WorldWideScience

Sample records for early learning curves

  1. The sales learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  2. Learning curve of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Chan Kim; Ghap-Joong Jung; Hyung-Ho Kim

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the nature of the "learning curve" for laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer. METHODS: The data of 90 consecutive patients with early gastric cancer who underwent LADG with systemic lymphadenectomy between April 2003 and November 2004 were reviewed. The 90 patients were divided into 9 sequential groups of 10 cases in each group and the average operative time of these 9 groups were determined. Other learning indicators, such as transfusion requirements, conversion rates to open surgery, postoperative complication, time to first flatus, and postoperative hospital stay, were evaluated. RESULTS: After the first 10 LADGs, the operative time reached its first plateau (230-240 min/operation) and then reached a second plateau (<200 min/operation) for the final 30 cases. Although a significant improvement in the operative time was noted after the first 50 cases, there were no significant differences in transfusion requirements, conversion rates to open surgery, postoperative complications, time to first flatus, or postoperative hospital stay between the groups. CONCLUSION: Based on operative time analysis, this study show that experience of 50 cases of LADG with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer is required to achieve optimum proficiency.

  3. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  4. Hand-assisted partial nephrectomy with early arterial clamp removal: Impact of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Norus, Thomas P; Wittendorff, Hans-Erik;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to present the results of hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy according to the margin, ischaemia and complications system; to assess the role of the learning curve; and to compare this approach with other approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from...... nephrectomy for complex tumours with a relatively high success rate according to the margin, ischaemia and complications system. Warm ischaemia time could be obtained within 5 min after 40 procedures....

  5. Straightening Out Learning Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, E. N.; Morecombe, V. J.

    1970-01-01

    The basic mathematical theory behind learning curves is explained, together with implications for clerical and industrial training, evaluation of skill development, and prediction of future performance. Brief studies of textile worker and typist training are presented to illustrate such concepts as the reduction fraction (a consistent decrease in…

  6. Early results of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy: the learning curve at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher L; Erickson, Jill A; Hines, Jerod L

    2006-09-01

    Most reports on the results of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip have been by the originators of the procedure. In 1997, we began to use this osteotomy without direct training from the originators of the procedure. Seventy-three patients (eighty-three hips) underwent a Bernese periacetabular osteotomy between 1997 and 2003 and were followed prospectively with use of the Harris hip score to assess clinical results and with use of anteroposterior pelvic and false-profile lateral plain radiographs to assess radiographic results. The three-dimensional position of the acetabulum was recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. The mean duration of follow-up was forty-six months. The average Harris hip score improved from 54 to 87 points (p Bernese periacetabular osteotomy have been encouraging, with a 92% survival rate at thirty-six months. The occurrence of complications demonstrates a substantial learning curve. Recognition of the true preoperative acetabular version and reorientation of the acetabulum into an appropriately anteverted position have become important factors in surgical decision-making. Therapeutic Level IV.

  7. Learning curve and interobserver agreement of confocal laser endomicroscopy for detecting precancerous or early-stage esophageal squamous cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE can provide in vivo subcellular resolution images of esophageal lesions. However, the learning curve in interpreting CLE images of precancerous or early-stage esophageal squamous cancer is unknown. The goal of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer agreement for differentiating esophageal lesions in CLE images among experienced and inexperienced observers and to assess the learning curve.After a short training, 8 experienced and 14 inexperienced endoscopists evaluated in sequence 4 sets of high-quality CLE images. Their diagnoses were corrected and discussed after each set. For each image, the diagnostic results, confidence in diagnosis, quality and time to evaluate were recorded.Overall, diagnostic accuracy was greater for the second, third, fourth set of images as compared with the initial set (odds ratio [OR] 2.01, 95% CI 1.22-3.31; 7.95, 3.74-16.87; and 6.45, 3.14-13.27, respectively, with no difference between the third and fourth sets in accuracy (p = 0.67. Previous experience affected the diagnostic accuracy only in the first set of images (OR 3.70, 1.87-7.29, p<0.001. Inter-observer agreement was higher for experienced than inexperienced endoscopists (0.732 vs. 0.666, p<0.01.CLE is a promising technology that can be quickly learned after a short training period; previous experience is associated with diagnostic accuracy only at the initial stage of learning.

  8. S-shaped learning curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish w

  9. Robotic versus Endoscopic Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancers: A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Early Postoperative Outcomes and Surgical Learning Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandee Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic thyroidectomy is an emerging technique with postoperative outcomes that are at least comparable to those of conventional endoscopic thyroidectomy, with some end-points appearing superior. Our multicenter series represents the largest comparison of robotic and endoscopic thyroidectomy to date, with results suggesting a comparable robot technology we used that could overcome some of the technical limitations associated with conventional endoscopic procedures, with reduced operation times and increased lymph node retrieval. Moreover, we found that the learning curve for robotic thyroidectomy was shorter than that for endoscopic thyroidectomy.

  10. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a s

  11. 64-row multi-dector computed tomography coronary image from a center with early experience: first illustration of learning curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sze Piaw CHIN; Tiong Kiam ONG; Wei Ling CHAN; Chee Khoon LIEW; M.Tobias Seyfarth; Fong Yean Yip ALAN; Houng Bang LIEW; Kui Hian SIM

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives The recent joint ACCF/AHA clinical competence statement on cardiac imaging with multi-detector computed tomography recommended a minimum of 6 months training and 300 contrast examinations, of which the candidate must be directly involved in at least 100 studies. Whether this is adequate to become proficient in interpretation of coronary computed tomogsignificant coronary stenosis in a center with 1 year's experience using a 64-row scanner. Methods A total of 778 patients underwent contrast-enhanced CTA between January and December 2005. Out of these patients, 301 patients also underwent contrast-enhanced conventional coronary angiography (CCA). These patients were divided into 4 groups according to the time the examination was underwent. Group Q1: first quarter of the year (n=20), Group Q2: second quarter (n=128), Group Q3: third quarter (n=134), and Group Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were Q1 - 64%, 89%, 49% and 94%, respectively; Q2 -79%, 96%, 74% and 97%, respectively; Q3 - 78%, 96%, 74%, 97%, respectively, and Q4 - 100% for all. Conclusions In a center with formal training and high caseload, our accuracy in CTA analysis reached a plateau after 6 months experience. Test-bolus protocols produce better image quality and can improve accuracy. New centers embarking on CTA will need to overcome an initial 6-month learning curve depending upon the caseload during which time they should consider correlation with CCA.

  12. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  13. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  14. Piecewise power laws in individual learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Yoni; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    The notion that human learning follows a smooth power law (PL) of diminishing gains is well-established in psychology. This characteristic is observed when multiple curves are averaged, potentially masking more complex dynamics underpinning the curves of individual learners. Here, we analyzed 25,280 individual learning curves, each comprising 500 measurements of cognitive performance taken from four cognitive tasks. A piecewise PL (PPL) model explained the individual learning curves significantly better than a single PL, controlling for model complexity. The PPL model allows for multiple PLs connected at different points in the learning process. We also explored the transition dynamics between PL curve component pieces. Performance in later pieces typically surpassed that in earlier pieces, after a brief drop in performance at the transition point. The transition rate was negatively associated with age, even after controlling for overall performance. Our results suggest at least two processes at work in individual learning curves: locally, a gradual, smooth improvement, with diminishing gains within a specific strategy, which is modeled well as a PL; and globally, a discrete sequence of strategy shifts, in which each strategy is better in the long term than the ones preceding it. The piecewise extension of the classic PL of practice has implications for both individual skill acquisition and theories of learning.

  15. The learning curves of competitive programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose R.; Aguirre, Vanessa E.

    2014-10-01

    Universities around the world have implemented competitive programming as an approach to teach computer science courses. They have empirically validated this approach as a successful pedagogical tool. However, there are no conclusive results that describe the degree in which competitive programming affects the learning process of the students. In this paper, we report on the learning curves obtained from analyzing ten years of TopCoder algorithm competitions. We discuss on how these learning curves apply to university courses and can help us explain the influence of competitive programming in a class.

  16. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  17. Type II supernovae Early Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shussman, Tomer; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Observations of type II supernova early light, from breakout until recombination, can be used to constrain the explosion energy and progenitor properties. Currently available for this purpose are purely analytic models, which are accurate only to within an order of magnitude, and detailed numerical simulations, which are more accurate but are applied to any event separately. In this paper we derive an analytic model that is calibrated by numerical simulations. This model is much more accurate than previous analytic models, yet it is as simple to use. To derive the model we analyze simulated light curves from numerical explosion of $124$ red supergiant progenitors, calculated using the stellar evolution code MESA. We find that although the structure of the progenitors we consider varies, the resulting light curves can be described rather well based only on the explosion energy, ejecta mass and progenitor radius. Our calibrated analytic model, which is based on these three parameters, reproduces the bolometric ...

  18. A learning curve for solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaics started its success story by predicting the cost degression depending on cumulated installed capacity. This so-called learning curve was published and used for predictions for PV modules first, then predictions of system cost decrease also were developed. This approach is less sensitive to political decisions and changing market situations than predictions on the time axis. Cost degression due to innovation, use of scaling effects, improved project management, standardised procedures including the search for better sites and optimization of project size are learning effects which can only be utilised when projects are developed. Therefore a presentation of CAPEX versus cumulated installed capacity is proposed in order to show the possible future advancement of the technology to politics and market. However from a wide range of publications on cost for CSP it is difficult to derive a learning curve. A logical cost structure for direct and indirect capital expenditure is needed as the basis for further analysis. Using derived reference cost for typical power plant configurations predictions of future cost have been derived. Only on the basis of that cost structure and the learning curve levelised cost of electricity for solar thermal power plants should be calculated for individual projects with different capacity factors in various locations.

  19. Learning curve for radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. A. Saito

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The learning curve is a period in which the surgical procedure is performed with difficulty and slowness, leading to a higher risk of complications and reduced effectiveness due the surgeon's inexperience. We sought to analyze the residents' learning curve for open radical prostatectomy (RP in a training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study from June 2006 to January 2008 in the academic environment of the University of São Paulo. Five residents operated on 184 patients during a four-month rotation in the urologic oncology division, mentored by the same physician assistants. We performed sequential analyses according to the number of surgeries, as follows: = 10, 11 to 19, 20 to 28, and = 29. RESULTS: The residents performed an average of 37 RP each. The average psa was 9.3 ng/mL and clinical stage T1c in 71% of the patients. The pathological stage was pT2 (73%, pT3 (23%, pT4 (4%, and 46% of the patients had a Gleason score 7 or higher. In all surgeries, the average operative time and estimated blood loss was 140 minutes and 488 mL. Overall, 7.2% of patients required blood transfusion, and 23% had positive surgical margins. CONCLUSION: During the initial RP learning curve, we found a significant reduction in the operative time; blood transfusion during the procedures and positive surgical margin rate were stable in our series.

  20. Learning curve of vitrification assessed by cumulative summation test for learning curve (LC-CUSUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessolle, Lionel; Biau, David J; de Larouzière, Vanina; Ravel, Célia; Antoine, Jean-Marie; Daraï, Emile; Mandelbaum, Jacqueline

    2009-09-01

    We used the cumulative summation test for learning curve (LC-CUSUM), a specifically designed statistical tool, to evaluate the first 50 procedures performed by a trainee in vitrification and to provide a usable model for monitoring the learning process of this technique. Given the lack of models to evaluate IVF technologies, the CUSUM methodology could prove useful for quality control in laboratories.

  1. Analysis of the vitreoretinal surgery learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Avià, J; Romero-Aroca, P

    2017-06-01

    To describe intra- and post-operative complications, as well as the evolution of the surgical technique in first 4years of work of a novice retina surgeon, and evaluate minimal learning time required to reduce its complications, deciding which pathologies should still be referred to higher level hospitals, until further experience may be achieved. A study was conducted on patients that had undergone vitreoretinal surgery by a novice surgeon in Tarragona between 23rd October 2007 and 31st December 2011. The primary diagnosis, surgeon learning time, surgical technique, intra-operative and post-operative complications were recorded. A total of 247 surgeries were studied. The percentage of use of 20G and 23G calibres during the time, marks a change towards trans-conjunctival surgery from the ninth trimester (98 surgeries). Surgical complications decreased towards twelfth trimester (130 surgeries) with an increase in the previous months. The shift towards 23G technique around 100 surgeries is interpreted as greater comfort and safety by the surgeon. Increased surgical complications during the following months until its decline around 130 surgeries can be interpreted as an 'overconfidence'. It is arguable that the learning curve is slower than what the surgeon believes. An individual analysis of the complications and surgical outcomes is recommended to ascertain the status of the learning curve. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A Critical Analysis of the Learning Curve and Postlearning Curve Outcomes of Two Experience- and Volume-Matched Surgeons for Laparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Daniel W; Stewart, Grant D; Laird, Alexander; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Cahill, Declan; McNeill, S Alan

    2015-08-01

    There remains equipoise with regard to whether laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) or robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has any benefit over the other. Despite this, there is a trend for the increasing adoption of RARP at great cost to health services across the world. The aim was to critically analyze the learning curve and outcomes for LRP and RARP for two experience- and volume-matched surgeons who have completed the learning curve for LRP and RARP. Two experience- and volume-matched LRP and RARP surgeons who have completed the learning curve were compared with respect to their learning curve and outcomes for RARP and LRP. There were 531 RARP and 550 LRPs analyzed from April 2003 until January 2012 at two relatively high-volume United Kingdom centers. Outcome measures included operative time, blood loss, complication rate (Clavien-Dindo grade III), positive surgical margin (PSM) rate, and early continence rate. Learning curves for blood loss, operative times, and complication rate were similar between groups. The overall PSM rate and pT2 PSM rate learning curves were longer for RARP compared with LRP but shorter for early continence. Apical PSM showed no learning curve for RARP; however, a long learning curve for LRP and the rate was lower for RARP than for LRP (P=learning curves. Despite the long learning curve for RARP, significant benefits in lower PSM rates and better early continence in comparison with LRP exist. There are benefits to patients with RARP over LRP, especially those linked to better apical dissection (apical PSM and early continence).

  3. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  4. The learning curve in revision cholesteatoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    To review the results of revision surgery for cholesteatoma. Retrospective review of patient's records. Tertiary referral center. A retrospective study of patients operated for acquired middle ear cholesteatoma during the period 1990-2002 was performed. A total of 758 patients were divided into two groups according to surgical experience, and followed during short-term and long-term period. The cholesteatoma was divided according to location, age of patients, status of auditory ossicles, and bilaterality of disease. The patients were treated with single canal wall up or wall down, according to the propagation of disease and condition of middle ear. The indications for the reoperations were: recurrent or residual cholesteatoma, resuppuration, and AB gap more than 20 dB. Type of surgical therapy, localization of cholesteatoma, age of patients, revisions, bilaterality of disease, damage of auditory ossicles and learning curve were analyzed. The number of revision operations was reduced in the second period (from totally 24.3% to 16.4%). Closed technique gave a significantly lower rate of failure. For attic cholesteatoma, adults, bilateral disease, and ossicular damage the rate of revisions was significantly lower with surgical experience. Surgical experience was important for reduction of reoperation rate for attic and sinus cholesteatoma, adults, bilateral cholesteatoma, and when closed technique is used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early universe thermostatistics in curved momentum spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gorji, M A; Nozari, K; Vakili, B

    2016-01-01

    The theories known as doubly special relativity are introduced in order to take into account an observer-independent length scale and the speed of light in the framework of special relativity. These theories can be generally formulated on the de Sitter and also recently proposed anti-de Sitter momentum spaces. In the context of these theories, we study the statistical mechanics and to do this, we consider the natural measure on the corresponding extended phase space. The invariant measure on the space of distinct microstates is obtained by restriction of the natural measure of the extended phase space to the physical phase space through the disintegration theorem. Having the invariant measure, one can study the statistical mechanics in arbitrary ensemble for any doubly special relativity theory. We use the constructed setup to study the statistical properties of four doubly special relativity models. Applying the results to the case of early universe thermodynamics, we show that one of these models that is de...

  6. Early Learning in CRESPAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Karweit, Nancy; Bond, Mary Alice; Woodruff, Lannette Burns; Jaeger, Gary; Adee, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes research conducted by the Early Learning Program during the first 5 years of operation of the Center for Research on the Education of Children Placed At Risk (CRESPAR). Describes two integrated areas of research: practices that promote the development of language and literacy skills and systemic issues of school policy and teacher…

  7. Shaping the learning curve: epigenetic dynamics in neural plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohar Ziv Bronfman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A key characteristic of learning and neural plasticity is state-dependent acquisition dynamics reflected by the non-linear learning curve that links increase in learning with practice. Here we propose that the manner by which epigenetic states of individual cells change during learning contributes to the shape of the neural and behavioral learning curve. We base our suggestion on recent studies showing that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and RNA-mediated gene regulation are intimately involved in the establishment and maintenance of long-term neural plasticity, reflecting specific learning-histories and influencing future learning. Our model, which is the first to suggest a dynamic molecular account of the shape of the learning curve, leads to several testable predictions regarding the link between epigenetic dynamics at the promoter, gene-network and neural-network levels. This perspective opens up new avenues for therapeutic interventions in neurological pathologies.

  8. Learning Curves in Robotic Rectal Cancer Surgery: A literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery offers several advantages over open surgery, including quicker recovery, shorter hospital stay and improved cosmesis. However, laparoscopic rectal surgery is technically difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The last decade has seen the emergence of robotic rectal cancer surgery. In contrast to laparoscopy, robotic surgery offers stable 3D views with advanced dexterity and ergonomics in narrow spaces such as the pelvis. Whether this translates into a shorter learning curve is still debated. The aim of this literature search is to ascertain the learning curve of robotic rectal cancer surgery. Methods This review analyses the literature investigating the learning curve of robotic rectal cancer surgery. Using the Medline database a literature search of articles investigating the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery was performed. All relevant articles were included. Results Twelve original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The current literature suggests that the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery varies between 15 and 44 cases and is probably shorter to that of laparoscopic rectal surgery. Conclusions There are only a few studies assessing the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery and they possess several differences in methodology and outcome reporting. Nevertheless, current evidence suggests that robotic rectal surgery might be easier to learn than laparoscopy. Further well designed studies applying CUSSUM analysis are required to validate this motion.

  9. Learning curve in cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bijan N; Esquivel, Jesus

    2009-09-15

    Cytoreductive surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy have achieved good long-term results in patients with complete surgical eradication of their peritoneal dissemination but at the expense of significant perioperative morbidity and mortality. The high complication rate has been attributed to the steep learning curve associated with this procedure. We report on the current literature regarding the learning curve for this procedure and the key components that determine the success in learning this new skill.

  10. A Literature-Based Analysis of the Learning Curves of Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Good

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a trend for the increased adoption of minimally invasive techniques of radical prostatectomy (RP – laparoscopic (LRP and robotic assisted (RARP – from the traditional open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORP, popularised by Partin et al. Recently there has been a dramatic expansion in the rates of RARP being performed, and there have been many early reports postulating that the learning curve for RARP is shorter than for LRP. The aim of this study was to review the literature and analyse the length of the LRP learning curves for the various outcome measures: perioperative, oncologic, and functional outcomes. A broad search of the literature was performed in November 2013 using the PubMed database. Only studies of real patients and those from 2004 until 2013 were included; those on simulators were excluded. In total, 239 studies were identified after which 13 were included. The learning curve is a heterogeneous entity, depending entirely on the criteria used to define it. There is evidence of multiple learning curves; however the length of these is dependent on the definitions used by the authors. Few studies use the more rigorous definition of plateauing of the curve. Perioperative learning curve takes approximately 150-200 cases to plateau, oncologic curve approximately 200 cases, and the functional learning curve up to 700 cases to plateau (700 for potency, 200 cases for continence. In this review, we have analysed the literature with respect to the learning curve for LRP. It is clear that the learning curve is long. This necessitates centralising LRP to high volume centres such that surgeons, trainees, and patients are able to utilise the benefits of LRP.

  11. Learning curves and collaboration in reconceiving refugee settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A collaboration between UNHCR, Ennead Architects and Stanford University uses settlement design to promote innovation and further development in the refugee protection model but collaborators initially face a steep learning curve.

  12. The learning curve in treating coronary chronic total occlusion early in the experience of an operator at a tertiary medical center: The role of the hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Nicolas W; Shammas, Gail A; Robken, Jon; Harris, Thomas; Madison, Ashley; Dinklenburg, Catherine; Shammas, Andrew N; Harb, Christine; Jerin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    . Cardiac death occurred in 4.8% and non-cardiac death 1.6%. When comparing early experience (first 30 cases) with subsequent one, there were no differences in CTO length (60±47.6mm vs 83.2±43.7mm, p=0.206) or coronary distribution of the CTO. The number of drug eluting stents used per CTO (2.6±1.7 vs 3.0±1.5, p=0.289), contrast use (401±141.2ml vs 393.7±177.8ml, p=0.856), fluoroscopy time (48.9±25.6min vs 52.9±36.5min, p=0.617), or procedure time (116.8±48.6min vs 148.5±88.7min, p=0.068) were statistically similar between the 2 groups. Less crossing catheters were used (1.1±1 vs 0.6±0.7, p=0.024) and more lesions were crossed via antegrade approach after the initial experience (antegrade crossing: 53.3% vs 84.2% respectively, p=0.008). There was numerically more procedural success after the initial experience (90 vs 100%, p=0.085). MAE, TLR and TVR were similar on 1year follow-up. A high success rate was seen using the hybrid approach to treat CTO by a non-CTO operator. Although less crossing catheters were used and more lesions were treated via the antegrade approach after the initial experience, procedural and long term outcomes were otherwise similar between the early versus the late experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementation Learning and Forgetting Curve to Scheduling in Garment Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Badri, Huda; Deros, Baba Md; Syahri, M.; Saleh, Chairul; Fitria, Aninda

    2016-02-01

    The learning curve shows the relationship between time and the cumulative number of units produced which using the mathematical description on the performance of workers in performing repetitive works. The problems of this study is level differences in the labors performance before and after the break which affects the company's production scheduling. The study was conducted in the garment industry, which the aims is to predict the company production scheduling using the learning curve and forgetting curve. By implementing the learning curve and forgetting curve, this paper contributes in improving the labors performance that is in line with the increase in maximum output 3 hours productive before the break are 15 unit product with learning curve percentage in the company is 93.24%. Meanwhile, the forgetting curve improving maximum output 3 hours productive after the break are 11 unit product with the percentage of forgetting curve in the company is 92.96%. Then, the obtained 26 units product on the productive hours one working day is used as the basic for production scheduling.

  14. The learning curve in laparoscopic major liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Michael D; Vigano, Luca; Barroso, Ryan; Cherqui, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Laparoscopic major hepatectomy remains a relatively rare operation because it is a difficult and technically demanding procedure, and a standard, safe, reproducible technique has not been widely adopted. This is compounded by "major hepatectomy" encompassing multiple different operations each with their own anatomic and procedural considerations. In 2010, we investigated our learning curve for laparoscopic liver resection. We found a significant increase in the number of major hepatectomies performed over a 12-year period, with concurrent reductions in the use of hand-assistance, pedicle clamping, median clamping time, median operative time, blood loss and morbidity. This learning curve was confirmed by a subsequent multinational study. Both hospital and surgeon volume have been shown to affect outcomes, and defining a sufficient number of repetitions before the learning curve plateaus is not easy for laparoscopic major hepatectomy. We recommend that laparoscopic competencies be developed upon a foundation of open liver surgery and that laparoscopic major hepatectomy should only be attempted after competency with less technically complex laparoscopic resections. A center advanced along its institutional learning curve provides the collective expertise necessary for safe patient selection and management. An environment with colleagues willing to share their acquired proficiency allows the surgeon to observe and critique his or her performance against colleagues. Also, the guidance of like-minded surgeons supports technical development and improved outcomes. In conclusion, steady progress can be made along the learning curve through committed practice of increasingly complex tasks and with proper coaching in a high-volume environment.

  15. Two-Stage Indicators to Assess Learning Curves for Minimally Invasive Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wu, Zixiang; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Sai; Shen, Gang; Wu, Ming

    2016-10-05

    Background Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) Ivor Lewis has been increasingly performed over the last two decades. To guide the implementation of this technically demanding procedure, a comprehensive assessment of MIE-Ivor Lewis learning curves should include both the general competence to accomplish the procedure and the ability to generate oncological benefits. These objectives are believed to be associated with different phases of the learning curve. Methods A retrospective review of the first 109 patients who underwent MIE-Ivor Lewis by a single qualified surgeon was conducted. Relevant variables were collected and assessed by regression analysis to identify suitable indicators for patient stratification and learning curve assessment. Thereafter, the differential analysis was performed among groups to validate the learning curve model. Results Two variables, intrathoracic gastroesophageal anastomosis time and bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lymphadenectomy number, which plateaued, respectively, after the 26th and 88th cases, were selected as meaningful indicators to identify different competence levels. Therefore, 109 patients were chronologically subcategorized into three groups (the first 26 MIEs as the early group, the next 62 cases as the middle group, and 21 most recent cases as the late group). Perioperative data were compared between groups with positive results to indicate a three-phase model for a learning curve for MIE-Ivor Lewis. Conclusions An MIE-Ivor Lewis learning curve should include three discrete phases that indicate, successively, unskilled operation (general competence to accomplish, less proficiency), surgical proficiency, and oncological efficacy. Intrathoracic anastomosis time and bilateral RLN lymphadenectomy were identified as suitable indicators delineate the different stages of an MIE-Ivor Lewis learning curve.

  16. The learning curve of selective salpingography and tubal catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Spyros; Afnan, Masood; Girling, Alan J; Ola, Bolarinde; Hammadieh, Nehed; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Sharif, Kaldoun

    2002-05-01

    To determine the effect of increasing experience in fluoroscopically guided selective salpingography and tubal catheterization on radiation doses and screening times, thus establishing a learning curve for the procedure. Retrospective case note analysis. IVF center of an academic teaching hospital. Three hundred sixty-six patients with infertility seen over 3.5 years. Fluoroscopically guided selective salpingography and tubal catheterization. Reductions in radiation doses and screening times for different categories of selective salpingography and tubal catheterization, expressed as percentage reductions during the study period and reductions per 10 procedures. During the study period, The median dose of radiation decreased by 62.6%-71.9%, and the median screening time declined by 61.5%-78.5%. Reductions per 10 procedures were 2.5%-4.2% and 2.7%-5%, respectively. Significant reductions in radiation doses and screening times start early in a clinical team's practice of selective salpingography and tubal catheterization and continue even as trainees are added to the pool of operators.

  17. Learning curve estimation in medical devices and procedures: hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Usha S; Stillo, Marco; Goldfarb, David; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S

    2017-07-30

    In the use of medical device procedures, learning effects have been shown to be a critical component of medical device safety surveillance. To support their estimation of these effects, we evaluated multiple methods for modeling these rates within a complex simulated dataset representing patients treated by physicians clustered within institutions. We employed unique modeling for the learning curves to incorporate the learning hierarchy between institution and physicians and then modeled them within established methods that work with hierarchical data such as generalized estimating equations (GEE) and generalized linear mixed effect models. We found that both methods performed well, but that the GEE may have some advantages over the generalized linear mixed effect models for ease of modeling and a substantially lower rate of model convergence failures. We then focused more on using GEE and performed a separate simulation to vary the shape of the learning curve as well as employed various smoothing methods to the plots. We concluded that while both hierarchical methods can be used with our mathematical modeling of the learning curve, the GEE tended to perform better across multiple simulated scenarios in order to accurately model the learning effect as a function of physician and hospital hierarchical data in the use of a novel medical device. We found that the choice of shape used to produce the 'learning-free' dataset would be dataset specific, while the choice of smoothing method was negligibly different from one another. This was an important application to understand how best to fit this unique learning curve function for hierarchical physician and hospital data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Early identification of Type I supernova light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Arnett, W David; Matheson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We compare analytic light curves for SNIabc supernovae with recent high quality data from (1)) SN2011fe \\citep{sn2011fe}, (2) KSN2011b \\citep{keplersn}, (3) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and the La Silla-QUEST variability survey (LSQ) \\citep{firth}, and (4) a type Ib, SN2008D \\citep{modjaz,soderberg}. We establish a reasonable bolometric conversion between Kepler supernovae and SN2011fe, a crude but instructive one for SN2008D, and discuss the implications of the smoothness of the light-curve for KSN2011b, as well as the meaning of the deviation of early luminosity from $t^2$ behavior. The good agreement of the analytic light curves (which necessarily assume mixing and which can reproduce the Phillips relation) and the observations of highest cadence and stability, are consistent with the occurrence of significant large-scale mixing during the explosion, possibly due to 3D effects (e.g., Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmeyer-Meshkov instabilities) and consistent with spectrapolarimetry \\citep{amber}. We illust...

  19. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series.

  20. Learning from the learning curve in total hip resurfacing: a radiographic analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, S.; Smolders, J.M.; Beaule, P.E.; Pasker, P.; Susante, J.L.C. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Operation of hip resurfacing prosthesis is a technically demanding procedure accompanied by a learning curve. To our knowledge no objective data on this learning curve are available in the literature. METHODS: For the first 40 resurfacing hip prostheses implanted by a single-surgeon radi

  1. Learning curve-based scheduling in customized assembly lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. Anzanello

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass customization implies in large variety of product models and small lot sizes. Human-based activities are highly affected by the learning process as a new model is put into production. That makes estimation of lot processing times difficult and jeopardizes the efficiency of scheduling techniques. The method proposed in this paper integrates information from learning curve modeling and scheduling heuristics, aiming at minimizing the completion time of jobs to be processed. Lot processing time is estimated by means of learning curve modeling and then used in scheduling heuristics for the unrelated parallel workers problem. The completion time generated by the recommended heuristic, determined through simulation, deviates 4.9% from the optimal sequence and yields good work balance among teams of workers. The heuristic is demonstrated in a shoe manufacturing process.

  2. The Predictive Value of Ultrasound Learning Curves Across Simulated and Clinical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette E; Nørgaard, Lone N; Tabor, Ann

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether learning curves on a virtual-reality (VR) sonographic simulator can be used to predict subsequent learning curves on a physical mannequin and learning curves during clinical training. METHODS: Twenty midwives completed a simulation-based tra......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether learning curves on a virtual-reality (VR) sonographic simulator can be used to predict subsequent learning curves on a physical mannequin and learning curves during clinical training. METHODS: Twenty midwives completed a simulation...

  3. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  4. Is the Latarjet procedure risky? Analysis of complications and learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauzère, Florence; Faraud, Amélie; Lebon, Julie; Faruch, Marie; Mansat, Pierre; Bonnevialle, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the learning curve and complication rate of the open Latarjet procedure. The first 68 Latarjet procedures performed by a single surgeon for chronic anterior shoulder instability were reviewed retrospectively. The standard open surgical technique was followed faithfully during each procedure. Post-operative complications were taken from patient medical records. Post-operative evaluation consisted of clinical and radiological assessments. The rate of early (Latarjet procedure remains low. A surgeon's experience significantly affects the surgery duration and the occurrence of early complications. The main radiological complication is partial lysis of the bone block. After a short learning curve, the clinical outcomes of the Latarjet procedure appear to be satisfactory and reproducible. IV.

  5. Learning curve for paramedic endotracheal intubation and complications

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, J; Toda, AA; Arakawa, J

    2013-01-01

    Background Pre-hospital laryngoscopic endotracheal intubation (ETI) is potentially a life-saving procedure but is a technique difficult to acquire. This study aimed to obtain a recommendation for the number of times ETI should be practiced by constructing the learning curve for endotracheal intubation by paramedics, as well as to report the change in the frequency of complications possibly associated with intubation over the training period. Methods Under training c...

  6. The Learning Curve for a Fetal Cardiac Intervention Team

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Stephen P.; Jacqueline Kreutzer; McCaffrey, Frances M.; Fredrick S. Sherman; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Keller, Bradley B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Multiple technical difficulties are encountered when a multidisciplinary team of subspecialists begins a minimally-invasive fetal cardiac interventional program. We describe the learning curve. Study Design. Ten pregnant sheep underwent ultrasound-guided balloon valvuloplasty of the aortic valve. Team members and their roles remained constant through the trial. The time between needle insertion and entrance of the left ventricle at the aortic root was recorded. F-test was used to ...

  7. Early Dual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  8. [Learning curve and his consequences in laparoscopic antireflux surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian, D; Sgarbură, Olivia; Jitea, N; Burcoş, T

    2005-01-01

    The laparoscopic fundoplication became the gold standard of the laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS). Our aim is to indicate the evolution of the learning curve as well as its consequences on the patient's outcome. We studied the gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) cases treated laparoscopically in Colţea University Hospital throughout 6 years. We gathered a group of 40 patients with an average age of 54, 57 years and a sex ratio F:M = 1.67. The patients had either a simple GER disease, small and medium hiatal hernias (21 cases) or giant hiatal hernias (GHH--19 cases). Two equal groups resulted: group 1 consisted of the first 20 patients operated from 1999 to 2002, group 2 consisted of the rest of the patients. Operating time, hospital time, complication rate and postoperatory endoscopy were compared. The average of the operating time was calculated. For giant hiatal hernias, a separate average was also taken into account. The total operating time for GER, small and medium hiatal hernias was 115 min in group 1 and 80 min in group 2 meanwhile for GHH it was 143 min vs. 130 min. The average operatory time was 129 min vs. 105 min. All these differences were statistically significant but there were no differences concerning complication rate and post-operatory endoscopy. Although the learning of the laparoscopic fundoplication requires practice, the learning curve does not have influence on the patients' outcome.

  9. LEARNING CURVE IN ENDOSCOPIC TRANSNASAL SELLAR REGION SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth G

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The endoscopic endonasal approach for the sellar region lesions is a novel technique and an effective surgical option. The evidence thus far has been conflicting with reports in favour and against a learning curve. We attempt to determine the learning curve associated with this approach. METHODS Retrospective and prospective data of the patients who were surgically treated for sellar region lesions between the year 2013 and 2016 was collected, 32 patients were operated by the endoscopic endonasal approach at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. Age, sex, presenting symptoms, length of hospital stay, surgical approach, type of dissection, duration of surgery, sellar floor repair, intraoperative and postoperative complications were noted. All the procedures were performed by a single neurosurgeon. RESULTS A total of 32 patients were operated amongst which 21 patients were non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 2 were growth hormone secreting functional adenomas, 1 was an invasive pituitary adenoma, 4 were craniopharyngiomas, 2 were meningiomas, 1 was Rathke’s cleft cyst and 1 was a clival chordoma. Headache was the mode of presentation in 12 patients, 12 patients had visual deficits, 6 patients presented with hormonal disturbances amongst which 4 patients presented with features of panhypopituitarism and 2 with acromegaly. Amongst the 4 patients with panhypopituitarism, 2 also had DI, two patients presented with CSF rhinorrhoea. There was a 100% improvement in the patients who presented with visual symptoms. Gross total resection was achieved in all 4 cases of craniopharyngiomas and 13 cases of pituitary adenomas. Postoperative CSF leak was seen in 4 patients who underwent re-exploration and sellar floor repair, 9 patients had postoperative Diabetes Insipidus (DI which was transient, the incidence of DI reduced towards the end of the study. There was a 25% decrease in the operating time towards the end of

  10. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., and other members of the public regarding several important topics relating to early learning for... Assessments Tuesday, May 11, 2010, in Chicago, Illinois; at the Polk Bros. Lecture Hall at the Erikson...-Site Attendance: Anyone who would like to attend or speak at a meeting must register at http://www...

  11. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  12. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  13. Novel Uses of Video to Accelerate the Surgical Learning Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Andrew M; Varban, Oliver A; Dimick, Justin B

    2016-04-01

    Surgeons are under enormous pressure to continually improve and learn new surgical skills. Novel uses of surgical video in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative setting are emerging to accelerate the learning curve of surgical skill and minimize harm to patients. In the preoperative setting, social media outlets provide a valuable platform for surgeons to collaborate and plan for difficult operative cases. Live streaming of video has allowed for intraoperative telementoring. Finally, postoperative use of video has provided structure for peer coaching to evaluate and improve surgical skill. Applying these approaches into practice is becoming easier as most of our surgical platforms (e.g., laparoscopic, and endoscopy) now have video recording technology built in and video editing software has become more user friendly. Future applications of video technology are being developed, including possible integration into accreditation and board certification.

