leidy Lagos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs is a common feature of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Isolated EVs have been shown to contain different types of molecules, including proteins and nucleic acids, and are reported to be key players in intercellular communication. Little is known, however, of EV secretion in fish, or the effect of infection on EV release and content. In the present study, EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy and Piscirickettsia salmonis infected Atlantic salmon in order to evaluate the effect of infection on EV secretion. P. salmonis is facultative intracellular bacterium that causes a systemic infection disease in farmed salmonids. EVs isolated from both infected and non-infected fish had an average diameter of 230–300 nm, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking, and flow cytometry. Mass spectrometry identified 180 proteins in serum EVs from both groups of fish. Interestingly, 35 unique proteins were identified in serum EVs isolated from the fish infected with P. salmonis. These unique proteins included proteasomes subunits, granulins, and major histocompatibility class I and II. Our results suggest that EV release could be part of a mechanism in which host stimulatory molecules are released from infected cells to promote an immune response.

  20. Comparative Pan-Genome Analysis of Piscirickettsia salmonis Reveals Genomic Divergences within Genogroups

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    Guillermo Nourdin-Galindo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia, a disease that seriously affects the salmonid industry. Despite efforts to genomically characterize P. salmonis, functional information on the life cycle, pathogenesis mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and control of this fish pathogen remain lacking. To address this knowledge gap, the present study conducted an in silico pan-genome analysis of 19 P. salmonis strains from distinct geographic locations and genogroups. Results revealed an expected open pan-genome of 3,463 genes and a core-genome of 1,732 genes. Two marked genogroups were identified, as confirmed by phylogenetic and phylogenomic relationships to the LF-89 and EM-90 reference strains, as well as by assessments of genomic structures. Different structural configurations were found for the six identified copies of the ribosomal operon in the P. salmonis genome, indicating translocation throughout the genetic material. Chromosomal divergences in genomic localization and quantity of genetic cassettes were also found for the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system. To determine divergences between core-genomes, additional pan-genome descriptions were compiled for the so-termed LF and EM genogroups. Open pan-genomes composed of 2,924 and 2,778 genes and core-genomes composed of 2,170 and 2,228 genes were respectively found for the LF and EM genogroups. The core-genomes were functionally annotated using the Gene Ontology, KEGG, and Virulence Factor databases, revealing the presence of several shared groups of genes related to basic function of intracellular survival and bacterial pathogenesis. Additionally, the specific pan-genomes for the LF and EM genogroups were defined, resulting in the identification of 148 and 273 exclusive proteins, respectively. Notably, specific virulence factors linked to adherence, colonization, invasion factors, and endotoxins were established. The obtained data suggest that these

  1. A model for studying isolation mechanisms in parasite populations: the genus Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Caligidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meeus, T; Renaud, F; Gabrion, C

    1990-05-01

    In the Mediterranean, the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus thompsoni Baird, 1850 specifically infests turbot (Psetta maxima L., 1758), whereas L. europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut, and Gabrion, 1988 infests brill (Scophthalmus rhombus L., 1758) and flounder (Platichthys flesus L., 1758). Experimental infestation of turbot by copepods from each of the three fish species showed an absence of any physiological incompatibility preventing natural development of the two parasite species, at least on one host species, i.e., the turbot. Moreover, interspecific hybrids were obtained experimentally, which implies that 1) there is no strict genetic barrier between the two species and 2) the natural prezygotic isolation results from a choice of the most favorable habitat. We discuss the origin and possible consequences of the presence, in the Mediterranean, of L. europaensis on brill and flounder, two hosts separated by their taxonomic status and ecobiology.

  2. A new Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

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    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several groups of copepods that are teleost parasites, the siphonostomatoid family Caligidae is by far the most widespread and diverse. With more than 108 nominal species, the caligid genus Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann is one of the most speciose. There are no reports of this genus in Costa Rican waters. A new species of Lepeophtheirus is herein described based on female specimens collected from plankton samples in waters off Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The new species, L. alvaroi sp. nov., has some affinities with other congeners bearing a relatively short abdomen, a wider than long genital complex and a 3-segmented exopod of leg 4. it differs from most of these species by the presence of an unbranched maxillular process and by the relative lengths of the terminal claws of leg 4, with two equally long elements. it is most closely related to two other Eastern Pacific species: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 and L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. it differs from these species by the proportions and shape of the genital complex, the shape of the sternal furca, the relative length of the maxillar segments, the absence of a pectiniform process on the distal maxillar segment, the length of leg 4 and the armature of leg 5. The new species represents the first Lepeophtheirus described from Costa Rican waters of the Pacific. The low diversity of this genus in this tropi- cal region is explained by its tendency to prefer hosts from temperate latitudes. Until further evidence is found, the host of this Lepeophtheirus species remains unknown.Entre los varios grupos de copépodos que son parásitos de teleósteos, la familia sifonostomatoide Caligidae incluye los más dispersos y diversos. Con más de 108 especies nominales, el género de calígidos Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann es uno de los más diversos. No existen registros previos de este género en aguas de Costa Rica. Se describe una nueva especie de

  3. A new Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

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    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several groups of copepods that are teleost parasites, the siphonostomatoid family Caligidae is by far the most widespread and diverse. With more than 108 nominal species, the caligid genus Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann is one of the most speciose. There are no reports of this genus in Costa Rican waters. A new species of Lepeophtheirus is herein described based on female specimens collected from plankton samples in waters off Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The new species, L. alvaroi sp. nov., has some affinities with other congeners bearing a relatively short abdomen, a wider than long genital complex and a 3-segmented exopod of leg 4. it differs from most of these species by the presence of an unbranched maxillular process and by the relative lengths of the terminal claws of leg 4, with two equally long elements. it is most closely related to two other Eastern Pacific species: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 and L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. it differs from these species by the proportions and shape of the genital complex, the shape of the sternal furca, the relative length of the maxillar segments, the absence of a pectiniform process on the distal maxillar segment, the length of leg 4 and the armature of leg 5. The new species represents the first Lepeophtheirus described from Costa Rican waters of the Pacific. The low diversity of this genus in this tropi- cal region is explained by its tendency to prefer hosts from temperate latitudes. Until further evidence is found, the host of this Lepeophtheirus species remains unknown.

  4. Production and immune response of recombinant Hsp60 and Hsp70 from the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

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    VIVIAN WILHELM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated and sequenced the genes encoding the heat shock proteins 60 (Hsp60 and 70 (Hsp70 of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The sequence analysis revealed the expected two open reading frames that encode proteins with calculated molecular weights of 60,060 and 70,400. The proteins exhibit a 70-80% homology with other known prokaryotic Hsp60 and Hsp70 sequences. The coding regions have been expressed in E. coli as thioredoxin fusion proteins. Both recombinant proteins were shown to elicit a humoral response when injected intraperitoneally in Atlantic salmon and also conferred protection to fish challenged with P. salmonis. The present data will facilitate further studies on the involvement of heat shock proteins in protective immunity of fish to infection by P. salmonis and their potential use in recombinants vaccines against this intracellular pathogen.

  5. Cloning and expression of the coding regions of the heat shock proteins HSP10 and HSP16 from Piscirickettsia salmonis

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    VIVIAN WILHELM

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genes encoding the heat shock proteins HSP10 and HSP16 of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis have been isolated and sequenced. The HSP10 coding sequence is located in an open reading frame of 291 base pairs encoding 96 aminoacids. The HSP16 coding region was isolated as a 471 base pair fragment encoding a protein of 156 aminoacids. The deduced aminoacid sequences of both proteins show a significant homology to the respective protein from other prokaryotic organisms. Both proteins were expressed in E. coli as fusion proteins with thioredoxin and purified by chromatography on Ni-column. A rabbit serum against P. salmonis total proteins reacts with the recombinant HSP10 and HSP16 proteins. Similar reactivity was determined by ELISA using serum from salmon infected with P. salmonis. The possibility of formulating a vaccine containing these two proteins is discussed

  6. Comparative Analysis of Membrane Vesicles from Three Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates Reveals Differences in Vesicle Characteristics.

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    Julia I Tandberg

    Full Text Available Membrane vesicles (MVs are spherical particles naturally released from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial MV production is associated with a range of phenotypes including biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, toxin delivery, modulation of host immune responses and virulence. This study reports comparative profiling of MVs from bacterial strains isolated from three widely disperse geographical areas. Mass spectrometry identified 119, 159 and 142 proteins in MVs from three different strains of Piscirickettsia salmonis isolated from salmonids in Chile (LF-89, Norway (NVI 5692 and Canada (NVI 5892, respectively. MV comparison revealed several strain-specific differences related to higher virulence capability for LF-89 MVs, both in vivo and in vitro, and stronger similarities between the NVI 5692 and NVI 5892 MV proteome. The MVs were similar in size and appearance as analyzed by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The MVs from all three strains were internalized by both commercial and primary immune cell cultures, which suggest a potential role of the MVs in the bacterium's utilization of leukocytes. When MVs were injected into an adult zebrafish infection model, an upregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes were observed in spleen and kidney, indicating a modulating effect on the immune system. The present study is the first comparative analysis of P. salmonis derived MVs, highlighting strain-specific vesicle characteristics. The results further illustrate that the MV proteome from one bacterial strain is not representative of all bacterial strains within one species.

  7. Genomic-based restriction enzyme selection for specific detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis by 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP

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    Dinka eMandakovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The gram negative facultative bacterium P. salmonis is the etiological agent of Salmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia (SRS, a severe disease that causes important economic losses in the global salmon farmer industry. Despite efforts to control this disease, the high frequency of new epizootic events indicate that the vaccine and antibiotics treatments have limited effectiveness, therefore the preventive and diagnostic approaches must be improved. A comparison of several methodologies for SRS diagnostic indicate differences in their specificity and its capacity to detect other bacteria coexisting with P. salmonis in culture media (contamination and fish samples (coinfection, aspects relevant for research, vaccine development and clinical diagnostic. By computer-simulation analyses, we identified a group of restriction enzymes that generate unique P. salmonis 16S rDNA band patterns, distinguishable from all other bacteria. From this information, we designed and developed a PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism assay, which was validated using 16S rDNA universal primers and restriction enzyme PmaCI for the amplification and digestion, respectively. Experimental validation was performed by comparing the restriction pattern of P. salmonis with the restriction patterns generated by bacteria that cohabit with P. salmonis (fish bacterial isolates and culture media contaminants. Our results indicate that the restriction enzyme selection pipeline was suitable to design a more specific, sensible, faster and cheaper assay than the currently used P. salmonis detection methodologies.

  8. Evidence of the presence of a functional Dot/Icm type IV-B secretion system in the fish bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

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    Fernando A Gómez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is a fish bacterial pathogen that has severely challenged the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry since its appearance in 1989. As this Gram-negative bacterium has been poorly characterized, relevant aspects of its life cycle, virulence and pathogenesis must be identified in order to properly design prophylactic procedures. This report provides evidence of the functional presence in P. salmonis of four genes homologous to those described for Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion Systems. The Dot/Icm System, the major virulence mechanism of phylogenetically related pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, is responsible for their intracellular survival and multiplication, conditions that may also apply to P. salmonis. Our results demonstrate that the four P. salmonis dot/icm homologues (dotB, dotA, icmK and icmE are expressed both during in vitro tissue culture cells infection and growing in cell-free media, suggestive of their putative constitutive expression. Additionally, as it happens in other referential bacterial systems, temporal acidification of cell-free media results in over expression of all four P. salmonis genes, a well-known strategy by which SSTIV-containing bacteria inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion to survive. These findings are very important to understand the virulence mechanisms of P. salmonis in order to design new prophylactic alternatives to control the disease.

  9. Immunization strategies against Piscirickettsia salmonis infections. Review of vaccination approaches and modalities and their associated immune response profiles.

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    Oystein Evensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonid rickettsial septicemia is a serious, infectious disease in Chilean salmon farming caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, causing heavy losses to the salmonid industry. P. salmonis belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, order Thiotrichales. SRS was first described in Chile in 1989, and infection with P. salmonis has since been described from a high number of fish species and in several geographic regions globally. P. salmonis infection of salmonids causes multifocal, necrotic areas of internal organs like liver, kidney and spleen. Histologically and immunologically the tissue response is formation of granulomas, often with central suppuration. The exact sequence of infection is not known but bacteria likely gain access to internal organs through mucosal surfaces and when infected, fish carry bacteria in macrophages. It has not been fully determined if the bacterium resides in the cytosol or hide within vesicular structures intracellularly, although there are indications that in vitro infection results in actin reorganization and formation of actin-coated vesicle within which the bacterium resides. Protection against lethal challenge is well documented in lab scale experiments but protection from vaccination has proven more difficult to attain long term under field conditions. Current vaccination protocols include whole cell, inactivated and adjuvanted vaccines for injection for primary immunization followed by oral boost where timing of boost delivery is followed by measuring circulating antibody levels against the pathogen. Documentation also exist that there is correlation between antibody titers and protection against mortality. Future vaccination regimes will likely also include live, attenuated vaccines or other technologies such as DNA vaccination. So far there is no documentation available for live vaccines and for DNA vaccines, studies have been unsuccessful under laboratory conditions.

  10. The complete genome sequence of CrRV-Ch01, a new member of the family Rhabdoviridae in the parasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi present on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile.

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    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Skoge, Renate Hvidsten; Nylund, Are

    2018-06-01

    We have determined the complete genome sequence of a new rhabdovirus, tentatively named Caligus rogercresseyi rhabdovirus Ch01 (CrRV-Ch01), which was found in the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi, present on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile. The genome encodes the five canonical rhabdovirus proteins in addition to an unknown protein, in the order N-P-M-U (unknown)-G-L. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus clusters with two rhabdoviruses (Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus No9 and Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus No127) obtained from another parasitic caligid, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, present on farmed Atlantic salmon on the west coast of Norway.

  11. The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae): insights into the egg production strategy of parasitic copepods.

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    Frade, D G; Santos, M J; Cavaleiro, F I

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller O. F., 1776), a caligid copepod, which is commonly found infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), is studied in detail for the first time. Seasonal variation in body dimensions and reproductive effort are analysed. Data for 120 ovigerous females, 30 from each season of the year, were considered in the analyses. Females were larger and produced a larger number of smaller eggs in winter, than during the summer. The relationship between egg number and egg size is similar to that recorded for other copepods exploiting fish hosts. Much of the recorded variation was also similar to that reported for a copepod parasitic on an invertebrate host, which suggests the possibility of a general trend in copepod reproduction. Overall, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that there is an alternation of summer and winter generations.

  12. Ichthyobodo salmonis sp. n. (Ichthyobodonidae, Kinetoplastida), an euryhaline ectoparasite infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

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    ISAKSEN, TROND E.; KARLSBAKK, EGIL; WATANABE, KUNINORI; NYLUND, ARE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences have previously revealed the existence of 2 Ichthyobodo species able to infect Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Ichthyobodo necator sensu stricto (s.s.) is assumed to be a freshwater parasite, while a genetically distinct but undescribed species, Ichthyobodo sp. II sensu Todal et al. (2004) have been detected on Atlantic salmon in both fresh- and seawater. In the present study a morphological description of Ichthyobodo sp. II from the gills of salmon reared in fresh-, brackish- and seawater is presented, using both light- and electron microscopy. Comparative morphometry show that Ichthyobodo sp. II from both freshwater and seawater displays a different cell shape, and is significantly smaller than I. necator s.s. Also, ultrastructural characteristics distinguish these two species, notably differences in the attachment region and the presence of spine-like surface projections in Ichthyobodo sp. II. Based on both unique SSU rDNA sequences and morphological characteristics, we conclude that Ichthyobodo sp. II. represents a novel species for which we propose the name Ichthyobodo salmonis sp. n. PMID:21756424

  13. Immunological response of the Sub-Antarctic Notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus injected with two strains of Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, D; Díaz-Ibarrola, D; Vargas-Lagos, C; Oyarzún, R; Pontigo, J P; Muñoz, J L P; Yáñez, A J; Vargas-Chacoff, L

    2018-04-01

    Eleginops maclovinus is an endemic fish to Chile that lives in proximity to salmonid culture centers, feeding off of uneaten pellet and salmonid feces. Occurring in the natural environment, this interaction between native and farmed fish could result in the horizontal transmission of pathogens affecting the aquaculture industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innate and adaptive immune responses of E. maclovinus challenged with P. salmonis. Treatment injections (in duplicate) were as follows: control (100 μL of culture medium), wild type LF-89 strain (100 μL, 1 × 10 8 live bacteria), and antibiotic resistant strain Austral-005 (100 μL, 1 × 10 8 live bacteria). The fish were sampled at various time-points during the 35-day experimental period. The gene expression of TLRs (1, 5, and 8), NLRCs (3 and 5), C3, IL-1β, MHCII, and IgMs were significantly modulated during the experimental period in both the spleen and gut (excepting TLR1 and TLR8 spleen expressions), with tissue-specific expression profiles and punctual differences between the injected strains. Anti-P. salmonis antibodies increased in E. maclovinus serum from day 14-28 for the LF-89 strain and from day 14-35 for the Austral-005 strain. These results suggest temporal activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses in E. maclovinus tissues when injected by distinct P. salmonis strains. The Austral-005 strain did not always cause the greatest increases/decreases in the number of transcripts, so the magnitude of the observed immune response (mRNA) may not be related to antibiotic resistance. This is the first immunological study to relate a pathogen widely studied in salmonids with a native fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation, Functional Characterization and Transmissibility of p3PS10, a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid of the Fish Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

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    José Saavedra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern due to its association with the loss of efficacy of antimicrobial therapies. Horizontal transfer events may play a significant role in the dissemination of resistant bacterial phenotypes, being mobilizable plasmids a well-known mechanism. In this study, we aimed to gain insights into the genetics underlying the development of antibiotic resistance by Piscirickettsia salmonis isolates, a bacterial fish pathogen and causative agent of salmonid piscirickettsiosis, and the main target of antibiotics used in Chilean salmon farming. We provide experimental evidence that the plasmid p3PS10, which harbors multidrug resistance genes for chloramphenicol (cat2, tetracyclines [tet(31], aminoglycosides (sat1 and aadA1, and sulfonamides (sul2, is carried by a group of P. salmonis isolates exhibiting a markedly reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline in vitro (128–256 μg/mL of minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis extended to those antibiotics showed that MIC of chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were high, but the MIC of florfenicol remained at the wild-type level. By means of molecular cloning, we demonstrate that those genes encoding putative resistance markers are indeed functional. Interestingly, mating assays clearly show that p3PS10 is able to be transferred into and replicate in different hosts, thereby conferring phenotypes similar to those found in the original host. According to epidemiological data, this strain is distributed across aquaculture settings in southern Chile and is likely to be responsible for oxytetracycline treatment failures. This work demonstrates that P. salmonis is more versatile than it was thought, capable of horizontally transferring DNA, and probably playing a role as a vector of resistance traits among the seawater bacterial population. However, the low transmission frequency of p3PS10 suggests a

  15. Presencia de Piscirickettsia salmonis en truchas de cultivo (Oncorhynchus mykiss) en Junín, Perú

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    Yunis A, Jefferson; Anicama D, Jahir; Manchego S, Alberto; Sandoval C, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la posible presencia de Piscirickettsia salmonis en truchas de cultivo (Oncorhynchus mykiss) en la cuenca del río Mantaro, Junín, Perú, mediante la prueba de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI). Se obtuvieron 180 truchas en forma aleatoria de tres piscigranjas, se beneficiaron, se les realizó la necropsia y se recolectaron muestras de riñón y bazo. Los tejidos fueron sometidos a la prueba de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI). Todas las muestras res...

  16. Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Salmon Gill Pox Virus transmit horizontally in Atlantic salmon held in fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Gjessing, M; Solheim, H T; Litlabø, A; Gjevre, A-G; Kristoffersen, A B; Powell, M D; Colquhoun, D J

    2017-10-01

    Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Redescriptions of two species of Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Caligidae parasitic on teleost marine fishes from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Lepeophtheirus Nordmann, 1832 parasitic on the ariid fish Netuma barba Lacépède, 1803, and the bothiid fish Paralichthys sp. from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, are redescribed and illustrated: L. bagri Dana, 1852, and L. monacanthus Heller, 1865. New junior synonyms for these species are proposed: L. marginatus syn.n., L. christianensis syn.n. and L. platensis syn.n. of L. bagri and L. unispinosus syn.n. of L. monacanthus.

  18. Disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: coinfection of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

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    Jean Paul Lhorente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1 coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2 coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. METHODOLOGY: In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI of P. salmonis (primary pathogen or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen. Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish. Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. MAIN FINDINGS: C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545. Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23 ± 0.07; h2LC = 0.17 ± 0.08; h2HC = 0.24 ± 0.07. A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99 ± 0.01 but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = -0.14 ± 0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32 ± 0.34. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future

  19. Disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): coinfection of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23 ± 0.07; h2LC = 0.17 ± 0.08; h2HC = 0.24 ± 0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99 ± 0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = -0.14 ± 0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32 ± 0.34). C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation.

  20. Nutritional Immunity Triggers the Modulation of Iron Metabolism Genes in the Sub-Antarctic Notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus in Response to Piscirickettsia salmonis

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    Danixa Martínez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deprivation is a nutritional immunity mechanism through which fish can limit the amount of iron available to invading bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of iron metabolism genes in the liver and brain of sub-Antarctic notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus challenged with Piscirickettsia salmonis. The specimens were inoculated with two P. salmonis strains: LF-89 (ATCC® VR-1361™ and Austral-005 (antibiotic resistant. Hepatic and brain samples were collected at intervals over a period of 35 days. Gene expression (by RT-qPCR of proteins involved in iron storage, transport, and binding were statistically modulated in infected fish when compared with control counterparts. Specifically, the expression profiles of the transferrin and hemopexin genes in the liver, as well as the expression profiles of ferritin-M, ferritin-L, and transferrin in the brain, were similar for both experimental groups. Nevertheless, the remaining genes such as ferritin-H, ceruloplasmin, hepcidin, and haptoglobin presented tissue-specific expression profiles that varied in relation to the injected bacterial strain and sampling time-point. These results suggest that nutritional immunity could be an important immune defense mechanism for E. maclovinus against P. salmonis injection. This study provides relevant information for understanding iron metabolism of a sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish.

  1. Host specificity of Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere) (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the marlin sucker Remora osteochir (Cuvier) in the Atlantic Ocean.

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    Ho, Ju-shey; Collete, Bruce B; Madinabeitia, Ione

    2006-10-01

    Three species of remoras--Remora brachyptera (Lowe), Remora osteochir (Cuvier), and Remora remora (Linnaeus)--were collected from 4 species of billfishes--Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw), Makaira nigricans Lacepéde, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, and Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins and de Sylva--on board a Japanese long-liner Shoyo Maru during her cruise in 2002 across the Atlantic. However, only the marlin sucker (R. osteochir) was found to carry a parasitic copepod, Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere, 1936). Although 12 species of parasitic copepods have been reported from billfishes around the world ocean, none of them is L. crassus. Thus, L. crassus is considered a parasite specific to the marlin sucker.

  2. An evaluation of potential reference genes for stability of expression in two salmonid cell lines after infection with either Piscirickettsia salmonis or IPNV

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    Bols Niels C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the limited number of species specific antibodies against fish proteins, differential gene expression analyses are vital for the study of host immune responses. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the most powerful tools for this purpose. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the method will depend on the careful selection of genes whose expression are stable and can be used as internal controls for a particular experimental setting. Findings The expression stability of five commonly used housekeeping genes [beta-actin (ACTB, elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1A, ubiquitin (UBQ, glyceraldehyd-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and tubulin alpha (TUBA] were monitored in salmonid cell lines CHSE-214 and RTS11 after infection with two of the most fastidious fish pathogens, the facultative bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis and the aquabirnavirus IPNV (Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus. After geNorm analysis, UBQ and EF1A appeared as the most stable, although EF1A was slightly upregulated at late stages of P. salmonis infection in RTS11. ACTB instead, showed a good performance in each case, being always considered within the three most stable genes of the panel. In contrast, infection-dependent differential regulation of GAPDH and TUBA was also demonstrated. Conclusion Based on the data presented here with the cell culture models CHSE-214 and RTS11, we suggest the initial choice of UBQ, ACTB and EF1A as reference genes in qRT-PCR assays for studying the effect of P. salmonis and IPNV on the host immune response.

  3. Population Dynamics and Production of the Amphipod Corophium salmonis in Grays Harbor, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    tideflats in search of females. Kale -female ratios decreased in the lower intertidal, tod at all stations decreased ratios for mature and ismature C...of the sieved material (e.g. vegetation , wood debris, and fecal pellets) sank, while the Corophium species (as well as many of the other organisms...down to approximately +1.5 m. Beyond that point, the mudflat was largely devoid of vegetation . During spring, summer, and early fall, the tideflat had a

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of the Intracellular Facultative Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis: Expression of Putative Groups of Genes Associated with Virulence and Iron Metabolism.

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    Alvaro Machuca

    Full Text Available The intracellular facultative bacteria Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the most important pathogens of the Chilean aquaculture. However, there is a lack of information regarding the whole genomic transcriptional response according to different extracellular environments. We used next generation sequencing (NGS of RNA (RNA-seq to study the whole transcriptome of an isolate of P. salmonis (FAVET-INBIOGEN using a cell line culture and a modified cell-free liquid medium, with or without iron supplementation. This was done in order to obtain information about the factors there are involved in virulence and iron acquisition. First, the isolate was grown in the Sf21 cell line; then, the bacteria were cultured into a cell-free liquid medium supplemented or not with iron. We identified in the transcriptome, genes associated with type IV secretion systems, genes related to flagellar structure assembly, several proteases and sigma factors, and genes related to the development of drug resistance. Additionally, we identified for the first time several iron-metabolism associated genes including at least two iron uptake pathways (ferrous iron and ferric iron uptake that are actually expressed in the different conditions analyzed. We further describe putative genes that are related with the use and storage of iron in the bacteria, which have not been previously described. Several sets of genes related to virulence were expressed in both the cell line and cell-free culture media (for example those related to flagellar structure; such as basal body, MS-ring, C-ring, proximal and distal rod, and filament, which may play roles in other basic processes rather than been restricted to virulence.

  5. A Novel and Validated Protocol for Performing MIC Tests to Determine the Susceptibility of Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates to Florfenicol and Oxytetracycline

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    Sergio Contreras-Lynch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validated protocol, using a novel, specifically formulated medium, to perform broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility assays of the salmonid bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for florfenicol and oxytetracycline against 58 P. salmonis isolates recovered from various outbreaks occurred in Chilean salmonid farms were determined using this protocol. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI analysis was applied to these data to calculate appropriate protocol-specific epidemiological cut-off values. These cut-off values allow the isolates to be categorized as either fully susceptible wild type (WT members of this species, or as manifesting reduced susceptibility non-wild type (NWT. The distribution of MIC values of florfenicol was bimodal and the distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.896 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis calculated a cut-off value of ≤0.25 μg mL-1 and categorized 33 (56% of the isolates as manifesting reduced susceptibility to florfenicol. For the oxytetracycline MIC data the NRI analysis also treated the distribution as bimodal. The distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.951 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis gave a cut-off value of ≤0.5 μg mL-1 and categorized five isolates (9% as manifesting reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline. The susceptibility testing protocol developed in this study was capable of generating MIC data from all the isolates tested. On the basis of the precision of the data it generated, and the degree of separation of values for WT and NWT it achieved, it is argued that this protocol has the performance characteristics necessary for it to be considered as a standard protocol.

  6. Isolation and expression of the genes coding for the membrane bound transglycosylase B (MltB and the transferrin binding protein B (TbpB of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

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    VIVIAN WILHELM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated and sequenced the genes encoding the membrane bound transglycosylase B (MltB and the transferring binding protein B (TbpB of the salmon pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The results of the sequence revealed two open reading frames that encode proteins with calculated molecular weights of 38,830 and 85,140. The deduced aminoacid sequences of both proteins show a significant homology to the respective protein from phylogenetically related microorganisms. Partial sequences coding the amino and carboxyl regions of MltB and a sequence of 761 base pairs encoding the amino region of TbpB have been expressed in E. coli. The strong humoral response elicited by these proteins in mouse confirmed the immunogenic properties of the recombinant proteins. A similar response was elicited by both proteins when injected intraperitoneally in Atlantic salmon. The present data indicates that these proteins are good candidates to be used in formulations to study the protective immunity of salmon to infection by P. salmonis.

  7. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  8. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  9. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    prevalence and rate of early discontinuation of different drugs consisting of, in this study, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, antidiabetics and drugs against osteoporosis. Material and methods This was a register study based on prescription data covering a 4-year period...... and consisting of 470,000 citizens. For each practice and group of drug, a 1-year prevalence for 2002 and the rate of early discontinuation among new users in 2002-2003 were estimated. Early discontinuation was defined as no prescriptions during the second half-year following the first prescription....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...