  14. Learning curve of a complex surgical technique: minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kong Hwee; Yeo, William; Soeharno, Henry; Yue, Wai Mun

    2014-10-01

    Prospective cohort study. This study aimed to evaluate the learning curve of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Very few studies have evaluated the learning curve of this technically demanding surgery. We intend to evaluate the learning curve of MIS TLIF with a larger sample size and assess surgical competence based not only on operative time but with perioperative variables, clinical and radiologic outcomes, incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction. From 2005 to 2009, the first 90 single-level MIS TLIF, which utilized a consistent technique and spinal instrumentation, performed by a single surgeon at our tertiary institution were studied. Variables studied included operative time, perioperative variables, clinical (Visual Analogue Scores for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, North American Spine Society Scores for neurogenic symptoms) and radiologic outcomes, incidence of complications and patient rating of expectation met, and the overall result of surgery. The asymptote of the surgeon's learning curve for MIS TLIF was achieved at the 44th case. Comparing the early group of 44 patients to the latter 46, the demographics were similar. For operative parameters, only 3 variables showed differences between the 2 groups: mean operative duration, fluoroscopy duration, and usage of patient-controlled analgesia. At the final follow-up, for clinical outcome parameters, the 2 groups were different in 3 parameters: VAS scores for back, leg pain, and neurogenic symptom scores. For radiologic outcome, both groups showed similar good fusion rates. For complications, none of the MIS TLIF cases were converted to open TLIF intraoperatively. In the early group, there were 3 complications: 1 incidental durotomy and 2 asymptomatic cage migrations; and in the latter group, there was 1 asymptomatic cage migration. In our study, technical proficiency in MIS TLIF was achieved after 44 surgeries, and the latter patients benefited

  15. The Learning Curve for a Fetal Cardiac Intervention Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Emery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Multiple technical difficulties are encountered when a multidisciplinary team of subspecialists begins a minimally-invasive fetal cardiac interventional program. We describe the learning curve. Study Design. Ten pregnant sheep underwent ultrasound-guided balloon valvuloplasty of the aortic valve. Team members and their roles remained constant through the trial. The time between needle insertion and entrance of the left ventricle at the aortic root was recorded. F-test was used to assess significance (P≤.05. Results. The time required to accurately position the needle tip at the aortic root decreased significantly over the course of the trial, from 12 minutes with the first attempt to one minute with the last (P=.003. Conclusion. A significant learning curve is encountered when a multidisciplinary team begins a minimally-invasive fetal cardiac intervention program. However, technical proficiency can be achieved with practice. Institutions interested in developing such a program should consider practice in an animal model before proceeding to the human fetus.

  16. Learning Curves of Virtual Mastoidectomy in Distributed and Massed Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Repeated and deliberate practice is crucial in surgical skills training, and virtual reality (VR) simulation can provide self-directed training of basic surgical skills to meet the individual needs of the trainee. Assessment of the learning curves of surgical procedures is pivotal......, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective trial with a 2 × 2 design was conducted at an academic teaching hospital. Participants included 43 novice medical students. Of these, 21 students completed time-distributed practice from October 14 to November 29, 2013, and a separate group of 19 students completed massed practice...... on May 16, 17, or 18, 2014. Data analysis was performed from June 6, 2014, to March 3, 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Participants performed 12 repeated virtual mastoidectomies using a temporal bone surgical simulator in either a distributed (practice blocks spaced in time) or massed (all practice in 1 day...

  17. Evaluation of the learning curve for transcatheter aortic valve implantation via the transfemoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takahide; Lefèvre, Thierry; Hovasse, Thomas; Hayashida, Kentaro; Watanabe, Yusuke; O'Connor, Stephen A; Benamer, Hakim; Garot, Philippe; Cormier, Bertrand; Bouvier, Erik; Morice, Marie-Claude; Chevalier, Bernard

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning curve in performing transfemoral TAVI (TF-TAVI). Between October 2006 and October 2013, 312 consecutive TF-TAVI cases performed by 6 interventional cardiologists, using the Edwards Sapien valve and 104 using the CoreValve, were included in the present analysis. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) failure analysis of combined 30-day safety endpoint was used to evaluate learning curves. The CUSUM analysis revealed a learning curve regarding the occurrence of 30-day adverse events with an improvement after the initial 86 cases using the Edwards valve and 40 cases using the CoreValve. We divided the Edwards valve cases into two groups (early experience: Cases 1 to 86; late experience: Cases 87 to 312). The rate of 30-day mortality and 1-year mortality significantly decreased in the late experience group (17% to 7%, p=0.019; 34% to 21%, p=0.035, respectively). We divided the CoreValve cases into two groups (early experience: Cases 1 to 40; late experience: Cases 41 to 104). The rate of 30-day mortality and 1-year mortality significantly decreased in the late experience group (20% to 6%, p=0.033; 38% to 15%, p=0.040, respectively). The groups including both valves were also analyzed after propensity-matching (early [n=52] vs late [n=52]). This model also showed that 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were significantly lower in the late experience group (13% to 1%, p=0.028; 34% to 20%, p=0.042, respectively). An appropriate level of experience is needed to reduce the complication rate and mortality in TF-TAVI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The learning curve and factors affecting warm ischemia time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Dube

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The learning curve for robotic partial nephrectomy was investigated for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon and factors associated with warm ischemia time (WIT were assessed. Materials and Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, one surgeon completed 171 procedures. Operative time, blood loss, complications and ischemia time were examined to determine the learning curve. The learning curve was defined as the number of procedures needed to reach the targeted goal for WIT, which most recently was 20 min. Statistical analyses including multivariable regression analysis and matching were performed. Results: Comparing the first 30 to the last 30 patients, mean ischemia time (23.0-15.2 min, P < 0.01 decreased while tumor size (2.4-3.4 cm, P = 0.02 and nephrometry score (5.9-7.0, P = 0.02 increased. Body mass index (P = 0.87, age (P = 0.38, complication rate (P = 0.16, operating time (P = 0.78 and estimated blood loss (P = 0.98 did not change. Decreases in ischemia time corresponded with revised goals in 2011 and early vascular unclamping with the omission of cortical renorrhaphy in selected patients. A multivariable analysis found nephrometry score, tumor diameter, cortical renorrhaphy and year of surgery to be significant predictors of WIT. Conclusions: Adoption of robotic assistance for a surgeon experienced with laparoscopic surgery was associated with low complication rates even during the initial cases of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Ischemia time decreased while no significant changes in blood loss, operating time or complications were seen. The largest decrease in ischemia time was associated with adopting evidence-based goals and new techniques, and was not felt to be related to a learning curve.

  19. Learning curve of acetabular cup positioning in total hip arthroplasty using a cumulative summation test for learning curve (LC-CUSUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Biau, David J; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Kim, Tae-Young; Ha, Yong-Chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2014-03-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, optimal cup positioning in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is challenging with a limited accuracy. We evaluated whether a learning curve exists for the optimal cup positioning, using the LC-CUSUM test (Learning curve cumulative summation test). We evaluated the first 100 consecutive THA performed by two surgeons, who had a year of fellowship training in the same teaching hospital. A learning curve of cup positioning was plotted in each series using the LC-CUSUM score. There was no significant difference of numbers of outlier between two surgeons (P = 0.079). Both surgeons completed the learning curve of optimal cup positioning before 50 procedures, and maintained competence. A substantial learning period is necessary in the optimal positioning of an acetabular cup.

  20. Using Dragon Curves To Learn about Length and Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lyle R.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes dragon curves which are made with three tiles and can be used to create fascinating patterns to help students understand the concepts of length, area, and perimeter of regions as defined by dragon curves. (ASK)

  1. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  2. Developments in Interpreting Learning Curves and Applications to Energy Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Wene, C.O. [Wenergy, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The book 'Learning Curves: Theory, Models, and Applications' first draws a learning map that shows where learning is involved within organizations, then examines how it can be sustained, perfected, and accelerated. The book reviews empirical findings in the literature in terms of different sources for learning and partial assessments of the steps that make up the actual learning process inside the learning curve. Chapter 23 on 'Developments in Interpreting Learning Curves and Applications to Energy Technology Policy' is written by Bob van der Zwaan and Clas-Otto Wene. In this chapter they provide some interpretations of experience and learning curves starting from three different theoretical platforms. These interpretations are aimed at explaining learning rates for different energy technologies. The ultimate purpose is to find the role that experience and learning curves can legitimately play in designing efficient government deployment programs and in analyzing the implications of different energy scenarios. The 'Component Learning' section summarizes recent work by the authors that focuses on the disaggregation of technologies in their respective components and argues that traditional learning for overall technology should perhaps be replaced by a phenomenology that recognizes learning for individual components. The 'Learning and Time' section presents an approach that departs more strongly from the conventional learning curve methodology, by suggesting that exponential growth and progress may be the deeper underlying processes behind observed learning-by-doing. Contrary to this view, the cybernetic approach presented in the 'Cybernetic Approach' section sees learning curves as expressing a fundamental property of organizations in competitive markets and applies the findings from second order cybernetics to calculate the learning rates for operationally closed systems. All three interpretations find empirical

  3. The learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic fundoplication in children: a prospective evaluation and CUSUM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, Thomas P; Rowland, Simon P; Gattas, Nicholas E; White, Alan D; Najmaldin, Azad S

    2015-06-01

    Fundoplication is a leading application of robotic surgery in children, yet the learning curve for this procedure (RF) remains ill-defined. This study aims to identify various learning curve transition points, using cumulative summation (CUSUM) analysis. A prospective database was examined to identify RF cases undertaken during 2006-2014. Time-based surgical process outcomes were evaluated, as well as clinical outcomes. A total of 57 RF cases were included. Statistically significant transitions beyond the learning phase were observed at cases 42, 34 and 37 for docking, console and total operating room times, respectively. A steep early learning phase for docking time was overcome after 12 cases. There were three Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3 complications, with two patients requiring redo fundoplication. We identified numerous well-defined learning curve trends to affirm that experience confers significant temporal improvements. Our findings highlight the value of the CUSUM method for learning curve evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Teaching Learning Curves in an Undergraduate Economics or Operations Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Jaideep T.; Sanford, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Curves has its roots in economics and behavioral psychology. Learning Curves theory has several business applications and is widely used in the industry. As faculty of Operations Management courses, we cover this topic in some depth in the classroom. In this paper, we present some of our teaching methods and material that have helped us…

  5. The Quantitative Evaluation of Functional Neuroimaging Experiments: Mutual Information Learning Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Ulrik; Hansen, Lars Kai; Anderson, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Learning curves are presented as an unbiased means for evaluating the performance of models for neuroimaging data analysis. The learning curve measures the predictive performance in terms of the generalization or prediction error as a function of the number of independent examples (e.g., subjects...

  6. Endoscopic tympanoplasty: learning curve for a surgeon already trained in microscopic tympanoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Sedat; Bayraktar, Cem

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning curve of endoscopic tympanoplasty for a surgeon already trained in microscopic tympanoplasty. We analyzed the clinical records of 81 patients who underwent transcanal endoscopic type 1 tympanoplasty and 30 control patients who underwent microscopic tympanoplasty between 2013 and 2015 in a tertiary hospital. All operations were performed by a single surgeon already trained in microscopic tympanoplasty. Patients were divided into four groups according to the date of surgery chronologically (group 1 early stage, group 2 intermediate stage, group 3 advanced stage and group 4 control). We evaluated the four groups according to surgery duration, audiometric results, and graft intake success. The operation duration shortened in accordance with the surgeon's experience and there were two subsequent steps during the learning curve: first, after 30 procedures; and second, after 60 procedures. The mean operation duration was 88.60 ± 21.10 min in group 1, and 62.00 ± 12.48 min in group 2. After 60 procedures, the mean operation duration was 43.81 ± 8.34 min in group 3. In the control group, the microscopic tympanoplasty duration was 69.93 ± 12.56 min. When we compared audiologic results (air conduction, bone conduction, and air-bone gap) and graft intake success rates, there were no significant differences between groups. Endoscopic tympanoplasty is a minimally invasive and effective technique. Mastering endoscopic tympanoplasty takes approximately 60 operations for a surgeon already trained in microscopic tympanoplasty. Graft intake success rates and hearing results are stable during the learning curve.

  7. Learning curve of transvaginal ultrasound for the diagnosis of endometriomas assessed by the cumulative summation test (LC-CUSUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazot, Marc; Daraï, Emile; Biau, David J; Ballester, Marcos; Dessolle, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    A specific statistical tool (the cumulative summation test for learning curve or LC-CUSUM) was used to monitor the learning curve of four trainees for the diagnosis of endometriomas by transvaginal ultrasound. A large intertrainee variability in the learning curves was found, justifying a tailored training to learn this diagnosis.

  8. Learning curve in cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation: eight-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Maciej; Berkowitsch, Alexander; Greis, Harald; Zaltsberg, Sergey; Hamm, Christian W; Pitschner, Heinz F; Kuniss, Malte; Neumann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the procedural experience cryoballoon ablation (CBA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) gained over 8 years in a high-volume centre to understand the influence of the learning curve on feasibility, safety and clinical outcome. In 424 patients (62% male) with drug-refractory AF, CBA was performed between 2005 and 2012. The analyzed period was divided into 8 calendar years. The endpoint of the study was arrhythmia recurrence after the 3-month blanking period in the 1-year follow-up since the index procedure, in the absence of anti-arrhythmic drugs class I and III. A combined AF type, Left Atrium size, Renal insufficiency, MEtabolic syndrome, cardiomyopathy (ALARMEc) risk score was calculated for each patient. The overall 1-year success rate of a single CBA was 73%. Continuous increase in 1-year success rate was observed with successive years of the study. The gradual improvement in outcome was related to gradual fall in ALARMEc risk score in successive patients. A continuous decrease in fluoroscopy and procedure time was observed in each subsequent year. CBA, followed by the proper selection of patients, facilitates a satisfactory outcome, especially in patients at an early stage of PV-trigger-dependent AF. Still, as with each new technology, it requires completion of a learning curve.

  9. Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

  10. The Learning Curve in Prostate MRI Interpretation: Self-Directed Learning Versus Continual Reader Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ayoola, Abimbola; Hoffman, David; Khasgiwala, Anunita; Prabhu, Vinay; Smereka, Paul; Somberg, Molly; Taneja, Samir S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the roles of self-directed learning and continual feedback in the learning curve for tumor detection by novice readers of prostate MRI. A total of 124 prostate MRI examinations classified as positive (n = 52; single Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] category 3 or higher lesion showing Gleason score ≥ 7 tumor at MRI-targeted biopsy) or negative (n = 72; PI-RADS category 2 or lower and negative biopsy) for detectable tumor were included. These were divided into four equal-sized batches, each with matching numbers of positive and negative examinations. Six second-year radiology residents reviewed examinations to localize tumors. Three of the six readers received feedback after each examination showing the preceding case's solution. The learning curve, plotting accuracy over time, was assessed by the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Logistic regression and mixed-model ANOVA were performed. For readers with and without feedback, the learning curve exhibited an initial rapid improvement that slowed after 40 examinations (change in AIC > 0.2%). Accuracy improved from 58.1% (batch 1) to 71.0-75.3% (batches 2-4) without feedback and from 58.1% to 72.0-77.4% with feedback (p = 0.027-0.046), without a difference in the extent of improvement (p = 0.800). Specificity improved from 53.7% to 68.5-81.5% without feedback and from 55.6% to 74.1-81.5% with feedback (p = 0.006-0.010), without a difference in the extent of improvement (p = 0.891). Sensitivity improved from 59.0-61.5% (batches 1-2) to 71.8-76.9% (batches 3-4) with feedback (p = 0.052), though did not improve without feedback (p = 0.602). Sensitivity for transition zone tumors exhibited larger changes (p = 0.024) with feedback than without feedback. Sensitivity for peripheral zone tumors did not improve in either group (p > 0.3). Reader confidence increased only with feedback (p learning curve in prostate tumor detection largely reflected self

  11. Half-Life Learning Curves in the Defense Acquisition Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    learning include Smith (1989); Belkaoui (1976, 1986); Nanda (1979); Pegels (1976); Richardson (1978); Towill, and Kaloo (1978); Womer (1979, 1981, 1984...analysis adjusted for learning. Management Science, 24(2), 149–160. Nanda , R. (1979). Using learning curves in integration of production resources

  12. Learning curves for ultrasound guided lung biopsy in the hands of respiratory physicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christian; Naur, Therese Maria Henriette; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine learning curves for ultrasound guided transthoracic needle biopsies (US-TTNB) performed by respiratory physicians after implementation at three different centers.Methods: During January 2012 to August 2014 patients were included if they had...... are depicted in figure 1. Six of the physicians had learning curves with a relatively downward or stable projection as a sign of developing competence. Three physicians, however, had learning curves with an upward projection indicating unacceptable competence in performing the procedure...

  13. Unraveling the photovoltaic technology learning curve by incorporation of input price changes and scale effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.F.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    In a large number of energy models, the use of learning curves for estimating technological improvements has become popular. This is based on the assumption that technological development can be monitored by following cost development as a function of market size. However, recent data show that in some stages of photovoltaic technology (PV) production, the market price of PV modules stabilizes even though the cumulative capacity increases. This implies that no technological improvement takes place in these periods: the cost predicted by the learning curve in the PV study is lower than the market one. We propose that this bias results from ignoring the effects of input prices and scale effects, and that incorporating the input prices and scale effects into the learning curve theory is an important issue in making cost predictions more reliable. In this paper, a methodology is described to incorporate the scale and input-prices effect as the additional variables into the one factor learning curve, which leads to the definition of the multi-factor learning curve. This multi-factor learning curve is not only derived from economic theories, but also supported by an empirical study. The results clearly show that input prices and scale effects are to be included, and that, although market prices are stabilizing, learning is still taking place. (author)

  14. Learning curve for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Ling Torng

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: LESS is a safe and feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal and uterine diseases. A learning curve is not required for LESS surgery for experienced laparoscopic surgeons.

  15. Identifying the learning curve for total ankle replacement using a mobile bearing prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuelli, Federico G; Maccario, Camilla; Pantalone, Andrea; Serra, Nicola; Tan, Eric W

    2017-06-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty remains a technically demanding surgery highly influenced by the operator experience. However, no consensus exists regarding the ideal number of cases that need to be performed before a surgeon is considered proficient. The aim of this study was to identify the learning curve of a specific replacement system with regards to intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. The first 31 patients undergoing total ankle arthroplasty were examined. No additional procedures were performed at the time of the TAA. Intraoperative characteristics, postoperative complications, as well as clinical and radiologic outcomes were assessed with 24-month follow-up. Learning curves, examining the relationship between surgeon experience and patient outcomes, were determined using the Moving Average Method. The operatory time, and the risk of intraoperative fractures decreased with increasing surgeon experience with the learning curve stabilizing after the 14th and 24th patient, respectively. Furthermore, there appeared to be a learning curve associated with most of the important clinical and radiological outcomes. The number of patients required to stabilize the learning curve for the VAS, ROM, and AOFAS was 11, 14 and 28, respectively. Radiographically, there appeared to be a learning curve of 22 patients required to stabilize the tibio-talar ratio. There was no learning curve associated with the SF-12 PCS and MCS as well as the α-, β-, and γ-angle. This study demonstrates that a surgical learning curve does indeed exist when performing TAA. Most of the operative variables as well as clinical and radiological outcomes stabilize after a surgeon has performed 28 cases. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of possibilities of early diagnostics criteria for Parkinson's disease based on analysis of the input-output curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the possibilities of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease at an early stage, based on characteristics of the input-output curve. The input-output (IO curve was analyzed in two ways: we analyzed the gain of the curve for low-level transcranial stimulation and we analyzed the overall 'quality' of the IO curve. The 'quality' of the curve calculation is based on basic concepts from quantum mechanics and calculation of Tsallis entropy.

  17. A primer on the statistical modelling of learning curves in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Pecaric, Martin R; Savenkov, Oleksander; Beckstead, Jason W; Jaber, Mohamad Y

    2017-08-01

    Learning curves are a useful way of representing the rate of learning over time. Features include an index of baseline performance (y-intercept), the efficiency of learning over time (slope parameter) and the maximal theoretical performance achievable (upper asymptote). Each of these parameters can be statistically modelled on an individual and group basis with the resulting estimates being useful to both learners and educators for feedback and educational quality improvement. In this primer, we review various descriptive and modelling techniques appropriate to learning curves including smoothing, regression modelling and application of the Thurstone model. Using an example dataset we demonstrate each technique as it specifically applies to learning curves and point out limitations.

  18. Enucleation ratio efficacy might be a better predictor to assess learning curve of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wook Jeong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To appraise the evaluation methods for learning curve and to analyze the non-mentor-aided learning curve and early complications following the holmium laser enucleation of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One-hundred and forty (n=140 consecutive patients who underwent HoLEP from July 2008 to July 2010 by a single surgeon (SJO were enrolled. Perioperative clinical variables, including enucleation time, morcellation time, enucleation ratio (enucleation weight/transitional zone volume, enucleation efficacy (enucleated weight/enucleation time, enucleation ratio efficacy (enucleation ratio/enucleation time, and early complication rate were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean prostate volume was 62.7 mL (range 21-162 and preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS was 19.0 (4-35. Mean enucleation time and morcellation time were 49.9±23.8 (S.D. min and 11.0±9.7 min, respectively. Median duration of postoperative indwelling catheter was 1 (1-7 day and median hospital stay was 1 (1-6 day. There were a total of 31 surgery-related complications in 27 patients (19.3%, and all were manageable. There was an increasing trend of enucleation efficacy in the first 50 cases. However, enucleation efficacy was linearly correlated with the prostate size (correlation coefficients, R=0.701, p<0.001. But, enucleation ratio efficacy could eliminate the confounding effect of the prostate size (R=-0.101, p=0.233. The plateau of enucleation ratio efficacy was reached around the twenty-fifth case. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the operative learning curve plateau is reached after about 25 cases. We propose that a more appropriate parameter for estimating the operative learning curve is enucleation ratio efficacy, rather than enucleation efficacy.

  19. Mobile Learning and Early Age Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…

  20. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  1. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  2. Learning Curves and Bootstrap Estimates for Inference with Gaussian Processes: A Statistical Mechanics Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    We employ the replica method of statistical physics to study the average case performance of learning systems. The new feature of our theory is that general distributions of data can be treated, which enables applications to real data. For a class of Bayesian prediction models which are based on ...... on Gaussian processes, we discuss Bootstrap estimates for learning curves....

  3. Laparoscopy Instructional Videos : The Effect of Preoperative Compared With Intraoperative Use on Learning Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Theo H.; Talsma, Aaldert K.; Wevers, Kevin P.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the use of intraoperative instructional videos has a positive effect on learning laparoscopic procedures. This study investigated the effect of the timing of the instructional videos on learning curves in laparoscopic skills training. DESIGN: After

  4. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Deliano

    Full Text Available Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning.

  5. Multifactorial analysis of the learning curve for totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Myriam; Reibel, Nicolas; Zarnegar, Rasa; Germain, Adeline; Quilliot, Didier; Ayav, Ahmet; Bresler, Laurent; Brunaud, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most commonly performed bariatric operation worldwide for the surgical management of obesity. Totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (TR-RYGBP) has been considered to be a better approach by some groups especially early in a surgeon's experience. However, the learning curve associated with TR-RYGBP has been poorly evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning curve of patients who underwent TR-RYGBP. This is a prospective study of 154 first consecutive patients undergoing TR-RYGBP to analyze the influence of surgeon experience, bedside first assistant, and patient factors on operative time and postoperative complications. To give a comprehensive view of success related to the learning process, a single hybrid variable was generated. Multivariate analysis predicted the risk factors for complications and operative time. A risk-adjusted cumulative sum analysis estimated the learning curve. The learning curve for TR-RYGBP was 84 cases. Case rank and first assistant level were independent predictors of total operative time. Overall 30-day postoperative morbidity rate was 33.1 % and decreased over time. Surgeon experience (OR 2.6; CI 95 [1.290 to 5.479]; p = 0.0081) and first assistant level (OR 2.42; CI 95 [1.197 to 4.895]; p = 0.0139) remained independent predictors of composite event (operative time and complications). This study identifed criteria that should be assessed in future studies about TR-RYGBP. Both surgeon experience and bedside first assistant level affected operative duration, but surgeon experience was the most significant factor in reducing complication rates.

  6. Hysteroscopic sterilization using a virtual reality simulator: assessment of learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Juliënne A; Goedegebuure, Ruben S A; Veersema, Sebastiaan; Broekmans, Frank J M; Schreuder, Henk W R

    2013-01-01

    To assess the learning curve using a virtual reality simulator for hysteroscopic sterilization with the Essure method. Prospective multicenter study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University and teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Thirty novices (medical students) and five experts (gynecologists who had performed >150 Essure sterilization procedures). All participants performed nine repetitions of bilateral Essure placement on the simulator. Novices returned after 2 weeks and performed a second series of five repetitions to assess retention of skills. Structured observations on performance using the Global Rating Scale and parameters derived from the simulator provided measurements for analysis. The learning curve is represented by improvement per procedure. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze learning curves. Effect size (ES) was calculated to express the practical significance of the results (ES ≥ 0.50 indicates a large learning effect). For all parameters, significant improvements were found in novice performance within nine repetitions. Large learning effects were established for six of eight parameters (p < .001; ES, 0.50-0.96). Novices approached expert level within 9 to 14 repetitions. The learning curve established in this study endorses future implementation of the simulator in curricula on hysteroscopic skill acquisition for clinicians who are interested in learning this sterilization technique. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Testing Theories of Transfer Using Error Rate Learning Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Yudelson, Michael V; Pavlik, Philip I

    2016-07-01

    We analyze naturally occurring datasets from student use of educational technologies to explore a long-standing question of the scope of transfer of learning. We contrast a faculty theory of broad transfer with a component theory of more constrained transfer. To test these theories, we develop statistical models of them. These models use latent variables to represent mental functions that are changed while learning to cause a reduction in error rates for new tasks. Strong versions of these models provide a common explanation for the variance in task difficulty and transfer. Weak versions decouple difficulty and transfer explanations by describing task difficulty with parameters for each unique task. We evaluate these models in terms of both their prediction accuracy on held-out data and their power in explaining task difficulty and learning transfer. In comparisons across eight datasets, we find that the component models provide both better predictions and better explanations than the faculty models. Weak model variations tend to improve generalization across students, but hurt generalization across items and make a sacrifice to explanatory power. More generally, the approach could be used to identify malleable components of cognitive functions, such as spatial reasoning or executive functions. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Learning Curve Analysis of Different Stages of Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the learning curves of the different stages of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. Design. Retrospective analysis. Design Classification. Canadian Task Force classification II-2. Setting. Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Patient Intervention. Women receiving robotic-assisted total and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomies for benign conditions from May 1, 2013, to August 31, 2015. Measurements and Main Results. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), and uterine weight were 46.44 ± 5.31 years, 23.97 ± 4.75 kg/m2, and 435.48 ± 250.62 g, respectively. The most rapid learning curve was obtained for the main surgery console stage; eight experiences were required to achieve duration stability, and the time spent in this stage did not violate the control rules. The docking stage required 14 experiences to achieve duration stability, and the suture stage was the most difficult to master, requiring 26 experiences. BMI did not considerably affect the duration of the three stages. The uterine weight and the presence of adhesion did not substantially affect the main surgery console time. Conclusion. Different stages of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy have different learning curves. The main surgery console stage has the most rapid learning curve, whereas the suture stage has the slowest learning curve. PMID:28373977

  9. Robotic right hemicolectomy: Analysis of 108 consecutive procedures and multidimensional assessment of the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Amilcare; Scrucca, Luca; Desiderio, Jacopo; Gemini, Alessandro; Guarino, Salvatore; Ricci, Francesco; Cirocchi, Roberto; Palazzini, Giorgio; D'Andrea, Vito; Minelli, Liliana; Trastulli, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    Surgeons tend to view the robotic right colectomy (RRC) as an ideal beginning procedure to gain proficiency in robotic general and colorectal surgery. Nevertheless, oncological RRC, especially if performed with intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis confectioning, cannot be considered a technically easier procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the learning curve of the RRC performed for oncological purposes and to evaluate its safety and efficacy investigating the perioperative and pathology outcomes in the different learning phases. Data on a consecutive series of 108 patients undergoing RRC with intracorporeal anastomosis between June 2011 and September 2015 at our institution were prospectively collected to evaluate surgical and short-term oncological outcomes. CUSUM (Cumulative Sum) and Risk-Adjusted (RA) CUSUM analysis were performed in order to perform a multidimensional assessment of the learning curve for the RRC surgical procedure. Intraoperative, postoperative and pathological outcomes were compared among the learning curve phases. Based on the CUSUM and RA-CUSUM analyses, the learning curve for RRC could be divided into 3 different phases: phase 1, the initial learning period (1st-44th case); phase 2, the consolidation period (45th-90th case); and phase 3, the mastery period (91th-108th case). Operation time, conversion to open surgery rate and the number of harvested lymph nodes significantly improve through the three learning phases. The learning curve for oncological RRC with intracorporeal anastomosis is composed of 3 phases. Our data indicate that the performance of RRC is safe from an oncological point of view in all of the three phases of the learning curve. However, the technical skills necessary to significantly reduce operative time, conversion to open surgery rate and to significantly improve the number of harvested lymph nodes were achieved after 44 procedures. These data suggest that it might be prudent to start the RRC learning curve

  10. Simple Models Create Steep Learning Curves in Academic Design Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard; Dam, Torben; Le Goffic, Virginie Corinne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an easily adaptable, very learning-efficient and solution-oriented design studio method: ‘the simple model method’. On a practical level it solves well known problems that occur when teaching design studios. On a theoretical level it suggests a ‘third way’ of bridging design......, their supervisors and other actors. The simple model is a non-verbal agent. However, due to its simplicity it enables verbalization supporting a solution-focused design studio teaching strategy. The simple model method is presented through a specific design studio course undertaken at the University of Copenhagen...... theory positions normally regarded as mutually incompatible. The method is the result of years of ‘trial and error’ design studio teaching at the University of Copenhagen, triangulated with academic design theory research. Research based design studio teaching poses a fundamental pedagogical challenge...

  11. Incidence of Complications During Initial Experience with Revision of the Agility and Agility LP Total Ankle Replacement Systems: A Single Surgeon's Learning Curve Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S; Simonson, Devin C

    2015-10-01

    As the frequency in which foot and ankle surgeons are performing primary total ankle replacement (TAR) continues to build, revision TAR will likely become more commonplace, creating a need for an established benchmark by which to evaluate the safety of revision TAR as determined by the incidence of complications. Currently, no published data exist on the incidence of intraoperative and early postoperative complications during revision of the Agility or Agility LP Total Ankle Replacement Systems during the surgeon learning curve period; therefore, the authors sought to determine this incidence during the senior author's learning curve period.

  12. SHOCK BREAKOUT AND EARLY LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE OBSERVED WITH KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnavich, P. M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556-5670 (United States); Tucker, B. E. [The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Shaya, E. J.; Olling, R. P. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Kasen, D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Villar, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P). Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5 ± 0.4 and 13.3 ± 0.4 rest-frame days, respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280 ± 20 R{sub ⊙}) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490 ± 20 R{sub ⊙}), but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 51} erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict, possibly due to the supernova shock wave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass-loss rate of 10{sup −4}M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape of the post-maximum light curve. No shock breakout emission is seen in KSN2011a, but this is likely due to the circumstellar interaction suspected in the fast rising light curve. The early light curve of KSN2011d does show excess emission consistent with model predictions of a shock breakout. This is the first optical detection of a shock breakout from a SNe II-P.

  13. SILC for SILC: Single Institution Learning Curve for Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wei Tay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We report the single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC learning experience of 2 hepatobiliary surgeons and the factors that could influence the learning curve of SILC. Methods. Patients who underwent SILC by Surgeons A and B were studied retrospectively. Operating time, conversion rate, reason for conversion, identity of first assistants, and their experience with previous laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC were analysed. CUSUM analysis is used to identify learning curve. Results. Hundred and nineteen SILC cases were performed by Surgeons A and B, respectively. Eight cases required additional port. In CUSUM analysis, most conversion occurred during the first 19 cases. Operating time was significantly lower (62.5 versus 90.6 min, P = 0.04 after the learning curve has been overcome. Operating time decreases as the experience increases, especially Surgeon B. Most conversions are due to adhesion at Calot’s triangle. Acute cholecystitis, patients’ BMI, and previous surgery do not seem to influence conversion rate. Mean operating times of cases assisted by first assistant with and without LC experience were 48 and 74 minutes, respectively (P = 0.004. Conclusion. Nineteen cases are needed to overcome the learning curve of SILC. Team work, assistant with CLC experience, and appropriate equipment and technique are the important factors in performing SILC.

  14. Is the Learning Curve of Robotic Low Anterior Resection Shorter Than Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Chang Woo; Cho, Min Soo; Kim, Dong Wook; MIN, BYUNG SOH; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As robotic surgery was developed with ergonomic designs, there are expectations that the technical advantages of robotic surgery can shorten the learning curve. However, there is no comparative study, so far, to evaluate the learning curve between robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgeries. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the learning curve of robotic low anterior resection (LAR) with laparoscopic LAR for rectal cancer. Patients who underwent robotic or laparosco...

  15. An exploratory analysis of personality, attitudes, and study skills on the learning curve within a team-based learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Adam M; Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-03-25

    To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students' Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course.

  16. Early Language Learning and the Social Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K

    2014-01-01

    Explaining how every typically developing child acquires language is one of the grand challenges of cognitive neuroscience. Historically, language learning provoked classic debates about the contributions of innately specialized as opposed to general learning mechanisms. Now, new data are being brought to bear from studies that employ magnetoencephalograph (MEG), electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on young children. These studies examine the patterns of association between brain and behavioral measures. The resulting data offer both expected results and surprises that are altering theory. As we uncover what it means to be human through the lens of young children, and their ability to speak, what we learn will not only inform theories of human development, but also lead to the discovery of neural biomarkers, early in life, that indicate risk for language impairment and allow early intervention for children with developmental disabilities involving language. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Laparoscopic suturing learning curve in an open versus closed box trainer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.P.; Horeman, T.; Blomjous, M.S.H.; Hiemstra, E.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the influence of training under direct vision prior to training with indirect vision on the learning curve of the laparoscopic suture task. Methods Novices were randomized in two groups. Group 1 performed three suturing tasks in a transparent laparosc

  18. Unraveling the photovoltaic technology learning curve by incorporation of input price changes and scale effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.F.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258

    2011-01-01

    In a large number of energy models, the use of learning curves for estimating technological improvements has become popular. This is based on the assumption that technological development can be monitored by following cost development as a function of market size. However, recent data show that in

  19. Unraveling the photovoltaic technology learning curve by incorporation of input price changes and scale effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.F.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    In a large number of energy models, the use of learning curves for estimating technological improvements has become popular. This is based on the assumption that technological development can be monitored by following cost development as a function of market size. However, recent data show that in s

  20. Endoscopically assisted reduction and fixation of condylar neck/base fractures--The learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukota, R A

    2006-12-01

    Following the introduction of a new technique for fixation of fractures of the condylar neck and base in our department, the operative times were compared with those for the traditional and frequently used method of open reduction and internal fixation. A distinct learning curve was seen.

  1. Learning curves for ultrasound guided lung biopsy in the hands of respiratory physicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christian; Naur, Therese Maria Henriette; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    a registered US-TTNB procedure at any of the three centers. The US-TTNB was defined as being successful if the result was diagnostic and otherwise as being unsuccessful. Histology or cytology results and clinical follow-up were used as a reference tests. The learning curves for physicians having performed...

  2. Starspot signature on the light curve: Learning about the latitudinal distribution of spots

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, A R G; Avelino, P P; García, R A; Mathur, S

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-periodic modulations of the stellar light curve may result from dark spots crossing the visible stellar disc. Due to differential rotation, spots at different latitudes generally have different rotation periods. Hence, by studying spot-induced modulations, one can learn about stellar surface (differential) rotation and magnetic activity. Recently, Reinhold & Arlt (2015) proposed a method based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram of light curves to identify the sign of the differential rotation at the stellar surface. Our goal is to understand how the modulation of the stellar light curve due to the presence of spots and the corresponding periodogram are affected by both the stellar and spot properties. We generate synthetic light curves of stars with different properties (inclination angle, limb darkening, and rotation rate) and spot configurations (number of spots, latitude, intensity contrast, and size). By analysing their Lomb-Scargle periodograms, we compute the ratio between the heights of the seco...