  10. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  11. Predicting the effectiveness of depth-based technologies to prevent salmon lice infection using a dispersal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsing, Francisca; Johnsen, Ingrid; Stien, Lars Helge; Oppedal, Frode; Albretsen, Jon; Asplin, Lars; Dempster, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Salmon lice is one of the major parasitic problems affecting wild and farmed salmonid species. The planktonic larval stages of these marine parasites can survive for extended periods without a host and are transported long distances by water masses. Salmon lice larvae have limited swimming capacity, but can influence their horizontal transport by vertical positioning. Here, we adapted a coupled biological-physical model to calculate the distribution of farm-produced salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) during winter in the southwest coast of Norway. We tested 4 model simulations to see which best represented empirical data from two sources: (1) observed lice infection levels reported by farms; and (2) experimental data from a vertical exposure experiment where fish were forced to swim at different depths with a lice-barrier technology. Model simulations tested were different development time to the infective stage (35 or 50°-days), with or without the presence of temperature-controlled vertical behaviour of lice early planktonic stages (naupliar stages). The best model fit occurred with a 35°-day development time to the infective stage, and temperature-controlled vertical behaviour. We applied this model to predict the effectiveness of depth-based preventive lice-barrier technologies. Both simulated and experimental data revealed that hindering fish from swimming close to the surface efficiently reduced lice infection. Moreover, while our model simulation predicted that this preventive technology is widely applicable, its effectiveness will depend on environmental conditions. Low salinity surface waters reduce the effectiveness of this technology because salmon lice avoid these conditions, and can encounter the fish as they sink deeper in the water column. Correctly parameterized and validated salmon lice dispersal models can predict the impact of preventive approaches to control this parasite and become an essential tool in lice management strategies. Copyright

  12. Early Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  13. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  14. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  15. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  16. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.

  17. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  18. Early Transcendental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cowell, Simon; Poulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In Early Transcendentals (The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 104, No 7) Steven Weintraub presents a rigorous justifcation of the "early transcendental" calculus textbook approach to the exponential and logarithmic functions. However, he uses tools such as term-by-term differentiation of infinite series. We present a rigorous treatment of the early transcendental approach suitable for a first course in analysis, using mainly the supremum property of the real numbers.

  19. Sea lice population and sex differences in P-glycoprotein expression and emamectin benzoate resistance on salmon farms in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Burka, John F; Fast, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic sea lice are a major challenge for salmon aquaculture. This is especially due to the recent development of resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB) in the parasite. We investigated: (1) whether EMB treatment success in Grand Manan, Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada can be explained through EMB bioassay and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA expression studies; (2) if other populations of sea lice not under EMB selective pressure possess similar EMB sensitivity as Grand Manan sea lice populations; and (3) the heritability of EMB resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis. EMB bioassay results indicated population, species, sex and temporal differences in EMB EC50 values. RT-qPCR analyses revealed population and sex differences in P-gp mRNA levels, correlating with the bioassay results. Laboratory-reared sea lice maintained their EMB sensitivity status up to the F3 generation. Caligus elongatus, collected from Grand Manan showed more than twofold lower EMB EC50 values compared with L. salmonis collected from the same site. Concurrent exposure to EMB and verapamil yielded no increase in C. elongatus sensitivity to the parasiticide. Sea lice bioassay and P-gp mRNA studies can be used to track EMB resistance and sex differences in EMB sensitivity and P-gp mRNA levels exist in the parasite. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Early Retirement Payoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  1. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  2. Early Intervention in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallai, Maria; Katona, Ferenc; Balogh, Erzsebet; Schultheisz, Judit; Deveny, Anna; Borbely, Sjoukje

    2000-01-01

    This article presents five models of early intervention used in Budapest. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by the Pediatric Institute and the Conductive Education System are described, along with the Deveny Special Manual Technique and Gymnastic Method, the Gezenguz method and techniques used in the Early Developmental Center. (CR)

  3. The early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the physics of the early universe: the production and survival of relics from the big bang. The author comments on relic WIMPs as the dark matter in the universe. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to a review of the status of the only predictions from the early evolution of the universe that are accessible to astronomical observation: primordial nucleosynthesis

  4. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  5. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  6. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  7. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects on clinical...

  8. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  9. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  10. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  11. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  12. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...... benefits alone is not enough to promote implementation, as economic arguments and political and social pressure have shown to be important elements in efforts to achieve implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Users' narratives, close collaboration with community organizations and support from policy-makers and known...

  13. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  14. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  15. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  16. Who Gets Early Tracheostomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of early tracheostomy in patients dependent on ventilators are well established, the reasons for variation in time from intubation to tracheostomy remain unclear. We identified clinical and demographic disparities in time to tracheostomy. METHODS: We performed a level 3 retrospective prognostic study by querying the University HealthSystem Consortium (2007-2010) for adult patients receiving a tracheostomy after initial intubation. Time to tracheostomy was designated early ( 10 days). Cohorts were stratified by time to tracheostomy and compared using univariate tests of association and multivariable adjusted models. RESULTS: A total of 49,191 patients underwent tracheostomy after initial intubation: 42% early (n = 21,029) and 58% late (n = 28,162). On both univariate and multivariable analyses, women, blacks, Hispanics, and patients receiving Medicaid were less likely to receive an early tracheostomy. Patients in the early group also experienced lower rates of mortality (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Early tracheostomy was associated with increased survival. Yet, there were still significant disparities in time to tracheostomy according to sex, race, and type of insurance. Application of evidence-based algorithms for tracheostomy may reduce unequal treatment and improve overall mortality rates. Additional research into this apparent bias in referral/rendering of tracheostomy is needed. PMID:26313324

  17. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  18. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  19. Early cosmology constrained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Institute of Cosmos Sciences, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bellini, Emilio [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pigozzo, Cassio [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Heavens, Alan F., E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: emilio.bellini@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology (ICIC), Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  20. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  1. Early breastfeeding problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Thygesen, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Stilllength of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers’ perspectives...... on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also toidentify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full...... term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers’ open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Results...

  2. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  3. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  4. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  5. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... assistance providers, researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and...

  6. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  7. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    warrants careful analysis. The Third International Early Psychosis Conference proved to be a watershed and was the largest and most vibrant meeting to that point. This preface aims to set the scene for a selection of contributions, derived from the array of new evidence reported in Copenhagen, and recently...

  8. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  9. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  10. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  11. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  12. Characteristics of early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, P.F.; Emck, C.; van Engeland, H.

    2006-01-01

    There is little research on characteristics related to course and prognosis of early-onset psychosis. The present article aims to advance our knowledge of this disorder for the purpose of proper diagnosis and treatment. It focuses on premorbid and prodromal characteristics, treatment history,

  13. Early practice: neurotology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Joseph T; Vrabec, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Besides technical and surgical proficiency, some of the most important skills for a young Neurotologist to refine include communication and critical thinking abilities. This Early Practice article provides perspectives on common challenges and career development from a current Neurotology fellow and his mentor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi-act...

  15. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  16. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child′s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  17. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  18. Mapping the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe

  19. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  20. Coaching in Early Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Carrie; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Falling scores in math have prompted a renewed interest in math instruction at early ages. By their own admission, early childhood educators are generally underprepared and not always comfortable teaching math. Professional development (PD) in early mathematics is widely considered a main way to increase teachers' skills and efficacy (e.g., Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001; Piasta, Logan, Pelatti, Capps, & Petrill, 2015; Richardson & Placier, 2001; Sarama, Clements, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2016; Sarama & DiBiase, 2004; Zaslow, 2014). However, it has been documented that stand-alone PD is not as effective in changing practice (e.g., Biancarosa & Bryk, 2011; Garet et al., 2008; Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Zaslow, 2014). Site-embedded ongoing support in the form of coaching or mentoring has been shown to be critical for successful implementation (Neuman & Cunningham, 2009; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). In this chapter, we describe coaching models and abstract characteristics of effective coaching from the research. With this background, we provide an in-depth view of the coaching aspect of two large empirical studies in early mathematics. We introduce the theoretical framework from which the coaching models for these projects were developed and describe the research on which they were based. We then summarize how the planned models were instantiated and challenges to their implementation within each project. In the final section, we summarize what we have learned and described implications and challenges for the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  2. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  3. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced. Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly. Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  4. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  5. Mapping the early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-06-15

    From its unique vantage point 900 kilometres above the earth's surface, NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has a privileged view of cosmic background radiation - the remnants of the early (radiation-dominated) Universe which followed the Big Bang some ten Gigayears ago, and possibly some subsequent history. In this way astroparticle physicists get a first peek at the quantum cosmology which moulded the infant Universe.

  6. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  7. Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. ... As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest ... an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes ...

  8. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  9. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  10. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  11. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  12. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  13. Why Recruits Separate Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  14. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  15. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  16. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... economic and social gradient for first-time teenage mothers. Teenagers who had experienced family separation or who were formerly in out-of-home care in particular had an increased risk of early childbearing. Results showed that teenage mothers were in every respect in a more disadvantaged position than...

  17. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  18. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  19. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  20. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  1. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  2. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  3. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  4. The Early Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  5. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babic-Erceg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively, while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  6. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William K. Davis

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation

  7. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, C.; Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M.

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emissions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  8. Early tetrapod relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Marcello; Coates, Michael I; Quicke, Donald L J

    2003-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate differences between the most widely discussed hypotheses of early tetrapod relationships, we assembled a new data matrix including 90 taxa coded for 319 cranial and postcranial characters. We have incorporated, where possible, original observations of numerous taxa spread throughout the major tetrapod clades. A stem-based (total-group) definition of Tetrapoda is preferred over apomorphy- and node-based (crown-group) definitions. This definition is operational, since it is based on a formal character analysis. A PAUP* search using a recently implemented version of the parsimony ratchet method yields 64 shortest trees. Differences between these trees concern: (1) the internal relationships of aïstopods, the three selected species of which form a trichotomy; (2) the internal relationships of embolomeres, with Archeria crassidisca and Pholiderpeton scut collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Anthracosaurus russelli and Pholiderpeton attheyi; (3) the internal relationships of derived dissorophoids, with four amphibamid species forming an unresolved node with a clade consisting of micromelerpetontids and branchiosaurids and a clade consisting of albanerpetontids plus basal crown-group lissamphibians; (4) the position of albenerpetontids and Eocaecilia micropoda, which form an unresolved node with a trichotomy subtending Karaurus sharovi, Valdotriton gracilis and Triadobatrachus massinoti; (5) the branching pattern of derived diplocaulid nectrideans, with Batrachiderpeton reticulatum and Diceratosaurus brevirostris collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Diplocaulus magnicornis and Diploceraspis burkei. The results of the original parsimony run--as well as those retrieved from several other treatments of the data set (e.g. exclusion of postcranial and lower jaw data; character reweighting; reverse weighting)--indicate a deep split of early tetrapods between lissamphibian- and amniote-related taxa. Colosteids, Crassigyrinus

  9. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  10. Early determinants of mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.

  11. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  12. Cell Analysis and Early Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramaniam, Vinod; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    In an era of aging populations and rising health-care costs, the shift of medical paradigms towards rapid, accurate, early diagnoses of diseases is inevitable. In addition to further development of ultrasensitive in vitro tests, the focus of attention in both diagnostics and the early drug discovery

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  14. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  15. Early Maternal Time Investment and Early Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bono, Emilia; Francesconi, Marco; Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Using large longitudinal survey data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, this paper estimates the relationship between maternal time inputs and early child development. We find that maternal time is a quantitatively important determinant of skill formation and that its effect declines with child age. There is evidence of long-term effects of early maternal time inputs on later outcomes, especially in the case of cognitive skill development. In the case of non-cognitive development, the evide...

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  17. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  18. FAA Loran early implementation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    The Early Implementation Project (EIP), established by FAA Administrator Admiral : Donald C. Engen, was the initial step in the process of Loran integration into the : National Airsace System (NAS). The EIP was designed to give the FAA and the Loran ...

  19. Hypertension presenting early in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, Audrey; Kinsley, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Paraganglioma in pregnancy is an exceedingly rare and potentially life?threatening diagnosis. It is important that the clinicians consider secondary causes when women present with hypertension in early pregnancy.

  20. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  1. [Early management of cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.

  2. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  3. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  4. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  5. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  6. Early vision and visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT), based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constru...

  7. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  8. Early presentation of primary glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguer, R; Tanguy, J-Y; Rousseau, A; Clavreul, A; Menei, P

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and neuroimaging findings of glioblastomas (GBM) at an early stage have rarely been described and those tumors are most probably under-diagnosed. Furthermore, their genetic alterations, to our knowledge, have never been previously reported. We report the clinical as well as neuroimaging findings of four early cases of patients with GBM. In our series, early stage GBM occurred at a mean age of 57 years. All patients had seizures as their first symptom. In all early stages, MRI showed a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted sequences and an enhancement on GdE-T1WI sequences. A hyperintense signal on diffusion sequences with a low ADC value was also found. These early observed occurrences of GBM developed rapidly and presented the MRI characteristics of classic GBM within a few weeks. The GBM size was multiplied by 32 in one month. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the de novo nature of these tumors, i.e. absence of mutant IDH1 R132H protein expression, which is a diagnostic marker of low-grade diffuse glioma and secondary GBM. A better knowledge of early GBM presentation would allow a more suitable management of the patients and may improve their prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-04-01

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational.

  11. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  12. Routine Early Angioplasty after Fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Liang, Bo; Mei, Qibing

    2009-01-01

    patients in the group that underwent routine early PCI than in the group that received standard treatment received clopidogrel (Ppatients who undergo PCI, as well as in those who do not, is well established,1...... with early beta-blocker therapy is taken into consideration.3 The overall benefit of clopidogrel and beta-blocker therapy could have influenced the outcome in patients who underwent early PCI. These facts leave the conclusion of the TRANSFER-AMI trial still highly uncertain.......To the Editor: Cantor et al. report that there is a significantly reduced rate of ischemic complications among patients with myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation who are transferred for PCI within 6 hours after fibrinolysis. However, Table 2 of the article shows that significantly more...

  13. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  14. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  15. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  16. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  17. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  18. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  19. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  20. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  1. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  2. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  3. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  4. Early Childhood Education in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura

    This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…

  5. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...

  6. Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen, Amalia A. van

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, glucocorticoids (GC) are used for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the last decade, results from clinical studies of treatment with GC as additional therapy to long-acting antirheumatic drugs in patients with early RA suggested also disease-modifying properties of

  7. Internationalism in Early Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Explores the nature and scope of internationalism in early 19th century adult education, using as a context the lyceums and mechanics' institutes of Britain and North America. The contacts involved newspaper and journal accounts, the personal advocacy of former members, written advice from promoters and administrators, and the contributions of…

  8. Management of early pregnancy loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, G. C. M.; Mol, B. W.; Ankum, W. M.; Bruinse, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In order to assess the available evidence on the management of early pregnancy loss, we performed a meta-analysis on the subject. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for randomized studies reporting on the effectiveness of expectant management, misoprostol treatment or curettage.