  3. Robotic partial nephrectomy - Evaluation of the impact of case mix on the procedural learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, A; Ahmed, K; Challacombe, B

    2016-05-01

    Although Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is an emerging technique for the management of small renal masses, this approach is technically demanding. To date, there is limited data on the nature and progression of the learning curve in RPN. To analyse the impact of case mix on the RPN LC and to model the learning curve. The records of the first 100 RPN performed, were analysed at our institution that were carried out by a single surgeon (B.C) (June 2010-December 2013). Cases were split based on their Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score into the following groups: 6-7, 8-9 and >10. Using a split group (20 patients in each group) and incremental analysis, the mean, the curve of best fit and R(2) values were calculated for each group. Of 100 patients (F:28, M:72), the mean age was 56.4 ± 11.9 years. The number of patients in each PADUA score groups: 6-7, 8-9 and >10 were 61, 32 and 7 respectively. An increase in incidence of more complex cases throughout the cohort was evident within the 8-9 group (2010: 1 case, 2013: 16 cases). The learning process did not significantly affect the proxies used to assess surgical proficiency in this study (operative time and warm ischaemia time). Case difficulty is an important parameter that should be considered when evaluating procedural learning curves. There is not one well fitting model that can be used to model the learning curve. With increasing experience, clinicians tend to operate on more difficult cases. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The learning curves in living donor hemiliver graft procurement using small upper midline incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Toru; Harimoto, Norifumi; Shimokawa, Masahiro; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Itoh, Shinji; Okabe, Norihisa; Sakata, Kazuhito; Nagatsu, Akihisa; Soejima, Yuji; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    The learning curve for performing living donor hemiliver procurement (LDHP) via small upper midline incision (UMI) has not been determined. Living donors (n=101) who underwent LDHP via UMI were included to investigate the learning curve using cumulative sum analysis. The cumulative sum analysis showed that nine cases for right lobe (case #23) and 19 cases for left lobe (case #32 in the whole series) are needed for stable and acceptable surgical outcomes in LDHP via UMI. The established phase (n=69, since case #33) had a significantly shorter operative time, a smaller incision size, and less blood loss than the previous learning phase (n=32, serial case number up to the last 19th left lobe case). Multivariate analysis showed that the learning phase, high body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) , and left lobe graft procurement are the factors associated with surgical events including operative blood loss ≥400 mL, operative time ≥300 minutes, or surgical complications ≥Clavien-Dindo grade II. There is an obvious learning curve in performing LDHP via UMI, and 32 cases including both 19 cases for left lobe and nine cases for right lobe are needed for having stable and acceptable surgical outcomes.

  5. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  6. Learning Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caponegro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “What’s the matter with Mary Caponegro ?” Françoise Palleau-Papin Were I to introduce Mary Caponegro formally, in an official biographical notice, it would go something like this: Mary Caponegro is the Richard B. Fisher Family Professor in Literature and Writing at Bard College, where William Gaddis once taught. She is the author of five works of fiction: Tales from the Next Village (Lost Roads, 1985, The Star Cafe (Scribner, 1990, Five Doubts (Marsilio, 1998, The Complexities of Intimacy ...

  7. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery in learning curve: Role of implementation of a standardized technique and recovery protocol. A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Luglio

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Proper laparoscopic colorectal surgery is safe and leads to excellent results in terms of recovery and short term outcomes, even in a learning curve setting. Key factors for better outcomes and shortening the learning curve seem to be the adoption of a standardized technique and training model along with the strict supervision of an expert colorectal surgeon.

  8. A New Proposal for Learning Curve of TEP Inguinal Hernia Repair: Ability to Complete Operation Endoscopically as a First Phase of Learning Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hasbahceci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exact nature of learning curve of totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia and the number required to master this technique remain controversial. Patients and Methods. We present a retrospective review of a single surgeon experience on patients who underwent totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. Results. There were 42 hernias (22 left- and 20 right-sided in 39 patients with a mean age of 48.8±15.1 years. Indirect, direct, and combined hernias were present in 18, 12, and 12 cases, respectively. The mean operative time was 55.1±22.8 minutes. Peritoneal injury occurred in 9 cases (21.4%. Conversion to open surgery was necessitated in 7 cases (16.7%. After grouping of all patients into two groups as cases between 1–21 and 22–42, it was seen that the majority of peritoneal injuries (7 out of 9, 77.8%, P=0.130 and all conversions (P=0.001 occurred in the first 21 cases. Conclusions. Learning curve of totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair can be divided into two consequent steps: immediate and late. At least 20 operations are required for gaining anatomical knowledge and surgical pitfalls based on the ability to perform this operation without conversion during immediate phase.

  9. Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2003-10-01

    Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

  10. [Transvaginal repair of genital prolapse with Prolift: evaluation of safety and learning curve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafghi, A; Iannelli, A; Verger, S; Novelas, S; Amiel, J; Gugenheim, J; Bongain, A

    2009-02-01

    Evaluation of the mini invasiveness and the learning curve of the Prolift technique. Prospective study. All patients were operated on by the same surgeon. The mini-invasiveness of the procedure was estimated through the evaluation of the intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications. The learning curve was evaluated through the analysis of the operative time. Between January and December 2007. Forty-seven patients were included in the study. Mean follow-up was: 11,8 months. Two cases of bladder injury and two cases of intraoperative bleeding (>500 ml) were reported. One case of vaginal erosion and one case of recurrence of the prolapse occurred during the follow-up. The mean operative time was 62+/-18 min. The mean operative time of the posterior step of the Prolift was 24+/-min and remained stable after the 18th procedure. The learning cure of the posterior of the procedure is longer because of the passage of the needles through the ischiorectal foramens. The technique is mini-invasive considered the low rate of intra and immediate postoperative complication and the learning curve short. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure in the long term.

  11. Non-Constant Learning Rates in Retrospective Experience Curve Analyses and their Correlation to Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-16

    A key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters is to estimate future technology costs and in particular the rate of cost reduction versus production volume. A related, critical question is what role should state and federal governments have in advancing energy efficient and renewable energy technologies? This work provides retrospective experience curves and learning rates for several energy-related technologies, each of which have a known history of federal and state deployment programs. We derive learning rates for eight technologies including energy efficient lighting technologies, stationary fuel cell systems, and residential solar photovoltaics, and provide an overview and timeline of historical deployment programs such as state and federal standards and state and national incentive programs for each technology. Piecewise linear regimes are observed in a range of technology experience curves, and public investments or deployment programs are found to be strongly correlated to an increase in learning rate across multiple technologies. A downward bend in the experience curve is found in 5 out of the 8 energy-related technologies presented here (electronic ballasts, magnetic ballasts, compact fluorescent lighting, general service fluorescent lighting, and the installed cost of solar PV). In each of the five downward-bending experience curves, we believe that an increase in the learning rate can be linked to deployment programs to some degree. This work sheds light on the endogenous versus exogenous contributions to technological innovation and highlights the impact of exogenous government sponsored deployment programs. This work can inform future policy investment direction and can shed light on market transformation and technology learning behavior.

  12. Learning curve of 3D fluoroscopy image-guided pedicle screw placement in the thoracolumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, Yu-Mi; Villard, Jimmy; Obermüller, Thomas; Friedrich, Benjamin; Wolf, Petra; Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    During the past decade, a disproportionate increase of spinal fusion procedures has been observed. Along with this trend, image-guided spine surgery has been experiencing a renaissance in the recent years. A wide range of different navigation systems are available on the market today. However, only few published studies assess the learning curves concerning these new spinal navigation techniques. So far, a study on the learning curve for intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopy (3DFL)-navigated pedicle screw (PS) placement is still lacking. The purpose of the study was to analyze the learning curve for 3DFL-navigated thoracolumbar PS placement. The study design included a prospective case series. A cohort of 145 patients were recruited from January 2011 to June 2012. The outcome measures were duration of intraoperative 3D scans, PS placement, PS accuracy on postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, and PS-related revisions and complications. From the introduction of spinal navigation to our department in January 2011 until June 2012, the learning curve for the duration of intraoperative 3D scan acquisition (navigation or control scan) and placement time per screw, intraoperative screw revisions, screw-related complications, revision surgeries, and PS accuracy on postoperative CT scans were assessed in 145 patients undergoing dorsal navigated instrumentation for 928 PS (736 lumbosacral and 192 thoracic). The observed time span was divided into four intervals. Results of the second, third, and last periods were compared with the first (reference) period, respectively. The mean navigation 3D scan time decreased (first and fourth periods) from 15.4±7.8 (range, 4-40) to 8.4±3.3 (3-15) minutes (plearning effect was found with respect to intraoperative screw revisions. There was one revision surgery. We could demonstrate significant learning effects for 3DFL-navigated PS placement with regard to intraoperative 3D scan acquisition, PS placement time, and PS

  13. On the Feasibility of Early-age English learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静

    2009-01-01

    Children's English learning in China attracts more and more people's attention and is on the teidency of starting at an early age. Under the trend of "learning English from childhood", the author has explored the Criical Period Hypothesis and discussed the younger learners' dsadvantages and older learners'advantages when learning Englsh. and concludes that early-age English learning is not feasible.

  14. Radius surgical system and conventional laparoscopic instruments in abdominal surgery: application, learning curve and ergonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, N; Camperchioli, I; Gaspari, A L

    2007-12-01

    We illustrate our experience with a new class of instruments, the mechanical manipulators (MM), whose main features are an improved mobility, and ergonomy and a modular structure. A specific MM, the Radius Surgical System (RADIUS), has been used both for educational purposes as well as in clinical studies, demonstrating that it can represent an efficient tool to support surgeons performing surgical complex procedures, with a short learning curve for the postural attitude.

  15. Acquisition Challenge: The Importance of Incompressibility in Comparing Learning Curve Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of Akron, an MBA from Regis University, and a PhD in man- agement with a specialization in Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management...environ- ment in which competition for congressional funding is higher than ever before. On an organizational level, DoD acquisition programs have...International Journal of Production Research, 33(3), 777–794. Badiru, A. (2012). Half-life learning curves in the defense acquisition life cycle. Defense ARJ

  16. Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy learning curve for experienced laparoscopic surgeons: does it really exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Mitre, Anuar Ibrahim; Rubinstein, Mauricio; da Costa, Eduardo Fernandes; Hidaka, Alexandre Kyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) is a minimally invasive procedure that could have a reduced learning curve for unfamiliar laparoscopic surgeon. However, there are no consensuses regarding the impact of previous laparoscopic experience on the learning curve of RALP. We report on a functional and perioperative outcome comparison between our initial 60 cases of RALP and last 60 cases of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), performed by three experienced laparoscopic surgeons with a 200+LRP cases experience. Materials and Methods Between January 2010 and September 2013, a total of 60 consecutive patients who have undergone RALP were prospectively evaluated and compared to the last 60 cases of LRP. Data included demographic data, operative duration, blood loss, transfusion rate, positive surgical margins, hospital stay, complications and potency and continence rates. Results The mean operative time and blood loss were higher in RALP (236 versus 153 minutes, p<0.001 and 245.6 versus 202ml p<0.001). Potency rates at 6 months were higher in RALP (70% versus 50% p=0.02). Positive surgical margins were also higher in RALP (31.6% versus 12.5%, p=0.01). Continence rates at 6 months were similar (93.3% versus 89.3% p=0.43). Patient’s age, complication rates and length of hospital stay were similar for both groups. Conclusions Experienced laparoscopic surgeons (ELS) present a learning curve for RALP only demonstrated by longer operative time and clinically insignificant blood loss. Our initial results demonstrated similar perioperative and functional outcomes for both approaches. ELS were able to achieve satisfactory oncological and functional results during the learning curve period for RALP. PMID:27136471

  17. Percutaneous Posterolateral Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy: Clinical Outcome, Complications, and Learning Curve Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Shay; Arzi, Harel; Herman, Amir; Friedlander, Alon; Levinkopf, Moshe; Arnold, Paul M; Caspi, Isreal

    2011-12-01

    Ongoing technological development combined with better understanding of endoscopic anatomy has made posterolateral endoscopic discectomy an appealing surgical option for the management of herniated lumbar disc. We evaluated clinical outcomes, complication rates, and surgical learning curve with the percutaneous posterolateral transforaminal endoscopic discectomy technique (PPTED). PPTED was performed on 150 patients from 2004 to 2008. And 124 patients were available for follow-up. Data regarding pain, postoperative complications, neurological status, operation time, and subjective patient satisfaction were recorded. A satisfactory clinical outcome as reflected in the VAS (mean 3.6) and ODI improvement (mean 21%) scores was reported; 20.9% of the patients required additional surgery. Learning curve assessment showed a significant difference (p = 0.043) for fewer revision surgeries as surgeons became more experienced. Patients who had endoscopic discectomy as a primary surgery achieved significantly lower VAS (p = 0.04) and ODI improvement (p = 0.004) scores compared with patients having transforaminal endoscopic discectomy as revision surgery. The complication rate was 1.6%, including one case of post-surgery hypoesthesia and one deep wound infection. The percutaneous posterolateral transforaminal endoscopic discectomy technique has a satisfactory clinical outcome with a low complication rate. Results for endoscopic surgery for revision or recurrent disc herniation are comparable to those of open revision surgery; the steep learning curve can be overcome with training and suitable patient selection.

  18. Análise de 33 peças cirúrgicas de colectomias laparoscópicas para câncer, durante a curva de aprendizado inicial: margens oncológicas e número de linfonodos não diferem de colectomias abertas Analysis of 33 surgical specimens of laparoscopic resections for colorectal cancer in the early learning curve: margins and nodes harvest do not differ from open resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Motta Neiva

    2010-03-01

    no início da experiência com colectomia laparoscópica, os critérios para ressecção oncológica podem ser preservados quando os procedimentos são realizados por cirurgiões especialistas trabalhando com equipe especializada em patologia gastrointestinal.INTRODUCTION: Colorectal laparoscopic surgery is considered a procedure with long learning curve. Despite surgeons with experience in laparoscopic surgery are able to achieve the same oncological results obtained in open procedures, it is important to evaluate if these good results are sustained during the learning curve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the margins and the lymph nodes harvest in early learning curve of laparoscopic colectomies performed by specialized surgeons compared to open colectomies. METHODS: Thirty-three surgical specimens of laparoscopic resections for colorectal cancer performed during the early learning curve were evaluated. The following data were analyzed: age, sex, tumor location, pathologic classification, lymph node harvest and proximal and distal margins. Data were compared to a control group of 45 open resections for colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Age, tumor location and Dukes classification of laparoscopic and open groups were similar. Laparoscopic group had more female patients. Distal margins were similar between the groups [mean of 7,15 cm (SD ± 9,98 for open and 8,26 cm (SD ± 11,5 for laparoscopic group, p=NS]. There was no difference in the lymph nodes harvest between the groups. The mean of lymph nodes harvest of open and laparoscopic groups were 19 (SD ± 19,41 and 21 (SD ± 14,73, respectively, (p=NS. CONCLUSION: Oncologic margins and lymph nodes harvest obtained during early learning curve of laparoscopic resections were similar to open procedures. Despite the natural difficulties faced during early learning curve, oncologic criteria can be achieved when laparoscopic colorectal resections are performed by specialized surgeons working with

  19. Shock Breakout and Early Light Curves of Type II-P Supernovae Observed with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Garnavich, P M; Rest, A; Shaya, E J; Olling, R P; Kasen, D; Villar, A

    2016-01-01

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae. Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5$\\pm 0.4$ and 13.3$\\pm 0.4$ rest-frame days respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280$\\pm 20$ R$_\\odot$) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490$\\pm 20$ R$_\\odot$) but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0$\\pm 0.3\\times 10^{51}$ erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict possibly due to the supernova shockwave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass loss rate of $10^{-4}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape ...

  20. What Is the Expected Learning Curve in Computer-assisted Navigation for Bone Tumor Resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfalli, Germán L; Albergo, José I; Ritacco, Lucas E; Ayerza, Miguel A; Milano, Federico E; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A

    2017-03-01

    Computer navigation during surgery can help oncologic surgeons perform more accurate resections. However, some navigation studies suggest that this tool may result in unique intraoperative problems and increased surgical time. The degree to which these problems might diminish with experience-the learning curve-has not, to our knowledge, been evaluated for navigation-assisted tumor resections. (1) What intraoperative technical problems were observed during the first 2 years using navigation? (2) What was the mean time for navigation procedures and the time improvement during the learning curve? (3) Have there been any differences in the accuracy of the registration technique that occurred over time? (4) Did navigation achieve the goal of achieving a wide bone margin? All patients who underwent preoperative virtual planning for tumor bone resections and operated on with navigation assistance from 2010 to 2012 were prospectively collected. Two surgeons (GLF, LAA-T) performed the intraoperative navigation assistance. Both surgeons had more than 5 years of experience in orthopaedic oncology with more than 60 oncology cases per year per surgeon. This study includes from the very first patients performed with navigation. Although they did not take any formal training in orthopaedic oncology navigation, both surgeons were trained in navigation for knee prostheses. Between 2010 and 2012, we performed 124 bone tumor resections; of these, 78 (63%) cases were resected using intraoperative navigation assistance. During this period, our general indications for use of navigation included pelvic and sacral tumors and those tumors that were reconstructed with massive bone allografts to obtain precise matching of the host and allograft osteotomies. Seventy-eight patients treated with this technology were included in the study. Technical problems (crashes) and time for the navigation procedure were reported after surgery. Accuracy of the registration technique was defined and the

  1. Application of the Learning Curve Analysis to the LHC Main Dipole Production First Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Rossi, L

    2006-01-01

    About two third of the LHC main dipoles have been delivered by the three suppliers charged of the production. The training of the staff, mostly hired just for this manufacture, and the natural improvement of the procedures with the acquired experience, decrease naturally the time necessary for the assembly of a unit. The aim of this paper is to apply methodologies like the cost-based learning curves and the time-based learning curves to the LHC Main Dipole comparing the estimated learning percentage to the ones experienced in other industries. This type of analysis, still in a preliminary phase and here applied to about 40% of the total production of the LHC magnets that will end by 2006, shows that our production has a relatively high learning percentage and it is similar to aerospace and complex machine tools for new models. Therefore with the LHC project, accelerator magnets seem to have reached industrial maturity and this production can be used as bench mark for other large scientific projects implying s...

  2. The Playing Learning Child: Towards a Pedagogy of Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2008-01-01

    From children's own perspective, play and learning are not always separate in practices during early years. The purpose of this article is, first, to scrutinise the background and character of early years education in terms of play and learning. Second, to elaborate the findings of several years of research about children's learning in preschool…

  3. Starspot signature on the light curve. Learning about the latitudinal distribution of spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; García, R. A.; Mathur, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Quasi-periodic modulations of the stellar light curve may result from dark spots crossing the visible stellar disc. Owing to differential rotation, spots at different latitudes generally have different rotation periods. Hence, by studying spot-induced modulations, it is possible to learn about stellar surface (differential) rotation and magnetic activity. Recently, a method based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram of light curves has been proposed to identify the sign of the differential rotation at the stellar surface. Aims: Our goal is to understand how the modulation of the stellar light curve due to the presence of spots and the corresponding periodogram are affected by both the stellar and spot properties. Methods: We generate synthetic light curves of stars with different properties (inclination angle, limb darkening, and rotation rate) and spot configurations (number of spots, latitude, intensity contrast, and size). By analysing their Lomb-Scargle periodograms, we compute the ratio between the heights of the second and first harmonics of the rotation period (peak-height ratio). Results: We find that the peak-height ratios are essentially a function of a single parameter, the fraction of time the spot is visible, which is related to the sinusoidality of the spot modulation. We identify the conditions under which the periodogram analysis can actually provide an estimate of the spot latitudes and/or the stellar inclination angle. We also identify possible sources of error in the identification of the sign of the differential rotation.

  4. Learning curves and long-term outcome of simulation-based thoracentesis training for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kezhong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation-based medical education has been widely used in medical skills training; however, the effectiveness and long-term outcome of simulation-based training in thoracentesis requires further investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the learning curve of simulation-based thoracentesis training, study skills retention and transfer of knowledge to a clinical setting following simulation-based education intervention in thoracentesis procedures. Methods Fifty-two medical students were enrolled in this study. Each participant performed five supervised trials on the simulator. Participant's performance was assessed by performance score (PS, procedure time (PT, and participant's confidence (PC. Learning curves for each variable were generated. Long-term outcome of the training was measured by the retesting and clinical performance evaluation 6 months and 1 year, respectively, after initial training on the simulator. Results Significant improvements in PS, PT, and PC were noted among the first 3 to 4 test trials (p 0.05. Clinical competency in thoracentesis was improved in participants who received simulation training relative to that of first year medical residents without such experience (p Conclusions This study demonstrates that simulation-based thoracentesis training can significantly improve an individual's performance. The saturation of learning from the simulator can be achieved after four practice sessions. Simulation-based training can assist in long-term retention of skills and can be partially transferred to clinical practice.

  5. Evaluation of the learning curve of laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in children: CUSUM analysis of a single surgeon's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhe; Liang, Huiying; Liang, Jiankun; Liang, Qifeng; Xia, Huimin

    2017-02-01

    Laparoscopic cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is gaining popularity as a treatment for choledochal cyst (CDC) in children. However, the learning curve for this challenging laparoscopic procedure has not been addressed. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of the learning curve of this procedure. This may guide the training in institutions currently not using this technique. A prospectively collected database comprising all medical records of the first 104 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic CDC excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy performed by one surgeon was studied. Multifactorial linear/logistic regression analysis was performed to identify patient-, surgeon-, and procedure-related factors associated with operating times, rates of adverse event, and length of postoperative stay. Cumulative sum analysis demonstrated a learning curve for laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision of 37 cases. Comparing the early with the late experiences (37 vs. 67 cases), the surgeon-specific outcomes significantly improved in terms of operating times (352 vs. 240 min; P learning curve (CLC) (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.63-0.73) and adhesion score (ORmiddle 1.25, 95 % CI 1.08-1.45; ORhigh 1.40, 95 % CI 1.20-1.62; compared with the low score); significant predictors of perioperative adverse outcomes were CLC (OR 0.07, 95 % CI 0.02-0.34) and comorbidities prior to the surgery (OR 30.65, 95 % CI 1.71-549.63). The independent predictors of length of postoperative stay included CLC, preoperative comorbidities, and perioperative adverse events. CLC for laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision is 37 cases. After CLC, not only the operative time is reduced, the complications, adverse results, and the length of hospital stay all decreased significantly. The learning curve can be used as the basis for performance guiding the training.

  6. Hierarchical linear modeling of California Verbal Learning Test--Children's Version learning curve characteristics following childhood traumatic head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschausky, Seth; Kay, Joshua B; Chi, PaoLin; Donders, Jacobus

    2005-03-01

    California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) indices have been shown to be sensitive to the neurocognitive effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The effects of TBI on the learning process were examined with a growth curve analysis of CVLT-C raw scores across the 5 learning trials. The sample with history of TBI comprised 86 children, ages 6-16 years, at a mean of 10.0 (SD=19.5) months postinjury; 37.2% had severe injury, 27.9% moderate, and 34.9% mild. The best-fit model for verbal learning was with a quadratic function. Greater TBI severity was associated with lower rate of acquisition and more gradual deceleration in the rate of acquisition. Intelligence test index scores, previously shown to be sensitive to severity of TBI, were positively correlated with rate of acquisition. Results provide evidence that the CVLT-C learning slope is not a simple linear function and further support for specific effects of TBI on verbal learning. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  8. Comparison of arthroscopic and open Latarjet with a learning curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G; Benchouk, S; Kherad, O; Lädermann, A

    2016-02-01

    To compare arthroscopic and open Latarjet performed by a single shoulder surgeon with learning curve analysis A comparative and learning curve analysis was carried out on a prospectively gathered database of 2 consecutive series of patients treated with arthroscopic and open Latarjet procedures performed by a single shoulder surgeon between 2008 and 2014. The database included patient characteristics, ISIS scores, operative time, intra- and postoperative complications, graft and screws positioning, as well as pre- and postoperative Walch-Duplay scores. Sixty-four patients were included in the study, 28 in the arthroscopic group and 36 in the open group with similar age, sex ratio and preoperative ISIS score. Operative time was significantly higher in the arthroscopic group (146 versus 81 min, p = 0.001), and although no intra-operative complications were recorded in either group, there were significantly more postoperative complications in the arthroscopic group (29 vs. 11 %, p = 0.03). Screw placement was more accurate in the open group, and postoperative Walch-Duplay score did not show any significant difference between the groups (88 points in the arthroscopic group and 91 points in the open group). The arthroscopic Latarjet learning curve analysis showed that the need for conversion ceased after the first 10 patients and that surgical time came close to that of open procedure after 20 procedures. In this study, 10 arthroscopic Latarjet procedures were needed to overcome the need for conversion, and 20 procedures to achieve equal operating time to the open technique. Even though functional outcome and patient satisfaction were similar in both techniques, complications, screw placement inaccuracy, persistent apprehension and recurrences still remain higher with the arthroscopic technique. Retrospective comparative analysis, Level III.

  9. [Learning curve in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben David, Matan; Maler, Ilanit; Kashtan, Hanoch; Keidar, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is currently considered the gold standard treatment for morbid obesity. The learning curve for this procedure is about 100 cases, and it is considered the most important factor in decreasing complications and mortality. We present our experience and learning curve with LRYGB. The data was collected prospectively. All patients with primary LRYGB between March 2006 and April 2014 were included. Only patients with full data on demographics, length of stay, operating time, and complications were included in the study. Five hundred and eleven patients underwent a LRYGB. Ninety five of them underwent a redo RYGB (conversion), and were excluded. Of the remaining 416 patients, full data was available for 326 and the statistical analysis refers to this group. The complication rate was available for all patients who were included in the study. The mean age and body mass index were 43 years (14-76 years) and 42.8 kg/m2 (34-76) respectively. The mean duration of surgery was 86 minutes (40-420). In the first 100 patients, operating time was 148 min, while in the last 125 patients it was 75 min. The major perioperative complication rate was 7.7%. Of 4 leaks (0.95%, 3 were encountered in the first 100 operations, and one in the following 316 (3% and 0.3% respectively). The mean length of stay was 2.2 days (1-46). None of the patients stayed in the intensive care unit. There was no mortality. LRYGB is very safe. We confirm that the learning curve for this procedure is more than 100 cases. Appropriate training is crucial.

  10. Learning curve and interobserver variance in quantification of the optical coherence tomography attenuation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Ronni; de Bruin, Daniel M; Faber, Dirk J; Sanders, Joyce; Vincent, Andrew D; van Beurden, Marc; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Ruers, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    The learning curve and interobserver variance of attenuation coefficient (μOCT ) determination from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were quantified. The μOCT of normal and diseased vulvar tissues was determined at five time points by three novice students and three OCT experts who reached consensus for reference. Students received feedback between time points. Eventually, variance in μOCT was smaller in images of diseased tissue than in images of normal vulvar tissue. The difference between the consensus and student μOCT values was larger for smaller values of μOCT . We conclude that routine μOCT determination for tissue classification does not require extensive training.

  11. Implications of the Early X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves of Swift GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Granot, J; Piran, T; Granot, Jonathan; Konigl, Arieh; Piran, Tsvi

    2006-01-01

    According to current models, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced when the energy carried by a relativistic outflow is dissipated and converted into radiation. The efficiency of this process, $\\epsilon_\\gamma$, is one of the critical factors in any GRB model. The X-ray afterglow light curves of Swift GRBs show an early stage of flat decay. This has been interpreted as reflecting energy injection. When combined with previous estimates, which have concluded that the kinetic energy of the late ($\\gtrsim 10$ hr) afterglow is comparable to the energy emitted in gamma-rays, this interpretation implies very high values of $\\epsilon_\\gamma \\gtrsim 0.9$. Such a high efficiency is hard to reconcile with most models, including in particular the popular internal-shocks model. We re-analyze the derivation of the kinetic energy from the afterglow X-ray flux and re-examine the resulting estimates of the efficiency. We confirm that, if the flatt decay arises from energy injection and the pre-Swift broad-band estimates of the...

  12. A learning curve-based method to implement multifunctional work teams in the Brazilian footwear sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L B de M; Anzanello, M J; Renner, J S

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a method for implementing multifunctional work teams in a footwear company that followed the Taylor/Ford system for decades. The suggested framework first applies a Learning Curve (LC) modeling to assess whether rotation between tasks of different complexities affects workers' learning rate and performance. Next, the Macroergonomic Work Analysis (MA) method (Guimarães, 1999, 2009) introduces multifunctional principles in work teams towards workers' training and resources improvement. When applied to a pilot line consisting of 100 workers, the intervention-reduced work related accidents in 80%, absenteeism in 45.65%, and eliminated work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), medical consultations, and turnover. Further, the output rate of the multifunctional team increased average 3% compared to the production rate of the regular lines following the Taylor/Ford system (with the same shoe model being manufactured), while the rework and spoilage rates were reduced 85% and 69%, respectively.

  13. From curve fitting to machine learning an illustrative guide to scientific data analysis and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim

    2016-01-01

    This successful book provides in its second edition an interactive and illustrative guide from two-dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clustering and machine learning with neural networks or support vector machines. Along the way topics like mathematical optimization or evolutionary algorithms are touched. All concepts and ideas are outlined in a clear cut manner with graphically depicted plausibility arguments and a little elementary mathematics. The major topics are extensively outlined with exploratory examples and applications. The primary goal is to be as illustrative as possible without hiding problems and pitfalls but to address them. The character of an illustrative cookbook is complemented with specific sections that address more fundamental questions like the relation between machine learning and human intelligence. All topics are completely demonstrated with the computing platform Mathematica and the Computational Intelligence Packages (CIP), a high-level function library developed with M...

  14. An Investigation of Early Parental Motivational Strategies on Mathematics Achievement by Ethnicity: A Latent Curve Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Stefanie R.; Ing, Marsha; Marcoulides, George A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental effects of early parental intrinsic and extrinsic motivational strategies on mathematics achievement scores obtained from White students compared to underrepresented minority students. A latent growth curve model was fit to data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) with mathematics achievement…

  15. Implications of the Early X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves of Swift GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Konigl, Arieh; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Chicago U., EFI; Piran, Tsvi; /Hebrew U.

    2006-01-17

    According to current models, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced when the energy carried by a relativistic outflow is dissipated and converted into radiation. The efficiency of this process, {epsilon}{sub {gamma}}, is one of the critical factors in any GRB model. The X-ray afterglow light curves of Swift GRBs show an early stage of flattish decay. This has been interpreted as reflecting energy injection. When combined with previous estimates, which have concluded that the kinetic energy of the late ({approx}> 10 hr) afterglow is comparable to the energy emitted in {gamma}-rays, this interpretation implies very high values of {epsilon}{sub {gamma}}, corresponding to {approx}> 90% of the initial energy being converted into {gamma}-rays. Such a high efficiency is hard to reconcile with most models, including in particular the popular internal-shocks model. We re-analyze the derivation of the kinetic energy from the afterglow X-ray flux and re-examine the resulting estimates of the efficiency. We confirm that, if the flattish decay arises from energy injection and the pre-Swift broad-band estimates of the kinetic energy are correct, then {epsilon}{sub {gamma}} {approx}> 0.9. We discuss various issues related to this result, including an alternative interpretation of the light curve in terms of a two-component outflow model, which we apply to the X-ray observations of GRB 050315. We point out, however, that another interpretation of the flattish decay--a variable X-ray afterglow efficiency (e.g., due to a time dependence of afterglow shock microphysical parameters)--is possible. We also show that direct estimates of the kinetic energy from the late X-ray afterglow flux are sensitive to the assumed values of the shock microphysical parameters and suggest that broad-band afterglow fits might have underestimated the kinetic energy (e.g., by overestimating the fraction of electrons that are accelerated to relativistic energies). Either one of these possibilities implies a

  16. Establishing learning curve for Tenckhoff catheter insertion by interventional nephrologist using CUSUM analysis: how many procedures and in which situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Bak Leong; Ganeshadeva Yudisthra, M; Lim, Teck Onn

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion success rate is known to vary among different operators, and peritoneoscope PD catheter insertion demands mastery of a steep learning curve. Defining a learning curve using a continuous monitoring tool such as a Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) chart is useful for planning training programs. We aimed to analyze the learning curve of a trainee nephrologist in performing peritoneoscope PD catheter implantation with CUSUM chart. This was a descriptive single-center study using collected data from all PD patients who underwent peritoneoscope PD catheter insertion in our hospital. CUSUM model was used to evaluate the learning curve for peritoneoscope PD catheter insertion. Unacceptable primary failure rate (i.e., catheter malfunction within 1 month of insertion) was defined at >40% and acceptable performance was defined at CUSUM chart showed the learning curve of a trainee in acquiring new skill. As the trainee became more skillful with training, the CUSUM curve flattened. Technical proficiency of the trainee nephrologist in performing peritoneoscope Tenckhoff catheter insertion (CUSUM charting as described to monitor primary catheter dysfunction (i.e., failure of catheter function within 1 month of insertion), primary leak (i.e., within 1 month of catheter insertion), and primary peritonitis (i.e., within 2 weeks of catheter insertion).