  9. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, the author has assembled his papers on elementary particle physics which are of importance for studying cosmology viz. the physics of the early universe. A rather detailed introduction reviewing basic principles and current trends in the relation particle physics/cosmology precedes the papers. (Auth.)

  10. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  11. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  12. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  13. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  14. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  15. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  16. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries...

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  18. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  19. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  20. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  1. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  2. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  3. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  4. Natural course of early COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhee CK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chin Kook Rhee,1 Kyungjoo Kim,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,2 Jee-Ae Kim,3 Sang Hyun Kim,4 Sang Haak Lee,5 Yong Bum Park,6 Ki-Suck Jung,7 Kwang Ha Yoo,8 Yong Il Hwang7 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Pharmaceutical Policy Evaluation Research Team, Research Institution, 4Big Data Division, Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Wonju, 5Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 6Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background and objective: Few studies have examined the natural course of early COPD. The aim of this study was to observe the natural course of early COPD patients. We also aimed to analyze medical utilization and costs for early COPD during a 6-year period. Methods: Patients with early COPD were selected from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data. We linked the KNHANES data of patients with early COPD to National Health Insurance data. Results: A total of 2,397 patients were enrolled between 2007 and 2012. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 was 78.6%, and the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D index value was 0.9. In total, 110 patients utilized health

  5. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  6. Pompe Disease: Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment Make a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsiu Chien

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  7. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  8. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  10. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme ....... Wider dissemination of EI services will probably benefit from better integration of potential funders, promotion of joint targets and shared financial or budgetary incentives....... overcome these difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Funding for mental health in general and for EI services appears low relative to need. One key argument for better funding for EI can be found in its favourable cost-effectiveness, but not all stakeholders beyond mental health administrators are aware of this...

  11. Pigments, parasites and personalitiy: towards a unifying role for steroid hormones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Kittilsen

    Full Text Available A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or "animal personalities". Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed.

  12. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas.

  14. Effect of ectoparasite infestation density and life history stages on the swimming performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To overcome sustainability obstacles and improve operations, the Atlantic salmon farming industry is testing novel approaches to production. Redistributing farm sites to offshore locations is one such solution; however, tolerance to high-current velocity sites must be considered, particularly if fish health status is compromised by parasites. We tested the effect of parasite density and life-history stage on the swimming performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar using a swim flume. Salmon with 3 different salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis densities (0, 0.02 � 0.01 and 0.11 � 0.01 lice cm-2 [mean � SE] were tested across the 4 major life-history stages of lice (copepodid, chalimus, pre-adult and adult for critical swimming performance (Ucrit. Salmon Ucrit declined slightly by a mean of 0.04 to 0.10 body lengths s-1 with high parasite densities compared to uninfested and low densities, across the lice stages, while progression through the parasite life-history stages had little effect on swimming performance. Our results suggest that increasing infestation density of salmon lice incurs negative fitness consequences for farmed Atlantic salmon held in high-current velocity sites, with little difference in costs associated with attachment by different life-history stages of the lice.

  15. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  16. Cosmology and the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses cosmology from both an observational and a strong theoretical perspective. The first part focuses on gravitation, notably the expansion of the universe and determination of cosmological parameters, before moving onto the main emphasis of the book, the physics of the early universe, and the connections between cosmological models and particle physics. Readers will gain a comprehensive account of cosmology and the latest observational results, without requiring prior knowledge of relativistic theories, making the text ideal for students.

  17. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  18. The early days of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  19. Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kočevar, Zala

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...

  20. Supporting Families through Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy McConkey

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments

  1. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  2. Early Identification of Psychosis: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Early Psychosis Initiative of British Columbia

    2000-01-01

    This document is an educational resource concerning the early identification of psychosis. Primary topics addressed include: an outline of the importance of early intervention; signs and symptoms of psychosis; and strategies for recognizing psychosis.  

  3. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENTS IN EARLY EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRESCU Alexandra; CONSTANTINESCU Adrian; TACHE Ileana

    2012-01-01

    The early education is analyzed as being the most profitable investment in education (R. Cuhna). early education supports later learning opportunities. The economic dimension of early education takes into account the fact that the necessary investment for a child to benefit from early education services is rather low when looking at the cost (both economic and social) generated by a child who misses this education level, not necessarily because of the late education start but because of the l...

  5. Early diagnosis of the Spondyloarthropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Naranjo, Luis Alonso; Londono, John D; Valle, Rafael Raul

    2005-01-01

    Spondyloarthropathies are a cluster of chronic inflammatory diseases that primarily include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis; arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies. The most common subgroups of spondyloarthropathies are ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is mainly based on unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis of at least grade 2 bilaterally or grade 3 unilaterally. How ever, in the early phase of disease, conventional radiographs are often too insensitive to show sacroiliitis and it usually takes several years for definite radiographic sacroiliitis to evolve. Thus, the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is a commonly delayed by 8 to 11 years after the onset of symptoms. As a result, diagnosing axial spondyloarthropathy in the absence of radiographic sacroiliitis is very difficult to rheumatologists. In the early phase of disease, HLA B27 test and magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliac joints may be helpful to the early diagnosis. In the presence of chronic low back pain the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy is about 5% and is about 14% if the back pain is inflammatory. The presence of = 3 features of spondyloarthropathy (heel pain, uveitis, dactylitis, positive family history, alternating buttock pain, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, asymmetrical arthritis, positive response to anti-inflammatory drugs) increase the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy to 90%. Both, the positive HLA B27 and magnetic resonance imaging with signs of sacroiliitis increase the probability of spondyloarthropathy, particularly in patients without spondyloarthropathies features or with only 1 or 2 features. Since ankylosing spondylitis in association with psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease is often HLA B27 negative, this test is of limited value under theses circumstances. Is important to consider that

  6. Observations of Early Optical Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Mason, Keith O.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) has performed extensive follow-up on 71 Swift Burst Alert Telescope triggered gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first ten months of operations. In this paper, we discuss some of the UV and optical properties of UVOT detected afterglows such as XRF 050406, the bright GRB 050525A, the high redshift GRB 050730, the early flaring GRB 050801, and others. We also discuss some of the implications of why 75% of GRB afterglows observed by UVOT in less than ...

  7. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  8. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  9. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  10. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  11. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  12. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within...

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  14. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  15. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  16. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  17. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  18. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  19. Cerebrovascular Diseases and Early Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Gündüz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular disease is one of the important causes of seizures and epilepsy among the advanced age group. Seziures are found to be associated with lesion localization and size in previous studies. METHODS: Here, we aimed to detect prevelance of seizure, relation of seizure and lesion localization, and observed seizure types. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy eight patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease or intraparenchymal hemorrhage who were followed in Cerrahpasa IVIedical School clinic were studied retrospectively and probability of seizure occurence within 1 month after stroke was evaluated. CONCLUSION: Among 378 patients hospitalized by acute stroke, 339 were diagnosed as ischemic cerebrovascular disease and 39 (10.3% had primary intraparenchymal hematoma. Seizures were observed in 16 patients (4.2%, 2 (%5.1 in intraparenchymal hematoma group and 14 (%4.1 in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Early seizures were detected in 33% of patients with anterior cerebral artery, in 6.8% of posterior cerebral artery and in 3.3% of middle cerebral artery infarcts and in three patients out of 12 who were known to have epilepsy. Seizure types were secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizure in nine cases (57%. Among whole group status epilepticus was observed in four patients (1.1%. Conclusion: Early seizure rates are found to be high among patients with anterior cerebral artery infarct and known epilepsy

  20. EGU's Early Career Scientists Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts Artal, L.; Rietbroek, R.

    2017-12-01

    The EGU encourages early career scientists (ECS) to become involved in interdisciplinary research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences, through sessions, social events and short courses at the annual General Assembly in April and throughout the year. Through division-level representatives, all ECS members can have direct input into matters of the division. A Union-wide representative, who sits on the EGU Council, ensures that ECS are heard at a higher level in the Union too. After a brief introduction as to how the network is organised and structured, this presentation will discuss how EGU ECS activities have been tailored to the needs of ECS members and how those needs have been identified. Reaching and communicating opportunities to ECS remains an ongoing challenge; they will be discussed in this presentation too, as well as some thoughts on how to make them more effective. Finally, the service offered to EGU ECS members would certainly benefit from building links and collaboration with other early career networks in the geosciences. This presentation will outline some of our efforts in that direction and the challenges that remain.

  1. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  2. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  3. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  4. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences......The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...... tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four...

  5. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  6. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  7. How early and how long?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Løvgren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Day care centres have become a normal part of Norwegian childhood, even among quite small children. In 1970 less than 3 per cent of Norwegian children of pre-school were enrolled. At the end of 2009 as much as 70 per cent of children aged 12 to 24 months were enrolled and for 90 per cent of them a full day stay had been arranged. Norwegian children with small children opt for an early start at a day care centre. However, the day care centre employees do not share the same views as the users of the services they provide. Only one third of them express the opinion that children may start at the age of one and have a full day stay at this age. The article discusses this discrepancy between the users and providers of public financed day care.

  8. LHCb Early Career Scientist Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrick Koppenburg for the LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    On 15 September 2016, the LHCb collaboration awarded the first set of prizes for outstanding contributions of early career scientists.   From left to right: Guy Wilkinson (LHCb spokesperson), Sascha Stahl, Kevin Dungs, Tim Head, Roel Aaij, Conor Fitzpatrick, Claire Prouvé, Patrick Koppenburg (chair of committee) and Sean Benson. Twenty-five nominations were submitted and considered by the committee, and 5 prizes were awarded to teams or individuals for works that had a significant impact within the last year. The awardees are: Roel Aaij, Sean Benson, Conor Fitzpatrick, Rosen Matev and Sascha Stahl for having implemented and commissioned the revolutionary changes to the LHC Run-2 high-level-trigger, including the first widespread deployment of real-time analysis techniques in High Energy Physics;   Kevin Dungs and Tim Head for having launched the Starterkit initiative, a new style of software tutorials based on modern programming methods. “Starterkit is a group of ph...

  9. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  10. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Koranne

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  11. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...

  12. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    When studying the evolution of the very early universe it is necessary to use a description of matter which is appropriate at very high energies, namely in terms of quantum fields. In such models there may be a period during which the ratio of pressure and energy density is - 1, an equation of state which leads to an exponential expansion of the universe (inflation). There may also arise stable topological defects similar to vortex lines in condensed matter physics. These defects (cosmic strings) form seeds about which gas can accrete to form galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The author reviews inflation and cosmic strings, emphasizing their role in generating the energy density perturbations which are required in order to explain the existence of structures in the universe

  13. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  14. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  15. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS AFTER RADICAL CYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Mager

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy (RCE is associated with a considerable number of early postoperative complications as before. Based on 10 years’ experience, this paper demonstrates the frequency (33.9 % and types of early complications following RCE, as well as postoperative mortality (5.5 % and its resulting causes. Although postoperative mortality is relatively low today, the frequency of early postoperative complications remains high as before.

  16. Early rehabilitation and participation in focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge; Roenn-Smidt, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Early neurorehabilitation is an interdisciplinary field. Thus, in order to eliminate unnecessary barriers for individuals with severe acquired brain injury in early rehabilitation, we need rehabilitation science that supports both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Participation can...... be studied directly and indirectly. This commentary proposes that active participation and the ‘‘lived body’’ are essential terms in early rehabilitation of severe ABI patients, and a description of how these terms are interpreted and handled in the practice is needed....

  17. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  18. Positioning and early mobilisation in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Moira; Penney, Maree; Russell, Petra; Bailey, Emma

    Stroke unit care, providing early rehabilitation, improves long-term outcomes for patients following a stroke. Early mobilisation and good positioning are recognised as key aspects of care in stroke units. Nurses working on stroke units have an important role because they are able to implement positioning and early mobilisation strategies 24 hours a day, reducing the risk of complications and improving functional recovery. Patients benefit if nurses work effectively with the therapy team in positioning and early mobilisation. Nurses also need appropriate training and expertise to make best use of specialist equipment.

  19. Scientific spirit in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Samacá Bohórquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Play and fun are key elements in the pedagogical work with five-year school children, since the teacher is required to carry out a hermeneutical and phenomenological exercise coming from the interaction among the different languages used by children to communicate their thoughts, emotions and ideas. In order to reflect about the scientific spirit in early childhood, it is necessary firstly to think about how its logic develops and operates and about the need to recognize in the sociocultural environment the possibilities to stimulate talents or the limitations demarcating their development, secondly, teaching practice must be thought in order to establish dialogue forums with students to know their needs and interests and guide their searches. To meet other is possible for children to the extent that the dialogical principle of knowledge interaction is recognized and the discovery of tensions and meeting points around the educational praxis, as an approach to infant’s rationality and his/her ways of learning, towards the social construction of boy and girl gender identity in our society.

  20. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  1. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  2. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  3. Cosmology and the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhigna

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  4. Cerebellar ataxia of early onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko; Yamada, Kazuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of childhood cerebellar ataxia were reported. All these cases showed chronic cerebellar ataxia with early onset, and the other diseases of cerebellum such as infections, neoplasms and storage diseases were excluded by clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including blood counts, blood chemistry, lactate, pyruvate, ceruloplasmine, urinalysis, serum immunoglobulins, amino acid analysis in blood and urine, CSF analysis, leukocyte lysosomal enzymes, MCV, EMG, EEG and brain X-CT. Two pairs of siblings were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis were cerebellar type (5), spinocerebellar type (1), one Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome and undetermined type (1). The age of onset was 1 to 5 years. The chief complaint was motor developmental delay in 6 cases; among them 5 patients could walk alone at the ages of 2 to 3 years'. Mental retardation was observed in 7 cases and epilepsy in 2. TRH was effective in 5 cases. The MRI study revealed that the area of medial sagittal slice of the cerebellum was reduced significantly in all cases and also that of pons was reduced in 5 cases. Different from typical adult onset spinocerebellar degenerations, most of the present cases have achieved slow developmental milestones and the clinical course was not progressive. Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of this disease in some cases. (author)

  5. Early Byzantine steelyard from Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial aim of this paper was to present scholarly circles with a detailed report about the insufficiently known Early Byzantine steelyard beam (Figs. 2-5; Pl. I/1 treasured in Belgrade City Museum (further in the text BCM together with a small counterweight (Fig. 6; Pl. I/2 which, judging by its dimensions and weight, does not belong to it. However, after inspecting the documentation of BCM and the National Museum in Belgrade (further in the text NMB, the supposition that the steelyard beam from BCM represents a part of the same hoard with the well known counterweight (Fig. 7 in the form of a bust of a Byzantine empress, and the unpublished chain system with hooks for hanging loads (Fig. 8; Pl. IV, which are kept in NMB, was confirmed. The detailed examination of the museum inventory records shed light on the set of circumstances which led to the separation of the parts of the Belgrade steelyard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177007: Romanizacija, urbanizacija i transformacija urbanih centara civilnog,vojnog i rezidencijalnog karaktera u rimskim provincijama na tlu Srbije

  6. On a chaotic early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Kenji.

    1974-11-01

    The theories regarding the origin of galaxies and elements are reviewed in this paper, and the assumptions made for these theories are discussed. It has been assumed that the universe has always been isotropic and homogeneous from the beginning of cosmic expansion. At the stage of very high density that any local irregularities such as galaxies cannot exist, the admissible deviation in this case from the mean value is only the statistical or quantum fluctuation of matter density, spatial curvature or their growth. It should be considered that the chemical composition of matters at the earliest stage consisted of most fundamental particles. However, if the fluctuation of matter density is statistical, the present values are too small. As for the origin of elements, it depends strongly on the period when cosmic radiation appeared. The final mass ratios of elements are given from the present baryon mass density, and are in agreement with observed values. The assumption of hot universe seems good. However, the time-independent ratio of photon number to baryon number is hardly understood. It is reasonable to assume for the early universe an inhomogeneous model whose space-time curvature is of turbulent character, according to weak cosmological principle. The inhomogeneous models to be considered are weakly non-linear perturbation theory, anti-Newtonian approximation and post anti-Newtonian approximation. Smoothing-out process, the origin of cosmic microwave radiation, the origin of galaxies and the origin of chemical elements are discussed. (Kato, T.)

  7. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  8. Near Heterophoria in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure near heterophoria in young children to determine the impact of early growth and development on the alignment of the eyes. Methods. Fifty young children (≥2 and accommodation responses, in the absence of optical correction, were measured using simultaneous Purkinje image tracking and photorefraction technology (MCS PowerRefractor, PR). The resulting heterophorias, and both accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) and convergence accommodation/convergence (CA/C) ratios were then computed as a function of age, refractive error, and an alternating cover test. Results. The mean heterophoria after approximately 60 seconds of dissociation at a 33-cm viewing distance was 5.0 prism diopters (pd) of exophoria (SD ± 3.7) in the children (78% of children > 2 pd exophoric) and 5.6 pd of exophoria (SD ± 4.7) in adults (69% of adults > 2pd exophoric; a nonsignificant difference), with no effect of age between 2 and 6 years. In these children, heterophoria was not significantly correlated with AC/A (r = 0.25), CA/C (r = 0.12), or refractive error (r = 0.21). The mean difference between heterophoria measurements from the PR and the clinical cover test was −2.4 pd (SD = ±3.4), with an exophoric bias in the PR measurements. Conclusions. Despite developmental maturation of interpupillary distance, refractive error, and AC/A, in a typical sample of young children the predominant dissociated position is one of exophoria. PMID:25634983

  9. From early wireless to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical information has been transmitted using wireless technologies for almost 80 years. A "wired wireless" electronic stethoscope was developed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the early 1920's, for potential use in ship-to-shore transmission of cardiac sounds. [Winters SR. Diagnosis by wireless. Scientific American June 11, 1921, p. 465] Today, wireless is used in a wide range of medical applications and at sites from transoceanic air flights to offshore oil platforms to Mt. Everest. 'Wireless LANs' are often used in medical environments. Typically, nurses and physicians in a hospital or clinic use hand-held "wireless thin client" pen computers that exchange patient information and images with the hospital server. Numerous companies, such as Fujitsu (article below) and Cruise Technologies (www.cruisetech.com) manufacture handheld pen-entry computers. One company, LXE, integrates radio-frequency (RF) enhanced hand-held computers specifically designed for production use within a wireless LAN (www.lxe.com). Other companies (Proxim, Symbol, and others) supply the wireless RF LAN infrastructure for the enterprise. Unfortunately, there have been problems with widespread deployment of wireless LANs. Perhaps the biggest impediment has been the lack of standards. Although an international standard (IEEE 802.11) was adopted in 1997, most wireless LAN products still are not compatible with the equipment of competing companies. A problem with the current standard for LAN adapters is that throughput is limited to 3 Mbps--compared to at least 10 Mbps, and often 100 Mbps, in a hard-wired Ethernet LAN. An II Mbps standard is due out in the next year or so, but it will be at least 2 years before standards-compliant products are available. This story profiles some of the ways that wireless is being used to overcome gaps in terrestrial and within-enterprise communication.

  10. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  11. REVIEW ARTICLE Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia in Early Infancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVIEW ARTICLE Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia in Early Infancy. AOK Johnson. Abstract. Conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia exists when the conjugated serum bilirubin level is more than 2 mg/dl or more than 20 per cent of the total serum bilirubin. It is always pathological in early infancy. The causes are many and diverse ...

  12. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  13. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  14. Early Adolescent Sexual Activity: A Developmental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…

  15. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  16. 37 CFR 1.219 - Early publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early publication. 1.219... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.219 Early publication. Applications that will be published under § 1.211 may be published...

  17. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  18. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  19. Early Care in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Meza, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes the importance of early care in child development, guiding a neuropsychological perspective of development. The early care model seeks to refer to the set of interventions aimed at children and their work in conjunction with a multidisciplinary team. It presents recommendations for the implementation of programs that allow…

  20. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  1. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  2. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  3. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face...

  4. Legitimacy and the Value of Early Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Tang; Song, Michael; Zhao, Y. Lisa

    2014-01-01

    To overcome resource constraints and achieve exponential growth, a new venture must rely on early customers of its products to communicate value and commitment to others. For this reason, founders of new ventures focus more on early customers as a key element of their founding strategy than on other

  5. Early-stage mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabaja, B S; Zelenetz, A D; Ng, A K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) rarely presents as early-stage disease, but clinical observations suggest that patients who present with early-stage disease may have better outcomes than those with advanced-stage disease. Patients and methods: In this 13-institution study, we examined...

  6. Early Childhood Math: Make It Manipulative!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet I.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that early childhood teachers should provide young children with creative, stimulating, and manipulative (hands-on) experiences rather than workbook pages in early mathematics programs. Presents reasons and corresponding counterpositions for using workbooks and suggests sample activities which teachers can use to make mathematics more…

  7. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  8. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark in 2...

  9. Radical surgery for early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Due to an effective screening programme, in the Netherlands cervical cancer is often detected in early stages of disease. For early stage (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/IIA) cervical

  10. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents’ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of

  11. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  12. Challenges and limitations in early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at

  13. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

  14. Transforming the Early Care and Education Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiotti, Sara

    2018-01-01

    There is ample opportunity for state boards to improve outcomes for children by strengthening the early care and education workforce and thereby improving the quality of early care and education. Ensuring that ECE professionals have the knowledge, supports, and resources they need to support children's learning is one avenue to improving the…

  15. Early Sport Specialization: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Specializing too early in life can lead to emotional stress, loss of motivation, and burnout, but the research is inadequate to resolve the question of whether early specialization or diversification is more beneficial from a psychological perspective. Nevertheless, some best practices are recommended based on the known benefits and detriments.…

  16. Gene expression in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; Buist, Marrije R.; Moerland, Perry D.; van Thernaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pelvic lymph node metastases are the main prognostic factor for survival in early stage cervical cancer, yet accurate detection methods before surgery are lacking. In this study, we examined whether gene expression profiling can predict the presence of lymph node metastasis in early stage

  17. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  18. Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hedayatollah; Obradović, Milan M.S.; Hoffmann, Martin; Harper, Kathryn; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Nanduri, Lahiri Kanth; Werno, Christian; Ehrl, Carolin; Maneck, Matthias; Patwary, Nina; Haunschild, Gundula; Gužvić, Miodrag; Reimelt, Christian; Grauvogl, Michael; Eichner, Norbert; Weber, Florian; Hartkopf, Andreas; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Brucker, Sara Y.; Fehm, Tanja; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Spang, Rainer; Meister, Gunter; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Klein, Christoph A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that metastatic dissemination often occurs early during tumour formation but the mechanisms of early metastatic spread have not yet been addressed. Here, we studied metastasis in a HER2-driven mouse breast cancer model and found that progesterone-induced signalling triggered migration of cancer cells from early lesions shortly after HER2 activation, but promoted proliferation in advanced primary tumour cells. The switch from migration to proliferation was regulated by elevated HER2 expression and increased tumour cell density involving miRNA-mediated progesterone receptor (PGR) down-regulation and was reversible. Cells from early, low-density lesions displayed more stemness features than cells from dense, advanced tumours, migrated more and founded more metastases. Strikingly, we found that at least 80% of metastases were derived from early disseminated cancer cells (DCC). Karyotypic and phenotypic analysis of human disseminated cancer cells and primary tumours corroborated the relevance of these findings for human metastatic dissemination. PMID:27974799

  19. Validation of the Early Functional Abilities scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W

    2018-01-01

    model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using......), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which......OBJECTIVE: The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch...

  20. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  1. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  2. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  3. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  4. Diastolic and autonomic dysfunction in early cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Emilie Kristine; Møller, Søren; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Presence of cardiac dysfunction in patients with advanced cirrhosis is widely accepted, but data in early stages of cirrhosis are limited. Systolic and diastolic functions, dynamics of QT-interval, and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) are investigated in patients with early stage...... cirrhosis during maximal β-adrenergic drive. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Nineteen patients with Child A (n = 12) and Child B cirrhosis (n = 7) and seven matched controls were studied during cardiac stress induced by increasing dosages of dobutamine and atropine. RESULTS. Pharmacological responsiveness was similar...... indicate that patients with early stage cirrhosis exhibit early diastolic and autonomic dysfunction as well as elevated pro-ANP. However, the cardiac chronotropic and inotropic responses to dobutamine stress were normal. The dynamics of ventricular repolarization appears normal in patients with early stage...

  5. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  6. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  7. Early onset depression: the relevance of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Asghari, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors that may differentiate early onset from late onset depression. A non-clinical cohort that had been assessed from 1978 to 1993 at 5 yearly intervals and that had a high prevalence rate of lifetime depression took part in the study. We established an appropriate age cut-off to distinguish early onset (i.e. before 26 years) of major and of minor depression, and examined the relevance of a number of possible determinants of early onset depression assessed over the life of the study. Despite several dimensional measures of depression, self-esteem and personality being considered, they generally failed (when assessed early in the study) to discriminate subsequent early onset depression, with the exception of low masculinity scores being a weak predictor of major and/or minor depression. Early onset depression was strongly predicted, however, by a lifetime episode of a major anxiety disorder, with generalised anxiety being a somewhat stronger and more consistent predictor than panic disorder, agoraphobia and minor anxiety disorders (ie social phobia, simple phobia). The possibility that anxiety may act as a key predispositional factor to early onset depression and to a greater number of depressive episodes is important in that clinical assessment and treatment of any existing anxiety disorder may be a more efficient and useful strategy than focussing primarily on the depressive disorder.

  8. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1993-01-01

    indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the early addition of prophylactic chemotherapy improves survival. Arguments in favour of early chemotherapy are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing...... a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against early chemotherapy is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out...

  9. The determinants of early retirement in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, David; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, Switzerland has experienced a large increase in the number of individuals going into early retirement. This paper examines the determinants of such early retirement using data from the newly implemented social-security module of the 2002 Swiss Labor Force Survey. In the sixteen-month period from January 2001 to April 2002, more than 36,000 older individuals, representing 8% of all workers within nine years of legal retirement age, became early retirees. One of the most imp...

  10. Diagnosis of early stomach cancer (Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Problems concerning diagnosis of early stomach cancer using X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are stated. Classification of early stomach cancer suggested by the Japan Endoscopy Society and division system of early stomach cancer into two main foms: depth (erosive-ulcerous) one and elevated (polypoid) one-is presented X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are shown to be high efficiency concerning revealingation of stomach mucous variations using biopsy, which allow to determine for certain whother the process is benign or malignant one

  11. Selective phosphorylation during early macrophage differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    -regulated phosphoproteins in the early stages of differentiation. Further analysis of the PMA-regulated phosphoproteins revealed that transcriptional suppression, cytoskeletal reorganization and cell adhesion were among the most significantly activated pathways. Some key

  12. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Early ontogeny of Labeo capensis (pisces: Cyprinidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the early development of Indian Labeo species (e.g. Khan. 1925; Ahmad 1944 ...... ber, size or intensity, was helpful in grouping North American cyprinid larvae. .... impregnated eggs of common freshwater fishes of Bengal. Curro Sci. 26: 125 ...

  14. PREVALENCE OF EARLY WARNINNG SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    Mental illness is a psychological, emotional and mental health problems that affects .... review of the field of child psychiatric epidemiology ... occurs at early adolescent and mood disorders tend .... types of hospitals, and primary health clinics.

  15. Diagnosis and early management of acute hyperammonaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Žerjav Tanšek

    2010-02-01

    Elevated ammonia concentration is neurotoxic and causes irreversible glial and neuronal damage resulting in cerebral oedema with poor outcome. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial and may considerably improve the clinical course.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma. Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most ...

  17. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  18. Early Education for Asian American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1980-01-01

    A review of early education for Asian American children (Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Koreans, Hawaiians, and Samoans) focuses on the 1975 Asian American Education Project, a study of the learning characteristics of preschool age children and its educational implications. (CM)

  19. Exploring Equity in Early Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Heather L.; Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines how postsecondary practitioners are encouraged to work collaboratively with child welfare agencies and other community-based organizations to identify and implement culturally responsive supports for former foster youth to promote early academic achievement.

  20. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  1. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE & EDUCATION: AN ICT PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Mishra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology serves to reinforce the educational bedrock of any country. Technology has revolutionized the teaching learning process by integrating different source of knowledge - clearly visible from primary to post-tertiary level. This paper examines the introduction of ICT in early childhood years centred on the relationship of ICT with the cognitive, emotional and social development of children. The paper discusses various aspects of the ongoing debate around ICT usage in the early years and tries to answer some of the relevant issues namely, the rationale for early introduction of ICT, the perceived risks and benefits involved in its usage, the role of the parents, and fostering appropriate application of ICT in the early childhood classrooms.