  17. Effects of the Learning Curve on Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation for Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sarina; Cotton, Cary; Hathorn, Kelly E; Li, Nan; Bulsiewicz, William J; Wolf, W Asher; Muthusamy, V Raman; Komanduri, Srinadh; Wolfsen, Herbert C; Pruitt, Ron E; Ertan, Atilla; Chmielewski, Gary W; Shaheen, Nicholas J

    2015-10-01

    Complete eradication of Barrett's esophagus (BE) often requires multiple sessions of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Little is known about the effects of case volume on the safety and efficacy of RFA or about the presence or contour of learning curves for this procedure. We collected data from the US RFA Patient Registry (from 148 institutions) for patients who underwent RFA for BE from July 2007 to July 2011. We analyzed the effects of the number of patients treated by individual endoscopists and individual centers on safety and efficacy outcomes of RFA. Outcomes, including stricture, bleeding, hospitalization, and complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM), were assessed using logistic regression. The effects of center and investigator experience on numbers of treatment sessions to achieve CEIM were examined using linear regression. After we controlled for potential confounders, we found that as the experience of endoscopists and centers increased with cases, the numbers of treatment sessions required to achieve CEIM decreased. This relationship persisted after adjusting for patient age, sex, race, length of BE, and presence of pretreatment dysplasia (P .05). Based on analysis of a large multicenter registry, efficiency of the treatment, as measured by number of sessions needed to achieve CEIM, increased with case volume, indicating a learning curve effect. This trend began to disappear after treatment of approximately 30 patients by the center or individual endoscopist. However, there was no significant association between safety or efficacy outcomes and previous case volume. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mood Extraction Using Facial Features to Improve Learning Curves of Students in E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem Al-Alwani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Students’ interest and involvement during class lectures is imperative for grasping concepts and significantly improves academic performance of the students. Direct supervision of lectures by instructors is the main reason behind student attentiveness in class. Still, there is sufficient percentage of students who even under direct supervision tend to lose concentration. Considering the e-learning environment, this problem is aggravated due to absence of any human supervision. This calls for an approach to assess and identify lapses of attention by a student in an e-learning session. This study is carried out to improve student’s involvement in e-learning platforms by using their facial feature to extract mood patterns. Analyzing themoods based on emotional states of a student during an online lecture can provide interesting results which can be readily used to improvethe efficacy of content delivery in an e-learning platform. A survey is carried out among instructors involved in e-learning to identify most probable facial features that represent the facial expressions or mood patterns of a student. A neural network approach is used to train the system using facial feature sets to predict specific facial expressions. Moreover, a data association based algorithm specifically for extracting information on emotional states by correlating multiple sets of facial features is also proposed. This framework showed promising results in inciting student’s interest by varying the content being delivered.Different combinations of inter-related facial expressions for specific time frames were used to estimate mood patterns and subsequently level of involvement of a student in an e-learning environment.The results achieved during the course of research showed that mood patterns of a student provide a good correlation with his interest or involvement during online lectures and can be used to vary the content to improve students’ involvement in the e-learning

  19. Learning curve evaluation using cumulative summation analysis-a clinical example of pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, Thomas P; Gattas, Nicholas E; White, Alan D; Najmaldin, Azad S

    2015-08-01

    The cumulative summation (CUSUM) method for learning curve analysis remains under-utilized in the surgical literature in general, and is described in only a small number of publications within the field of pediatric surgery. This study introduces the CUSUM analysis technique and applies it to evaluate the learning curve for pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RP). Clinical data were prospectively recorded for consecutive pediatric RP cases performed by a single-surgeon. CUSUM charts and tests were generated for set-up time, docking time, console time, operating time, total operating room time, and postoperative complications. Conversions and avoidable operating room delay were separately evaluated with respect to case experience. Comparisons between case experience and time-based outcomes were assessed using the Student's t-test and ANOVA for bi-phasic and multi-phasic learning curves respectively. Comparison between case experience and complication frequency was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A total of 90 RP cases were evaluated. The learning curve transitioned beyond the learning phase at cases 10, 15, 42, 57, and 58 for set-up time, docking time, console time, operating time, and total operating room time respectively. All comparisons of mean operating times between the learning phase and subsequent phases were statistically significant (P=learning curve evaluation and outcome quality monitoring. In applying this statistical technique to the largest reported single surgeon series of pediatric RP, we demonstrate numerous distinctly shaped learning curves and well-defined learning phase transition points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using learning curves on energy-efficient technologies to estimate future energy savings and emission reduction potentials in the U.S. iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Increasing concerns on non-sustainable energy use and climate change spur a growing research interest in energy efficiency potentials in various critical areas such as industrial production. This paper focuses on learning curve aspects of energy efficiency measures in the U.S iron and steel sector. A number of early-stage efficient technologies (i.e., emerging or demonstration technologies) are technically feasible and have the potential to make a significant contribution to energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, but fall short economically to be included. However, they may also have the cost effective potential for significant cost reduction and/or performance improvement in the future under learning effects such as ‘learning-by-doing’. The investigation is carried out using ISEEM, a technology oriented, linear optimization model. We investigated how steel demand is balanced with/without the availability learning curve, compared to a Reference scenario. The retrofit (or investment in some cases) costs of energy efficient technologies decline in the scenario where learning curve is applied. The analysis also addresses market penetration of energy efficient technologies, energy saving, and CO2 emissions in the U.S. iron and steel sector with/without learning impact. Accordingly, the study helps those who use energy models better manage the price barriers preventing unrealistic diffusion of energy-efficiency technologies, better understand the market and learning system involved, predict future achievable learning rates more accurately, and project future savings via energy-efficiency technologies with presence of learning. We conclude from our analysis that, most of the existing energy efficiency technologies that are currently used in the U.S. iron and steel sector are cost effective. Penetration levels increases through the years, even though there is no price reduction. However, demonstration technologies are not economically

  1. Development Process and Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Hepatectomy: Learning Curve Based on 15 Years of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Shohei; Scatton, Olivier; Goumard, Claire; Sepulveda, Ailton; Brustia, Raffaele; Perdigao, Fabiano; Soubrane, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy continues to be a challenging operation associated with a steep learning curve. This study aimed to evaluate the learning process during 15 years of experience with laparoscopic hepatectomy and to identify approaches to standardization of this procedure. Prospectively collected data of 317 consecutive laparoscopic hepatectomies performed from January 2000 to December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The operative procedures were classified into 4 categories (minor hepatectomy, left lateral sectionectomy [LLS], left hepatectomy, and right hepatectomy), and indications were classified into 5 categories (benign-borderline tumor, living donor, metastatic liver tumor, biliary malignancy, and hepatocellular carcinoma). During the first 10 years, the procedures were limited mainly to minor hepatectomy and LLS, and the indications were limited to benign-borderline tumor and living donor. Implementation of major hepatectomy rapidly increased the proportion of malignant tumors, especially hepatocellular carcinoma, starting from 2011. Conversion rates decreased with experience for LLS (13.3% vs 3.4%; p = 0.054) and left hepatectomy (50.0% vs 15.0%; p = 0.012), but not for right hepatectomy (41.4% vs 35.7%; p = 0.661). Our 15-year experience clearly demonstrates the stepwise procedural evolution from LLS through left hepatectomy to right hepatectomy, as well as the trend in indications from benign-borderline tumor/living donor to malignant tumors. In contrast to LLS and left hepatectomy, a learning curve was not observed for right hepatectomy. The ongoing development process can contribute to faster standardization necessary for future advances in laparoscopic hepatectomy. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transperitoneal versus extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy during the learning curve: does the surgical approach affect the complication rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio M. Siqueira Jr.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the perioperative complication rate obtained with the transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (TLRP and with the extraperitoneal LRP (ELRP during the learning curve (LC. Materials and Methods: Data of the initial 40 TLRP (Group 1 were retrospectively compared with the initial 40 ELRP (Group 2. Each Group of patients was operated by two different surgeons. Results: The overall surgical time (175 min x 267.6 min; p < 0.001 and estimated blood loss (177.5 mL x 292.4 mL; p < 0.001 were statistically better in the Group 1. Two intraoperative complications were observed in Group 1 (5% represented by one case of bleeding and one case of rectal injury, whereas four complications (10% were observed in Group 2, represented by two cases of bleeding, one bladder and one rectal injuries (p = 0.675. Open conversion occurred once in each Group (2.5%. Overall postoperative complications were similar (52.5% x 35%; p = 0.365. Major early postoperative complications occurred in three and in one case in Group 1 and 2, respectively. Group 1 had two peritonitis (fecal and urinary, leading to one death in this group. Conclusions: No statistical differences in overall complication rates were observed. The transperitoneal approach presented more serious complications during the early postoperative time and this fact is attributed to the potential chance of intraperitoneal peritonitis not observed with the extraperitoneal route.

  3. CUSUM analysis of learning curves for the head-mounted microscope in phonomicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Vamos, Andrew C; Dailey, Seth H; Jiang, Jack J

    2016-10-01

    To observe the learning curve of the head-mounted microscope in a phonomicrosurgery simulator using cumulative summation (CUSUM) analysis, which incorporates a magnetic phonomicrosurgery instrument tracking system (MPTS). Retrospective case series. Eight subjects (6 medical students and 2 surgeons inexperienced in phonomicrosurgery) operated on phonomicrosurgical simulation cutting tasks while using the head-mounted microscope for 400 minutes total. Two 20-minute sessions occurred each day for 10 total days, with operation quality (Qs ) and completion time (T) being recorded after each session. Cumulative summation analysis of Qs and T was performed by using subjects' performance data from trials completed using a traditional standing microscope as success criteria. The motion parameters from the head-mounted microscope were significantly better than the standing microscope (P microscope (P microscope, as assessed by CUSUM analysis. Cumulative summation analysis can objectively monitor the learning process associated with a phonomicrosurgical simulator system, ultimately providing a tool to assess learning status. Also, motion parameters determined by our MPTS showed that, although the head-mounted microscope provides better motion control, worse Qs and longer T resulted. This decrease in Qs is likely a result of the relatively unstable visual environment that it provides. Overall, the inexperienced surgeons participating in this study failed to adapt to the head-mounted microscope in our simulated phonomicrosurgery environment. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2295-2300, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. The learning curve of laparoscopic treatment of rectal cancer does not increase morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, Juan; Gonzalez, Antonio; Abrisqueta, Jesús; Hernandez, Quiteria; Valero, Graciela; Abellán, Israel; Frutos, María Dolores; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of rectal cancer via laparoscopy is controversial due to its technical complexity. Several randomized prospective studies have demonstrated clear advantages for the patient with similar oncological results to those of open surgery, although during the learning of this surgical technique there may be an increase in complications and a worse prognosis. Our aim is to analyze how the learning curve for rectal cancer via laparoscopy influences intra- and postoperative results and oncological markers. A retrospective review was conducted of the first 120 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for rectal neoplasia. The operations were performed by the same surgical team with a wide experience in the treatment of open colorectal cancer and qualified to perform advanced laparoscopic surgery. We analyzed sex, ASA, tumour location, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical technique, operating time, conversion, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, number of lymph nodes, stage and involvement of margins. Significant differences were observed with regard to surgical time (224 min in the first group, 204 min in the second group), with a higher rate of conversion in the first group (22.5%) than in the second (11.3%). No significant differences were noted for rate of conservative sphincter surgery, length of hospital stay, post-surgical complications, number of affected/isolated lymph nodes or affected circumferential and distal margins. It is possible to learn this complex surgical technique without compromising the patient's safety and oncological outcome. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. A Learning Progressions Approach to Early Algebra Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…

  6. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Bolhuis, S.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes.

  7. Learning curve of computer-assisted navigation system in spine surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-shu; ZHANG Ye; CHEN Zi-qiang; WANG Chuan-feng; ZHAO Ying-chuan; SHI Zhi-cai; LI Ming; LIU Ka Po Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Background Spine surgery using computer-assisted navigation (CAN) has been proven to result in low screw misplacement rates, low incidence of radiation exposure and excellent operative field viewing versus the conventional intraoperative image intensifier (CⅢ). However, as we know, few previous studies have described the learning curve of CAN in spine surgery.Methods We performed two consecutive case cohort studies on pedicel screw accuracy and operative time of two spine surgeons with different experience backgrounds, A and B, in one institution during the same period. Lumbar pedicel screw cortical perforation rate and operative time of the same kind of operation using CAN were analyzed and compared using CⅢ for the two surgeons at initial, 6 months and 12 months of CAN usage.Results CAN spine surgery had an overall lower cortical perforation rate and less mean operative time compared with CⅢ for both surgeon A and B cohorts when total cases of four years were included. It missed being statistically significant,with 3.3% versus 4.7% (P=0.191) and 125.7 versus 132.3 minutes (P=0.428) for surgeon A and 3.6% versus 6.4%(P=0.058), and 183.2 versus 213.2 minutes (P=0.070) for surgeon B. in an attempt to demonstrate the learning curve,the cases after 6 months of the CAN system in each surgeon's cohort were compared. The perforation rate decreased by 2.4% (P=0.039) and 4.3% (P=0.003) and the operative time was reduced by 31.8 minutes (P=0.002) and 14.4 minutes (P=0.026) for the CAN groups of surgeons A and B, respectively. When only the cases performed after 12 months using the CAN system were considered, the perforation rate decreased by 3.9% (P=0.006) and 5.6% (P <0.001) and the operative time was reduced by 20.9 minutes (P <0.001) and 40.3 minutes (P <0.001) for the CAN groups of surgeon A and B, respectively.Conclusions In the long run, CAN spine surgery decreased the lumbar screw cortical perforation rate and operative time. The learning curve showed a

  8. Development of the Mathematics of Learning Curve Models for Evaluating Small Modular Reactor Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, T. J. [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    The cost of nuclear power is a straightforward yet complicated topic. It is straightforward in that the cost of nuclear power is a function of the cost to build the nuclear power plant, the cost to operate and maintain it, and the cost to provide fuel for it. It is complicated in that some of those costs are not necessarily known, introducing uncertainty into the analysis. For large light water reactor (LWR)-based nuclear power plants, the uncertainty is mainly contained within the cost of construction. The typical costs of operations and maintenance (O&M), as well as fuel, are well known based on the current fleet of LWRs. However, the last currently operating reactor to come online was Watts Bar 1 in May 1996; thus, the expected construction costs for gigawatt (GW)-class reactors in the United States are based on information nearly two decades old. Extrapolating construction, O&M, and fuel costs from GW-class LWRs to LWR-based small modular reactors (SMRs) introduces even more complication. The per-installed-kilowatt construction costs for SMRs are likely to be higher than those for the GW-class reactors based on the property of the economy of scale. Generally speaking, the economy of scale is the tendency for overall costs to increase slower than the overall production capacity. For power plants, this means that doubling the power production capacity would be expected to cost less than twice as much. Applying this property in the opposite direction, halving the power production capacity would be expected to cost more than half as much. This can potentially make the SMRs less competitive in the electricity market against the GW-class reactors, as well as against other power sources such as natural gas and subsidized renewables. One factor that can potentially aid the SMRs in achieving economic competitiveness is an economy of numbers, as opposed to the economy of scale, associated with learning curves. The basic concept of the learning curve is that the more a

  9. Development of the Mathematics of Learning Curve Models for Evaluating Small Modular Reactor Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, T. J. [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    The cost of nuclear power is a straightforward yet complicated topic. It is straightforward in that the cost of nuclear power is a function of the cost to build the nuclear power plant, the cost to operate and maintain it, and the cost to provide fuel for it. It is complicated in that some of those costs are not necessarily known, introducing uncertainty into the analysis. For large light water reactor (LWR)-based nuclear power plants, the uncertainty is mainly contained within the cost of construction. The typical costs of operations and maintenance (O&M), as well as fuel, are well known based on the current fleet of LWRs. However, the last currently operating reactor to come online was Watts Bar 1 in May 1996; thus, the expected construction costs for gigawatt (GW)-class reactors in the United States are based on information nearly two decades old. Extrapolating construction, O&M, and fuel costs from GW-class LWRs to LWR-based small modular reactors (SMRs) introduces even more complication. The per-installed-kilowatt construction costs for SMRs are likely to be higher than those for the GW-class reactors based on the property of the economy of scale. Generally speaking, the economy of scale is the tendency for overall costs to increase slower than the overall production capacity. For power plants, this means that doubling the power production capacity would be expected to cost less than twice as much. Applying this property in the opposite direction, halving the power production capacity would be expected to cost more than half as much. This can potentially make the SMRs less competitive in the electricity market against the GW-class reactors, as well as against other power sources such as natural gas and subsidized renewables. One factor that can potentially aid the SMRs in achieving economic competitiveness is an economy of numbers, as opposed to the economy of scale, associated with learning curves. The basic concept of the learning curve is that the more a

  10. Use of the cumulative sum method (CUSUM) to assess the learning curves of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann-Camaiora, A; Brogly, N; Alsina, E; Gilsanz, F

    2017-10-01

    Although ultrasound is a basic competence for anaesthesia residents (AR) there is few data available on the learning process. This prospective observational study aims to assess the learning process of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and to determine the number of procedures that a resident would need to perform in order to reach proficiency using the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. We recruited 19 AR without previous experience. Learning curves were constructed using the CUSUM method for ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block considering 2 success criteria: a decrease of pain score>2 in a [0-10] scale after 15minutes, and time required to perform it. We analyse data from 17 AR for a total of 237 ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve blocks. 8/17 AR became proficient for pain relief, however all the AR who did more than 12 blocks (8/8) became proficient. As for time of performance 5/17 of AR achieved the objective of 12minutes, however all the AR who did more than 20 blocks (4/4) achieved it. The number of procedures needed to achieve proficiency seems to be 12, however it takes more procedures to reduce performance time. The CUSUM methodology could be useful in training programs to allow early interventions in case of repeated failures, and develop competence-based curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Kant, curves and medical learning practice: a reply to Le Morvan and Stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, J

    2007-02-01

    In a recent paper published in the Journal of Medical Ethics, Le Morvan and Stock claim that the kantian ideal of treating people always as ends in themselves and never merely as a means is in direct and insurmountable conflict with the current medical practice of allowing practitioners at the bottom of their "learning curve" to "practise their skills" on patients. In this response, I take up the challenge they issue [corrected] and try to reconcile this conflict. The kantian ideal offered in the paper is an incomplete characterisation of Kant's moral philosophy, and the formula of humanity is considered in isolation without taking into account other salient kantian principles. I also suggest that their argument based on "necessary for the patient" assumes too narrow a reading of "necessary". This reply is intended as an extension to, rather than a criticism of, their work.

  12. Space-Filling Curves as a Novel Crystal Structure Representation for Machine Learning Models

    CERN Document Server

    Jasrasaria, Dipti; Rappoport, Dmitrij; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental problem in applying machine learning techniques for chemical problems is to find suitable representations for molecular and crystal structures. While the structure representations based on atom connectivities are prevalent for molecules, two-dimensional descriptors are not suitable for describing molecular crystals. In this work, we introduce the SFC-M family of feature representations, which are based on Morton space-filling curves, as an alternative means of representing crystal structures. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) was employed in a novel setting to reduce sparsity of feature representations. The quality of the SFC-M representations were assessed by using them in combination with artificial neural networks to predict Density Functional Theory (DFT) single point, Ewald summed, lattice, and many-body dispersion energies of 839 organic molecular crystal unit cells from the Cambridge Structural Database that consist of the elements C, H, N, and O. Promising initial results suggest that the S...

  13. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  14. CUSUM method for construction of trainee spinal ultrasound learning curves following standardised teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, A J; Melhuishi, N S; Terblanche, N C S

    2014-07-01

    Spinal ultrasonography is a promising aid for epidural insertion. We aimed to determine the learning curve of spinal ultrasonography tasks and the number of training scans required to reach competency after undergoing standardised step-wise teaching. Trainees were required to complete a minimum of 60 assessed scans on selected non-pregnant models following attendance at two training sessions, with feedback from an expert after each scan. Learning curves were plotted using the non-risk cumulative summation technique and an acceptable failure rate of 20%. Five trainees completed between 65 and 75 scans each. All trainees were competent at identifying a randomly assigned intervertebral space after a median of five scans (range one to nine) and at measuring the depth from skin to the posterior complex after a median of 10 scans (range 1 to 42). Two trainees were competent at marking an ideal needle insertion point after 55 scans, while three trainees did not attain competency. All trainees were competent after 60 scans if the tolerance was changed from five to eight millimetre for marking the needle insertion point. The average time taken to complete a scan was 163 seconds. Our study showed that after a standardised educational intervention, anaesthetic trainees are able to identify a lumbar interlaminar space easily and can measure the depth to the posterior complex after a reasonable number of additional practice scans, but experienced difficulty accurately marking the needle insertion point whilst using spinal ultrasonography. We confirmed that it was hard to achieve competency in all aspects of spinal ultrasonography, based on assessment using our predefined competency criteria.

  15. The single surgeon learning curve of laparoscopic liver resection: A continuous evolving process through stepwise difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Federico; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Colman, Roos; Vivarelli, Marco; Montalti, Roberto; Troisi, Roberto Ivan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the single-surgeon learning curve (SSLC) in laparoscopic liver surgery over an 11-year period with risk-adjusted (RA) cumulative sum control chart analysis.Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is a challenging and highly demanding procedure. No specific data are available for defining the feasibility and reproducibility of the SSLC regarding a consistent and consecutive caseload volume over a specified time period.A total of 319 LLR performed by a single surgeon between June 2003 and May 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. A difficulty scale (DS) ranging from 1 to 10 was created to rate the technical difficulty of each LLR. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum control chart (RA-CUSUM) analysis evaluated conversion rate (CR), operative time (OT) and blood loss (BL). Perioperative morbidity and mortality were also analyzed.The RA-CUSUM analysis of the DS identified 3 different periods: P1 (n = 91 cases), with a mean DS of 3.8; P2 (cases 92-159), with a mean DS of 5.3; and P3 (cases 160-319), with a mean DS of 4.7. P2 presented the highest conversion and morbidity rates with a longer OT, whereas P3 showed the best results (P analysis, at least 160 cases (P3) are needed to complete the SSLC performing safely different types of LLR. A minimum of 50 cases can provide a significant decrease in BL. Based on these findings, a longer learning curve should be anticipated to broaden the indications for LLR.

  16. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus: Evaluating the effect of the learning curve on the outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Initial experience with transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA using detachable coils and Amplatzer duct occluder devices is reported. We evaluated the outcome, complications, and influence of the learning curve, and also assessed the need of surgical backup for such interventional procedures. Methods: From January 2000 to December 2004, 121 patients underwent transcatheter closure of PDA. Aortic angiogram was performed to evaluate the size, position, and shape of the duct for appropriately choosing the occluder device type and size. A second aortic angiogram was performed 10 minutes after device deployment. Echocardiography was repeated at intervals of 24 hours, then at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure to assess complications. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the role of experience in improving the outcome of the procedure. Results: Of 121 cases, four patients had pulmonary artery embolization of the occluder device which was successfully retrieved in the catheterization laboratory, while two others had embolization that required surgical intervention. Four patients had temporary residual leak, nine had protrusion of the device into the aorta without significant Doppler pressure gradient or hemolysis on follow-up, and five had partial hemodynamically insignificant obstruction to the left pulmonary artery. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of the learning curve and experience was responsible for 93% improvement in the procedural outcome over the five-year study period. Conclusion: Transcatheter occlusion of PDA is safe and effective alternative to surgery. Complications occurred in those with unfavorable duct anatomy and with the use of multiple coils. Surgical backup was important for such interventional procedures. Experience played a major role in the proper choice of device type and size which greatly influenced the outcome of the procedure.

  17. Pathologic outcomes during the learning curve for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amul Shah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We report our initial experience with 62 patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP, focusing on the primary parameter of positive surgical margins. The authors demonstrate that excellent oncologic outcomes can be attained with a less steep learning curve than previously hypothesized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The first 62 patients undergoing RALP by a single physician (DPD at our institution between November 2005 and August 2007 were retrospectively assessed. Surgical pathology records were reviewed for Gleason score, pathologic tumor stage, nodal status, location of prostate cancer within the specimen, extracapsular extension, surgical margin status, presence of perineural invasion, tumor volume, and weight of the surgical specimen. Margin status was determined using surgical specimens only, and not intraoperative frozen sections. All cases in this series were completed using the four-arm da Vinci Robotic System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients had prostate cancer on their final surgical pathology specimens. Pathologic stage T2 and stage T3 patients were 88.7% and 9.7% of all cases, respectively. The pathologic Gleason score was 7 or greater in 62.3%. Our overall positive surgical margin rate was 3.3%. Patients with pathologic T2 and T3 disease had a positive surgical margin rate of 1.8% and 16.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that RALP can have equal if not better pathologic outcomes compared to open radical prostatectomy even during the initial series of cases. We argue that the learning curve for RALP is shorter than previously thought with respect to oncologic outcomes, and concerns asserting that lack of tactile feedback leads to poor oncologic outcomes are unfounded.

  18. Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

  19. 直接前入路微创髋关节置换学习曲线早期病例的短期结果%Primary total hip arthroplasty via minimally direct anterior approach:short-term results in cases of early learning curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭慧明; 钱文伟; 翁习生; 冯宾; 蒋超; 叶灿华; 肖刻

    2016-01-01

    Background:The direct anterior approach (DAA) is gaining popularity in the hip arthroplasty (THA). We still concern about the learning curve and early complications of this approach. Objective:To investigate short-term results and feasibility of THA via minimally invasive DAA. Methods:From April 2014 to September 2015, 17 patients underwent THA via minimally invasive DAA. There were 5 males and 12 females with an average age of 62.4 years (55-84 years). Their av-erage BMI was (23.9±4.5) kg/m2. Diagnosis included 2 cases of osteoarthritis, 7 of osteonecrosis, 3 of developmental dyspla-sia hip and 1 of ankylosing hip. ASA score was 1-2 points in 11 cases and 3 points in 6 cases. Preoperative average VAS score was 6±1.3 and Harris scale was 43.4±5. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, length of incisions, hospitalization time, operation related complication, radiological outcomes and postoperative pain relief and function rehabilitation were an-alyzed. Results:We performed simultaneous bilateral THA for 3 patients, unilateral THA for 12 patients (6 in the left and 6 in the right) and femoral head replacement for 2 patients. All the operations were performed under general anesthesia and no special traction table was used. The average operation time and intraoperative blood loss was 140.7 min (90-195 min) and 520 ml (200-1000 ml) in unilateral THA. The average operation time and intraoperative blood loss was 265.0 min (242-295 min) and 80-1500 ml in bilateral THA. Thirteen cases received intraoperative fluoroscopy and five cases received postopera-tive transfusion. The patients were followed up for a median of 6 months (5-12 months). The average postoperative leg-length discrepancy, femoral offset, angles of acetabular abduction and anteversion were (3 ± 2) mm, (3.1 ± 0.6) mm, 42.3° ± 5.7°, and 19.8°±5.7°. In this cohort, the complications were:4 calcar fractures (all healed), 3 lateral femoral cutaneous nerve dysfunction (all resolved). No infection

  20. Early-Time Flux Measurements of SN 2014J Obtained with Small Robotic Telescopes: Extending the AAVSO Light Curve

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, B; Zheng, W; Shivvers, I; Itagaki, K; Filippenko, A V; Kunz, J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, early-time photometry of supernova (SN) 2014J is presented, extending the AAVSO CCD database to prediscovery dates. The applicability of NASA's small robotic MicroObservatory Network telescopes for photometric measurements is evaluated. Prediscovery and postdiscovery photometry of SN 2014J is measured from images taken by two different telescopes of the network, and is compared to measurements from the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope and the Itagaki Observatory. In the early light-curve phase (which exhibits stable spectral behavior with constant color indices), these data agree with reasonably high accuracy (better than 0.05 mag around maximum brightness, and 0.15 mag at earlier times). Owing to the changing spectral energy distribution of the SN and the different spectral characteristics of the systems used, differences increase after maximum light. We augment light curves of SN 2014J downloaded from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) online database with these dat...

  1. Development of Entrepreneurship Learning Model for Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Christianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an early pace in the research development of entrepreneurship learning model for early childhood. This study aims to explore how learning entrepreneurship that has been done in the early childhood; to know whether parents, teachers, and principals support the entrepreneurship learning; and what kind of values of entrepreneurship can be developed for early childhood. The results of this research are useful to create early childhood entrepreneurial learning design. The research conducts in the form of interviews, observation, and documentation. The result shows that the school which has been developing entrepreneurship has no clear guidance of learning to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship; all teachers and principals in the research agree that entrepreneurship learning developed from an early age. However, there are 90.79% of parents agreed that from an early age has begun to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship and 9.21% said they did not agree; and the values of entrepreneurship that are able to be developed since they are in early age are self-confidence, honesty, independence, responsibility, creative, never give up/hard work, caring for the environment, teamwork, discipline, and respect.

  2. Incidence of Complications During the Surgeon Learning Curve Period for Primary Total Ankle Replacement: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Devin C; Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    Surgeons performing primary total ankle replacement have achieved outcomes comparable to ankle arthrodesis. However, while many reports exist suggesting the presence of a surgeon learning curve period during initial performance of primary total ankle replacement, no published analysis of the actual incidence of complications encountered during this period exists. Therefore, we sought to provide such an analysis through systematic review. A total of 2453 primary total ankle replacements with 1085 complications (44.2%) were identified. Our results revealed conflicting data whether an acceptably low incidence of high-grade complications leading to total ankle replacement failure exists during the surgeon learning curve period.

  3. Does Prior Laparoscopic and Open Surgery Experience Have Any Impact on Learning Curve in Transition to Robotic Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Adayener

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been 15 years since the Food And Drug Administration approved the Da Vinci® robotic surgery system. Robotic applications are being used extensively in urology, particularly in radical prostatectomy. Like all high-tech products, this system also has a high cost and a steep learning curve, therefore, preventing it from becoming widespread. There are various studies on the effect of open surgery or laparoscopy experience on the learning curve of robotic surgery. Analyzing these interactions well will provide valuable information on making the training period of robotic system more efficient.

  4. Learning Curves of Macintosh Laryngoscope in Nurse Anesthetist Trainees Using Cumulative Sum Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panthila Rujirojindakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tracheal intubation is a potentially life-saving procedure. This skill is taught to many anesthetic healthcare professionals, including nurse anesthetists. Our goal was to evaluate the learning ability of nurse anesthetist trainees in their performance of orotracheal intubation with the Macintosh laryngoscope. Methods. Eleven nurse anesthetist trainees were enrolled in the study during the first three months of their training. All trainees attended formal lectures and practice sessions with manikins at least one time on performing successful tracheal intubation under supervision of anesthesiology staff. Learning curves for each nurse anesthetist trainee were constructed with the standard cumulative summation (cusum methods. Results. Tracheal intubation was attempted on 388 patients. Three hundred and six patients (78.9% were successfully intubated on the trainees’ first attempt and 17 patients (4.4% on the second attempt. The mean ± SD number of orotracheal intubations per trainee was 35.5 ± 5.1 (range 30–47. Ten (90.9% of 11 trainees crossed the 20% acceptable failure rate line. A median of 22 procedures was required to achieve an 80% orotracheal intubations success rate. Conclusion. At least 22 procedures were required to reach an 80% success rate for orotracheal intubation using Macintosh laryngoscope in nonexperienced nurse anesthetist trainees.

  5. LHC Run 2 – reaching the top of the learning curve

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    As the LHC Physics conference gets underway in St Petersburg, it’s a good time to take stock of where things stand with Run 2.    For all those involved with operating the LHC and its experiments in this new energy and intensity regime, 2015 was always going to be a learning curve. And learning we most certainly are. The main objective for this year has always been to set up the machine and experiments for production running at high energy and high intensity in 2016, 17 and 18.  That said, the experiments have all been able to collect quality data at 13 TeV, with the first Run 2 papers and conference presentations being written and delivered this summer. It would be unfair of me, however, to give the impression that it’s all been plain sailing. As well as the highs: smooth recommissioning of the machine, physics getting underway, and a successful transition to 25-nanosecond bunch spacing, we’ve also had our fair share of lows. There have been no sho...

  6. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  7. Impact of obesity on laparoscopic-assisted left colectomy in different stages of the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Leopoldo; Rollo, Alessio; Cecchini, Stefano; Regina, Gabriele; Sansebastiano, Giuliano; Marchesi, Federico; Veronesi, Licia; Ferro, Michelina; Roncoroni, Luigi

    2009-04-01

    This study is aimed at verifying if the surgeon's experience has an impact on the risk of conversion to open surgery of laparoscopic left colectomy performed in obese patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed of 181 laparoscopic left hemicolectomies completed between April 2001 and June 2006. The results were analysed statistically in relation to the learning curve, by comparing factors that could have had an impact on the risk of conversion in the first 91 cases and in the last 90 cases. The overall conversion rate was 11%. Only weight level was found to be predictive of conversion to open surgery. No death was observed. Sixteen patients presented postoperative complications (8.8%), with no significant differences between obese and nonobese patients (P=0.95). The conversion rate was higher in the group of the first 91 cases: 15.6% versus 6.6% (P=0.05). Average body mass index of converted patients resulted as being higher than that of nonconverted ones (29.97+/-3.76 vs. 25.48+/-3.72; Plearning curve, but the difference was not observed during the second period (P=0.87). On multiple logistic regression analysis, obesity was found to be predictive of conversion only during the first period. The data indicate that the laparoscopic colorectal surgery is feasible and effective in obese patients both when the surgeon is expert in laparoscopic colorectal resection and at the initial phase of the experience. At the initial phase of the experience obesity constitutes a higher risk of conversion to open surgery.

  8. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyungjin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, ≤ 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  9. da Vinci Skills Simulator for Assessing Learning Curve and Criterion-based Training of Robotic Basic Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Luursema, J.M.; Kengen, B.; Schout, B.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To answer 2 research questions: what are the learning curve patterns of novices on the da Vinci skills simulator parameters and what parameters are appropriate for criterion-based robotic training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 17 novices completed 2 simulator sessions within 3 days.

  10. Narrative Assessment: Making Mathematics Learning Visible in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories--the preferred form of narrative assessment--currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper,…

  11. Early-Career Academics' Learning in Academic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Haamer, Anu; Lepp, Liina

    2011-01-01

    Communities of practice are generally known as places of engagement, learning and development. The current research aims to develop understanding of Estonian early-career university teachers' learning and developing possibilities as teachers in the community of practice (in the university). This paper is based on narrative interviews of 25…

  12. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  13. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  14. Self-organizing adaptive map: autonomous learning of curves and surfaces from point samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piastra, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Competitive Hebbian Learning (CHL) (Martinetz, 1993) is a simple and elegant method for estimating the topology of a manifold from point samples. The method has been adopted in a number of self-organizing networks described in the literature and has given rise to related studies in the fields of geometry and computational topology. Recent results from these fields have shown that a faithful reconstruction can be obtained using the CHL method only for curves and surfaces. Within these limitations, these findings constitute a basis for defining a CHL-based, growing self-organizing network that produces a faithful reconstruction of an input manifold. The SOAM (Self-Organizing Adaptive Map) algorithm adapts its local structure autonomously in such a way that it can match the features of the manifold being learned. The adaptation process is driven by the defects arising when the network structure is inadequate, which cause a growth in the density of units. Regions of the network undergo a phase transition and change their behavior whenever a simple, local condition of topological regularity is met. The phase transition is eventually completed across the entire structure and the adaptation process terminates. In specific conditions, the structure thus obtained is homeomorphic to the input manifold. During the adaptation process, the network also has the capability to focus on the acquisition of input point samples in critical regions, with a substantial increase in efficiency. The behavior of the network has been assessed experimentally with typical data sets for surface reconstruction, including suboptimal conditions, e.g. with undersampling and noise.

  15. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  16. Leadership of Learning in Early Years Practice: A Professional Learning Resource [Includes DVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses upon effective pedagogical leadership and practice in the leadership of learning within early years settings and children's centres. The book and accompanying DVD, containing real-life examples of early years leaders, provides a framework for reflective thinking and learning for those leading practice and working with…

  17. "Alarm-corrected" ergonomic armrest use could improve learning curves of novices on robotic simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Perez, Manuela; Hossu, Gabriela; Hubert, Nicolas; Perrenot, Cyril; Hubert, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In robotic surgery, the professional ergonomic habit of using an armrest reduces operator fatigue and increases the precision of motion. We designed and validated a pressure surveillance system (PSS) based on force sensors to investigate armrest use. The objective was to evaluate whether adding an alarm to the PSS system could shorten ergonomic training and improve performance. Twenty robot and simulator-naïve participants were recruited and randomized in two groups (A and B). The PSS was installed on a robotic simulator, the dV-Trainer, to detect contact with the armrest. The Group A members completed three tasks on the dV-Trainer without the alarm, making 15 attempts at each task. The Group B members practiced the first two tasks with the alarm and then completed the final tasks without the alarm. The simulator provided an overall score reflecting the trainees' performance. We used the new concept of an "armrest load" score to describe the ergonomic habit of using the armrest. Group B had a significantly higher performance score (p alarm associated with the PSS rectified ergonomic errors and accelerated professional ergonomic habit acquisition. The combination of the PSS and alarm is effective in significantly shortening the learning curve in the robotic training process.

  18. Reliability assessment of a manual-based procedure towards learning curve modeling and fmea analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rech

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Separation procedures in drug Distribution Centers (DC are manual-based activities prone to failures such as shipping exchanged, expired or broken drugs to the customer. Two interventions seem as promising in improving the reliability in the separation procedure: (i selection and allocation of appropriate operators to the procedure, and (ii analysis of potential failure modes incurred by selected operators. This article integrates Learning Curves (LC and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis aimed at reducing the occurrence of failures in the manual separation of a drug DC. LCs parameters enable generating an index to identify the recommended operators to perform the procedures. The FMEA is then applied to the separation procedure carried out by the selected operators in order to identify failure modes. It also deployed the traditional FMEA severity index into two sub-indexes related to financial issues and damage to company´s image in order to characterize failures severity. When applied to a drug DC, the proposed method significantly reduced the frequency and severity of failures in the separation procedure.

  19. Evaluating the Learning Curve for Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Total Ultrasound Guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    Full Text Available To investigate the learning curve of percutaneous nephrolithotomy under total ultrasound guidance.One hundred and twenty consecutive PCNL operations under total ultrasound guidance performed by a novice surgeon in a tertiary referral center were studied. Operations were analyzed in cohorts of 15 to determine when a plateau was reached for the variables such as operation duration, ultrasound screening time, tract dilation time, stone-free rate and complication rate. Comparison was made with the results of a surgeon who had performed more than 1000 PCNLs. Fluoroscopy was not used at all during procedure.The mean operation time dropped from 82.5 min for the first 15 patients to a mean of 64.7 min for cases 46 through 60(P = 0.047. The ultrasound screening time was a peak of 6.4 min in the first 15 cases, whereas it dropped to a mean of 3.9 min for cases 46 through 60(P = 0.01. The tract dilation time dropped from 4.9 min for the first 15 patients to a mean of 3.8 min for cases 46 through 60(P = 0.036. The senior surgeon had a mean operating time, screening time and tract dilation time equivalent to those of the novice surgeon after 60 cases. There was no significant difference in stone free rate and complication rate.The competence of ultrasound guided PCNL is reached after 60 cases with good stone free rate and without major complications.

  20. Learning curve and short-term results with a short-stem CFP system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Miquel

    2010-01-01

    In conservative hip replacement it is important to remove only pathological tissue to preserve as much healthy bone as possible. The collum femoris preserving (CFP) system preserves the femoral neck and metaphyseal cancellous bone. We present our learning curve with this system and our preliminary results and conclusions. During 2001-2009 we placed 138 CFP prostheses in 90 men and 38 women (10 bilateral). The mean age of the patients was 57.1 years (range 22-76 years) and the mean follow-up 38.3 months. Seventy-three patients were active workers at the time of surgery. All patients began partial weight bearing at 24-36 hours and total weight bearing was allowed at 3 weeks postoperative. We have had 1 infection, 2 intraoperative partial shaft fractures that did not require treatment, 1 acetabular loosening, and 2 periprosthetic traumatic fractures treated by osteosynthesis in one case and femoral revision in the other. All but 3 active workers returned to work and 54.5% of the studied patients practice some sport or physical activity. The stem size was correct in 125 hips. Resorption at the prosthetic rim was found in 9 out of 134 hips. No clinical symptoms were found in these patients. There have been no stem revisions for aseptic loosening in the follow-up study. Although the current follow-up is too short to allow definitive conclusions, the CFP system has provided excellent short-term results.

  1. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  2. Training Performance in Diagnosis of Congenital Uterine Anomalies With 3-Dimensional Sonography: A Learning Curve Cumulative Summation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, M Angela; Alcazar, Juan Luís; Graupera, Betlem; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Guerriero, Stefano; Mallafre, Anna; de Lorenzo, Cristina; Hereter, Lourdes

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated learning curve cumulative summation (CUSUM) of 3-dimensional (3D) sonography for diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies and the deviations of the level of trainees' performance at the control-stage CUSUM. First-year (R1), second-year (R2), and third-year (R3) residents in obstetrics and gynecology received a training program to learn how to analyze 3D sonographic volumes and to classify congenital uterine anomalies. Each trainee worked on 155 3D sonographic volumes from preselected patients. Their results were evaluated by learning curve CUSUM and standard CUSUM. The time for each volume analysis was calculated for the expert examiner and the trainees. Trainees R1, R2, and R3 reached competence at the 85th, 58th, and 40th evaluations, respectively, with success rates of 80%, 81%, and 85%, and kept the process under control with error levels of less than 4.5% until the end of the test. The trainees significantly reduced the average time of the evaluation per volume (P < .001). Learning curve CUSUM provided quantitative indicators of the learning evolution of 3D sonography for diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies by obstetrics and gynecology residents. The training received by the residents was adequate for diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies using 3D sonography. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. The Learning Curve of Transareola Single-site Laparoendoscopic Thyroidectomy: CUSUM Analysis of a Single Surgeon’s Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanghui; Zhang, Xueli; Tang, Zhiqiang; Tan, Zhanhai; Chen, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transareola single-site laparoendoscopic thyroidectomy (TASSET) is a rapidly advancing minimally invasive procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learning curve for TASSET. Subjects and Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients were prospectively divided into group 1 (initial phase), group 2 (intermediate phase), and group 3 (advanced phase) according to their surgical order (15 patients in each group). The operative time, operative blood loss, duration of hospital stay, postoperative pain, and postoperative complications were compared using phases. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the different learning phases, among operative time (P<0.05), operative blood loss (P<0.05), hospital stay (P<0.05), and postoperative pain (P<0.05). The postoperative complication rate was low (3/45). Conclusions: Learning curve of the TASSET are improved synchronized at different phases and technical indicators. The establishment of operative space take longer time to skilled master. PMID:27552376

  4. The Impact of Learning Curve Model Selection and Criteria for Cost Estimation Accuracy in the DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = The Impact of Learning Curve Model Selection and Criteria for Cost...Assistant Division Director, Institute for Defense Analyses Bruce Harmon, Research Staff Member, Institute for Defense Analyses The Impact of Learning ...Army Contracting Command ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 469 - The Impact of Learning Curve Model

  5. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Utility of Interobserver Agreement Statistics in Establishing Radiology Resident Learning Curves During Self-directed Radiologic Anatomy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tureli, Derya; Altas, Hilal; Cengic, Ismet; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Baltacioglu, Feyyaz

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the learning curves for the radiology residents when first introduced to an anatomic structure in magnetic resonance images (MRI) to which they have not been previously exposed to. The iliolumbar ligament is a good marker for testing learning curves of radiology residents because the ligament is not part of a routine lumbar MRI reporting and has high variability in detection. Four radiologists, three residents without previous training and one mentor, studied standard axial T1- and T2-weighted images of routine lumbar MRI examinations. Radiologists had to define iliolumbar ligament while blinded to each other's findings. Interobserver agreement analyses, namely Cohen and Fleiss κ statistics, were performed for groups of 20 cases to evaluate the self-learning curve of radiology residents. Mean κ values of resident-mentor pairs were 0.431, 0.608, 0.604, 0.826, and 0.963 in the analysis of successive groups (P 0.8). Therefore, a junior radiology resident can obtain enough experience in identifying a rather ambiguous anatomic structure in routine MRI after a brief instruction of a few minutes by a mentor and studying approximately 80 cases by oneself. Implementing this methodology will help radiology educators obtain more concrete ideas on the optimal time and effort required for supported self-directed visual learning processes in resident education. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

  8. Evaluation of the learning curve of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Fatih; Yuce, Berna; Oztas, Zafer; Ates, Halil

    2017-08-11

    To evaluate the learning curve of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS). The study included 32 eyes of 27 patients' (20 male and 7 female) with medically uncontrolled glaucoma. Non-penetrating glaucoma surgeries performed by trainees under control of an experienced surgeon between 2005 and 2007 at our tertiary referral hospital were evaluated. Residents were separated into two groups. Humanistic training model applied to the one in the first group, he studied with experimental models before performing NPGS. Two residents in the second group performed NPGS after a conventional training model. Surgeries of the residents were recorded on video and intraoperative parameters were scored by the experienced surgeon at the end of the study. Postoperative intraocular pressure, absolute and total success rates were analyzed. In the first group 19 eyes of 16 patients and in the second group 13 eyes of 11 patients had been operated by residents. Intraoperative parameters and complication rates were not statistically significant between groups (p > 0.05, Chi-square). The duration of surgery was 32.7 ± 5.6 min in the first group and 45 ± 3.8 min in the second group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001, Student's t test). Absolute and total success was 68.8 and 93.8% in the first group and 62.5 and 87.5% in the second group, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. Humanistic and conventional training models under control of an experienced surgeon are safe and effective for senior residents who manage phacoemulsification surgery in routine cataract cases. Senior residents can practice these surgical techniques with reasonable complication rates.

  9. Learning Curves Among All Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Germany: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, Klaus; Reinecke, Holger; Schmoor, Claudia; Frankenstein, Lutz; Vach, Werner; Hehn, Philip; Zirlik, Andreas; Bode, Christoph; Zehender, Manfred; Reinöhl, Jochen

    2017-05-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a rapidly evolving technique for therapy of aortic stenosis. Previous studies report learning curves with respect to in-hospital mortality and clinical complications. We aim to determine whether observed improvements of in-hospital outcomes after TAVI are the result of improvements in procedures or due to a change in the patient population, and whether improvements differ between the transfemoral (TF) and the transapical (TA) approach. Data was analyzed using risk-adjusted regression analyses in order to track the development of clinical outcomes of all isolated TAVI procedures performed in Germany from 2008 to 2013 (N=32.436) in all German hospitals performing TAVI. Measurements include in-hospital mortality, stroke, bleeding, and mechanical ventilation. Unadjusted mortality rates decrease over time for both TA-TAVI and TF-TAVI. Reductions in mortality were smaller for TA-TAVI than for TF-TAVI. These trends could also be observed for risk-adjusted (standardized) mortality rates, indicating that time trends and differences between TA-TAVI (around 7% in 2013) and TF-TAVI (around 4% in 2013) cannot be explained by changes in the risk factor composition of the patient populations. Bleeding complications decreased for both access routes. Both unadjusted and standardized bleeding rates were substantially higher for TA-TAVI. In addition, TA-TAVI procedures were associated with an increased likelihood of requiring >48h of mechanical ventilation. Observed improvements in TAVI-related in-hospital mortality are not due to a change in patient population. The results indicate the superiority of a TF-first approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-22

    CDC recognized the impact of developmental disabilities and invested in a campaign to help parents measure their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak, and act. .  Created: 9/22/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Division of Human Development and Disability, Child Development Studies Team.   Date Released: 9/23/2008.

  11. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  12. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  13. Re-learning curve for conventional total knee arthroplasty following 30 consecutive computer-assisted total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke T; Trofa, David; Smith, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A learning curve for returning to conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after using computer-assisted (CAS) TKA has not yet been established. In this study, the postoperative mechanical axes of the first 30 consecutive CAS TKAs performed by a single surgeon were compared to his subsequent 120 conventionally performed TKAs. A "re-learning curve" of 30 conventional TKAs was necessary to attain an average postoperative mechanical axis statistically indistinguishable from the average CAS mechanical axis (1.99°). This is a trend of which surgeons should be aware when converting from CAS TKA to conventional TKA. As a secondary goal, the authors identify the first clinical parameter, preoperative deviation from neutral mechanical axis, that may potentially serve as a guide for the selective use of CAS in TKA.

  14. Early-time polarized optical light curve of GRB 131030A

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Giannios, D; Papadakis, I; Angelakis, E; Balokovic, M; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kiehlmann, S; Kylafis, N; Kus, A; Myserlis, I; Modi, D; Panopoulou, G; Papamastorakis, I; Pavlidou, V; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A N; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2014-01-01

    We report the polarized optical light curve of a gamma-ray burst afterglow obtained using the RoboPol instrument. Observations began 655 seconds after the initial burst of gamma-rays from GRB131030A, and continued uninterrupted for 2 hours. The afterglow displayed a low, constant fractional linear polarization of $p = (2.1 \\pm 1.6)\\,\\%$ throughout, which is similar to the interstellar polarization measured on nearby stars. The optical brightness decay is consistent with a forward-shock propagating in a medium of constant density, and the low polarization fraction indicates a disordered magnetic field in the shock front. This supports the idea that the magnetic field is amplified by plasma instabilities on the shock front. These plasma instabilities produce strong magnetic fields with random directions on scales much smaller than the total observable region of the shock, and the resulting randomly-oriented polarization vectors sum to produce a low net polarization over the total observable region of the shock.

  15. [XPS Greenlight photoselective vaporization for benign prostatic hyperplasia: analysis of the learning curve and contribution of transrectal ultrasound monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misrai, V; Faron, M; Elman, B; Bordier, B; Portalez, D; Guillotreau, J

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the XPS laser learning curve of one single surgeon with no previous experience of PVP and the impact of the use of reel time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) monitoring. Retrospective analysis of the first 100 patients: group 1 (1st-49th patient without TRUS) and group 2 (50th-100th with TRUS). The learning curve was analyzed through technical variables: vaporization time/intervention time (VT/IT) (%), energy delivered (J)/prostate volume (J/mL) and delivered energy (J/s or Watt), peroperative conversion into monopolar transurethral resection, postoperative complication, duration of catheterization and hospitalization and evolution of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), PSA level, prostate residual volume and Qmax. Relationships between variables were evaluated by analysing the covariance (R 2 software. 14.2). A significant increase in VT/IT (P=0.0001) and the energy delivered per mL prostate (P=0.043) was reported in group 1. The average energy delivered per second was significantly higher in group 2 (P=0.0016). No difference was observed in terms of intra- or postoperative complication and catheterization time. The duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter in group 2 (P=0.03). The use of TRUS was associated with a gain of energy delivered by prostate volume at the end of learning curve (P=0.018). Prostate residual volume was significantly lower in the group 2 (P=0.0004). In our experience, 50 procedures are required to achieve the learning curve of PVP. The use of reel time TRUS would increase the energy delivered by prostate volume. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Training programs influence in the learning curve of laparoscopic gastric bypass for morbid obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Santos, Raquel; Estévez, Sergio; Tomé, Catherine; González, Sonia; Brox, Antonia; Nicolás, Raul; Crego, Rosario; Piñón, Miguel; Masdevall, Carles; Torres, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The makeup of a new surgical bariatric team may be associated with a higher number of postoperative complications due to the learning curve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes during the learning curve of laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGBP) depending on surgeons' training. A systematic approach was used to review studies from the Pubmed, Embase (Ovid), Cancer Lit, Biomes Central via Scirus, Current Contens (ISI), and Web of Science (SCI) databases. Two reviewers independently screened all titles/abstracts and included/excluded studies based on full copies of manuscripts. The outcomes included were: specific training of the surgeon, postoperative complications (leaks, occlusion, hemorrhage, pneumonia, etc.), mortality, and surgical technique. One reviewer put data onto an Excel spreadsheet. Statistical analysis was performed with weighted linear regression. We identified 448 citations, of which 120 abstract and 50 full-text publications were reviewed. Fourteen papers were selected. Data from 1,848 patients were included. Eighteen different surgeons were analyzed during their learning curve (including the first author of this study). Surgeons were divided into two groups: (1) without formal laparoscopic bariatric training (13 surgeons) and (2) with formal laparoscopic bariatric training (five surgeons). Postoperative complications were more frequent in group 1: 18.1% (± 7.6) vs. 7.7% (± 1.96, p = 0.046); also, mortality was more frequent in group 1: 0.57% (± 0.87) vs. 0% (p = 0.05). An appropriated training in laparoscopic bariatric surgery contributes to a significant reduction in postoperative complications and mortality during the learning curve of LGBP.

  17. Technical refinement and learning curve for attenuating neurapraxia during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy to improve sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Duclos, Antoine; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Borza, Tudor; Yu, Hua-Yin; Kowalczyk, Keith J; Hu, Jim C

    2012-06-01

    While radical prostatectomy surgeon learning curves have characterized less blood loss, shorter operative times, and fewer positive margins, there is a dearth of studies characterizing learning curves for improving sexual function. Additionally, while learning curve studies often define volume thresholds for improvement, few of these studies demonstrate specific technical modifications that allow reproducibility of improved outcomes. Demonstrate and quantify the learning curve for improving sexual function outcomes based on technical refinements that reduce neurovascular bundle displacement during nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We performed a retrospective study of 400 consecutive RARPs, categorized into groups of 50, performed after elimination of continuous surgeon/assistant neurovascular bundle countertraction. Our approach to RARP has been described previously. A single-console robotic system was used for all cases. Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite sexual function was measured within 1 yr of RARP. Linear regression was performed to determine factors influencing the recovery of sexual function. Greater surgeon experience was associated with better 5-mo sexual function (p = 0.007) and a trend for better 12-mo sexual function (p = 0.061), with improvement plateauing after 250-300 cases. Additionally, younger patient age (both pfunction (function. Moreover, trainee robotic console time during nerve sparing was associated with worse 12-mo sexual function (p=0.021), while unilateral nerve sparing/non-nerve sparing was associated with worse 5-mo sexual function (p = 0.009). Limitations include the retrospective single-surgeon design. With greater surgeon experience, attenuating lateral displacement of the neurovascular bundle and resultant neurapraxia improve postoperative sexual function. However, to maximize outcomes, appropriate patient selection must be exercised when allowing trainee nerve-sparing involvement. Copyright © 2012

  18. [Individual learning curve for radical robot-assisted prostatectomy based on the example of three professionals working in one clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasner, P I; Pushkar', D Iu; Kolontarev, K B; Kotenkov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of new surgical technique always requires evaluation of its effectiveness and ease of acquisition. A comparative study of the results of the first three series of successive robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed on at time by three surgeons, was conducted. The series consisted of 40 procedures, and were divided into 4 groups of 10 operations for the analysis. When comparing data, statistically significant improvement of intra- and postoperative performance in each series was revealed, with increase in the number of operations performed, and in each subsequent series compared with the preceding one. We recommend to perform the planned conversion at the first operation. In our study, previous laparoscopic experience did not provide any significant advantages in the acquisition of robot-assisted technology. To characterize the individual learning curve, we recommend the use of the number of operations that the surgeon looked in the life-surgery regimen and/or in which he participated as an assistant before his own surgical activity, as well as the indicator "technical defect". In addition to the term "individual learning curve", we propose to introduce the terms "surgeon's individual training phase", and "clinic's learning curve".

  19. Short-term outcomes and one surgeon's learning curve for thoracoscopic esophagectomy performed with the patient in the prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikiri, Taro; Yasuda, Takashi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Kanaji, Shingo; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Matsuda, Takeru; Sumi, Yasuo; Nakamura, Tetsu; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tominaga, Masahiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-01

    Thoracoscopic esophagectomy with the patient in the prone position (TEP) is now being performed as minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. This study examines the short-term outcomes and the learning curve associated with TEP. One surgeon ("Surgeon A") performed TEP on 100 consecutive patients assigned to three periods based on treatment order. Each group consisted of 33 or 34 patients. The outcomes of the three groups were compared to define the influence of surgeon expertise. Outcomes improved as Surgeon A gained experience in performing this operation, as evidenced by reduced thoracic operative times between periods 1 and 2, and then between periods 2 and 3 (p = 0.0033 and p = 0.0326, respectively); an increased number of retrieved chest nodes between periods 1 and 2 (p = 0.0070); and a decline in recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy between periods 2 and 3 (p = 0.0450). Period 2 was the pivotal period for each learning curve. An individual surgeon's learning curve over the course of 100 TEP procedures had three outcomes: a shortened operative time, a higher number of retrieved chest nodes, and a decreased rate of RLN palsy. Approximately 30-60 cases were needed to reach a plateau in the TEP procedure and a reduction in the morbidity rate.

  20. [Prostate cancer boost using high-dose-rate brachytherapy: impact of the learning curve on the dosimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaïm, C; Chand, M-È; Gal, J; Hijazi, H; Gautier, M; Hannoun-Lévi, J-M

    2014-11-01

    To analyse the influence of the learning curve on dosimetric data for high-dose-rate brachytherapy prostate cancer boost. From February 2009 to May 2012, after a first course of external beam radiation therapy (46Gy/23 fractions), 124 patients underwent high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost using Plato™ (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). The impact of the learning curve on the dosimetric quality of the prostate implant was assessed. The dosimetric data have been analysed: clinical target volume (CTV), D90 (dose to 90 % of CTV), D100, V100 (part on the CTV receiving 100 % of the dose), V150, V200 and DHI (dose non-homogeneity index). The doses delivered to 0.1, 1 and 2 cm(3) of the rectum and urethra were calculated. During the study period (39 months), a significant reduction of V150 (PD100 (P=0.3). This study confirms that the dosimetric quality of high-dose-rate brachytherapy prostate implant is significantly improved during the learning curve period. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Being Early on the Curve: Online Practices and Expressive Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia Puig-i-Abril

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of online information seeking and social interactions in the context of early Internet adopters in Bogotá, Colombia. Data analyses of a stratified sample survey conducted in 2004 provide evidence that online news media use and online social interactions affect online political engagement. In this data there is a clear positive relationship between online information seeking, social interactions, and expressive political participation; a relationship that is particularly encouraging for societies experiencing political conflict, and in which offline political expression can be limited; yet the online domain could offer an alternative. The positive effects of the online practices on political engagement are limited to the online domain and do not (yet spill over to the offline domain. Plausible explanations of this discrepancy between the online and the offline realms, as well as some of the antecedents of the online practices, are discussed.

  2. Early ($<$0.3 day) R-band light curve of the optical afterglow of GRB030329

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Nishiura, S; Tamagawa, T; Burenin, R A; Sekiguchi, T; Miyasaka, S; Yoshizumi, C; Suzuki, J; Mito, H; Nakada, Y; Aoki, T; Soyano, T; Tarusawa, K; Shiki, S; Makishima, K

    2004-01-01

    We observed the optical afterglow of the bright gamma-ray burst GRB030329 on the nights of 2003 March 29, using the Kiso observatory (the University of Tokyo) 1.05 m Schmidt telescope. Data were taken from March 29 13:21:26 UT to 17:43:16 (0.072 to 0.253 days after the burst), using an $Rc$-band filter. The obtained $Rc$-band light curve has been fitted successfully by a single power law function with decay index of $0.891\\pm0.004$. These results remain unchanged when incorporating two early photometric data points at 0.065 and 0.073 days, reported by Price et al.(2003) using the SSO 40 inch telescope, and further including RTT150 data (Burenin et al. 2003) covering at about 0.3 days. Over the period of 0.065-0.285 days after the burst, any deviation from the power-law decay is smaller than $\\pm$0.007 mag. The temporal structure reported by Uemura et al. (2003) does not show up in our $R$-band light curve.

  3. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 3. These issues contain the following major articles: "A National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL): A Brief History, 1987-1997;""Juguetes Fantasticos" (Mari Haas); "A Perspective on the Cultural…

  4. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  5. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  6. Melting curve of the deep mantle applied to properties of early magma ocean and actual core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrault, Denis; Lo Nigro, Giacomo; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Bouhifd, Mohamed A.; Garbarino, Gaston; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Our planet experienced partial melting early in its history as a consequence of energy release due to accretion. Partial mantle melting could still happen today in the lowermost mantle. Occurrence of melting is primordial for the chemical segregation between the different Earth's reservoirs and for the dynamics of the whole planet. Melting of iron-alloys is relatively easy to achieve, but the silicated mantle happens to be more refractory. We investigated experimentally melting properties of two starting material, forsterite and chondritic-mantle, at pressures ranging from 25 to 140 GPa, using laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with synchrotron radiation. We show that partial melting in the lowermost mantle, as suggested by seismology on the basis of the ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZ), requires temperatures above 4200 K at the core-mantle boundary. At low pressures, our curve plots significantly lower than previous reports. Compared to recent estimates of mantle geotherm, while this temperature remains possible if the Earth's core is very hot, it is more likely that ULVZs correspond to high concentration of incompatible elements driven down to the D"-layer by subducting slabs or extracted out from the outer core. When our chondritic melting curve is coupled with recent isentropic temperature profiles for a magma ocean, we obtain a correlation between magma ocean depth and the potential temperature (Tp) at its surface; an ocean depth of 1000 km (equivalent to ~40 GPa) corresponds to Tp=2000 K, which happens to be significantly hotter than the estimated surface temperature of a sustained magma ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a lid at the magma ocean surface at an epoch as early as that of core-mantle segregation.

  7. Learning representations for the early detection of sepsis with deep neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ha Young

    2017-08-19

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in intensive care unit patients. Early detection of sepsis is vital because mortality increases as the sepsis stage worsens. This study aimed to develop detection models for the early stage of sepsis using deep learning methodologies, and to compare the feasibility and performance of the new deep learning methodology with those of the regression method with conventional temporal feature extraction. Study group selection adhered to the InSight model. The results of the deep learning-based models and the InSight model were compared. With deep feedforward networks, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the models were 0.887 and 0.915 for the InSight and the new feature sets, respectively. For the model with the combined feature set, the AUC was the same as that of the basic feature set (0.915). For the long short-term memory model, only the basic feature set was applied and the AUC improved to 0.929 compared with the existing 0.887 of the InSight model. The contributions of this paper can be summarized in three ways: (i) improved performance without feature extraction using domain knowledge, (ii) verification of feature extraction capability of deep neural networks through comparison with reference features, and (iii) improved performance with feedforward neural networks using long short-term memory, a neural network architecture that can learn sequential patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning curve analyses in neurodevelopmental disorders: are children with autism spectrum disorder truly visual learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdődi, Lászlό; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renée; Schmitt, Thomas A

    2013-04-01

    Visual and auditory verbal learning using a selective reminding format was studied in a mixed clinical sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 42), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 83), velocardiofacial syndrome (n = 17) and neurotypicals (n = 38) using the Test of Memory and Learning to (1) more thoroughly characterize and examine the integrity of learning and memory processes, (2) to better understand the mechanisms of learning impairment, and (3) to inform instructional practices in ASD. Contrary to expectations, children with ASD demonstrated a relative weakness in the rate of acquisition of visual in contrast to verbal learning compared to neurotypicals. They also showed a complex pattern of consolidation. Overall, between-group differences were more likely to emerge during the visual learning task, suggesting that it may be more sensitive for detecting neurodevelopmental differences. The heuristic value of assessing memory and learning across multiple trials and comparing performance during immediate and delayed recall is discussed.

  9. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be…

  10. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  11. A Collaborative Inquiry into Museum and Library Early Learning Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinides, Phil; Fink, Ryan; DuBois, Tesla

    2016-01-01

    As states, cities, and communities take a more active role in ensuring that all children have access to high quality experiences and opportunities to learn, many are looking to museums and libraries as part of the early childhood education system. Museums and libraries can play a critical role in these efforts, and there is clear momentum and…

  12. A variation reduction allocation model for quality improvement to minimize investment and quality costs by considering suppliers’ learning curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Jauhari, WA; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    Quality improvement must be performed in a company to maintain its product competitiveness in the market. The goal of such improvement is to increase the customer satisfaction and the profitability of the company. In current practice, a company needs several suppliers to provide the components in assembly process of a final product. Hence quality improvement of the final product must involve the suppliers. In this paper, an optimization model to allocate the variance reduction is developed. Variation reduction is an important term in quality improvement for both manufacturer and suppliers. To improve suppliers’ components quality, the manufacturer must invest an amount of their financial resources in learning process of the suppliers. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consists of investment cost, and quality costs for both internal and external quality costs. The Learning curve will determine how the employee of the suppliers will respond to the learning processes in reducing the variance of the component.

  13. Family-School Connections, Early Learning, and Socioeconomic Inequality in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Crosnoe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Policy interest in parental involvement in the U.S. has rapidly grown, necessitating a deeper understanding of how families and schools can partner to promote learning and reduce performance disparities in this country. Matching multidisciplinary theory with growth curve analyses of American children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal StudyKindergarten Cohort, this study found that familyschool engagement (in which school personnel and parents reached out to each other and familyschool symmetry (in which parents and teachers constructed parallel learning environments were associated with greater reading gains during the primary grades. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children appeared more at risk from one-sided engagement, and their more advantaged peers appeared to benefit more from symmetry.

  14. Generating a learning curve for pediatric caudal epidural blocks: an empirical evaluation of technical skills in novice and experienced anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepfer, G; Konrad, C; Schmeck, J; Poortmans, G; Staffelbach, B; Jöhr, M

    2000-01-01

    Learning curves for anesthesia procedures in adult patients have been determined, but no data are available on procedures in pediatric anesthesia. The aim of this study was to assess the number of caudal blocks needed to guarantee a high success rate in performing caudal epidural analgesia in children. At a teaching hospital, the technical skills of 7 residents in anesthesiology who performed caudal blocks were evaluated during 4 months using a standardized self-evaluation questionnaire. At the start of the study period, the residents had no prior experience in pediatric anesthesia or in performing caudal epidural blocks. All residents entered the pediatric rotation after a minimum of 1 year of training in adult general and regional anesthesia. The blocks were rated using a binary score. For comparison, the success rates of 8 experienced staff anesthesiologists were collected during the same period using the same self-evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed by generating individual and institutional learning curves using the pooled data. The learning curves were calculated with the aid of a least-square fit model and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by a Monte Carlo procedure with a bootstrap technique. The success rate of residents was 80% after 32 procedures (95% confidence interval of 0.59 to 1.00). The pooled success rate of the staff anesthesiologists was 0.73 (mean) with a standard deviation of 0.45, which was not statistically different from the success rate of the residents. High success rates in performing caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients can be acquired after a limited number of cases. Success rates of residents learning this procedure are comparable to the results of staff anesthesiologists.

  15. A simplified early-warning system for imminent landslide prediction based on failure index fragility curves developed through numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Ozturk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Early-warning systems (EWSs are crucial to reduce the risk of landslide, especially where the structural measures are not fully capable of preventing the devastating impact of such an event. Furthermore, designing and successfully implementing a complete landslide EWS is a highly complex task. The main technical challenges are linked to the definition of heterogeneous material properties (geotechnical and geomechanical parameters as well as a variety of the triggering factors. In addition, real-time data processing creates a significant complexity, since data collection and numerical models for risk assessment are time consuming tasks. Therefore, uncertainties in the physical properties of a landslide together with the data management represent the two crucial deficiencies in an efficient landslide EWS. Within this study the application is explored of the concept of fragility curves to landslides; fragility curves are widely used to simulate systems response to natural hazards, i.e. floods or earthquakes. The application of fragility curves to landslide risk assessment is believed to simplify emergency risk assessment; even though it cannot substitute detailed analysis during peace-time. A simplified risk assessment technique can remove some of the unclear features and decrease data processing time. The method is based on synthetic samples which are used to define the approximate failure thresholds for landslides, taking into account the materials and the piezometric levels. The results are presented in charts. The method presented in this paper, which is called failure index fragility curve (FIFC, allows assessment of the actual real-time risk in a case study that is based on the most appropriate FIFC. The application of an FIFC to a real case is presented as an example. This method to assess the landslide risk is another step towards a more integrated dynamic approach to a potential landslide prevention system. Even if it does not define

  16. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process

  17. Simultaneous development of laparoscopy and robotics provides acceptable perioperative outcomes and shows robotics to have a faster learning curve and to be overall faster in rectal cancer surgery: analysis of novice MIS surgeon learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melich, George; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Jieun; Hur, Hyuk; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu; Sender Liberman, A; Min, Byung Soh

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopy offers some evidence of benefit compared to open rectal surgery. Robotic rectal surgery is evolving into an accepted approach. The objective was to analyze and compare laparoscopic and robotic rectal surgery learning curves with respect to operative times and perioperative outcomes for a novice minimally invasive colorectal surgeon. One hundred and six laparoscopic and 92 robotic LAR rectal surgery cases were analyzed. All surgeries were performed by a surgeon who was primarily trained in open rectal surgery. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Operative time and CUSUM plots were used for evaluating the learning curve for laparoscopic versus robotic LAR. Laparoscopic versus robotic LAR outcomes feature initial group operative times of 308 (291-325) min versus 397 (373-420) min and last group times of 220 (212-229) min versus 204 (196-211) min-reversed in favor of robotics; major complications of 4.7 versus 6.5 % (NS), resection margin involvement of 2.8 versus 4.4 % (NS), conversion rate of 3.8 versus 1.1 (NS), lymph node harvest of 16.3 versus 17.2 (NS), and estimated blood loss of 231 versus 201 cc (NS). Due to faster learning curves for extracorporeal phase and total mesorectal excision phase, the robotic surgery was observed to be faster than laparoscopic surgery after the initial 41 cases. CUSUM plots demonstrate acceptable perioperative surgical outcomes from the beginning of the study. Initial robotic operative times improved with practice rapidly and eventually became faster than those for laparoscopy. Developing both laparoscopic and robotic skills simultaneously can provide acceptable perioperative outcomes in rectal surgery. It might be suggested that in the current milieu of clashing interests between evolving technology and economic constrains, there might be advantages in embracing both approaches.

  18. KidSmart© in Early Childhood Learning Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Borum, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from young children’s play with digital technology in formal and semi-formal learning practices. The study is part of a bigger project being conducted by IBM KidSmart Early Learning Program, Denmark, the Danish Agency of Culture, 13 kindergartens...... in Varde municipality, Denmark, Varde Library, Denmark, and Aalborg University, Denmark. The project is concerned with preparing young children to enter the digital world and to bridge the digital divide. In doing so, there is a specific interest in how digital technology can foster integration, language...... and concept development through an inquiry-based mode of play, learning, and interaction. This study applies a human-centred design approach to learning and play in order to investigate affordances and constraints that emerge from younger children’s engagement with digital technology, particularly focusing...

  19. Pedagogic approach in the surgical learning: The first period of “assistant surgeon” may improve the learning curve for laparoscopic robotic-assisted hysterectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Favre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysterectomy is the most frequently surgery done with robotic assistance in the world and has been widely studied since its emergence. The surgical outcomes of the robotic hysterectomy are similar to those obtained with other minimally invasive hysterectomy techniques (laparoscopic and vaginal and appear as a promising surgical technique in gynaecology surgery. The aim of this study was to observe the learning curve of robot-assisted hysterectomy in a French surgical center, and was to evaluate the impact of the surgical mentoring.Methods: We retrospectively collected the data from the files of the robot-assisted hysterectomies with the Da Vinci® Surgical System performed between March 2010 and June 2014 at the Foch hospital in Suresnes (France. We first studied the operative time according to the number of cases, independently of the surgeon to determine two periods: the initial learning phase (Phase 1 and the control of surgical skills phase (Phase 2. The phase was defined by mastering the basic surgical tasks. Secondarily we compared these two periods for operative time, blood losses, Body Mass Index (BMI, days of hospitalisations and uterine weight. We finally studied the difference of the learning curve between an experimented surgeon (S1 who practised the first the robot-assisted hysterectomies and a less experimented surgeon (S2 who first assisted S1 and then operated on his own patients.Results: 154 robot-assisted hysterectomies were analysed. 20 procedures were necessary to access to the control of surgical skills phase. There was a significant decrease of the operative time between the learning phase (156.8 minutes compared to the control of surgical skills phase (125.8 minutes, p=0.003. No difference between these two periods for blood losses, BMI, days of hospitalisations and uterine weight were demonstrated. The learning curve of S1 showed 20 procedures to master the robot-assisted hysterectomies with a significant

  20. The learning curve of the three-port two-instrument complete thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer—A feasible technique worthy of popularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Three-port complete thoracoscopic lobectomy with the two-instrument technique is feasible for lung cancer treatment. The length of the learning curve consisted of 28 cases. This TPTI technique should be popularized.

  1. Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.

  2. 排球运动技能学习曲线的相关性研究%The Related Investigation about Learning Curve of Volleyball Moving Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉婷

    2012-01-01

    采用文献资料、观察记录、图表分析等研究方法,对排球技能的学习曲线做了系统的探究。结果表明:排球运动技能学习曲线的类型主要有线形学习曲线、先快后慢的负加速形学习曲线、先慢后快的正加速形学习曲线、S形学习曲线、高原平台学习曲线;只要正确认识排球运动技能学习曲线就会对排球的技能学习有规律性认识,加速排球运动技能的形成。%Systematic exploration about learning curves of volleyball skins were conducted according to research techniques of consulting reported literature, observing and recording, and diagram analysis, etc.. Results achieved by this research were given by the following: linear learning curve, negative accelerating learning curve moving fast first and then slowing down, positive accelerating learning curve moving slowly and then speeding up, S form learning curve, and plateau platform learning curve were all included in main learning curves of volleyball moving skills. The study of volleyball skills could be eognized regularly as long as learning curves of volleyball skills were understood correctly, speeding up the formation of volleyball moving skills.

  3. Single-centre experience of retroperitoneoscopic approach in urology with tips to overcome the steep learning curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesh Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The retroperitoneoscopic or retroperitoneal (RP surgical approach has not become as popular as the transperitoneal (TP one due to the steeper learning curve. Aims: Our single-institution experience focuses on the feasibility, advantages and complications of retroperitoneoscopic surgeries (RS performed over the past 10 years. Tips and tricks have been discussed to overcome the steep learning curve and these are emphasised. Settings and Design: This study made a retrospective analysis of computerised hospital data of patients who underwent RP urological procedures from 2003 to 2013 at a tertiary care centre. Patients and Methods: Between 2003 and 2013, 314 cases of RS were performed for various urological procedures. We analysed the operative time, peri-operative complications, time to return of bowel sound, length of hospital stay, and advantages and difficulties involved. Post-operative complications were stratified into five grades using modified Clavien classification (MCC. Results: RS were successfully completed in 95.5% of patients, with 4% of the procedures electively performed by the combined approach (both RP and TP; 3.2% required open conversion and 1.3% were converted to the TP approach. The most common cause for conversion was bleeding. Mean hospital stay was 3.2 ± 1.2 days and the mean time for returning of bowel sounds was 16.5 ± 5.4 h. Of the patients, 1.4% required peri-operative blood transfusion. A total of 16 patients (5% had post-operative complications and the majority were grades I and II as per MCC. The rates of intra-operative and post-operative complications depended on the difficulty of the procedure, but the complications diminished over the years with the increasing experience of surgeons. Conclusion: Retroperitoneoscopy has proven an excellent approach, with certain advantages. The tips and tricks that have been provided and emphasised should definitely help to minimise the steep learning curve.

  4. A Literature Survey for Earliness/Tardiness Scheduling Problems with Learning Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Cemil İŞLER

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available When a task or work is done continuously, there will be an experience so following times needs of required resources (manpower, materials, etc. will be reduced. This learning curve described first by Wright. Wright determined how workmanship costs decreased while proceed plain increasing. This investigations correctness found consistent by plain producers. Learning effect is an effect that, works can be done in shorter time in the rate of repeat of work with repeating same or similar works in production process. Nowadays classical production systems adapted more acceptable systems with new approaches. Just in time production system (JIT philosophy is one of the most important production system philosophies. JIT which is known production without stock stands on using all product resources optimum. Minimization problem of Earliness/Tardiness finishing penalty, which we can describe Just in time scheduling, appeared by inspired from JIT philosophy. In this study, there is literature survey which directed to earliness/tardiness performance criteria and learning effect processing in scheduling and as a result of this it is obtained some establishing for literature.