  2. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  3. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared to those with late-onset dysthymia, early-onset patients are more likely to harbor psychiatric comorbidity both on Axis I and II, exhibit less psychological resilience, and have more prominent family loadings for mood disorders. These findings suggest that this distinction is meaningful and that the early-onset subtype of dysthymia is more difficult to effectively treat. PMID:20049145

  4. Early Childhood Physical Education. The Essential Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)

  5. Early medieval touchstones from Sowinki, Greater Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin; Krzyszowski, A.; Zavřel, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, 1-2 (2013), s. 177-186 ISSN 0016-8874 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * graveyards * touchstones * metals * electron microscopy * social structure Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. AOSSM Early Sport Specialization Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F.; Agel, Julie; Baker, Joseph; Brenner, Joel S.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Côté, Jean; Engebretsen, Lars; Feeley, Brian T.; Gould, Daniel; Hainline, Brian; Hewett, Timothy E.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Kocher, Mininder S.; Myer, Gregory D.; Nissen, Carl W.; Philippon, Marc J.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early sport specialization is not a requirement for success at the highest levels of competition and is believed to be unhealthy physically and mentally for young athletes. It also discourages unstructured free play, which has many benefits. Purpose: To review the available evidence on early sports specialization and identify areas where scientific data are lacking. Study Design: Think tank, roundtable discussion. Results: The primary outcome of this think tank was that there is no evidence that young children will benefit from early sport specialization in the majority of sports. They are subject to overuse injury and burnout from concentrated activity. Early multisport participation will not deter young athletes from long-term competitive athletic success. Conclusion: Youth advocates, parents, clinicians, and coaches need to work together with the sport governing bodies to ensure healthy environments for play and competition that do not create long-term health issues yet support athletic competition at the highest level desired. PMID:27169132

  7. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  8. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  9. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system...

  10. Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... left the Congress and starting working as a healthcare consultant, when I finally decided to have a ...

  11. AOSSM Early Sport Specialization Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Agel, Julie; Baker, Joseph; Brenner, Joel S; Cordasco, Frank A; Côté, Jean; Engebretsen, Lars; Feeley, Brian T; Gould, Daniel; Hainline, Brian; Hewett, Timothy; Jayanthi, Neeru; Kocher, Mininder S; Myer, Gregory D; Nissen, Carl W; Philippon, Marc J; Provencher, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    Early sport specialization is not a requirement for success at the highest levels of competition and is believed to be unhealthy physically and mentally for young athletes. It also discourages unstructured free play, which has many benefits. To review the available evidence on early sports specialization and identify areas where scientific data are lacking. Think tank, roundtable discussion. The primary outcome of this think tank was that there is no evidence that young children will benefit from early sport specialization in the majority of sports. They are subject to overuse injury and burnout from concentrated activity. Early multisport participation will not deter young athletes from long-term competitive athletic success. Youth advocates, parents, clinicians, and coaches need to work together with the sport governing bodies to ensure healthy environments for play and competition that do not create long-term health issues yet support athletic competition at the highest level desired.

  12. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Supersymmetry: Early Roots That Did Not Grow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Jarlskog

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about early roots of supersymmetry, as found in the literature from 1940s and early 1950s. There were models where the power of “partners” in alleviating divergences in quantum field theory was recognized. However, other currently known remarkable features of supersymmetry, such as its role in the extension of the Poincaré group, were not known. There were, of course, no supersymmetric nonabelian quantum field theories in those days.

  14. Sprites and Early ionospheric VLF perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Amvrosiadi, Nino; Cotts, Ben; van der Velde, Oscar; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    Past studies have shown a correlation between sprites and early VLF perturbations, but the reported correlation varies widely from ~ 50% to 100%. The present study resolves these large discrepancies by analyzing several case studies of sprite and narrowband VLF observations, in which multiple transmitter-receiver VLF links with great circle paths (GCPs) passing near a sprite-producing thunderstorm were available. In this setup, the multiple links act in a complementary way that makes the detection of early VLF perturbations much more probable compared to a single VLF link that can miss several of them, a fact that was overlooked in past studies. The evidence shows that sprites are accompanied by early VLF perturbations in a one-to-one correspondence. This implies that the sprite generation mechanism may cause also sub-ionospheric conductivity disturbances that produce early VLF events. However, the one-to-one "sprite to early" event relationship, if viewed conversely as "early to sprite", appears not to be always reciprocal. This is because the number of early events detected in some cases was considerably larger than the number of sprites. Since the great majority of the early events not accompanied by sprites was caused by positive cloud to ground (+CG) lightning discharges, it is possible that sprites or sprite halos were concurrently present in these events as well but were missed by the sprite-watch detection system. In order for this option to be resolved we need more studies using highly sensitive optical systems capable of detecting weaker sprites, sprite halos and elves.

  15. Early X-ray diagnosis of coxarthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological and pathological comparisons on specimen of femurhead and neck at autopsy have shown a statistical relationship between osteophytosis of the femoral head and ulcerations of the joint cartilage. Especially there are highly significant relationships between the length of osteophytes and the diameter of the ulcera. The 'plaque'-sign shows to be a very sensitive indicator of early arthrosis. So there exist semiquantitative parameters for the X-ray diagnosis of early coxarthrosis. (orig.) [de

  16. Spotlight on daytime napping during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development.

  17. AOSSM Early Sport Specialization Consensus Statement

    OpenAIRE

    LaPrade, Robert F.; Agel, Julie; Baker, Joseph; Brenner, Joel S.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Côté, Jean; Engebretsen, Lars; Feeley, Brian T.; Gould, Daniel; Hainline, Brian; Hewett, Timothy E.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Kocher, Mininder S.; Myer, Gregory D.; Nissen, Carl W.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Author(s). This is an Open Access article. Background: Early sport specialization is not a requirement for success at the highest levels of competition and is believed to be unhealthy physically and mentally for young athletes. It also discourages unstructured free play, which has many benefits. Purpose: To review the available evidence on early sports specialization and identify areas where scientific data are lacking. Study Design: Think tank, roundtable discussion...

  18. Early x-ray diagnosis of coxarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.

    Radiological and pathological comparisons on specimen of femur head and neck at autopsy have shown a statistical relationship between osteophytosis of the femoral head and ulcerations of the joint cartilage. Especially, there are highly significant relationships between the length of osteophytes and the diameter of the ulcera. The 'plaque'-sign is shown to be a very sensitive indicator of early arthrosis. So there exist semiquantitative parameters for the X-ray diagnosis of early coxarthrosis.

  19. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaney, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fuller, G.M. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  20. Early stages of technology intensive companies

    OpenAIRE

    Muhos, M. (Matti)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to clarify the early development stages of technology intensive companies. The current literature does not offer an extensive review of stage perspectives for company growth – the overall picture of the field is somewhat vague. The evolution of this field remains unclear as well as the current state. Further, recent empirical stage models focusing on technology intensive companies have not been delineated. As companies move through their early stages, they face ev...

  1. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  2. Fluorescence photodiagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Sakai, H.; Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Furukawa, K.; Saito, Y.; Aizawa, K.; Hayata, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Sputum cytology examination is the most effective method to detect early stage central type squamous cell carcinoma. As sputum-positive early stage lung cancer usually does not show any abnormal findings on chest X-ray film, fiberoptic bronchoscopy is subsequently performed for localization. However, sometimes cases do not show any abnormal findings of cancer endoscopically because they are very early stage cases. For the purpose of localization of invisible lesions the photodynamic reaction was employed in this study. Photodynamic reaction is achieved by transfer of energy of an excited photo-sensitizer induced by photoradiation of light. This phenomenon was already recognized in the beginning of this century. Study of tumor localization of the bronchial tree using hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and a mercury arc lamp was first performed in the Mayo Clinic in 1960s. In 1978, krypton laser was used first as a light source by Profio and Doiron. Authors have been doing research on early localization of such endoscopically occult early lung cancer since 1978. They recently developed an image processing system using an excimer dye laser for early localization of lung cancer. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Designing a Free Academic Early Alert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Welch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the development and implementation of a cloud-based, academic early alert system using Google Sheets. It was written for a non-computer savvy person to be able to develop the early alert system. By creating a Master Sheet and using the syntax from the share function of Google Sheets, a unique sheet can be created for each advisor that limits information sharing of their specific advisees. By adding a Google Form to the sheet, advisor interventions can be captured that reflect interventions made as a result of the early alert sheet. Approximately 52% of students were identified on the early alert sheet by having at least one non-passing score on an exam. There were 35-50% of faculty advisors who documented their interventions in the sheet. The template and coding used to develop this academic early alert sheet may be applied to other central documentation needs, such as professionalism early alert. Conflict of Interest Dr. Welch reports owning stock in Alphabet, Inc, however, was not involved in the selection of Google as the preferred platform at this institution.   Type: Note

  4. CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Choi, Woo Suk; Ryu, Kyung Nam

    1992-01-01

    The CT findings of the acute cerebral infarction are well known. However the CT findings of early stroke within 24 hours of the onset have not been sufficiently reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate early acute cerebral infarction on CT within 24 hours after ictus. The early and accurate CT diagnosis could lead to the appropriate therapy and improved outcome of the patients. Authors retrospectively analyzed 16 patients with early acute cerebral infarction. Acute cerebral infarction was confirmed by follow-up CT in 11 patients, SPECT in 4 patients, and MRI in 1 patient. The CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction include effacement of cortical sulci or cistern (n = 16, 100%), hyperattenuation of MCA (n = 3), obscuration of lentiform nucleus (n = 6), loss of insular ribbon (n = 6) and subtle low density in hemisphere (n = 5). The most frequent finding was effacement of cortical sulci in our study, and it was thought to be the most important sign of early acute cerebral infarction

  5. New Early Cycladic Figurine At Nea Styra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, M.

    The existence of an Early Bronze Age coastal site in the district of Nea Styra has been known since the end of the 19th century when three marble figurines of early Cycladic type had been found in the area. During the 20th century survey investigations conducted by Greek and foreign archaeologists offered new evidence which demonstrated the significance of the site during the Early and Middle Helladic periods. A new figurine of early Cycladic type, which recently came to light at Nea Styra due to the control of building permits by the 11th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, reaffirms the identification of the area as one of the three most important sites on Euboea during the Early Helladic II period. This paper focuses on a newly discovered figurine and its typological character. The new find is compared to the figurines that had been found in the 19th century at Nea Styra. We hope that the scheduled excavations on the private land plot where the new figurine was found will offer new data leading to a better understanding of the character of the Early Helladic settlement in this part of southern Euboea.

  6. CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Choi, Woo Suk; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    The CT findings of the acute cerebral infarction are well known. However the CT findings of early stroke within 24 hours of the onset have not been sufficiently reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate early acute cerebral infarction on CT within 24 hours after ictus. The early and accurate CT diagnosis could lead to the appropriate therapy and improved outcome of the patients. Authors retrospectively analyzed 16 patients with early acute cerebral infarction. Acute cerebral infarction was confirmed by follow-up CT in 11 patients, SPECT in 4 patients, and MRI in 1 patient. The CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction include effacement of cortical sulci or cistern (n = 16, 100%), hyperattenuation of MCA (n = 3), obscuration of lentiform nucleus (n = 6), loss of insular ribbon (n = 6) and subtle low density in hemisphere (n = 5). The most frequent finding was effacement of cortical sulci in our study, and it was thought to be the most important sign of early acute cerebral infarction.

  7. Music as therapy in early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  9. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  10. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  11. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  12. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  13. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  14. Bipolar Disorder and Early Affective Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a

  15. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  16. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  17. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, I.

    1986-01-01

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  18. The radiology of early esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, S.

    1988-01-01

    The radiographic diagnosis of early esophageal cancer is described based on 25 cases in which depth of invasion was limited to not more than the submucosal layer. It is emphasized that double contrast radiography should be designed to delineate the subtle abnormalities of the esophageal mucosa and margins of lesions which are characteristic of early cancer, and that further investigation should be directed to improving the method of examination so that the detection of ep- and mm-cancer which has a better prognosis than sm cancer can be detected more readily. A macroscopic classification of early esophageal cancer (elevated, flat, depressed and mixed type) which is useful for both endoscopic and radiographic diagnosis is proposed. The 5-year survival rate of esophageal cancer which was limited to the submucosal layer or less (ep-, mm- and sm-cancer) was 50%

  19. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  20. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia, the Mi...... and scholars of international relations, international relations theory, international history, early modern history and sociology.......This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia......, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, and Russia to explore patterns of cross-cultural exchange and civilizational encounters. The authors analyze a series of regional international orders which were primarily defined by local interests, agendas and institutions, with European interlopers often playing...

  1. Bursts from the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Stodolsky, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of phenomena associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse

  2. Bursts from the very early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: les@mppmu.mpg.de

    2006-07-27

    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of pheno associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse.

  3. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishell, D.R. Jr.; Thorneycroft, I.H.; Nagata, Y.; Murata, T.; Nakamura, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  4. Autism: cause factors, early diagnosis and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shreya; Acharya, U Rajendra; Adeli, Hojjat; Bairy, G Muralidhar; Adeli, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurobiological disorder characterized by neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. Cognitive impairment, lack of social skills, and stereotyped behavior are the major autistic symptoms, visible after a certain age. It is one of the fastest growing disabilities. Its current prevalence rate in the U.S. estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is 1 in 68 births. The genetic and physiological structure of the brain is studied to determine the pathology of autism, but diagnosis of autism at an early age is challenging due to the existing phenotypic and etiological heterogeneity among ASD individuals. Volumetric and neuroimaging techniques are explored to elucidate the neuroanatomy of the ASD brain. Nuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neuroimaging biomarkers can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of ASD. This paper presents a review of the types of autism, etiologies, early detection, and treatment of ASD.

  5. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...

  6. Synthesis of IES Research on Early Intervention and Early Childhood Education. NCSER 2013-3001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; Justice, Laura M.; Siegler, Robert S.; Snyder, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    A primary purpose of early childhood education and interventions is to promote children's acquisition of knowledge and skills linked to later social competence and academic success. In this report, special attention is given to summarizing what has been learned about early childhood classrooms as contexts for development and learning, the kinds of…

  7. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  8. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  9. Early College for All: Efforts to Scale up Early Colleges in Multiple Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the positive impacts of the small, stand-alone early college model and the desire to provide those benefits to more students, organizations have begun efforts to scale up the early college model in a variety of settings. These efforts have been supported by the federal government, particularly by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program.…

  10. Clarifying Parent-Child Reciprocities during Early Childhood: The Early Childhood Coercion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less…

  11. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  12. Early Rehabilitation After Stroke: a Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Elisheva R; Moudgal, Rohitha; Lang, Kathryn; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Awosika, Oluwole O; Kissela, Brett M; Feng, Wuwei

    2017-11-07

    Despite current rehabilitative strategies, stroke remains a leading cause of disability in the USA. There is a window of enhanced neuroplasticity early after stroke, during which the brain's dynamic response to injury is heightened and rehabilitation might be particularly effective. This review summarizes the evidence of the existence of this plastic window, and the evidence regarding safety and efficacy of early rehabilitative strategies for several stroke domain-specific deficits. Overall, trials of rehabilitation in the first 2 weeks after stroke are scarce. In the realm of very early mobilization, one large and one small trial found potential harm from mobilizing patients within the first 24 h after stroke, and only one small trial found benefit in doing so. For the upper extremity, constraint-induced movement therapy appears to have benefit when started within 2 weeks of stroke. Evidence for non-invasive brain stimulation in the acute period remains scant and inconclusive. For aphasia, the evidence is mixed, but intensive early therapy might be of benefit for patients with severe aphasia. Mirror therapy begun early after stroke shows promise for the alleviation of neglect. Novel approaches to treating dysphagia early after stroke appear promising, but the high rate of spontaneous improvement makes their benefit difficult to gauge. The optimal time to begin rehabilitation after a stroke remains unsettled, though the evidence is mounting that for at least some deficits, initiation of rehabilitative strategies within the first 2 weeks of stroke is beneficial. Commencing intensive therapy in the first 24 h may be harmful.