  5. The learning curve for laparoscopic colectomy in colorectal cancer at a new regional hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Yen Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer in a new regional hospital is feasible and safe. It does not need additional time for learning. Laparoscopic sigmoidectomy can be considered as the initial surgery for a trainee.

  6. Learning Curve of the Application of Huang Three-Step Maneuver in a Laparoscopic Spleen-Preserving Splenic Hilar Lymphadenectomy for Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ze-Ning; Huang, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the learning curve of the application of Huang 3-step maneuver, which was summarized and proposed by our center for the treatment of advanced upper gastric cancer. From April 2012 to March 2013, 130 consecutive patients who underwent a laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymphadenectomy (LSPL) by a single surgeon who performed Huang 3-step maneuver were retrospectively analyzed. The learning curve was analyzed based on the moving average (MA) method and the cumulative sum method (CUSUM). Surgical outcomes, short-term outcomes, and follow-up results before and after learning curve were contrastively analyzed. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used for a multivariable analysis to determine the factors that affect the operative time using Huang 3-step maneuver. Based on the CUSUM, the learning curve for Huang 3-step maneuver was divided into phase 1 (cases 1-40) and phase 2 (cases 41-130). The dissection time (DT) (P < 0.001), blood loss (BL) (P < 0.001), and number of vessels injured in phase 2 were significantly less than those in phase 1. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological characteristics, short-term outcomes, or major postoperative complications between the learning curve phases. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that body mass index (BMI), short gastric vessels (SGVs), splenic hilar artery (SpA) type, and learning curve phase were significantly associated with DT. In the entire group, 124 patients were followed for a median time of 23.0 months (range, 3-30 months). There was no significant difference in the survival curve between phases. AUGC patients with a BMI less than 25 kg/m², a small number of SGVs, and a concentrated type of SpA are ideal candidates for surgeons who are in phase 1 of the learning curve.

  7. Linking Play to Early Learning and Development Guidelines: Possibility or Polemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Scott-Little, Catherine; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins

    2009-01-01

    Early learning and development guidelines have often been regarded as a deterrent to an emphasis on play within early learning settings for infants and toddlers. In examining the context for, and the evolution of, early learning guidelines, the article delineates the need to scrutinize and help reverse this mindset. To that end, the authors…

  8. Short-radius horizontal well re-entry learning curve: prize, cost and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boote, K. [Ocelot Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacDonald, R. [Lauron Engineering Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Six mature vertical wells in Alberta belonging to Ocelot Energy Inc., were reentered and drilled horizontally. Experiences gained, the modifications made to the drilling program and the rewards in the form of incremental oil, were discussed. Details of pre- and post-performance, operational experiences with exiting the casing, building the curve, overbalance versus underbalanced drilling, motors, directional equipment, setting liners, remedial workovers and the cost of the operation were part of the discussion.

  9. Ensemble Learning Method for Outlier Detection and its Application to Astronomical Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nun, Isadora; Protopapas, Pavlos; Sim, Brandon; Chen, Wesley

    2016-09-01

    Outlier detection is necessary for automated data analysis, with specific applications spanning almost every domain from financial markets to epidemiology to fraud detection. We introduce a novel mixture of the experts outlier detection model, which uses a dynamically trained, weighted network of five distinct outlier detection methods. After dimensionality reduction, individual outlier detection methods score each data point for “outlierness” in this new feature space. Our model then uses dynamically trained parameters to weigh the scores of each method, allowing for a finalized outlier score. We find that the mixture of experts model performs, on average, better than any single expert model in identifying both artificially and manually picked outliers. This mixture model is applied to a data set of astronomical light curves, after dimensionality reduction via time series feature extraction. Our model was tested using three fields from the MACHO catalog and generated a list of anomalous candidates. We confirm that the outliers detected using this method belong to rare classes, like Novae, He-burning, and red giant stars; other outlier light curves identified have no available information associated with them. To elucidate their nature, we created a website containing the light-curve data and information about these objects. Users can attempt to classify the light curves, give conjectures about their identities, and sign up for follow up messages about the progress made on identifying these objects. This user submitted data can be used further train of our mixture of experts model. Our code is publicly available to all who are interested.

  10. [Producing a sequence of movements in response to a sequence of visual stimuli. Inter-individual differences in early phase of sequence learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganskiĭ, A V; Grigal, P P

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we studied the inter-individual variants at the early stage of serial learning in the sequence reproduction task where subjects were asked to produce a sequence of movements whose serial order was given by the sequence of visual stimuli. A total of 20 adults participated in the experiment where, besides the sequence reproduction task, each subject also performed the simple visuomotor reaction time task, the choice reaction time task and the serial reaction time task. It was found that individual latencies vs. trial number plots (learning curves) were characterized by one distinctive feature: the latency reduction, if any, took a form of either an abrupt decline down to a stationary level (fast phase) or a gradual approximately linear leveling off over the entire block of 60 trials (slow phase). The diversity of the individual learning curves were limited to the following four types: a flat curve, a curve with the fast phase only, a curve with the slow phase only, and a curve that combined both phases with the leading fast phase followed by the slow phase. All the subjects were subdivided into four groups according to the subject's type of learning curve. We analyzed the correlation pattern between temporal indices (latencies and inter-response intervals) and compared these indices to simple visuomotor reaction time, choice reaction time and the amount of learning in the serial reaction time task. The significant between-group differences found in this analysis suggest that there are some essential functional differences related to the group break up. It was suggested that inter-individual variants in the character of the early stage of sequence learning are determined mainly by the functional and structural complexity of the internal representation of the sequence and by the way the working memory operates in order to recognize the driving sequence of visual stimuli and to translate the internal representation of a sequence into motor commands.

  11. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any serious effects on power supply system in those scenarios. PHEV can run with both gasoline and electricity. Therefore we evaluate CO2 emissions not only from gasoline consumption but also from electricity consumption. To consider a distribution of daily-trip-distance is important for evaluating the economical merit and CO2 emissions by introducing of PHEV. Also, the battery cost in the future is very important for making a PHEV's growth scenario. The growth of the number of PHEV makes battery cost lower. Then, we formulate the total model that combines passenger car sector and power supply sector with considering a distribution of daily-trip-distance and Learning Curve on battery costs. We use the iteration method to consider a Learning Curve that is non- linear. Therefore we set battery cost only in the first year of the simulation. Battery costs in the later year are calculated in the model. We focus on the 25-year time frame from 2010 in Japan, with divided in 5 terms (1st∼5th). And that model selects the most economical composition of car type and power sources.

  12. Early-time light curves of Type Ib/c supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Taddia, F; Leloudas, G; Stritzinger, M D; Valenti, S; Galbany, L; Kessler, R; Schneider, D P; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the early-time optical light curves (LCs) of 20 Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe Ib/c) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) SN survey II, aiming to study their properties as well as to derive their progenitor parameters. High-cadence, multi-band LCs are fitted with a functional model and the best-fit parameters are compared among the SN types. Bolometric LCs (BLCs) are constructed for the entire sample. We computed the black-body (BB) temperature (T_BB) and photospheric radius (R_ph) evolution for each SN via BB fits on the spectral energy distributions. In addition, the BLC properties are compared to model expectations. Complementing our sample with literature data, we find that SNe Ic and Ic-BL (broad-line) have shorter rise times than those of SNe Ib and IIb. \\Delta m_15 is similar among the different sub-types. SNe Ic appear brighter and bluer than SNe Ib, but this difference vanishes if we consider host galaxy extinction corrections based on colors. Our SNe have typical T_BB ~ 10000 K at peak, an...

  13. Learning Curve of Robotic-assisted Radical Prostatectomy With 60 Initial Cases by a Single Surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chuan Ou

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: After gaining experience by performing an initial 30 robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies, the subsequent 30 surgeries established proficiency as determined by vesicourethral anastomosis time and early continence rate.

  14. An evidence-based laparoscopic simulation curriculum shortens the clinical learning curve and reduces surgical adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Win G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gunter De Win,1,2 Siska Van Bruwaene,3,4 Jyotsna Kulkarni,5 Ben Van Calster,6 Rajesh Aggarwal,7,8 Christopher Allen,9 Ann Lissens,4 Dirk De Ridder,3 Marc Miserez4,10 1Department of Urology, Antwerp University Hospital, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, 3Department of Urology, University Hospitals of KU Leuven, 4Centre for Surgical Technologies, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 5Kulkarni Endo Surgery Institute, Pune, India; 6Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 7Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 8Steinberg Centre for Simulation and Interactive Learning, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 9School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 10Department of Abdominal Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Background: Surgical simulation is becoming increasingly important in surgical education. However, the method of simulation to be incorporated into a surgical curriculum is unclear. We compared the effectiveness of a proficiency-based preclinical simulation training in laparoscopy with conventional surgical training and conventional surgical training interspersed with standard simulation sessions.Materials and methods: In this prospective single-blinded trial, 30 final-year medical students were randomized into three groups, which differed in the way they were exposed to laparoscopic simulation training. The control group received only clinical training during residency, whereas the interval group received clinical training in combination with simulation training. The Center for Surgical Technologies Preclinical Training Program (CST PTP group received a proficiency-based preclinical simulation course during the final year of medical school but was not exposed to any extra simulation training during surgical residency. After 6 months of surgical residency, the influence on the learning curve while performing

  15. Documenting a learning curve and test-retest reliability of two tasks on a virtual reality training simulator in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Nancy J; Briggs, William M; Fowler, Dennis L

    2007-01-01

    Virtual reality simulators are a component of the armamentarium for training surgical residents. No one knows exactly how to incorporate virtual reality simulators into a curriculum. The purpose of this study was to document and show the learning curve and test-retest reliability of 2 tasks on a virtual reality-training simulator (LapSim; Surgical Science, Göteborg, Sweden) in laparoscopic surgery. Twenty-nine medical students participated in 8 iterations of 7 virtual reality tasks ("camera navigation" (CN), "instrument navigation," "coordination," "grasping," "lifting and grasping" (LG), "cutting," and "clip applying") Learning curves for each outcome variable of the CN and LG tasks were generated. Using ANOVA, we evaluated the differences between each score from attempt number 7 to attempt number 8 to document test-retest reliability. A plateau in the learning curve occurred within 8 sessions for CN misses, CN tissue damage, CN maximum damage, and LG maximum damage. Over the course of 8 sessions, a plateau in the learning curve was nearly reached for CN time, CN drift, CN path, CN angular path, and LG left and right path. The following variables had a downward trend to the mean learning curve over 8 sessions, but they did not reach a plateau: LG time, LG left and right miss, LG left and right angular path, and LG tissue damage. Using the LapSim virtual reality simulator, we documented a learning curve and test-retest reliability for each outcome variable for CN and LG for rank novices. The modeling of the general learning curve is useful in designing training program. These results may be important in developing standards for technical evaluation in a surgical training curriculum.

  16. Analysis of learning curves in the on-the-job training of air traffic controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Bruggraaff, E.; Roe, R.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a competence-based assessment system, called CBAS, for air traffic control (ATC) simulator and on-the-job training (OJT), developed at Air Traffic Control The Netherlands (LVNL). In contrast with simulator training, learning processes in OJT are difficult to assess, because th

  17. Contending with foreign accent in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Rachel; Hollich, George; Seidl, Amanda

    2011-11-01

    By their second birthday, children are beginning to map meaning to form with relative ease. One challenge for these developing abilities is separating information relevant to word identity (i.e. phonemic information) from irrelevant information (e.g. voice and foreign accent). Nevertheless, little is known about toddlers' abilities to ignore irrelevant phonetic detail when faced with the demanding task of word learning. In an experiment with English-learning toddlers, we examined the impact of foreign accent on word learning. Findings revealed that while toddlers aged 2 ; 6 successfully generalized newly learned words spoken by a Spanish-accented speaker and a native English speaker, success of those aged 2 ; 0 was restricted. Specifically, toddlers aged 2 ; 0 failed to generalize words when trained by the native English speaker and tested by the Spanish-accented speaker. Data suggest that exposure to foreign accent in training may promote generalization of newly learned forms. These findings are considered in the context of developmental changes in early word representations.

  18. Cortical hypertrophy with a short, curved uncemented hip stem does not have any clinical impact during early follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michael W; Streit, Marcus R; Innmann, Moritz M; Krüger, Marlis; Nadorf, Jan; Kretzer, J Philippe; Ewerbeck, Volker; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Short stems have become more and more popular for cementless total hip arthroplasty in the past few years. While conventional, uncemented straight stems for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) have shown high survival rates in the long term, it is not known whether uncemented short stems represent a reasonable alternative. As cortical hypertrophy has been reported for short stems, the aim of this study was to determine the radiographic prevalence of cortical hypertrophy and to assess the clinical outcome of a frequently used short, curved hip stem. We retrospectively studied the clinical and radiographic results of our first 100 consecutive THAs (97 patients) using the Fitmore® hip stem. Mean age at the time of index arthroplasty was 59 years (range, 19 - 79 years). Clinical outcome and radiographic results were assessed with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, and Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was used to estimate survival for different endpoints. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 2.0 - 4.4 years), two patients (two hips) had died, and three patients (four hips) were lost to follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated a survival rate of 100 % at 3.8 years, with revision for any reason as the endpoint. No femoral component showed radiographic signs of loosening. No osteolysis was detected. Cortical hypertrophy was found in 50 hips (63 %), predominantly in Gruen zone 3 and 5. In the cortical hypertrophy group, two patients (two hips; 4 %) reported some thigh pain in combination with pain over the greater trochanter region during physical exercise (UCLA Score 6 and 7). There was no significant difference concerning the clinical outcome between the cortical hypertrophy and no cortical hypertrophy group. The survival rate and both clinical and the radiographic outcome confirm the encouraging results for short, curved uncemented stems. Postoperative radiographs frequently displayed cortical hypertrophy but it had no significant effect on the

  19. Is the learning curve for video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy affected by prior experience in open lobectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, Sharon; Attia, Rizwan; Toufektzian, Levon; Routledge, Tom

    2015-07-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed is the learning curve for video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy affected by prior experience in open lobectomy? Two hundred and two studies were identified of which seven presented the best evidence on the topic. The authors, date, journal, country of publication, study type, participating surgeon and relevant outcomes are tabulated. The studies presented discuss the learning experiences of surgeons with a range of proficiency in open lobectomy in performing VATS lobectomy. Four of the studies made direct comparisons between the outcomes achieved by trainees and fully qualified surgeons. Trainees performed a total of 154 VATS lobectomies and the consultants performed 714. The reported number of open lobectomies performed by trainees ranged 14-50. In one study, a qualified surgeon who had performed 100 open lobectomies achieved a statistically significant progression in his learning curve and was able to safely perform VATS lobectomies after 6 months. A trainee who had performed only 14 open lobectomies achieved a similar blood loss to his experienced supervisors (P = 0.79). Two trainee surgeons who had each performed at least 20 open lobectomies achieved similar mean intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.2) and complication rate (P = 0.4) to their experienced consultant when performing VATS lobectomy. Average duration of chest drainage was similar between consultant and trainee groups (P = 0.34) and was improved in favour of trainees in one group (P experience in open lobectomy can achieve good outcomes in VATS lobectomy comparable with their more experienced seniors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effect of direct instruction and discovery learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena

    2004-10-01

    In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations.

  1. Modelling ramp-up curves to reflect learning: improving capacity planning in secondary pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    are overestimated. We develop a new method, which captures ramp-up as a function of the cumulative production volume to better reflect the experience gained while producing the new product. The use of the more accurate and computationally effective approach is demonstrated for the case of secondary pharmaceutical...... production. Due to its regulatory framework, this industry cannot fully exploit available capacities during ramp-up. We develop a capacity planning model for a new pharmaceutical drug, which determines the number and location of new production lines and the build-up of inventory such that product...... availability at market launch is ensured. Our MILP model is applied to a real industry case study using three empirically observed ramp-up curves to demonstrate its value as decision support tool. We demonstrate the superiority of our volume-dependent method over the traditional time-dependent ramp...

  2. Early flavor learning and its impact on later feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    In this review, we first outline the role and mechanisms of the chemical senses (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) in the perception of the flavor of a food or beverage. We then describe research findings, much of them from our laboratories, on the ontogeny of flavor perception and the interacting roles of innate responses and learning in the establishment of flavor preference of infants and children. Broadly, taste (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami, or savory) preferences have a strong innate component. Sweet, umami, and salty substances are innately preferred, whereas bitter and many sour substances are innately rejected. Nevertheless, these innate tendencies can be modified by pre- and postnatal experiences. Volatile components of flavor, detected by the olfactory system, are strongly influenced by early exposure and learning beginning in utero and continuing during early milk (breast milk or formula) feedings. These experiences set the stage for later food choices and are important in establishing life-long food habits. As many of the diseases plaguing developed and developing societies involve excess consumption of some foods, an understanding of factors that determine choice and ingestion, particularly an understanding of the early factors, is important in designing strategies to enhance the health of the infant, child, and adult.

  3. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  4. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav;

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  5. Differential Training Facilitates Early Consolidation in Motor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.

    2016-01-01

    Current research demonstrates increased learning rates in differential learning (DL) compared to repetitive training. To date, little is known on the underlying neurophysiological processes in DL that contribute to superior performance over repetitive practice. In the present study, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activation patterns after DL and repetitive badminton serve training. Twenty-four semi-professional badminton players performed badminton serves in a DL and repetitive training schedule in a within-subjects design. EEG activity was recorded from 19 electrodes according to the 10–20 system before and immediately after each 20-min exercise. Increased theta activity was obtained in contralateral parieto-occipital regions after DL. Further, increased posterior alpha activity was obtained in DL compared to repetitive training. Results indicate different underlying neuronal processes in DL and repetitive training with a higher involvement of parieto-occipital areas in DL. We argue that DL facilitates early consolidation in motor learning indicated by post-training increases in theta and alpha activity. Further, brain activation patterns indicate somatosensory working memory processes where attentional resources are allocated in processing of somatosensory information in DL. Reinforcing a somatosensory memory trace might explain increased motor learning rates in DL. Finally, this memory trace is more stable against interference from internal and external disturbances that afford executively controlled processing such as attentional processes.

  6. A Connected Space for Early Experiential Learning in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carefully constructed field-based experiences in teacher education programs have been recognized as one of the essential conditions for effective teacher learning. Most college/university-based teacher education programs, however, are still dominated by the epistemology that academic knowledge is the authoritative source of knowledge about teaching, while spaces outside the college classroom remain the “practice fields.” This study examined Project CONNECT (PC, an after-school program designed to create early experiential learning opportunities for pre-service teachers (PSTs by bringing together different aspects of expertise from the schools, communities, and universities. Pre-service teachers in this study worked with children one afternoon a week in school-based sites during their sophomore and junior years. Case study was adopted to assess the impact of the experience on teacher learning and the factors contributing to the effect. Multiple data sources, including weekly reflection journals, field observation notes, and an exit survey were collected and analyzed. Results revealed participants’ transformation of professional identity, and development of professional skills and dispositions. Several factors emerged as important to PSTs’ learning throughout the experience, including connections between the course and the program, quality of faculty supervision, and systematic reflection. Implications for teacher education were discussed.

  7. A Connected Space for Early Experiential Learning in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carefully-constructed field-based experiences in teacher education programs have been recognized as one of the essential conditions for effective teacher learning. Most college/university-based teacher education programs, however, are still dominated by the epistemology that academic knowledge is the authoritative source of knowledge about teaching, while spaces outside the college classroom remain the “practice fields”. This study examines Project CONNECT (PC, an afterschool program designed to create early experiential learning opportunities by bringing together different aspects of expertise from the schools, communities, and universities. Preservice teachers (PSTs in this study were placed to work with children one afternoon a week in school-based sites in their sophomore and junior years. Case study design was adopted to assess the impact of the experience on teacher learning as well as the process created such effects. Multiple data such as open-ended survey, written reflection, and field observation notes were collected and analyzed. Results revealed participants’ transformation of professional identity, and development of professional skills and dispositions. Several factors emerged as important to PSTs’ learning throughout the experience, including connections between the course and the program, quality of faculty supervision, and systematic reflection. Implications for teacher education were discussed.

  8. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children: The early learning curve of the trainer and trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To report our experience with laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 children, who underwent laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair between November 2003 and June 2005 were included in the study. Data were obtained by retrospective review of the case notes. Results: A total of 63 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs (18 right, 9 left and 18 bilateral were performed on 45 children (29 boys and 16 girls. Age of the children ranged from 4 weeks to 4 years. The operative time ranged from 30 to 70 minutes for unilateral repair and 38 to 95 minutes for bilateral repair (median for unilateral was 48 minutes and for bilateral 55 minutes. This time decreased with surgeon experience, though not reflecting directly due to the fact that the training registrars performed part of the procedures in the last 23 patients. There were no intraoperative complications. The follow up period ranged from 3 to 15 months. One child developed umbilical port site infection, which was treated with appropriate antibiotics. Conclusions: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children is safe, with minimal complications. With experience operative time decreases.

  9. Assessment of performance measures and learning curves for use of a virtual-reality ultrasound simulator in transvaginal ultrasound examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M E; Konge, L; Nørgaard, L N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of performance measures, develop credible performance standards and explore learning curves for a virtual-reality simulator designed for transvaginal gynecological ultrasound examination. METHODS: A group of 16 ultrasound novices, along with a group......-6), corresponding to an average of 219 min (range, 150-251 min) of training. The test/retest reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93. CONCLUSIONS: Competence in the performance of gynecological ultrasound examination can be assessed in a valid and reliable way using virtual-reality...... of 12 obstetrics/gynecology (Ob/Gyn) consultants, were included in this experimental study. The first two performances of the two groups on seven selected modules on a high-fidelity ultrasound simulator were used to identify valid and reliable metrics. Performance standards were determined and novices...

  10. A statistical physics approach to learning curves for the inverse Ising problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachschmid-Romano, Ludovica; Opper, Manfred

    2017-06-01

    Using methods of statistical physics, we analyse the error of learning couplings in large Ising models from independent data (the inverse Ising problem). We concentrate on learning based on local cost functions, such as the pseudo-likelihood method for which the couplings are inferred independently for each spin. Assuming that the data are generated from a true Ising model, we compute the reconstruction error of the couplings using a combination of the replica method with the cavity approach for densely connected systems. We show that an explicit estimator based on a quadratic cost function achieves minimal reconstruction error, but requires the length of the true coupling vector as prior knowledge. A simple mean field estimator of the couplings which does not need such knowledge is asymptotically optimal, i.e. when the number of observations is much larger than the number of spins. Comparison of the theory with numerical simulations shows excellent agreement for data generated from two models with random couplings in the high temperature region: a model with independent couplings (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model), and a model where the matrix of couplings has a Wishart distribution.

  11. Endoscopic Versus Microscopic Approach in Stapes Surgery: Are Operative Times and Learning Curve Important for Making the Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Analyze the surgical outcomes of endoscopic stapes surgery, comparing the results with a conventional stapes surgery under microscopic approach. Estimate the operation type of each surgical approach and show a learning curve of endoscopic stapes surgery. Retrospective study. Tertiary referral center. Twenty patients who underwent endoscopic stapedotomy for otosclerosis and 20 patients who underwent microscopic stapedotomy for otosclerosis. Endoscopic and microscopic stapes surgery. Operating time, preoperative and postoperative hearing, intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, and postoperative pain. The group of patients who underwent endoscopic stapes surgery showed a mean operative time calculated to be 45.0 min. The group of patients treated by microscopic approach had an estimated mean value of 36.5 min. Statistical difference was evident (p value = 0.01). The average duration of endoscopic surgery varied as the surgeon gained experience. There were no statistical differences between the average surgical times for the endoscopic and microscopic approaches (p >0.05) in the last 4-month period of surgery. Through the endoscopic approach the percentage of ears with a postoperative air-bone gap ≤20 dB was 95%. No difference from the percentage of the microscopic group (90%) (p >0.05) was reported. No difference regarding the incidence of intraoperative findings and postoperative complications between endoscopic and microscopic approaches was found. Audiological outcomes achieved by endoscopic surgery are similar to the results obtained through a microscopic approach. Longer initial operative times and a learning curve are the principal grounds that might discourage most ear-surgeons from commencing endoscopic stapes surgery.

  12. Clinical experience with the first 40 cases with femtosecond laser cataract surgery technology: safety of the learning curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Crispim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the introduction of the femtosecond laser (FSL to perform the key steps of the traditional cataract surgery process and the operational difficulties and safety of this new technology during routine use in an operating room in Brazil. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using the first cases operated on at a single center using the laser platform LenSx/Alcon with a soft contact lens patient interface.All patients underwent a detailed preoperative assessment.The anterior capsulotomy, nuclear fragmentation, and corneal incisions were created with the FSL; then, the surgery was completed following the standard phacoemulsification procedure. The main outcome measurements were difficulties and complications related to the learning curve and an analysis of postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA. Results: Of 31 patients (40 eyes, 9 patients had FSL cataract surgery in both eyes.The mean age was 64 ± 12 years (ranging from 42 to 82, the mean cataract nuclear sclerosis was grading 2 ± 0.6 (ranging from 1 to 4, and the preoperative mean UDVA in logMAR was 0.4 ± 0.2 (ranging from 0.1 to 1.3. Anterior capsulotomy was complete in all patients, and scissors were not needed to cut off any intact portion. The postoperative corneal incisions were not completely linear and showed some irregularities. Laser phaco-fragmentation was effective, with the division of the nucleus into smaller segments easily performed before phacoemulsification.After 1 month, the postoperative mean UDVA in logMAR was 0.1 ± 0.1 (ranging from 0.0 to 0.4 (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: With increasing surgical cases and experience, the phacoemulsification steps are performed precisely and effectively with FSL pretreatment, resulting in a safe learning curve.

  13. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B; Logan, Jessica A R; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators' provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children's math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children's learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age.

  14. Foreign Languages: Early Language Learning, Standards for Teacher Preparation, National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Anne Rogers, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of papers makes the case for early and sustained foreign language education as part of the core K-12 curriculum, and for training teachers prepared to create such an education for their students. "Early Language Learning: A National Necessity" (Christine L. Brown), discusses the importance of early language learning, resources for…

  15. The Initial Learning Curve for Robot-Assisted Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Surgeon's Experience While Introducing the Robotic Technology in a Bariatric Surgery Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Fort, José Manuel; Gonzalez, Oscar; Caubet, Enric; Boleko, Angeles; Neff, Karl John; Armengol, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy has the potential to treat patients with obesity and its comorbidities. To evaluate the learning curve for this procedure before undergoing Roux en-Y gastric bypass is the objective of this paper. Materials and Methods. Robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy was attempted in 32 consecutive patients. A survey was performed in order to identify performance variables during completion of the learning curve. Total operative time (OT), docking time (DT), complications, and length of hospital stay were compared among patients divided into two cohorts according to the surgical experience. Scattergrams and continuous curves were plotted to develop a robotic sleeve gastrectomy learning curve. Results. Overall OT time decreased from 89.8 minutes in cohort 1 to 70.1 minutes in cohort 2, with less than 5% change in OT after case 19. Time from incision to docking decreased from 9.5 minutes in cohort 1 to 7.6 minutes in cohort 2. The time required to dock the robotic system also decreased. The complication rate was the same in the two cohorts. Conclusion. Our survey indicates that technique and outcomes for robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy gradually improve with experience. We found that the learning curve for performing a sleeve gastrectomy using the da Vinci system is completed after about 20 cases.

  16. Differential modulation of motor cortical plasticity and excitability in early and late phases of human motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Kacar, Aleksandra; Rothwell, John C

    2007-10-31

    Different phases of motor skill learning appear to involve different physiological processes, with long-term potentiation (LTP) occurring at existing synapses in early and cortical reorganization involving synaptogenesis in later phases. Here, we test the evolution of skill learning-dependent changes in motor plasticity and excitability in six subjects trained to perform rapid thumb abductions over 5 d. Plasticity was examined using paired-associative stimulation (PAS) of the median nerve and motor cortex to induce LTP-like "PAS given with an interstimulus interval of 25 ms (PAS25)" or long-term depression (LTD)-like "PAS given with an interstimulus interval of 10 ms (PAS10)" plasticity. Excitability was tested by measuring recruitment of motor-evoked-potentials "input-output (IO) curve" and of short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI curve), and sensorimotor organization (SMO). Task performance improved continuously over 5 d. After practice on day 1, the PAS25 effect reversed from facilitation to inhibition whereas the slope of the IO curve increased and the level of SICI decreased. These effects on IO curve and SICI were still present or even enhanced before the last practice on day 5, and were not changed by it. The effect of proprioceptive input from the trained muscle on SMO was also strengthened before practice on day 5. In contrast, PAS-induced plasticity was not influenced by motor practice on day 5, and had returned to prepractice values. The interference with PAS-induced plasticity suggests that the initial performance improvement relies on increasing the efficacy of existing synaptic connections. However, the long-lasting changes in the IO curve, SICI curve, and SMO suggest that continued practice enhances performance by changing Motor cortical organization. We hypothesize that new synaptic connections might have formed that allow LTP/LTD-susceptibility to be restored without reducing synaptic strength and performance skill.

  17. LEARNING CURVES OF LAPAROSCOPY – BARRIERS TO ADOPTION: A MNJIO EXPERIENCE!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Maturi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laparoscopy has been a new entry in the field of surgery with an active history of around just two decades. Today, it is in a position to challenge the conventional surgery which is in use since ages. It is making rapid inroads into various disciplines of surgery. Rapid improvements in optics, along with improvements in energy devices and mechanical stapling devices gave a fillip to acceptance of laparoscopy by the majority of surgeons. Also accumulating data and evidence has started influencing the sceptical, mobilising them to jump into the bandwagon. Barriers to adoption of new techniques, resistance to learning are common to human nature and it is necessary to have a systematic overview of the issues that might crop, so as to be prepared to overcome the problems of accepting laparoscopy into established centres of surgery. AIMS This publication is a reflection of our experience, our trials and tribulations in taking forward the laparoscopy program at our institution. This publication will give an overview of the steps involved in initiation of laparoscopy and aspires to be a source of answers, for day-to-day issues that crop during the process of learning laparoscopy. METHODS AND MATERIALS Just the way, executing laparoscopic surgery is a team effort, incorporating laparoscopy program in an institution is also a team effort where the members of team extend beyond the operating room. Involvement and co-operation of individuals across departments is a must along with benevolent seniors and a proactive administration. So we collated data by interviewing all the stakeholders of laparoscopy program, analysed observations of the faculty from the operating room and reviewed literature on the world wide web. Opinions of the administrators about their perceptions and the issues faced by the junior staff of the department were taken into consideration. Patients were interviewed before and after laparoscopic surgery. CONCLUSIONS Success at

  18. Three-dimensional Laparoscopy: Does Improved Visualization Decrease the Learning Curve Among Trainees in Advanced Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologne, Kyle G; Zehetner, Joerg; Liwanag, Loriel; Cash, Christian; Senagore, Anthony J; Lipham, John C

    2015-08-01

    Complex laparoscopy is difficult to master because it involves 3-dimensional (3D) interpretation on a 2-dimensional (2D) viewing screen. The use of 3D technology has an uncertain effect on training surgeons. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of 3D on learning and performing laparoscopic tasks. Medical students without laparoscopic experience (novices) were evaluated doing inanimate object transfer and laparoscopic suturing. Tasks were repeated using 2D and 3D cameras with standard instruments. Time and error rates (missed attempts, dropped objects, and failure to complete the task) were recorded. Twenty-nine novice medical students experienced a 45.5% decrease in the time to complete PEG transfer using 3D (mean 207 s with 2D vs. 113 s with 3D). Error rate was reduced to 50% (2D, 4 errors vs. 3D, 2 errors) and mean drop rate was reduced to 0. Similar decreases in suture time (46.5%) were seen (mean 403 s with 2D vs. 220 s with 3D). Our results indicate that 3D significantly improved visualization and ability to perform complex tasks in the skills laboratory setting. This technology may be very effective in teaching advanced laparoscopic skills in the era of work-hour restrictions.

  19. A Machine Learning Method to Infer Fundamental Stellar Parameters from Photometric Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, A A; Richards, J W; Lee, Y S; Starr, D L; Butler, N R; Tokarz, S; Smith, N; Eisner, J A

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for wide-field imaging surveys is obtaining follow-up spectroscopic observations: there are > $10^9$ photometrically cataloged sources, yet modern spectroscopic surveys are limited to ~few x $10^6$ targets. As we approach the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) era, new algorithmic solutions are required to cope with the data deluge. Here we report the development of a machine-learning framework capable of inferring fundamental stellar parameters (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]) using photometric-brightness variations and color alone. A training set is constructed from a systematic spectroscopic survey of variables with Hectospec/MMT. In sum, the training set includes ~9000 spectra, for which stellar parameters are measured using the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). We employed the random forest algorithm to perform a non-parametric regression that predicts Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] from photometric time-domain observations. Our final, optimized model produces a cross-validated root...

  20. Program Setup Time and Learning Curves associated with "ready to fly" Drone Mapping Hardware and Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, T.

    2016-12-01

    How quickly can students (and educators) get started using a "ready to fly" UAS and popular publicly available photogrammetric mapping software for student research at the undergraduate level? This poster presentation focuses on the challenges of starting up your own drone-mapping program for undergraduate research in a compressed timescale of three months. Particular focus will be given to learning the operation of the platforms, hardware and software interface challenges, and using these electronic systems in real-world field settings that pose a range of physical challenges to both operators and equipment. We will be using a combination of the popular DJI Phantom UAS and Pix4D mapping software to investigate mass wasting processes and potential hazards present in public lands popular with recreational users. Projects are aimed at characterizing active geological hazards that operate on short timescales and may include gully headwall erosion in Flaming Geyser State Park and potential landslide instability within Capital State Forest, both in the Puget Sound region of Washington State.

  1. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  2. Learning neuroendoscopy with an exoscope system (video telescopic operating monitor): Early clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vijay; Yadav, Y. R.; Kher, Yatin; Ratre, Shailendra; Sethi, Ashish; Sharma, Dhananjaya

    2016-01-01

    Context: Steep learning curve is found initially in pure endoscopic procedures. Video telescopic operating monitor (VITOM) is an advance in rigid-lens telescope systems provides an alternative method for learning basics of neuroendoscopy with the help of the familiar principle of microneurosurgery. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of VITOM as a learning tool for neuroendoscopy. Materials and Methods: Video telescopic operating monitor was used 39 cranial and spinal procedures and its utility as a tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery and neuroendoscopy for initial learning curve was studied. Results: Video telescopic operating monitor was used in 25 cranial and 14 spinal procedures. Image quality is comparable to endoscope and microscope. Surgeons comfort improved with VITOM. Frequent repositioning of scope holder and lack of stereopsis is initial limiting factor was compensated for with repeated procedures. Conclusions: Video telescopic operating monitor is found useful to reduce initial learning curve of neuroendoscopy.

  3. "A steep learning curve": junior doctor perspectives on the transition from medical student to the health-care workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Tan, Zachary; Turner, Jane

    2017-05-26

    The transition from medical student to hospital-based first year junior doctor (termed "intern" in Australia) is known to be challenging, and recent changes in clinical learning environments may reduce graduate preparedness for the intern workplace. Although manageable challenges and transitions are a stimulus to learning, levels of burnout in junior medical colleagues are concerning. In order to prepare and support medical graduates, educators need to understand contemporary junior doctor perspectives on this transition. Final-year University of Queensland medical students recruited junior doctors working in diverse hospital settings, and videorecorded individual semi-structured interviews about their transition from medical student to working as a junior doctor. Two clinical academics (NS and JT) and an intern (ZT) independently conducted a descriptive analysis of interview transcripts, and identified preliminary emerging concepts and themes, before reaching agreement by consensus on the major overarching themes. Three key themes emerged from the analysis of 15 interviews: internship as a "steep learning curve"; relationships and team; and seeking help. Participants described the intern transition as physically, mentally and emotionally exhausting. They learned to manage long days, administrative and clinical tasks, frequent interruptions and time pressures; identify priorities; deal with criticism without compromising key relationships; communicate succinctly; understand team roles (including their own status within hospital hierarchies); and negotiate conflict. Participants reported a drop in self-confidence, and difficulty maintaining self-care and social relationships. Although participants emphasised the importance of escalating concerns and seeking help to manage patients, they appeared more reluctant to seek help for personal issues and reported a number of barriers to doing so. Findings may assist educators in refining their intern preparation and intern

  4. A MACHINE-LEARNING METHOD TO INFER FUNDAMENTAL STELLAR PARAMETERS FROM PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A. A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bloom, J. S.; Richards, J. W.; Starr, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Lee, Y. S. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Butler, N. R. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Tokarz, S. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Smith, N.; Eisner, J. A., E-mail: amiller@astro.caltech.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    A fundamental challenge for wide-field imaging surveys is obtaining follow-up spectroscopic observations: there are >10{sup 9} photometrically cataloged sources, yet modern spectroscopic surveys are limited to ∼few× 10{sup 6} targets. As we approach the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope era, new algorithmic solutions are required to cope with the data deluge. Here we report the development of a machine-learning framework capable of inferring fundamental stellar parameters (T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H]) using photometric-brightness variations and color alone. A training set is constructed from a systematic spectroscopic survey of variables with Hectospec/Multi-Mirror Telescope. In sum, the training set includes ∼9000 spectra, for which stellar parameters are measured using the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). We employed the random forest algorithm to perform a non-parametric regression that predicts T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] from photometric time-domain observations. Our final optimized model produces a cross-validated rms error (RMSE) of 165 K, 0.39 dex, and 0.33 dex for T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H], respectively. Examining the subset of sources for which the SSPP measurements are most reliable, the RMSE reduces to 125 K, 0.37 dex, and 0.27 dex, respectively, comparable to what is achievable via low-resolution spectroscopy. For variable stars this represents a ≈12%-20% improvement in RMSE relative to models trained with single-epoch photometric colors. As an application of our method, we estimate stellar parameters for ∼54,000 known variables. We argue that this method may convert photometric time-domain surveys into pseudo-spectrographic engines, enabling the construction of extremely detailed maps of the Milky Way, its structure, and history.