  13. Roentgenographic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung Sook; Choi, Heung Jai

    1970-01-01

    The most significant feature of early carcinoma, be defined as the gastric carcinoma confined in mucosa and submucosal regardless of its size and shape, is its excellent prognosis; 5 year survival rate after operation in early stomach carcinoma amounts to 93 percent in comparison with around 25 percent in advanced carcinoma, and so the detection of this early stomach carcinoma is most important subject to minimize the mortality from stomach carcinoma at the present time. For the diagnosis of the early stomach carcinoma the radiographic study, cytology and gastroscopic examination are practised, and of those the radiographic study has been revealed commonly best results, but by usual method of upper G-I study it is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Therefore, we have been employed the barium and air double contrast method by insertion of the gastric tube. This method is simple and by this method, the adequate amount of air may introduced into the stomach for the best visualization of the mucosal pattern and gastric juice may also aspirated in a case of which the stomach wall could not be coated by barium because of excessive gastric juice. Summary of the results of this studies of early carcinoma detection at the department of radiology, Severance Hospital during 6 months since May 1969 are as followings; of 1407 cases taken upper G-I study with double contrast method, 17 cases were diagnosed as possible early stomach carcinoma radiographically, and then only 6 cases had surgical resection of stomach. Of these 2 cases were confirmed pathologically and one was considered as precancerots lesion

  14. Roentgenographic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung Sook; Choi, Heung Jai [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    The most significant feature of early carcinoma, be defined as the gastric carcinoma confined in mucosa and submucosal regardless of its size and shape, is its excellent prognosis; 5 year survival rate after operation in early stomach carcinoma amounts to 93 percent in comparison with around 25 percent in advanced carcinoma, and so the detection of this early stomach carcinoma is most important subject to minimize the mortality from stomach carcinoma at the present time. For the diagnosis of the early stomach carcinoma the radiographic study, cytology and gastroscopic examination are practised, and of those the radiographic study has been revealed commonly best results, but by usual method of upper G-I study it is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Therefore, we have been employed the barium and air double contrast method by insertion of the gastric tube. This method is simple and by this method, the adequate amount of air may introduced into the stomach for the best visualization of the mucosal pattern and gastric juice may also aspirated in a case of which the stomach wall could not be coated by barium because of excessive gastric juice. Summary of the results of this studies of early carcinoma detection at the department of radiology, Severance Hospital during 6 months since May 1969 are as followings; of 1407 cases taken upper G-I study with double contrast method, 17 cases were diagnosed as possible early stomach carcinoma radiographically, and then only 6 cases had surgical resection of stomach. Of these 2 cases were confirmed pathologically and one was considered as precancerots lesion.

  15. THE LONG REACH OF EDUCATION: EARLY RETIREMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venti, Steven; Wise, David A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the long lasting effect of education on economic outcomes. We use the relationship between education and two routes to early retirement - the receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and the early claiming of Social Security retirement benefits - to illustrate the long-lasting influence of education. We find that for both men and women with less than a high school degree the median DI participation rate is 6.6 times the participation rate for those with a college degree or more. Similarly, men and women with less than a high school education are over 25 percentage points more likely to claim Social Security benefits early than those with a college degree or more. We focus on four critical "pathways" through which education may indirectly influence early retirement - health, employment, earnings, and the accumulation of assets. We find that for women health is the dominant pathway through which education influences DI participation. For men, the health, earnings, and wealth pathways are of roughly equal magnitude. For both men and women the principal channel through which education influences early Social Security claiming decisions is the earnings pathway. We also consider the direct effect of education that does not operate through these pathways. The direct effect of education is much greater for early claiming of Social Security benefits than for DI participation, accounting for 72 percent of the effect of education for men and 67 percent for women. For women the direct effect of education on DI participation is not statistically significant, suggesting that the total effect may be through the four pathways.

  16. Challenges of Early Years Leadership Preparation: A Comparison between Early and Experienced Early Years Practitioners in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Leadership has been under-researched in the Early Years (EY) sector of primary schools in England, especially in leading change for professional development. The aim of this paper is to theorise what the leadership culture for EY practitioners looks like, and how Initial Teacher Training providers and schools are preparing practitioners for…

  17. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...

  18. [Early diagnosis of autism: Phenotype-endophenotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, S

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders have for some time been the focus of intense interest for clinicians and researchers because of the high prevalence of the disorders among children in the community (approximately 1%), their severity and pervasiveness. Particular attention has been paid to the early diagnosis of the disorder and to the intensive therapeutic intervention. Currently the best prognosis for autism lays in the early diagnosis and intervention. Postponing the diagnosis and the intervention beyond infancy is considered loss of precious time. The diagnosis of autism, which begins early in life, was until recently considered that could be reliability made at the age of 3 years. Recent follow up studies however on children at risk for autism (children who had an older sibling with autism) have shown that the clinical signs of autism emerge at the end of the first year and become distinct by the end of the second year when the diagnosis can reliably be made. From a clinical perspective it is noted that the early clinical signs of risk for autism are related to social communication (e.g. limited or absent response when calling his/her name and to joint attention), stereotype behaviours and body movements or unusual handling of objects (e.g. intensive observation of objects and stereotype movements of hands and tapping or spinning), incongruent regulation of emotions (reduced positive and increased negative emotion). There is also delay in developmental characteristics such as the language (both receptive and expressive) and motor (particularly in postural control - characteristic is the drop of the head backwards when the infant is held in horizontal position). Studies on various aspects of the endophenotype of certain clinical signs among infants at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders, such as avoidance of eye contact, delay in verbal communication and increase of the head circumference, may provide useful information and may assist the clinician on follow up in the

  19. The Effect of Early Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of early entrepreneurship education. To this end, we conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate a leading entrepreneurship education program that is taught worldwide in the final grade of primary school. We focus on pupils׳ development...... or negative effects. Because these earlier studies all pertain to entrepreneurship education for adolescents, our result tentatively suggests that non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills are best developed at an early age. As the entrepreneurship program has various features besides its entrepreneurship content...

  20. ENDOSCOPIC TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY RECTAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  1. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  2. The Toy model: Understanding the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter H.; Price, Richard H.

    2018-04-01

    In many branches of science, progress is being made by taking advantage of insights from other branches of science. Cosmology, the structure and evolution of the universe, is certainly an area that is currently beset by problems in understanding. We show here that the scientific insights from the studies of early childhood development, in particular, those of Piaget, give a new way of looking at the early universe. This new approach can not only be invaluable in undergraduate teaching, but can even be the basis of semi-quantitative predictions.

  3. Designing a Free Academic Early Alert System

    OpenAIRE

    Adam C Welch; Adam Greever; Carmen Linne

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and implementation of a cloud-based, academic early alert system using Google Sheets. It was written for a non-computer savvy person to be able to develop the early alert system. By creating a Master Sheet and using the syntax from the share function of Google Sheets, a unique sheet can be created for each advisor that limits information sharing of their specific advisees. By adding a Google Form to the sheet, advisor interventions can be captured tha...

  4. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...... receptor pathway....

  5. The early use of radiotracers in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, K.F.M.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the historical background to the use of radiotracers, pioneered by de Hevesy and Paneth before World War I. It traces their early use in ion and metal interchange in electrolysis, self-diffusion rates, early biochemical experiments on lead uptake in plants, phosphorus metabolism in rats, through to their wider use with the production of artificial radioisotopes after World War II. Photosynthesis experiments using carbon-11 and carbon-14 are described and their present-day widespread use in kinetics, metabolic pathway studies and therapeutics is discussed. (UK)

  6. Use of red ochre by early Neanderthals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Kellberg

    2012-01-01

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute t...... dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record)....

  7. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  9. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  10. Pathologic features of early inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Sydney D; Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Regueiro, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Often the pathologic changes of IBD are subtle and may not be present in a proportion of biopsy specimens. In cases of early disease, the changes may be missed, and additional specimens should be taken after a period of time. Modifying factors, such as prebiopsy treatment and coexisting disease, should be considered. A forum to review cases and allow for communication between gastroenterologists and pathologists is especially useful for clinicopathologic correlation and assignment of a working diagnosis to each case. Careful attention to the pathologic features of early UC and CD would be most useful when evaluating new therapies for IBD.

  11. Early-type semidetached system LY Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.F.; Leung, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to resolve a controversy regarding the configuration, mass ratio, and evolutionary status of the early-type close binary system LY Aur, the six bandpass OAO 2 observations of Heap and the ground-based observations combined by Eaton were analyzed. The Wilson and Devinney approach was used. The system is found to be semidetached, with the cooler and less massive component filling its Roche lobe, while the hotter component is close to its Roche surface. The system is not an early-type zero-age contact, as was suspected earlier. 20 references

  12. PROBLEM OF DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY CONGENITAL SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Martynova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of delayed diagnosis of early congenital syphilis in a child whose mother was observed in prenatal clinic starting from the 14th week of pregnancy. The child had specific skin rash already in maternity. The child was discharged home without examination in the hospital. Only manifestations of nephritis lead to admission of the child into an inpatient hospital. Only at the age of 1 month and 23 days the child was suspected of early congenital syphilis with severe polisimptomnym, and the patient was transferred to specialized hospital. 

  13. WMAP - A Glimpse of the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the "Big Bang" and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, precise constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. The history of this intriguing cosmological detective story will be reviewed. Recent results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) will be presented.

  14. Supersymmetry in the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    1995-06-01

    Supersymmetric flat directions can have a number of important consequences in the very early universe. Depending on the form of the SUSY breaking potential arising from the finite energy density at early times, coherent production of scalar condensates can result along such directions. This leads a cosmological disaster for Polonyi type flat directions with only Planck suppressed couplings, but can give rise to the baryon asymmetry for standard model flat directions. Flat directions are also natural candidates to act as inflatons. Achieving density fluctuations of the correct magnitude generally requires an additional hidden SUSY breaking sector

  15. The challenge of early surgery for cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Jensen, C.L.; Langballe, O

    2011-01-01

    Objective. In congenital cryptorchidism, a recent Nordic Consensus report recommends surgical correction at 6–12 months of age to prevent male infertility. In published series of orchiopexies the median age at surgery is often 3 years or more. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early...... centres is important when treating cryptorchidism with early surgery, otherwise the positive beneficial biological impact on fertility potential may be lost due to treatment failure. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00365599.2010.549091...

  16. Early Predictors of Eating Problems in Preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The epidemiology of childhood eating problems is far from being fully described. The present study aims to explore early predictors of eating behavior problems in preadolescence. Methods: The study sample comprised 1,939 children from the birth cohort study, the Copenhagen Child Cohort...... interval [CI] = 1.13–6.77; p = .03), with overweight at age 11–12 years and low annual household income as strong explanatory factors (OR = 4.79; 95% CI = 2.81–8.17; p early child...

  17. Stochastic evolution of cosmological parameters in the early universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop a stochastic formulation of cosmology in the early universe, after considering the scatter in the redshift-apparent magnitude diagram in the early epochs as an observational evidence for the non-deterministic evolution of early universe. We consider the stochastic evolution of density parameter in the early ...

  18. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  19. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)

  20. Early history of NMR at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has developed into an important research tool in chemistry. More recently, NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy promise to produce a revolution in medicine and biochemistry. Early experiments at Los Alamos led to DOE programs involving stable isotopes of importance to biology and to medicine. These events are briefly recounted. 2 refs

  1. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the

  2. The discovery and early understanding of leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.

    The early history of leukemia reaches back 200 years. In 1811, Peter Cullen defined a case of splenitis acutus with unexplainable milky blood. Alfred Velpeau defined the leukemia associated symptoms, and observed pus in the blood vessels (1825). Alfred Donne detected a maturation arrest of the white

  3. Early successional forest habitats and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Vose; Chelcy Ford

    2011-01-01

    Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10–20%, generally do not contribute to...

  4. Luncheon address: Early days of CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    This will briefly describe how the original dimensions of the fuel bundle were defined and how that early designs of fuel evolved. I will also touch on some of the historical events of the materials and experiments which effected the fuel programme. Also how I became with Canada's Nuclear Fuel programme. (author)

  5. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  6. Reflections on the early disarray in Darfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Minear

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available How has the international community acquitted itself since the beginnings of orchestrated violence in Darfur in early 2003? Why did it take so long to gear up and why were humanitarians so unequal to the challenges posed by the crisis?

  7. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  8. Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

  9. Just Say Yes to Early Algebra!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics educators have argued for some time that elementary school students are capable of engaging in algebraic thinking and should be provided with rich opportunities to do so. Recent initiatives like the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) have taken up this call by reiterating the place of early algebra in…

  10. The relation between antihistamine medication during early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... during early pregnancy & birth defects. Rabah M. Shawky a,. *, Neveen S. .... eration antihistamines targeting histamine – type 1 (H1) receptors. 2.1. ... can help in the treatment of inflammation in allergic airway disease [27]. ... mediated end points in animals that are given up to 120 times the human dose.

  11. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  12. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  13. Estrogen and early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. Slooter (Arjen); J.B. Bronzova (Juliana); A. Hofman (Albert); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractEstrogen use may be protective for Alzheimer's disease with late onset. However, the effects on early onset Alzheimer's disease are unclear. This issue was studied in a population based setting. For each female patient, a female control was matched on age (within 5 years) and place of

  14. Meteorite Dichotomy Implies that Jupiter Formed Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijer, T. S.; Burkhardt, C.; Budde, G.; Kleine, T.

    2018-05-01

    Meteorites derive from two distinct nebular reservoirs that co-existed and remained spatially separated between 1 and 3–4 Ma after CAIs. This can most easily be explained if Jupiter acted as a barrier and formed early, within less than 1 Ma.

  15. Early rehabilitation after elective total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Claudio; Caspani, Patrick; Bruggi, Marco; Carlisi, Ettore; Scolè, Donatella; Benazzo, Francesco; Dalla Toffola, Elena

    2017-10-18

    Outcomes after TKA surgery are supposed to be related to the intensity and type of post-operative rehabilitation. Aim of this paper is to describe our early rehabilitation protocol following TKA with mini-invasive surgery in the immediate post-operative period and analyze functional recovery and changes in pain scores in these patients. in this observational study, data were collected on 215 total knee arthroplasty patients referred to Orthopedics and Traumatology inpatient ward from July 2012 to January 2014, treated with the same early start rehabilitation protocol. We recorded times to reach functional goals (sitting, standing and assisted ambulation) and pain after the treatment. length of hospital stay in TKA was 4.6±1.8 days, with a rehabilitation treatment lenght of 3.3±1.3 days. The mean time needed to achieve the sitting position was 2.3±0.7 days, to reach the standing position was 2.6±1.0 days to reach the walking functional goal was 2.9±1.0 days.  Pain NRS scores remained below 4 in the first and second post-operative day and below 3 from the third post-operative day. Our study confirms that rehabilitation started as soon as 24 hours after surgery with mini-invasive approach, enables early verticalization of patients and early recovery of walking with a good control of pain.

  16. News in early intervention in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffray, Marie-Maude; Thevenet, Marion; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years. Data were extracted from systematic reviews and recent randomized controlled trials with moderate to high GRADE quality of evidence. Early intervention refers to brain plasticity theory. With the epidemiological studies of infant "at risk" there is an attempt to intervene earlier before full syndrome is present. Interventions tend to follow more on a developmental hierarchy of socio-communicative skills and to focus on the dyadic relation between the child and the caregivers to improve the core autistic symptoms. Over the last 6 years, there's been news and fine-tuned ways about early intervention, and more and more systematic evaluation. However, there are only few interventions which were evaluated in trial with a strong GRADE recommendation and all of them have methodological concerns. It is important to be cautious in recommendations for mental health politic, even if it is important to improve access to services for all children and their families, hence finance and design rigorous project in research.

  17. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... in the tradable sector, against a more traditional class-based logic of welfare state policy-making. Quantitative analysis of employment outcomes in 21 countries shows that the political economy of early exit clearly rests on the sectoral politics of cost-shifting.......Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... It is unclear, however, why early exit became so much more prevalent in some countries than in others and why such differences remain, despite a recent shift back towards higher employment rates and ‘active ageing’. We test a logic of sectoral cost-shifting politics involving cross-class alliances...

  18. Early Childhood Education in Saudi Arabia: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…

  19. "Queerying" Gender: Heteronormativity in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kerry H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores heteronormativity and argues for the "queerying" of gender in early childhood education. The author argues, utilising Butler's theory of performativity and heterosexual matrix, that the construction of gender in young children's lives requires an analysis of the normalising practices in which gendered identities are…

  20. Early Motherhood and Subsequent Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early motherhood has been linked with a number of adverse outcomes, including mental health difficulties and barriers to completing educational qualifications and workforce participation. The present study examined the extent to which these linkages could be explained by the influence of social, family, and background factors that were…

  1. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer. Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi *. Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. Received 16 October 2012; accepted 7 January 2013. Available online 7 March 2013. KEYWORDS. Breast cancer;. Axillary lymph nodes.

  2. Comparing early design methods for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis - Thiescheffer, R.J.W.; Bekker, M.M.; Eggen, J.H.; Robertson, J.; Skov, M.B.; Bekker, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a study which compares the outcome of two early design methods for children: brainstorming and prototyping. The hypothesis is that children will uncover more design ideas when prototyping than when brainstorming, because prototyping requires the use of a wider range of

  3. Parental experiences of early postnatal discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe B.; Aagaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    that included both parents, having influence on time of discharge, and getting individualised and available support focused on developing and recognising their own experiences of taking care of the baby. Conclusions and implications for practice the new parents׳ experiences of early discharge and becoming...

  4. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  5. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  6. Anti-early pregnancy by PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ling

    1993-03-01

    The effect of laser on anti-early pregnancy in rabbits showed that laser in combination with HPD could induce necrosis of blastocysts and complete absorption. The anti-fertility efficiency of the combined treatment was more effective than that of the He-Ne laser or the HPD treatment alone. The fluorescence spectrum of HPD determined by PNQ3 showed that its affinity to embryonic tissue was about 4 times greater than that to uterine tissue. This may underlie the mechanisms of anti-early pregnancy of the laser. The operation of artificial abortion is a routine method to terminate early pregnancy. Though it is simple and easy, its syndrome and complications can not be absolutely avoided. Many antifertility drugs have been reported, however, they often bring in general reaction. Our present work is to explore a new way of anti-early pregnancy in rabbits by means of the light inhibitory and light sensitive effects of laser. It is a quite safe and painless treatment without expanding and scraping of the uterus.

  7. Following Watery Relations in Early Childhood Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…

  8. Agentive and Communitarian Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…

  9. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  10. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  11. Early intensive rehabilitation after oral cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschorer, Maximilian; Schneider, Daniel; Hennig, Matthias; Frank, Bernd; Schön, Gerhard; Heiland, Max; Bschorer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of oral cancer requires an effective rehabilitation strategy such as an early intensive rehabilitation (EIR) program. The medical records and data of 41 patients who participated in an EIR program and 20 control group patients were analyzed. These patients all underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by microsurgical reconstruction using free flaps. The length of stay (LOS) at the acute care hospital was compared between the two groups. Four indexes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIR program. EIR patients stayed an average of 11.6 fewer days at the acute care hospital. All indexes showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The Barthel Index (BI) and the Early Intensive Rehabilitation Barthel Index (EIR-BI) improved by 36.0 and 103.6 points, respectively. At discharge, the Bogenhausener Dysphagia Score (BODS) had improved to a score of 11.0 compared to the 13.9 at admission. EIR patients had a Work Ability Index (WAI) score of 25.7. Length of stay at the acute care hospital can be reduced using early intensive rehabilitation if patients are transferred to an intensive rehabilitation clinic early. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Creativity in Music and Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)

  13. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  14. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  15. Early history of IVF in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Janežič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 1970s and 1980s represent the early era of in vitro fertilization (IVF research. This article is a concise review of the early history of IVF, focusing on the contributions made by Australian pioneers.Objectives: To research the history of the early days of IVF in Australia.Search Strategy: ‘IVF history’ was used as a search criteria in PubMed.Selection criteria: We selected articles that were dealing with Australian research on IVF in 1970–1980s and were also statistically sound where applicable.Data collection and analysis: We collected, processed, and analyzed the data, and summed up two decades of IVF research in Australia.Main results: The first ideas about introducing IVF research in Australia started in 1970. Years of trials and hard work bore success and the first baby was born in 1980. IVF procedures then spread quickly across Australia.Conclusions: Australia was a leading force in the early days of IVF and with many innovative approaches contributed greatly to the development of IVF as we know it today.

  16. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...

  17. Early space symmetry restoration and neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, G.G.; Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of early space symmetry restoration on the left-right symmetry models and the models with the extended (due to mirror quarks and leptons) fermion sector is being discussed. The experiments in which the derivations from the standard model of electroweak interactions should be studied are presented

  18. Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Neuropsychologic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The neuropsychologic performance of 27 children (about 6 to 13 years old) with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated and correlated with their serum phenylalanine concentrations at several ages. (Author/SEW) Journal Availability: The Journal of Pediatrics; The C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63141.

  19. Understanding Early Educators' Readiness to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shira M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the fields of humanistic psychology, counseling, organizational change, and implementation science have been asking a question that is at the heart of today's early care and education quality improvement efforts: When it comes to changing one's behavior, what makes a person ready to change? Although the concept of readiness to…

  20. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  1. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (<100 ms) and later phases (>200 ms) of rising muscle...

  2. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  3. Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…

  4. Early Childhood Music Education Research: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…

  5. Aspherical Supernovae: Effects on Early Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsariardchi, Niloufar; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    Early light from core-collapse supernovae, now detectable in high-cadence surveys, holds clues to a star and its environment just before it explodes. However, effects that alter the early light have not been fully explored. We highlight the possibility of nonradial flows at the time of shock breakout. These develop in sufficiently nonspherical explosions if the progenitor is not too diffuse. When they do develop, nonradial flows limit ejecta speeds and cause ejecta–ejecta collisions. We explore these phenomena and their observational implications using global, axisymmetric, nonrelativistic FLASH simulations of simplified polytropic progenitors, which we scale to representative stars. We develop a method to track photon production within the ejecta, enabling us to estimate band-dependent light curves from adiabatic simulations. Immediate breakout emission becomes hidden as an oblique flow develops. Nonspherical effects lead the shock-heated ejecta to release a more constant luminosity at a higher, evolving color temperature at early times, effectively mixing breakout light with the early light curve. Collisions between nonradial ejecta thermalize a small fraction of the explosion energy; we will address emission from these collisions in a subsequent paper.

  6. Quantum cosmology and the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the absence of a complete and manageable quantum theory of gravity, it is shown that considerable progress has been made in constructing cosmological models displaying the possible implications such a theory might have for the structure and dynamics of the very early universe. (U.K.)

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFIC AND EARLY DETECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of smear and culture methods with rapid serological EIA myco kits manufactured by Omega diagnostics, for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Sera from various categories of smear and culture results were compared ...

  8. Delayed early proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, RP; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    . In the patients, the early contralateral parietal activity was delayed and later central activity had increased amplitude, but gating was unaffected. The results could be understood within the "deficiency of corollary discharge" model of schizophrenia but not within the "filtering" theory. Further studies...

  9. Early Childhood Numeracy in a Multiage Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social…

  10. Neutrino oscillations in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.

    1990-01-01

    The oscillations of electron neutrinos into inert neutrinos may have resonant behaviour in the heat bath of the early Universe. It is shown that any initial neutrino asymmetry will be washed away by the oscillations. Neutrino oscillations would affect also primordial helium production, which implies stringent limits on the neutrino mixing parameters. (orig.)

  11. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terminated because there is a likelihood that the parolee will engage in conduct violating any criminal law... shall review the status of the parolee to determine the need for continued supervision. The Commission shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  12. Amotivation and functional outcomes in early schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2013-12-15

    Negative symptoms, particularly amotivation/apathy, are intimately tied to functional outcomes. In the present study, apathy strongly predicted psychosocial functioning in a sample of early course schizophrenia patients. This relationship remained robust even after controlling for other clinical variables. These data suggest amotivation is core to functioning across the disease course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment

  14. Lessons from early experience in reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.

    1976-09-01

    This paper deals with several issues in U.S. reactor development and demonstration experience. The focus is on the period between 1946 and 1963 during which the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) guided early reactor research and development (R and D) and conducted the Power Reactor Demonstration Program

  15. 23 CFR 710.501 - Early acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.501 Early acquisition. (a) Real property... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4); (5) The State determined and the FHWA concurs...

  16. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  17. Implementing Children's Rights in Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te One, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Recent research (Te One, 2009) investigated perceptions of children's rights in a New Zealand early childhood care and education service (the Creche) for under-two-year-olds. Focus group interviews, interviews with teachers, observational field notes, photographs and a researcher's journal were used to generate data. Findings revealed that…

  18. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  19. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal

  20. Targeted treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarenbeek, Naomi Bertine

    2013-01-01

    With the implementation of new treatment options, including biologicals and the early, agressive start of target-steered treatment the outlook for rheumatoid arthritis patients improved considerably the past decades. This thesis describes several aspects of modern rheumatoid arthritis treatment from

  1. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  2. Automated early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abràmoff, M.D.; Reinhardt, J.M.; Russell, S.R.; Folk, J.C.; Mahajan, V.B.; Niemeijer, M.; Quellec, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, the Challenge2009, against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project.

  3. Multimedia support of early literacy learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2002-01-01

    In the present article, the development of a child-friendly computer software program to enhance the early literacy skills of kindergarteners in the Netherlands is described. The ergonomic aspects of designing software for young children are described along with the content of the program in

  4. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  5. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model.

  6. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  7. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  8. Change and continuity in early modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bonner, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Seen as a flash point of the Scientific Revolution, early modern astronomy witnessed an explosion of views about the function and structure of the world. This study explores these theories in a wide variety of settings, and challenges our view of modern science as the straightforward successor of Aristotelian natural philosophy.

  9. Feminist Pedagogy in Early Childhood Teachers' Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Haggith Gor

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and practice of applying critical feminist pedagogy in a teacher's training college. It is based on an analysis of the education of students in an early childhood teaching program (BEd) that seeks to promote social justice through education. This article discusses the areas of the student's education that…

  10. Philosophy of Education in Early Fichte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankovszky, Tamás

    2018-01-01

    According to Fichte's early science of knowledge, man is a free and independent being who becomes somebody not through the power of nature, by developing his innate skills and abilities, or through external influence, but by his own power. Since the essence of human beings is I-hood, the individual, having defeated the not-I or nature living in…

  11. Erikson's Psychosocial Theories Help Explain Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, M. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Middle school educators can design a learning environment for early adolescents based on Erik Erikson's social development theories, which divide human life into eight psychological stages. The identity versus role confusion stage characterizing adolescence will significantly determine the developing person's future. Schools can help learners…

  12. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  13. Roentgenoendoscopic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.; Kopytov, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    Some potentialities of the X-ray and endoscopic methods in the recognition of early stomach cancer are analysed. Both methods are provided by a roentgenotogist. Of 396 operated patients with stomach cancer, early forms were detected in 78 which is equal to 8% of the detected number and 19.7% of the operated cancer pasients. Two macroscopic forms of early cancer were detected: cancer with ulceration (erosion-ulcerative form) and polypoidcancer. The first form is interpreted as primary-ulcerative cancer, malignant ulcers and cancer in the form of erosions, the second one as polyps, polypoid and patchlike cancer, malignant polyps. X-ray changes were detected in 80% of the patients, in the rest of 20% by the endoscopic method only. With the help of the roentgenological and endoscopic methods (without cytological examination) one cannot be sure of accurate differential diagnosis between malignant and benign variants of ulcerations and polypoid changes in early cancer. The potentialities of the X-ray method ir the detection of ulcerative and polypoid changes of the stomach make it possible to improve it, though under a strict condition of performing subsequent obligatory endoscopy and getting tissue specimens for biopsy. The organization of the common roentgenoendoscopic centers is found appropriate

  14. Luncheon address: Early days of CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    I will briefly describe how the original dimensions of the fuel bundle were defined and how that early designs of fuel evolved. I will also touch on some of the historical events of the materials and experiments which effected the fuel programme. Also how I became with Canada's Nuclear Fuel programme. (author)

  15. Early Reading Proficiency. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  16. Early Childhood Technology Education: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2005-01-01

    We are living in a fast-changing, technology-driven world, where technology affects the daily lives of every person, directly or indirectly. While the importance of providing young children with technological knowledge and experience has been well-recognized, how the curriculum should be developed deserves greater study. Using early childhood…

  17. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  18. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  19. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  20. 78 FR 23936 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... operational processes, including those that involve plan sponsors' reporting and submitting of information, in... make available to the plan sponsor an Early Retiree List Response File (up to 7 business days), and a... Reinsurance Program (ERRP) in preparation for the January 1, 2014 program sunset date. These operational...