  5. Comparison between the story recall test and the word-list learning test in Korean patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sangyun

    2012-01-01

    Among verbal memory tests, two that are commonly used to measure the ability of verbal memory function in cognitive impairment are story recall tests and word-list learning tests. However, research is limited regarding which test might be more sensitive in discriminating between normal cognitive aging and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Korean population. The purpose of the current study was to compare the word-list learning test (Seoul Verbal Learning Test; SVLT) and the story recall test (Korean Story Recall Test; KSRT) to determine which test is more sensitive in discriminating between individuals with normal cognitive aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage of AD in Korea. A total of 53 healthy adults, 127 patients with MCI, and 72 patients with early stage of AD participated in this study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were evaluated to compare these two tests. The results showed that the AUC of the SVLT was significantly larger than the AUC of the KSRT in all three groups (healthy adults vs. MCI and early stage of AD; healthy adults vs. MCI; healthy adults vs. early stage of AD). However, in comparison of patients with MCI and early stage of AD, the AUC of SVLT and the AUC of KSRT were not significant. The word-list learning test is a more useful tool for examining verbal memory function for older adults in Korea than the story recall test.

  6. Recommendations for Implementing the New Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards to Affect Classroom Practices for Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…

  7. Do We Need to Clamp the Renal Hilum Liberally during the Initial Phase of the Learning Curve of Robot-Assisted Nephron-Sparing Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to compare the results of our initial robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgeries (RANSS performed with or without hilar clamping. Material and Method. Charts of the initial RANSSs (n=44, which were performed by a single surgeon, were retrospectively reviewed. R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system, modified Clavien classification, and M.D.R.D. equation were used to record tumoral complexity, complications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, respectively. Outcomes of the clamped (group 1, n=14 versus off-clamp (group 2, n=30 RANSSs were compared. Results. The difference between the two groups was insignificant regarding mean patient age, mean tumor size, and mean R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. Mean operative time, mean estimated blood loss amount, and mean length of hospitalization were similar between groups. A total of 4 patients in each group suffered 11 Clavien grade ≥2 complications early postoperatively. Open conversion rates were similar. The difference between the 2 groups in terms of the mean postoperative change in eGFR was insignificant. We did not encounter any local recurrence after a mean follow-up of 18.9 months. Conclusions. Creating warm-ischemic conditions during RANSS should not be a liberal decision, even in the initial phases of the learning curve for a highly experienced open surgeon.

  8. Jump-Starting Early Childhood Education at Home: Early Learning, Parent Motivation, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-11-01

    By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home.

  9. 4-Ports endoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy: preliminary and learning curve results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Humberto do Nascimento; Siqueira, Tiberio Moreno; Barreto, Françualdo; Menezes, Leonardo Gomes; Luna, Mauro José Catunda; Calado, Adriano Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction There is a lack of studies in our national scenario regarding the results obtained by laparoscopic radical prostatectomy technique (LRP). Except for a few series, there are no consistent data on oncological, functional, and perioperative results on LRP held in Brazil. As for the LRP technique performed by extraperitoneal access (ELRP), when performed by a single surgeon, the results are even scarcer. Objective To analyze the early perioperative and oncologic results obtained with the ELRP, throughout the technical evolution of a single surgeon. Patients and methods A non-randomized retrospective study was held in a Brazilian hospital of reference. In the 5-year period, 115 patients underwent the ELRP procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, the first 57 cases (Group 1) and the following 58 cases, (Group 2). A comparative analysis between the groups of efficacy results and ELRP safety was carried out. Results The average age of patients was 62.8 year-old and the PSA of 6.9ng/dl. The total surgery time was 135.8 minutes on average, and the urethral-bladder anastomosis was 21.9 min (23.3 min versus 20.7 min). The positive surgical margins (PSM) rate was 17.1%, showing no difference between groups (16.4% versus 17.9%; p=0.835). There was statistical difference between the groups in relation to the anastomosis time, estimated blood loss and the withdrawal time of the urinary catheter. Conclusion The ELRP technique proved to be a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of prostate cancer, with low morbidity. PMID:27286105

  10. Use of structure-activity landscape index curves and curve integrals to evaluate the performance of multiple machine learning prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeDonne Norman C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard approaches to address the performance of predictive models that used common statistical measurements for the entire data set provide an overview of the average performance of the models across the entire predictive space, but give little insight into applicability of the model across the prediction space. Guha and Van Drie recently proposed the use of structure-activity landscape index (SALI curves via the SALI curve integral (SCI as a means to map the predictive power of computational models within the predictive space. This approach evaluates model performance by assessing the accuracy of pairwise predictions, comparing compound pairs in a manner similar to that done by medicinal chemists. Results The SALI approach was used to evaluate the performance of continuous prediction models for MDR1-MDCK in vitro efflux potential. Efflux models were built with ADMET Predictor neural net, support vector machine, kernel partial least squares, and multiple linear regression engines, as well as SIMCA-P+ partial least squares, and random forest from Pipeline Pilot as implemented by AstraZeneca, using molecular descriptors from SimulationsPlus and AstraZeneca. Conclusion The results indicate that the choice of training sets used to build the prediction models is of great importance in the resulting model quality and that the SCI values calculated for these models were very similar to their Kendall τ values, leading to our suggestion of an approach to use this SALI/SCI paradigm to evaluate predictive model performance that will allow more informed decisions regarding model utility. The use of SALI graphs and curves provides an additional level of quality assessment for predictive models.

  11. Analysis of the learning curve for pre-cut corneal specimens in preparation for lamellar transplantation: a prospective, single-centre, consecutive case series prepared at the Lions New South Wales Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aifric Isabel; Devasahayam, Rajnesh; Hodge, Christopher; Cooper, Simon; Sutton, Gerard L

    2017-03-06

    This study is the first paper to establish a learning curve by a single technician. Preparation of pre-cut corneal endothelial grafts commenced at Lions New South Wales Eye Bank in December 2014. The primary objective of this study was to review the safety and reliability of the preparation method during the first year of production. This is a hospital-based, prospective case series. There were 234 consecutive donor corneal lenticules. Donor lenticules were prepared by a single operator using a linear cutting microkeratome. Immediately prior to cutting, central corneal thickness values were recorded. Measurements of the corneal bed were taken immediately following lenticule preparation. Outcomes were separated by blade sizes, and intended thickness was compared to actual thickness for each setting. Early specimens were compared to later ones to assess for a learning curve within the technique. The main parameter measured is the mean difference from intended lamellar cut thickness. The mean final cut thickness was 122.36 ± 20.35 μm, and the mean difference from intended cut was 30.17 ± 37.45 μm. No significant difference was found between results achieved with early specimens versus those achieved with later specimens (P = 0.425). Thin, reproducible endothelial grafts can routinely be produced by trained technicians at their respective eye banks without significant concerns for an extended learning curve. This service can reduce perioperative surgical complexity, required surgical paraphernalia and theatre times. The consistent preparation of single-pass, ultrathin pre-cut corneas may have additional advantages for surgeons seeking to introduce lamellar techniques. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. Professional learning communities (PLCs) for early childhood science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Jungwon

    beliefs toward science teaching. Face-to-face group teachers' comfort with planning and doing different science activities increased significantly after the workshop and after the combination of workshop and face-to-face PLC. This study contributes to the research about various forms of professional development and their process and outcome in early childhood science education and informs early childhood professional communities of creative ways to improve science teaching and learning.

  13. An Imbalanced Learning based MDR-TB Early Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Tang, Bo; He, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    As a man-made disease, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is mainly caused by improper treatment programs and poor patient supervision, most of which could be prevented. According to the daily treatment and inspection records of tuberculosis (TB) cases, this study focuses on establishing a warning system which could early evaluate the risk of TB patients converting to MDR-TB using machine learning methods. Different imbalanced sampling strategies and classification methods were compared due to the disparity between the number of TB cases and MDR-TB cases in historical data. The final results show that the relative optimal predictions results can be obtained by adopting CART-USBagg classification model in the first 90 days of half of a standardized treatment process.

  14. The Age-Crime Curve in Adolescence and Early Adulthood Is Not Due to Age Differences in Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that…

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer using methylene blue dye manifests a short learning curve among experienced surgeons: a prospective tabular cumulative sum (CUSUM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Christopher SP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB for breast cancer patients with histologically negative axillary nodes, in whom axillary lymph node dissection (ALND is thereby avoided, are now established. Low false negative rate, certainly with blue dye technique, mostly reflects the established high inherent accuracy of SLNB and low axillary nodal metastatic load (subject to patient selection. SLN identification rate is influenced by volume, injection site and choice of mapping agent, axillary nodal metastatic load, SLN location and skill at axillary dissection. Being more subject to technical failure, SLN identification seems to be a more reasonable variable for learning curve assessment than false negative rate. Methylene blue is as good an SLN mapping agent as Isosulfan blue and is much cheaper. Addition of radio-colloid mapping to blue dye does not achieve a sufficiently higher identification rate to justify the cost. Methylene blue is therefore the agent of choice for SLN mapping in developing countries. The American Society of Breast Surgeons recommends that, for competence, surgeons should perform 20 SLNB but admits that the learning curve with a standardized technique may be "much shorter". One appropriate remedy for this dilemma is to plot individual learning curves. Methods Using methylene blue dye, experienced breast surgeons performed SLNB in selected patients with breast cancer (primary tumor Results The CUSUM plot crossed the SPRT limit line after 8 consecutive, positively identified SLN, signaling achievement of an acceptable level of competence. Conclusion Tabular CUSUM charting, based on a justified choice of parameters, indicates that the learning curve for SLNB using methylene blue dye is completed after 8 consecutive, positively identified SLN. CUSUM charting may be used to plot individual learning curves for trainee surgeons by applying a proxy parameter for failure in the presence of a mentor (such as

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer using methylene blue dye manifests a short learning curve among experienced surgeons: a prospective tabular cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffrey M; Valentine, Christopher S P; Kanchev, Emil; Blake, Garfield O

    2009-01-27

    The benefits of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer patients with histologically negative axillary nodes, in whom axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is thereby avoided, are now established. Low false negative rate, certainly with blue dye technique, mostly reflects the established high inherent accuracy of SLNB and low axillary nodal metastatic load (subject to patient selection). SLN identification rate is influenced by volume, injection site and choice of mapping agent, axillary nodal metastatic load, SLN location and skill at axillary dissection. Being more subject to technical failure, SLN identification seems to be a more reasonable variable for learning curve assessment than false negative rate. Methylene blue is as good an SLN mapping agent as Isosulfan blue and is much cheaper. Addition of radio-colloid mapping to blue dye does not achieve a sufficiently higher identification rate to justify the cost. Methylene blue is therefore the agent of choice for SLN mapping in developing countries. The American Society of Breast Surgeons recommends that, for competence, surgeons should perform 20 SLNB but admits that the learning curve with a standardized technique may be "much shorter". One appropriate remedy for this dilemma is to plot individual learning curves. Using methylene blue dye, experienced breast surgeons performed SLNB in selected patients with breast cancer (primary tumor chart with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) limits based on a target identification rate of 85%. The CUSUM plot crossed the SPRT limit line after 8 consecutive, positively identified SLN, signaling achievement of an acceptable level of competence. Tabular CUSUM charting, based on a justified choice of parameters, indicates that the learning curve for SLNB using methylene blue dye is completed after 8 consecutive, positively identified SLN. CUSUM charting may be used to plot individual learning curves for trainee surgeons by applying a proxy parameter for

  17. An Ecological Footprint for an Early Learning Centre: Identifying Opportunities for Early Childhood Sustainability Education through Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNichol, Heidi; Davis, Julie Margaret; O'Brien, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, engineers and educators worked together to adapt and apply the ecological footprint (EF) methodology to an early learning centre in Brisbane, Australia. Results were analysed to determine how environmental impact can be reduced at the study site and more generally across early childhood settings. It was found that food, transport…

  18. Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife in Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…

  19. Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife in Two Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…

  20. Solid-State Lighting. Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L. J.; Cort, K. A.; Gordon, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of issues and lessons learned during the early stages of solid-state lighting market introduction in the U.S., which also summarizes early actions taken to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps.

  1. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  2. Machine learning-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for crisp and fuzzy classification of DNA microarrays in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Leif E; Coleman, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to obtain classification area under the curve (AUC) as a function of feature standardization, fuzzification, and sample size from nine large sets of cancer-related DNA microarrays. Classifiers used included k nearest neighbor (kNN), näive Bayes classifier (NBC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), learning vector quantization (LVQ1), logistic regression (LOG), polytomous logistic regression (PLOG), artificial neural networks (ANN), particle swarm optimization (PSO), constricted particle swarm optimization (CPSO), kernel regression (RBF), radial basis function networks (RBFN), gradient descent support vector machines (SVMGD), and least squares support vector machines (SVMLS). For each data set, AUC was determined for a number of combinations of sample size, total sum[-log(p)] of feature t-tests, with and without feature standardization and with (fuzzy) and without (crisp) fuzzification of features. Altogether, a total of 2,123,530 classification runs were made. At the greatest level of sample size, ANN resulted in a fitted AUC of 90%, while PSO resulted in the lowest fitted AUC of 72.1%. AUC values derived from 4NN were the most dependent on sample size, while PSO was the least. ANN depended the most on total statistical significance of features used based on sum[-log(p)], whereas PSO was the least dependent. Standardization of features increased AUC by 8.1% for PSO and -0.2% for QDA, while fuzzification increased AUC by 9.4% for PSO and reduced AUC by 3.8% for QDA. AUC determination in planned microarray experiments without standardization and fuzzification of features will benefit the most if CPSO is used for lower levels of feature significance (i.e., sum[-log(p)] ~ 50) and ANN is used for greater levels of significance (i.e., sum[-log(p)] ~ 500). When only standardization of features is performed, studies are likely to benefit most by using CPSO for low levels

  3. A Comparison of a Machine Learning Model with EuroSCORE II in Predicting Mortality after Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Decision Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Jérôme; Allou, Nicolas; Augustin, Pascal; Philip, Ivan; Martinet, Olivier; Belghiti, Myriem; Provenchere, Sophie; Montravers, Philippe; Ferdynus, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of cardiac surgery are sometimes difficult to predict and the decision to operate on a given individual is complex. Machine Learning and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) are recent methods developed to create and evaluate prediction models. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a prospective collected database from December 2005 to December 2012, from a cardiac surgical center at University Hospital. The different models of prediction of mortality in-hospital after elective cardiac surgery, including EuroSCORE II, a logistic regression model and a machine learning model, were compared by ROC and DCA. Of the 6,520 patients having elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, 6.3% died. Mean age was 63.4 years old (standard deviation 14.4), and mean EuroSCORE II was 3.7 (4.8) %. The area under ROC curve (IC95%) for the machine learning model (0.795 (0.755-0.834)) was significantly higher than EuroSCORE II or the logistic regression model (respectively, 0.737 (0.691-0.783) and 0.742 (0.698-0.785), p machine learning model, in this monocentric study, has a greater benefit whatever the probability threshold. According to ROC and DCA, machine learning model is more accurate in predicting mortality after elective cardiac surgery than EuroSCORE II. These results confirm the use of machine learning methods in the field of medical prediction.

  4. Establishing the minimal number of virtual reality simulator training sessions necessary to develop basic laparoscopic skills competence: evaluation of the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Cury, José; Oliveira, Luis Carlos Neves; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping). The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA), including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting) were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training tasks level.

  5. Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use of metacognitive strategies facilitated preservice early childhood teachers' use of deep-level cognitive strategies, which in turn promoted conceptual change. Also, preservice early childhood teachers with high motivational beliefs were more likely to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Thus, they were more likely to engage in conceptual change. The results provided evidence that the hypothesized model of intentional learning has a high predictive ability in explaining the change in preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understandings from the pre to post-interviews. Implications for designing a science methods course for preservice early childhood teachers are provided.

  6. The Place of the Arts in Early Childhood Learning and Development

    OpenAIRE

    French, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    This paper has been commissioned by Arts Council Ireland to inform the development of a national strategy for early childhood arts in Ireland. The paper is based on contemporary thinking and knowledge of child psychology, early learning and development and childhood studies, in particular the theoretical principles and pedagogical approaches to early childhood art-based learning. It begins with an exploration of the concept of pedagogy. International research on the importance of effective pe...

  7. Quantitative forecasting of PTSD from early trauma responses: a Machine Learning application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2014-12-01

    There is broad interest in predicting the clinical course of mental disorders from early, multimodal clinical and biological information. Current computational models, however, constitute a significant barrier to realizing this goal. The early identification of trauma survivors at risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is plausible given the disorder's salient onset and the abundance of putative biological and clinical risk indicators. This work evaluates the ability of Machine Learning (ML) forecasting approaches to identify and integrate a panel of unique predictive characteristics and determine their accuracy in forecasting non-remitting PTSD from information collected within 10 days of a traumatic event. Data on event characteristics, emergency department observations, and early symptoms were collected in 957 trauma survivors, followed for fifteen months. An ML feature selection algorithm identified a set of predictors that rendered all others redundant. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as well as other ML classification algorithms were used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy of i) ML selected features, ii) all available features without selection, and iii) Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms alone. SVM also compared the prediction of a) PTSD diagnostic status at 15 months to b) posterior probability of membership in an empirically derived non-remitting PTSD symptom trajectory. Results are expressed as mean Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC). The feature selection algorithm identified 16 predictors, present in ≥ 95% cross-validation trials. The accuracy of predicting non-remitting PTSD from that set (AUC = .77) did not differ from predicting from all available information (AUC = .78). Predicting from ASD symptoms was not better then chance (AUC = .60). The prediction of PTSD status was less accurate than that of membership in a non-remitting trajectory (AUC = .71). ML methods may fill a critical gap in forecasting PTSD. The

  8. Learning Curves in Pediatric Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature and a Framework for Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Alexander L; Haddad, Munther; Clarke, Simon A

    2016-08-01

    There exists a learning curve (LC) with the adoption of any minimally invasive surgical (MIS) technique with implications for training, implementation, and evaluation. A standardized approach to describing and analyzing LCs in pediatric MIS is lacking. We sought to determine how pediatric MIS LCs are quantified and present a framework for reporting. Systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE 1985-October 2015 for articles describing MIS in the pediatric population and presenting formal analysis of the LC. Articles screened by two independent reviewers. Twenty-nine articles (n = 17 general abdominal/thoracic, n = 12 urological) from an 18-year period (1997-2015) were included representing 3345 procedures (n = 3116 laparoscopic, n = 10 thoracoscopic, n = 219 robotic). Seven (24%) were prospective, three multicenter. Twenty-two (76%) presented data pertaining to >1 operating surgeon. Operative time was the most commonly employed surrogate of proficiency (n = 26 [90%] studies). Twenty (69%) described >1 LC outcome measure. Sixteen additional measures were described, including conversion (n = 12 studies); blood loss (n = 4 studies); complications (n = 10 studies); and postoperative outcomes (n = 14 studies). Three studies assessed impact of LC on trainees and one considered economic impact. LCs were presented in tabular form (n = 14 studies) and graphically (n = 19). Eleven (38%) studies undertook statistical appraisal utilizing comparative statistics (n = 8 studies) and regression analysis (n = 4 studies). Multiple outcome measures of proficiency are employed in reporting pediatric MIS experience and analysis of LCs is inconsistent. A standardized multioutcome approach to reporting should be encouraged. In addition, attempts should be made to quantify the impact on trainee involvement. We present an idealized framework for reporting.

  9. Preparing Early Childhood Educators for Global Education: The Implications of Prior Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Mike W.; Bauer, Kathy Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the increasing cultural diversity of Australia's education settings and explicates the global education movement and the new Australian Early Years Learning Framework. It discusses the implication of these factors for early childhood education practice and early childhood teacher education. The key research question considered…

  10. Early testimonial learning: monitoring speech acts and speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth; Suarez, Sarah; Koenig, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Testimony provides children with a rich source of knowledge about the world and the people in it. However, testimony is not guaranteed to be veridical, and speakers vary greatly in both knowledge and intent. In this chapter, we argue that children encounter two primary types of conflicts when learning from speakers: conflicts of knowledge and conflicts of interest. We review recent research on children's selective trust in testimony and propose two distinct mechanisms supporting early epistemic vigilance in response to the conflicts associated with speakers. The first section of the chapter focuses on the mechanism of coherence checking, which occurs during the process of message comprehension and facilitates children's comparison of information communicated through testimony to their prior knowledge, alerting them to inaccurate, inconsistent, irrational, and implausible messages. The second section focuses on source-monitoring processes. When children lack relevant prior knowledge with which to evaluate testimonial messages, they monitor speakers themselves for evidence of competence and morality, attending to cues such as confidence, consensus, access to information, prosocial and antisocial behavior, and group membership. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Requestive Development in Consecutive Third Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safont-Jorda, Maria-Pilar

    2011-01-01

    While research on early simultaneous bilingual acquisition is well-documented, studies on multiple language acquisition in early childhood are still needed. Existing studies have mainly focused on early simultaneous acquisition of three or more languages. Some attention has already been paid to early pragmatic differentiation and cross-linguistic…

  12. Early Requestive Development in Consecutive Third Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safont-Jorda, Maria-Pilar

    2011-01-01

    While research on early simultaneous bilingual acquisition is well-documented, studies on multiple language acquisition in early childhood are still needed. Existing studies have mainly focused on early simultaneous acquisition of three or more languages. Some attention has already been paid to early pragmatic differentiation and cross-linguistic…

  13. The learning curve for robotic distal pancreatectomy: an analysis of outcomes of the first 100 consecutive cases at a high-volume pancreatic centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Murtaza; Boone, Brian A; Polanco, Patricio M; Zenati, Mazen S; Hogg, Melissa E; Tsung, Allan; Choudry, Haroon A; Moser, A James; Bartlett, David L; Zeh, Herbert J; Zureikat, Amer H

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) is performed increasingly, but knowledge of the number of cases required to attain procedural proficiency is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the learning curve associated with RDP at a high-volume pancreatic centre. Methods Metrics of perioperative safety and efficiency for all consecutive RDPs were evaluated. Outcomes were followed to 90 days. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis was used to identify inflexion points corresponding to the learning curve. Results Between 2008 and 2013, 100 patients underwent RDP. There was no 90-day mortality. In two patients (2.0%), surgery was converted to laparotomy. Thirty procedures were performed for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Precipitous operative time reductions from an initial operative time of 331 min were observed after the first 20 and 40 cases to 266 min and 210 min, respectively (P < 0.0001). The likelihood of readmission was significantly lower after the first 40 cases (P = 0.04), and non-significant reductions were observed in incidences of major (Clavien–Dindo Grade II or higher) morbidity and Grade B and C leaks, and length of stay. Conclusions In this experience, RDP outcomes were optimized after 40 cases. Familiarity with the platform and dedicated training are likely to contribute to significantly shorter learning curves in future adopters. PMID:25906690

  14. HOW MANY REPETITIONS OF CHILD CARE SKILLS ARE REQUIRED FOR HEALTH WORKER STUDENTS TO ACHIEVE PROFICIENCY? LEARNING CURVE PATTERNS IN CHILD CARE SKILLS ACQUISITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Zahra Emami; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Abadi, Fatemeh Sardar; Pour, Parastoo Majidi; Davoudi, Malihe; Banafsheh, Elahe

    2015-10-01

    The vulnerability of children under 5 years old requires paying more attention to the health of this group. In the Iranian health care system, health workers are the first line of human resources for health care in rural areas. Because most health workers begin working in conditions with minimal facilities, their clinical qualifications are crucial. The aim of this study was to determine the number of repetitions of child care skills, required for health worker students to achieve proficiency based on the learning curve. A time series research design was used. Participants in this study were first year health worker students enrolled in three health schools in 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and a checklist evaluating the health worker students' clinical skills proficiency for child care. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) using descriptive and inferential statistics including Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. Learning curve patterns in child care skills acquisition showed that for less than 20 and between 20 to 29 times, the level of skill acquisition had an upward slope. Between 30- 39 the learning curve was descending, however the slope became ascending once more and then it leveled off (with change of less than 5%). It seems that 40 repetitions of child care skills are sufficient for health worker students to achieve proficiency. This suggests that time, resources and additional costs for training health worker students' trainees can be saved by this level of repetition.

  15. Superior quality of life and improved surgical margins are achievable with robotic radical prostatectomy after a long learning curve: a prospective single-surgeon study of 1552 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James E; Egger, Sam; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Matthews, Jayne; Rasiah, Krishan; Stricker, Phillip D

    2014-03-01

    Comparative studies suggest functional and perioperative superiority of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) over open radical prostatectomy (ORP). To determine whether high-volume experienced open surgeons can improve their functional and oncologic outcomes with RARP and, if so, how many cases are required to surpass ORP outcomes and reach the learning curve plateau. A prospective observational study compared two surgical techniques: 1552 consecutive men underwent RARP (866) or ORP (686) at a single Australian hospital from 2006 to 2012, by one surgeon with 3000 prior ORPs. Demographic and clinicopathologic data were collected prospectively. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite quality of life (QoL) questionnaire was administered at baseline, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mo. Multivariate linear and logistic regression modelled the difference in QoL domains and positive surgical margin (PSM) odds ratio (OR), respectively, against case number. A total of 1511 men were included in the PSM and 609 in the QoL analysis. RARP sexual function scores surpassed ORP scores after 99 RARPs and increased to a mean difference at 861st case of 11.0 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-16.1), plateauing around 600-700 RARPs. Early urinary incontinence scores for RARP surpassed ORP after 182 RARPs and increased to a mean difference of 8.4 points (95% CI, 2.1-14.7), plateauing around 700-800 RARPs. The odds of a pT2 PSM were initially higher for RARP but became lower after 108 RARPs and were 55% lower (OR: 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.92) by the 866th RARP. The odds of a pT3/4 PSM were initially higher for RARP but decreased, plateauing around 200-300 RARPs with an OR of 1.15 (0.68-1.95) at the 866th RARP. Limitations include single-surgeon data and residual confounding. RARP had a long learning curve with inferior outcomes initially, and then showed progressively superior sexual, early urinary, and pT2 PSM outcomes and similar pT3 PSM and late urinary outcomes. Learning RARP

  16. Statistical Learning Is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from…

  17. Statistical Learning Is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from…

  18. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

  19. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories.

  20. Impact of learning curve and technical changes on dosimetry in low-dose brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fur, E. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Malhaire, J.P.; Baverez, D.; Schlurmann, F. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Delage, F.; Perrouin-Verbe, M.A. [CHU Brest (France). Urology Dept.; Guerif, S. [University Hospital La Miletrie, Poitiers (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Poitiers Univ. (France); Fournier, G.; Valeri, A. [CHU Brest (France). Urology Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes (France); APHP, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France). CeRe.PP; Pradier, O. [CHU Brest (France). Radiation Therapy Dept.; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante; Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes (France); CHU Brest (France). LaTIM, INSERM U650

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of experience and technical changes on peri- and postimplantation (1 month later) dosimetry for permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). Patients and methods: From July 2003 to May 2010, 150 prostate cancer patients underwent low-dose, loose-seed I{sup 125} PPB as monotherapy with intraoperative planning. Patients were divided into three groups - P1 (n = 64), P2 (n = 45), P3 (n = 41) - according to the technical changes that occurred during the study period: use of an automatic stepper at the beginning of P2 and a high-frequency ultrasound probe in P3. Peri- and postimplantation dosimetric parameters (on day 30) were reported: D90 (dose received by 90% of prostate volume), V100 and V150 (prostate volume receiving, respectively, 100% and 150% of the prescribed dose), D2 cc and D0.1 cc (doses received by 2 cc and 0.1 cc of the rectum), R100 (rectum volume that received 100% of the prescribed dose), and D10 and D30 (doses received by 10% and 30% of the urethra, only during peri-implantation). Results: We observed a decrease in the number of needles and seeds used over time. The mean peri-implantation D90 was 187.52 Gy without a significant difference between the three periods (p = 0.48). The postimplantation D90, V100, and V150 parameters were, respectively, 168.3 Gy, 91.9%, and 55% with no significant difference between the three periods. The peri-implantation and postimplantation D0.1 cc and R100 significantly decreased over time; on day 30: D0.1 cc P1 = 223.1 Gy vs. D0.1 cc P3 = 190.4 Gy (p = 8.10- 5) and R100 P1 = 1.06 cc vs. R100 P3 = 0.53 cc (p = 0.0008). Conclusion: We observed a learning curve for the implantation parameters, which led to a significant decrease in the rectal doses without having any impact on the prostate dosimetric parameters. (orig.)

  1. Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Artzer, M

    2000-01-01

    Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL.

  2. Determining the Learning Curve of Transcutaneous Laryngeal Ultrasound in Vocal Cord Assessment by CUSUM Analysis of Eight Surgical Residents: When to Abandon Laryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai-Pun; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Lam, Shi; Au, Kin-Pan; Chan, Diane Toi-yin; Kotewall, Nicholas Clarence

    2016-03-01

    Transcutaneous laryngeal ultrasonography (TLUSG) is a promising alternative to laryngoscopy in vocal cords (VCs) assessment which might be challenging in the beginning. However, it remains unclear when an assessor can provide proficient TLUSG enough to abandon direct laryngoscopy . Eight surgical residents (SRs) without prior USG experience were recruited to determine the learning curve. After a standardized training program, SRs would perform 80 consecutive peri-operative VCs assessment using TLUSG. Performances of SRs were quantitatively evaluated by a composite performance score (lower score representing better performance) which comprised total examination time (in seconds), VCs visualization, and assessment accuracy. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart was then used to evaluate learning curve. Diagnostic accuracy and demographic data between every twentieth TLUSG were compared. 640 TLUSG examinations had been performed by 8 residents. 95.1% of VCs could be assessed by SRs. The CUSUM curve showed a rising pattern (learning phase) until 7th TLUSG and then flattened. The curve declined continuously after 42nd TLUSG (after reaching a plateau). Rates of assessable VCs were comparable in every twentieth cases performed. It took a longer time to complete TLUSG in 1st-20th than 21st-40th examinations. (45 vs. 32s, p = 0.001). Although statistically not significant, proportion of false-negative results was higher in 21st-40th (2.5%) than 1(st)-20th (0.6%), 41(st)-60th (0.7%), and 61(st)-80th (0.7%) TLUSG performed. After a short formal training, surgeons could master skill in TLUSG after seven examination and assess vocal cord function consistently and accurately after 40 TLUSG.

  3. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  4. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  5. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  6. The role of association in early word-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Johnson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Word-learning likely involves a multiplicity of components, some domain-general, others domain-specific. Against the background of recent studies that suggest that word-learning is domain-specific, we investigated the associative component of word-learning. Seven- and 14-month-old infants viewed a pair of events in which a monkey or a truck moved back and forth, accompanied by a sung syllable or a tone, matched for pitch. Following habituation, infants were presented with displays in which the visual-auditory pairings were preserved or switched, and looked longer at the switch events when exposure time was sufficient to learn the intermodal association. At 7 months, performance on speech and tones conditions was statistically identical; at 14 months, infants had begun to favor speech. Thus, the associative component of word-learning does not appear (in contrast to rule-learning, Marcus et al., 2007 to initially privilege speech.

  7. A dynamic learning concept in early years’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2017-01-01

    -historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces four generally accepted play criteria that form the basis for the construction of a dynamic and play-based learning concept that has the three following cornerstones as focal points: (1) learning happens in activities where the child is an active participant...... and interacts and communicates with other people; (2) meaningful activities pave the way for children’s learning; these are activities where the child’s motive aligns with the goal of the activity; and (3) learning is seen as a productive and creative activity characterised by imagination....

  8. Establishing the minimal number of virtual reality simulator training sessions necessary to develop basic laparoscopic skills competence: evaluation of the learning curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jordao Duarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Materials and Methods Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA, including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. Results By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p < 0.001 was obtained, being necessary 4.26 (∼five sessions to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. Conclusions This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training

  9. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes.

  10. Early- and late-born parvalbumin basket cell subpopulations exhibiting distinct regulation and roles in learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Flavio; Chowdhury, Ananya; Lahr, Maria; Caroni, Pico

    2015-02-18

    Brain networks can support learning by promoting acquisition of task-relevant information or by adhering to validated rules, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Upon learning, local inhibitory parvalbumin (PV)-expressing Basket cell networks can switch to opposite configurations that either favor or interfere with further learning, but how this opposite plasticity is induced and relates to distinct learning requirements has remained unclear. Here, we show that PV Basket cells consist of hitherto unrecognized subpopulations, with distinct schedules of neurogenesis, input connectivities, output target neurons, and roles in learning. Plasticity of hippocampal early-born PV neurons was recruited in rule consolidation, whereas plasticity of late-born PV neurons was recruited in new information acquisition. This involved regulation of early-born neuron plasticity specifically through excitation, and of late-born neuron plasticity specifically through inhibition. Therefore, opposite learning requirements are implemented by distinct local networks involving PV Basket cell subpopulations specifically regulated through inhibition or excitation.

  11. Effect of Formative and Ability Test Results on Early Learning of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Abdul; Ardi, Muhammad; Nurhayati, B.; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of formative tests to early learning ability of students in the science learning style. This research used an experimental method with a 2 x 2 factorial design. The participants comprised all the students in class VII of the Islamic Junior High School State of Kolaka, a total of 343…

  12. Learning through English Language in Early Childhood Education: A Case of English Medium Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalongo, Leopard Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In China the English medium schools are now mushrooming and many parents send their children at very early age. These schools enroll children of pre-school to school age to learn through English as foreign language regardless of their proficiency in the first language. Therefore the study aims at examining the learning English language as a…

  13. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  14. An Evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention: A Mentoring Program for Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Peggy A.; Abbott-Shim, Martha; VandeWiele, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the results of an evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention (ILI), a mentoring program for early childhood educators that is built upon adult self-directed learning experiences and the collaborative support of others. Sixteen Mentor and 16 Protege teachers in Head Start classrooms were selected for participation…

  15. Social-Emotional Learning Profiles of Preschoolers' Early School Success: A Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko; Mincic, Melissa; Kalb, Sara; Way, Erin; Wyatt, Todd; Segal, Yana

    2012-01-01

    Examined how aspects of social-emotional learning (SEL)--specifically, emotion knowledge, emotional and social behaviors, social problem-solving, and self-regulation--clustered to typify groups of children who differ in terms of their motivation to learn, participation in the classroom, and other indices of early school adjustment and academic…

  16. Early-Career Academics' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in Hong Kong: Implications for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Keith; McNaught, Carmel; Wong, Kin-Chi; Li, Yi-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses early-career academics' development at a university in Hong Kong. Reflecting the impact of local context, the paper explores cultural and structural influences that can impinge on teaching and learning strategies for new academics. Barriers such as student learning behaviour and publication pressure may discourage new…

  17. The Nature of Professional Learning Communities in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, Sue; Thornton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning communities are receiving increasing attention within the schooling sector but empirical research into their development and use within early childhood education contexts is rare. This paper reports initial findings of an exploratory study into the development of professional learning communities in New Zealand's early…

  18. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  19. Moral and Social Development: Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Learning and Teaching Strategies in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Brownlee, Joanne; Walker, Sue; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Johansson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the analysis in this paper was to determine, from interviews with 11 early years' teachers, what informed their knowledge of children's learning and teaching strategies regarding moral development. Overall, the analysis revealed four main categories: definitions of moral behaviour, understanding of children's learning, pedagogy…

  20. Understanding the Early Career Benefits of Learning Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Davina

    2015-01-01

    European and U.S. institutions have promoted the value of a learning abroad experience for many years. As Australian higher education institutions have adopted policies and strategies to increase participation in learning abroad, with employability as a central argument, it is important to study this claim. This article examines the links between…

  1. Goal-oriented searching mediated by ventral hippocampus early in trial-and-error learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruediger, Sarah; Spirig, Dominique; Donato, Flavio; Caroni, Pico

    2012-11-01

    Most behavioral learning in biology is trial and error, but how these learning processes are influenced by individual brain systems is poorly understood. Here we show that ventral-to-dorsal hippocampal subdivisions have specific and sequential functions in trial-and-error maze navigation, with ventral hippocampus (vH) mediating early task-specific goal-oriented searching. Although performance and strategy deployment progressed continuously at the population level, individual mice showed discrete learning phases, each characterized by particular search habits. Transitions in learning phases reflected feedforward inhibitory connectivity (FFI) growth occurring sequentially in ventral, then intermediate, then dorsal hippocampal subdivisions. FFI growth at vH occurred abruptly upon behavioral learning of goal-task relationships. vH lesions or the absence of vH FFI growth delayed early learning and disrupted performance consistency. Intermediate hippocampus lesions impaired intermediate place learning, whereas dorsal hippocampus lesions specifically disrupted late spatial learning. Trial-and-error navigational learning processes in naive mice thus involve a stereotype sequence of increasingly precise subtasks learned through distinct hippocampal subdivisions. Because of its unique connectivity, vH may relate specific goals to internal states in learning under healthy and pathological conditions.

  2. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Krebs, Ruth M; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one's own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations) can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-)R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO) learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-)R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the CO control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are "actively" integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-)R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  3. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes eRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  4. Generating a learning curve for penile block in neonates, infants and children: an empirical evaluation of technical skills in novice and experienced anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepfer, Guido; Jöhr, Martin

    2004-07-01

    Literature concerning learning curves for anaesthesiological procedures in paediatric anaesthesia is rare. The aim of this study was to assess the number of penile blocks needed to guarantee a high success rate in children. At a teaching hospital, the technical skills of 29 residents in anaesthesiology who performed penile blocks under the supervision of two staff anaesthesiologists were evaluated during a 12-month period using a standardized self-evaluation questionnaire. At the start of the study period, the residents had no prior experience in paediatric anaesthesia or in performing penile block. All residents entered the paediatric rotation after a minimum of 1-year training in adult general and regional anaesthesia. The blocks were rated using a binary score. For comparison, the success rates of the two supervising staff anaesthesiologists were collected during the same period using the same self-evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed by generating individual and institutional learning curves by using the pooled data. The learning curves were calculated with the aid of a least square fit model. A 95% CI were estimated by a Monte Carlo procedure with a bootstrap technique. In a total number of 392 blocks performed, the overall success rate was 92.1%. There was no statistical difference between the success rate of the two staff members (success rate: 96.3%) and the overall success rate of the 29 residents performing a total of 339 blocks. The total success rate for this group was 91.5%. The failure rate for the first 10 blocks performed by the residents was 8.82% (95% CI: 5.0-14.14%), it was 4.12% (95% CI: 1.13-10.22%) for the next 10 blocks and from blocks 21 to 40 it was 6.5% (95% CI: 2.65-12.9%). For blocks 41-60, the failure rate was 4.4% (95% CI 0.54-15.15%). Penile block in children is easily learned by residents. A steep learning curve was found. The success rate was over 93.5% after more than 40 blocks. Copyright 2004 Blackwell

  5. The Importance of Teaching and Learning Nature of Science in the Early Childhood Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buck, Gayle A.; Donnelly, Lisa A.; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid S.

    2011-01-01

    Though research has shown that students do not have adequate understandings of nature of science (NOS) by the time they exit high school, there is also evidence that they have not received NOS instruction that would enable them to develop such understandings. How early is "too early" to teach and learn NOS? Are students, particularly young…

  6. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  7. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  8. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) and the Center on School Turnaround (CST) collaborated to develop case studies of three selected schools receiving SIG funds that have, with the support of their districts, promoted the use of early childhood programming (PK-3) as a key strategy in their schools' turnaround models. The goal…

  9. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main…

  10. Designing Informal Learning Experiences for Early Career Academics Using a Knowledge Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Faye; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Hemmings, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a "knowledge ecosystem" model of how early career academics experience using information to learn while building their social networks for developmental purposes. Developed using grounded theory methodology, the model offers a way of conceptualising how to empower early career academics through (1) agency…

  11. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  12. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  13. Lifelong consequences of early nutritional conditions on learning performance in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, V.; Krüger, O.; Naguib, M.; Krause, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term effects of early developmental conditions on physiological and behavioural traits are commonin animals. Yet, such lifelong effects of early life conditions on learning skills received relatively lessattention, even though they are expected to have strong fitness effects. To test the lifelo

  14. The Effect of Professional Learning on Early Algebra Teachers' Content Knowledge in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladele, Omolola; Ormond, Christine; Hackling, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge of the early algebra content that is to be taught is crucial for effective pedagogy and ensuring that the students' understanding of early algebra is not flawed. This article reports the findings of two of the activities that a group of in-service teachers participated in during a professional learning intervention program that…

  15. Fostering pupils’ lifelong learning competencies in the classroom : evaluation of a training programme using a multivariate multilevel growth curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Finsterwald, Monika; Klug, Julia; Bergsmann, Evelyn; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Wagner, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions to promote lifelong learning are needed not only in continuing education but also in schools, which lay important cornerstones for lifelong learning. The present article reports evaluation results about the effectiveness of one such training programme (TALK). TALK aims

  16. It Pays to Go Off-Track: Practicing with Error-Augmenting Haptic Feedback Facilitates Learning of a Curve-Tracing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Camille K; Tremblay, Luc; Carnahan, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in the domain of haptic training are now entering the long-standing debate regarding whether or not it is best to learn a skill by experiencing errors. Haptic training paradigms provide fertile ground for exploring how various theories about feedback, errors and physical guidance intersect during motor learning. Our objective was to determine how error minimizing, error augmenting and no haptic feedback while learning a self-paced curve-tracing task impact performance on delayed (1 day) retention and transfer tests, which indicate learning. We assessed performance using movement time and tracing error to calculate a measure of overall performance - the speed accuracy cost function. Our results showed that despite exhibiting the worst performance during skill acquisition, the error augmentation group had significantly better accuracy (but not overall performance) than the error minimization group on delayed retention and transfer tests. The control group's performance fell between that of the two experimental groups but was not significantly different from either on the delayed retention test. We propose that the nature of the task (requiring online feedback to guide performance) coupled with the error augmentation group's frequent off-target experience and rich experience of error-correction promoted information processing related to error-detection and error-correction that are essential for motor learning.

  17. [Prospective evaluation of the direct costs of prostate enucleation by the HoLEP(®) laser during the learning curve period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, M; Goris-Gbenou, M; Guillermet, A; Vial, R; Cunin, N; Tomas, J; Bourgue, L; Combe, M; Lopez, J-G; Combe, C

    2017-04-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) has been shown to be effective in treating large prostates compared to prostate transurethral resection (TURP). There are no published data evaluating specifically the impact of the learning curve on the direct costs of HoLEP. The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct costs generated by the use of HoLEP laser during the learning curve period. The costs of all medical devices (DM) and drugs used, pre- and post-operative parameters during surgery have been prospectively collected between March and October 2016. A total of 32 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 70.8 years and a mean prostate volume of 68.6 cm(3). The mean cost of anesthesia was 39.0 € and that of drugs and DM used for surgery was 257.95 € but could reach 470.76 € in case of conversion to bipolar resection. The mean duration of enucleation and morcellation was 150minutes with a mean weight of enucleated specimens of 40.4g. The total mean duration of patient care was 197minutes at an estimated hourly cost of € 636. Despite some limitations, this study makes it possible to analyze the direct costs of the management of benign prostatic hypertrophy using HoLEP, an innovative surgical technique, and to specify that these costs are more related to bipolar conversion and voluminous adenomas especially during the learning curve. 5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  19. Parental Attitudes and Motivational Factors in Enrollment of Children in Early Foreign Language Learning in the Notranjska Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Premrl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the parents‘ opinions about the contemporary sources in the field of early foreign language teaching and learning and their influence on the decisions parents make about including/excluding their child into the program of early foreign language learning. We found out, on the one hand, that parents are poorly informed about the current state of early foreign language learning both in Slovenia and abroad. On the other hand, parents reported positive attitudes about early foreign language teaching, a remarkable sense of right approach in early foreign language learning and, above all, their desire to know more about the subject.

  20. Do We Need to Clamp the Renal Hilum Liberally during the Initial Phase of the Learning Curve of Robot-Assisted Nephron-Sparing Surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer Acar; Tarık Esen; Ahmet Musaoğlu; Metin Vural

    2014-01-01

    Research Article Do We Need to Clamp the Renal Hilum Liberally during the Initial Phase of the Learning Curve of Robot-Assisted Nephron-Sparing Surgery? Ömer Acar,1 TarJk Esen,1,2 AhmetMusaoLlu,1 andMetin Vural3 1 Department of Urology, VKF American Hospital, 34365 Istanbul, Turkey 2School ofMedicine, KocUniversity, 34450 Istanbul, Turkey 3Department of Radiology, VKF American Hospital, 34365 Istanbul, Turkey Correspondence should be addressed to ¨ Omer Acar; omer acar...

  1. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  2. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  3. Learning curves in highly skilled chess players: a test of the generality of the power law of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert W

    2014-09-01

    The power law of practice holds that a power function best interrelates skill performance and amount of practice. However, the law's validity and generality are moot. Some researchers argue that it is an artifact of averaging individual exponential curves while others question whether the law generalizes to complex skills and to performance measures other than response time. The present study tested the power law's generality to development over many years of a very complex cognitive skill, chess playing, with 387 skilled participants, most of whom were grandmasters. A power or logarithmic function best fit grouped data but individuals showed much variability. An exponential function usually was the worst fit to individual data. Groups differing in chess talent were compared and a power function best fit the group curve for the more talented players while a quadratic function best fit that for the less talented. After extreme amounts of practice, a logarithmic function best fit grouped data but a quadratic function best fit most individual curves. Individual variability is great and the power law or an exponential law are not the best descriptions of individual chess skill development.

  4. A Look at Early Language Learning in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Houton, Jacque Bott

    2013-01-01

    The state of Utah is leading the nation in a surge of new elementary language immersion programs. Their unprecedented growth of programs, over a four-year span, has been both intentional and systemic, taking advantage of a supportive base and promoting language learning as a way to increase economic benefits for the state. While math and science…

  5. Early Results in Capella's Prior Learning Assessment Experimental Site Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    In July 2014, the U.S. Department of Education announced a new round of experimental sites focusing on competency-based education. Capella University was selected to participate in three of the Department of Education's competency-based education (CBE) experiments and began by implementing the prior learning assessment experiment, which allows…

  6. The Language Learning Motivation of Early Adolescent French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    This interpretive multiple case study examines the motivation to learn a second language among sixth grade students who attended a French immersion school for grades K-5. Parent surveys, student surveys based on Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test Battery, and individual and group interviews with students were the data sources used to identify…

  7. Evidence of Early Strategies in Learning to Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Corbetta, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Learning to walk is a dynamic process requiring the fine coordination, assembly, and balancing of many body segments at once. For the young walker, coordinating all these behavioral levels may be quite daunting. In this study, we examine the whole-body strategies to which infants resort to produce their first independent steps and progress over…

  8. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…

  9. Parental Attitudes and Motivational Factors in Enrollment of Children in Early Foreign Language Learning in the Notranjska Region

    OpenAIRE

    Darja Premrl

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present the parents‘ opinions about the contemporary sources in the field of early foreign language teaching and learning and their influence on the decisions parents make about including/excluding their child into the program of early foreign language learning. We found out, on the one hand, that parents are poorly informed about the current state of early foreign language learning both in Slovenia and abroad. On the other hand, parents reported positive attitudes about ea...

  10. New Paths in Early Literacy Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    Offers ideas for opening up new paths in literacy teaching in early childhood settings. Focuses on the role of phonics in everyday classroom instruction, working with dyslexic children, home reading programs, special concerns about boys' literacy, the impact of inequities in social status in the classroom on children's literacy opportunities, and…

  11. Teaching Adults, Revisited: Active Learning for Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This book follows master educator Elizabeth (Betty) Jones as she teaches an introductory course in early childhood education. She actively engages the students, encouraging them to make decisions, ask questions, and engage in collaborative problem solving--herself modeling the behaviors that should be practiced by adults working with young…

  12. Early Career Academics Learning the Game in Whackademia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Loraine; Monk, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The initial years as an early career academic (ECA) are challenging times as those new to the academy attempt to balance the three aspects of their role: teaching, research and service, while also coming to terms with both overt and hidden expectations. Formal mentoring arrangements for ECAs are threatened by competing demands on time.…

  13. Does Early Mathematics Intervention Change the Processes Underlying Children's Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine; Bailey, Drew H.

    2017-01-01

    Early educational intervention effects typically fade in the years following treatment, and few studies have investigated why achievement impacts diminish over time. The current study tested the effects of a preschool mathematics intervention on two aspects of children's mathematical development. We tested for separate effects of the intervention…

  14. The predictive nature of individual differences in early associative learning and emerging social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Levitt, Pat; Fox, Nathan A

    2012-01-01

    Across the first year of life, infants achieve remarkable success in their ability to interact in the social world. The hierarchical nature of circuit and skill development predicts that the emergence of social behaviors may depend upon an infant's early abilities to detect contingencies, particularly socially-relevant associations. Here, we examined whether individual differences in the rate of associative learning at one month of age is an enduring predictor of social, imitative, and discriminative behaviors measured across the human infant's first year. One-month learning rate was predictive of social behaviors at 5, 9, and 12 months of age as well as face-evoked discriminative neural activity at 9 months of age. Learning was not related to general cognitive abilities. These results underscore the importance of early contingency learning and suggest the presence of a basic mechanism underlying the ontogeny of social behaviors.

  15. The predictive nature of individual differences in early associative learning and emerging social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany C Reeb-Sutherland

    Full Text Available Across the first year of life, infants achieve remarkable success in their ability to interact in the social world. The hierarchical nature of circuit and skill development predicts that the emergence of social behaviors may depend upon an infant's early abilities to detect contingencies, particularly socially-relevant associations. Here, we examined whether individual differences in the rate of associative learning at one month of age is an enduring predictor of social, imitative, and discriminative behaviors measured across the human infant's first year. One-month learning rate was predictive of social behaviors at 5, 9, and 12 months of age as well as face-evoked discriminative neural activity at 9 months of age. Learning was not related to general cognitive abilities. These results underscore the importance of early contingency learning and suggest the presence of a basic mechanism underlying the ontogeny of social behaviors.

  16. Improved maze learning through early music exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, F H; Robinson, K D; Jens, J J

    1998-07-01

    Rats were exposed in utero plus 60 days post-partum to either complex music (Mozart Sonata (k. 448)), minimalist music (a Philip Glass composition), white noise or silence, and were then tested for five days, three trials per day, in a multiple T-maze. By Day 3, the rats exposed to the Mozart work completed the maze more rapidly and with fewer errors than the rats assigned to the other groups. The difference increased in magnitude through Day 5. This suggests that repeated exposure to complex music induces improved spatial-temporal learning in rats, resembling results found in humans. Taken together with studies of enrichment-induced neural plasticity, these results suggest a similar neurophysiological mechanism for the effects of music on spatial learning in rats and humans.

  17. Action-effect learning in early childhood: does language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Kray, Jutta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-07-01

    Previous work showed that language has an important function for the development of action control. This study examined the role of verbal processes for action-effect learning in 4-year-old children. Participants performed an acquisition phase including a two-choice key-pressing task in which each key press (action) was followed by a particular sound (effect). Children were instructed to either (1) label their actions along with the corresponding effects, (2) verbalize task-irrelevant words, (3) or perform without verbalization. In a subsequent test phase, they responded to the same sound effects either under consistent or under inconsistent sound-key mappings. Evidence for action-effect learning was obtained only if action and effects were labeled or if no verbalization was performed, but not if children verbalized task-irrelevant labels. Importantly, action-effect learning was most pronounced when children verbalized the actions and the corresponding effects, suggesting that task-relevant verbal labeling supports the integration of event representations.

  18. Clinical imprinting: the impact of early clinical learning on career long professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nicola

    2013-05-01

    The literature recognises a relationship between clinical experience and a successful undergraduate experience in nursing; however what constitutes an effective approach remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to first year of learning. There is evidence from a biological standpoint that early experience impacts on the behavioural development of animals, described by Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as 'imprinting'. The concept of imprinting has resonance for nursing. In this article the importance of 'getting it right at the beginning' is explored and what, if anything, Lorenz's theory tells us about the impact of early clinical learning on subsequent professional development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on the learning of a life jacket for the early adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    野沢, 巌

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the learning of life jacket for the early adolescents. The Questionnaire was administered in pre- (before activities) and post- (after activities).The major findings were as follows.1) They had little understanding of life jacket on findings of pre-test. The result of the findings ofpre-test suggested the learning of the life jacket.2) The life jacket class what I did was sat a high valuation by the early adolescents and the school teachers.3) The lear...

  20. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internicola, Antonina I; Harder, Lawrence D

    2012-04-22

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species.

  1. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  2. Early-onset gastric cancer: Learning lessons from the young

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, A. N.; Offerhaus, G J A

    2010-01-01

    There is by no means a clear-cut pattern of mutations contributing to gastric cancers, and gastric cancer research can be hampered by the diversity of factors that can induce gastric cancer, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, diet, ageing and other environmental factors. Tumours are unquestionably riddled with genetic changes yet we are faced with an unsolvable puzzle with respect to a temporal relationship. It is postulated that inherited genetic factors may be more important in early-on...

  3. Signature Pedagogy in Early Years Education: A Role for COTS Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…

  4. INTEGRATION BETWEEN RELIGION AND SCIENCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliza Rahayu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on research library research literature in this study wanted to try integrate between Religion and Science in learning, there are three questions; first, circumstances of integration between Religion and Science, a description of the example Integration of Religion and Science form the Moon and the theme of nature and explanation in the Qur'an. With analysis and normative content of the Qur'an explain the phenomena of nature with science and science context. Soon is the first research results, the integration of science with nature is a necessity and it is becoming important in the development of sciences as theology that include common knowledge.

  5. The Role of Linguistic Routines in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Daloiso

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies in neuropsychology, when learning a language, young children mainly use“implicit memory”, i.e. the memory of automatic procedures such as riding a bicycle. As an implication forearly foreign language teaching (EFLT, teachers will stimulate the pupils’ implicit memory by exposingthem to routine situations in which specific linguistic expressions are associated with recurring actions andprocedures. This paper will therefore discuss the neuropsychological, linguistic and educational roles ofroutines in EFLT and will provide teachers with methodological principles to manage routine situations ina foreign language.

  6. Early learning shapes the memory networks for arithmetic: evidence from brain potentials in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salillas, Elena; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2012-07-01

    Language and math are intertwined during children's learning of arithmetic concepts, but the importance of language in adult arithmetic processing is less clear. To determine whether early learning plays a critical role in the math-language connection in adults, we tested retrieval of simple multiplication in adult bilinguals who learned arithmetic in only one language. We measured electrophysiological and behavioral responses during correctness judgments for problems presented as digits or as number words in Spanish or English. Problems presented in the language in which participants learned arithmetic elicited larger, more graded, and qualitatively different brain responses than did problems presented in participants' other language, and these responses more closely resembled responses for digits, even when participants' other language was more dominant. These findings suggest that the memory networks for simple multiplication are established when arithmetic concepts are first learned and are independent of language dominance in adulthood.

  7. Intersphincteric resection for very low rectal cancer: clinical outcomes of open versus laparoscopic approach and multidimensional analysis of the learning curve for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Hung, Chin-Sheng; Wang, Weu; Tam, Ka-Wai; Lee, Hung-Chia; Liang, Hung-Hua; Chang, Yu-Jia; Huang, Ming-Te; Wei, Po-Li

    2013-08-01

    Laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery is regarded as more complex because of its technical difficulties in pelvic exposure, dissection, and sphincter preservation. This study therefore aimed to investigate the feasibility of laparoscopic resection for low rectal cancer using intersphincteric resection (ISR) and to assess its short-term oncological outcomes. Further, we intended to analyze the learning curve for laparoscopic surgery and identify the factors influencing the learning curve. Patients with low rectal cancer who received open or laparoscopic ISR were retrospectively chart reviewed. The surgical and oncological outcomes were evaluated. Comparisons of operating time, estimated blood loss, surgical outcomes, and histopathologic status were analyzed. Also, operating time was used as a technical indicator for learning curve analysis. The mean estimated blood loss was 265 mL (range, 100-800 mL) in the open group and 104 mL (range, 30-250 mL) in the laparoscopic group. There was a significant difference between these two groups (P analysis showed that the mean operating time was 402.1 min (range, 210-570 min) in the first stage and 331.4 min (range, 210-450 min) in the second stage, and on pathologic examination the mean number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.1 (range, 5-21) in the first stage and 18.3 (range, 11-31) in the second stage, with statistical differences between these two stages (P = 0.034 and P = 0.004, respectively). Multifactorial analysis showed that operating time was associated with surgeons' experience (<18 or ≥18 cases) (odds ratio = 2.918, 95% CI 1.078-7.902). Protective stoma creation was also associated with surgeons' experience (odds ratio = 3.999, 95% CI 1.153-13.86). Our data show that laparoscopic ISR for low rectal cancer is feasible and safe. Surgeons' experience improved operating time and postoperative complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Naming speed and phonological awareness in early reading learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Villagrán, Manuel; Navarro Guzmán, José I; Menacho Jiménez, Inmaculada; Alcale Cuevas, Concepción; Marchena Consejero, Esperanza; Ramiro Olivier, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The ability to read is a basic acquisition that conditions children's social integration and it is an important factor in school success. It is considered a complex activity in which different levels of cognitive processes are involved. The relationship between phonological awareness, naming speed and learning to read has been widely studied. Research on this topic has previously been carried out with different training procedures, or with children with reading and writing learning disabilities, or children with phonological awareness problems. The innovative aspect of this research is that it presents a longitudinal study of the influence of phonological awareness and naming speed on reading with no training procedure. 85 kindergarten children were assessed with Rapid Automatized Naming Test, The Phonological Knowledge Test (PECO) and the Reading Test (PROLEC-R) at two development points: at 5,6 and at 6.5 years old. A correlational comparison and a hierarchical regression analysis were calculated in order to determine the explicit variance for phonological awareness and naming speed in reading. Results showed that phonological awareness and naming speed differentially explain variance in reading. The discrepancies found are a consequence of the different measurement techniques for phonological awareness and naming speed used by the diverse authors.

  9. Machine Learning Techniques for Prediction of Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, T M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Carroll, A; Downs, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to predict childhood obesity after age two, using only data collected prior to the second birthday by a clinical decision support system called CHICA. Analyses of six different machine learning methods: RandomTree, RandomForest, J48, ID3, Naïve Bayes, and Bayes trained on CHICA data show that an accurate, sensitive model can be created. Of the methods analyzed, the ID3 model trained on the CHICA dataset proved the best overall performance with accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 89%. Additionally, the ID3 model had a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 88%. The structure of the tree also gives insight into the strongest predictors of future obesity in children. Many of the strongest predictors seen in the ID3 modeling of the CHICA dataset have been independently validated in the literature as correlated with obesity, thereby supporting the validity of the model. This study demonstrated that data from a production clinical decision support system can be used to build an accurate machine learning model to predict obesity in children after age two.

  10. Improving Hospital-Wide Early Resource Allocation through Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Daniel; Padman, Rema

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which early determination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) can be used for better allocation of scarce hospital resources. When elective patients seek admission, the true DRG, currently determined only at discharge, is unknown. We approach the problem of early DRG determination in three stages: (1) test how much a Naïve Bayes classifier can improve classification accuracy as compared to a hospital's current approach; (2) develop a statistical program that makes admission and scheduling decisions based on the patients' clincial pathways and scarce hospital resources; and (3) feed the DRG as classified by the Naïve Bayes classifier and the hospitals' baseline approach into the model (which we evaluate in simulation). Our results reveal that the DRG grouper performs poorly in classifying the DRG correctly before admission while the Naïve Bayes approach substantially improves the classification task. The results from the connection of the classification method with the mathematical program also reveal that resource allocation decisions can be more effective and efficient with the hybrid approach.

  11. Early Verb Learning in 20-Month-Old Japanese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Ariyama, Junko; Kobayashi, Tessei; Katerelos, Marina; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children's representations of morphosyntactic information are abstract enough to guide early verb learning. Using an infant-controlled habituation paradigm with a switch design, Japanese-speaking children aged 1 ; 8 were habituated to two different events in which an object was engaging in an action. Each…

  12. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  13. A Dispositional Framework in Religious Education: Learning Dispositions and Early Years' Religious Education in Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood educators have for some time now questioned approaches to education that focus solely on the development of thinking and rational cogitation, and have begun to favour dispositional frameworks in preference to learning frameworks. However, there is little evidence to suggest that dispositional frameworks have been utilised in…

  14. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  15. Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

  16. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  17. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl

    2014-01-01

    and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally...

  18. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  19. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, A.

    2013-01-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the p

  20. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  1. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  2. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

  3. Studies in Early Infant Learning: Classical Conditioning of the Neonatal Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, David H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In three experiments, it was demonstrated that human newborn heart rate level can be reliably modified through classical conditioning procedures. Findings support the idea that early learning may occur under a variety of conditions and different theories may account for the results. (Author/SB)

  4. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  5. Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

  6. Organizational Principles and Content of Early Foreign Language Learning in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biletska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    According to the results of leading American scientists that convincingly demonstrate the effectiveness and necessity of early foreign language learning the features of teaching foreign languages at elementary level in the United States have been analyzed. It has been found out that the US government is working on the improvement of foreign…

  7. Research on the Integrated Performance Assessment in an Early Foreign Language Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Kristin; Troyan, Francis J.; Donato, Richard; Hellman, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the implementation of the Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) in an Early Foreign Language Learning program. The goal of this research was to examine the performance of grade 4 and 5 students of Spanish on the IPA. Performance across the three communicative tasks is described and modifications to IPA procedures based on…

  8. Teacher roles in designing technology-rich learning activities for early literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cviko, Amina; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to provide insight into the value of different teacher roles in designing and implementing technology-rich learning activities for early literacy. Three cases, each with a different teacher role (executor-only, re-designer, co-designer) were examined. In the executor-only

  9. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  10. "Teacher, There's an Elephant in the Room!" An Inquiry Approach to Preschoolers' Early Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Jennifer Anne; Bowne, Mary Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Children need sound language and literacy skills to communicate with others and actively participate in a classroom learning community. When an early childhood classroom offers a language- and literacy-rich environment, children have numerous opportunities to practice language and literacy in a social setting. A language-rich classroom includes an…

  11. A Dynamic Learning Concept in Early Years' Education: A Possible Way to Prevent Schoolification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Stig

    2017-01-01

    In early childhood education and care, Nordic social pedagogy approach is challenged by a learning orientation that often results in unproductive "either/or" thinking. Therefore, based on the two approaches and by analysing several dimensions of Froebel's ideas and prevailing social-historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces…

  12. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

  13. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  14. Applying Technology to Inquiry-Based Learning in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Kinzie, Mable B.; McGuire, Patrick; Pan, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Children naturally explore and learn about their environments through inquiry, and computer technologies offer an accessible vehicle for extending the domain and range of this inquiry. Over the past decade, a growing number of interactive games and educational software packages have been implemented in early childhood education and addressed a…

  15. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, A.

    2013-01-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the

  16. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

  17. Teacher roles in designing technology-rich learning activities for early literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cviko, Amina; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to provide insight into the value of different teacher roles in designing and implementing technology-rich learning activities for early literacy. Three cases, each with a different teacher role (executor-only, re-designer, co-designer) were examined. In the executor-only role

  18. "From Bricks to Clicks": Hybrid Commercial Spaces in the Landscape of Early Literacy and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In their quest for resources to support children's early literacy learning and development, parents encounter and traverse different spaces in which discourses and artifacts are produced and circulated. This paper uses conceptual tools from the field of geosemiotics to examine some commercial spaces designed for parents and children that…

  19. Index for Inclusion: Developing Play, Learning and Participation in Early Years and Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tony; Ainscow, Mel; Kingston, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This 2006 revised and updated edition of the Index for early years and childcare now includes a CD Rom to make it more accessible. The Index is a detailed set of materials to help settings increase the participation of children and young people in play and learning. The Index involves a self-review of all aspects of a setting, drawing on…

  20. Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults. Behavioural measures indicated successful lexical (word stem) and morphological (gender suffix) learning. A day after the learning phase, event-related brain potentials registered during a recognition memory task revealed enhanced N400 and P600 components for stem and suffix violations, respectively. An additional effect observed with combined suffix and stem violations was an enhancement of an early N2 component, most probably related to conflict-detection processes. Successful morphological learning was also evident in the ERP responses to the subsequent rule-generalization task with new stems, where violation of the morphological rule was associated with an early (250-400ms) and late positivity (750-900ms). Overall, these findings tend to converge with lexical and morphosyntactic violation effects observed in L1 processing, suggesting that even after a short exposure, adult language learners can acquire both novel words and novel morphological rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An examination of the relationship between a child’s developmental age and early literacy learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Moran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available American students typically attend kindergarten at the chronological age (CA of five and currently with the implementation of Common Core State Standards, there are expectations that children learn how to read in order to meet these academic standards, despite whether or not they are developmentally ready. This mixed methods study examined age and environmental factors that relate to reading with 83 children from the ages of 4–6½ years. The relationship between developmental age (DA via the Gesell Developmental Observation-Revised and early literacy learning via Marie’s Clay observational tool, Concepts About Print (CAP, were explored. The purpose of the study was to highlight the need for better alignment of educational policies and practices as they relate to child development and to promote more effective synthesis between discoveries in the field of neuroscience about how children learn and what is known about child DAs and stages. The findings revealed a statistically significant relationship between a child’s DA and early literacy learning as measured by the CAP. The descriptive statistics revealed that the DA of the children in this study was younger than their CA. Furthermore, a child’s DA was found to be the strongest predictor of early literacy learning.

  2. The Willy Wagtail Tale: Knowledge Management and E-Learning Enriching Multiliteracies in the Early Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hesterman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While our multimedia world, with rapid advances in technologies, now challenges educators to consider new pedagogies that expand cultural and linguistic diversity, the potential for information and communication technologies (ICT to support literacy learning in the early years remains a seriously under-researched area. There is an urgency to address a range of questions raised by teacher practitioners such as what new literacies will look like in their programs, how ICT can be used to learn in new ways, and which pedagogies of multiliteracies are relevant for early childhood education. This paper explores these questions in relation to knowledge management initiatives and e-learning opportunities. The Willy Wagtail Tale presents a case study of how knowledge management and e-learning is socially constructed to enrich multiliteracies experiences in the early years. The study occurred in a small Western Australian school committed to the Reggio Emilia teaching approach. Implications for educational research are that multiliteracies experiences occur inadvertently through children’s play, are integral to The Hundred Languages of Children, and are dramatically enriched through social constructivist knowledge management and child-centered e-learning.

  3. Virtual reality simulator for training on photoselective vaporization of the prostate with 980 nm diode laser and learning curve of the technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Arance, I; García-Tello, A; Las Heras, M M; Andrés, G; Gimbernat, H; Lista, F; Ramón de Fata, F

    2014-09-01

    The utility of a virtual reality simulator for training of the photoselective vaporization of the prostate with diode laser was studied. Two experiments were performed with a simulator (VirtaMed AG, Zürich, Switzerland) with software for specific training in prostate vaporization in contact mode with Twister fiber (Biolitec AG, Jena, German). Eighteen surgeons performed ablation of the prostate (55 cc) twice and compared the score obtained (190 points efficacy and 80 safety) in the second one of them by experience groups (medical students, residents, specialists). They also performed a spatial orientation test with scores of 0 to 6. After, six of these surgeons repeated 15 ablations of the prostate (55 and 70 ml). Improvement of the parameters obtained was evaluated to define the learning curve and how experience, spatial orientation skills and type of sequences performed affects them. Global efficacy and safety score was different according to the grade of experience (P=.005). When compared by pairs, specialist-student differences were detected (p=0.004), but not specialist-resident (P=.12) or resident-student (P=.2). Regarding efficacy of the procedure, specialist-student (p=0.0026) and resident-student (P=.08) differences were detected. The different partial indicators in terms of efficacy were rate of ablation (P=.01), procedure time (P=.03) and amount of unexposed capsule (p=0.03). Differences were not observed between groups in safety (P=.5). Regarding the learning curve, percentage median on the total score exceeded 90% after performing 4 procedures for prostates of 55 ml and 10 procedures for prostate glands of 70 ml. This course was not modified by previous experience (resident-specialist; P=.6). However, it was modified according to the repetition sequence (progressive-random; P=.007). Surgeons whose spatial orientation was less than the median of the group (value 2.5) did not surpass 90% of the score in spite of repetition of the procedure. Simulation

  4. The surgical learning curve for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy:experience of a single surgeon with 500cases in Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YenChuan Ou; ChunKuang Yang; KuanghSi Chang; John Wang; SiuWan Hung; MinChe Tung; Ashutosh K Tewari; Vipul R Patel

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the learning curve for cancer control from an initial 250cases(GroupI) and subsequent 250cases(GroupII) of robotic‑assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy(RALP) performed by a single surgeon. Five hundred consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received RALP and were evaluated. Surgical parameters and perioperative complications were compared between the groups. Positive surgical margin(PSM) and biochemical recurrence(BCR) were assessed as cancer control outcomes. Patients in GroupII had signiifcantly more advanced prostate cancer than those in GroupI(22.2%vs 14.2%, respectively, with Gleason score 8–10,P=0.033; 12.8%vs 5.6%, respectively, with clinical stage T3,P=0.017). The incidence of PSM in pT3 was decreased signiifcantly from 49% in GroupI to 32.6% in GroupII. Ameaningful trend was noted for a decreasing PSM rate with each consecutive group of 50cases, including pT3 and high‑risk patients. Neurovascular bundle(NVB) preservation was signiifcantly inlfuenced by the PSM in high‑risk patients(84.1% in the preservation groupvs 43.9% in the nonpreservation group). The 3‑year, 5‑year, and 7‑year BCR‑free survival rates were 79.2%, 75.3%, and 70.2%, respectively. In conclusion, the incidence of PSM in pT3 was decreased signiifcantly after 250cases. There was a trend in the surgical learning curve for decreasing PSM with each group of 50cases. NVB preservation during RALP for the high‑risk group is not suggested due to increasing PSM.

  5. The learning curve effect on embolization of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistula single-center experience in 48 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, D; Raoult, H; Ferré, J C; Naudet, F; Trystram, D; Gauvrit, J Y

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare intracranial vascular lesions but can cause significant morbidity and mortality. To analyze the effect of the center's experience on DAVF embolization efficacy and safety. From May 2008 to October 2014, 57 embolization procedures were attempted on 48 patients (37 men and 11 women; median age: 63.9 years) for DAVF in a single center. DAVF presented with cortical venous reflux in 44/48 cases (91.7%) and hemorrhagic manifestation in 21/48 cases (43.75%). Angiographic occlusion quality, whether complete or incomplete (efficacy), and neurological complications (safety) were recorded. The patient population was divided into four consecutive quartiles during the inclusion period to assess the progress profile. Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared with Fisher's test. A logistic regression was performed to explore a learning curve phenomenon, showing a significant association between the chronological rank in the cohort and embolization efficacy (P=0.007). Significant differences were found between first and last quarter (P=0.036). The endovascular technique involved an arterial injection of Onyx(®) in 36/48 cases (75%), administered via the middle meningeal artery in 25/36 cases (69.5%). The complete occlusion rate improved significantly from 33.3% for the first quartile of the population, to 75.0% for the 2nd and 3rd quartiles and 83.3% for the last quartile. Neurological complications were found in 7/48 patients (14.6%), the rate decreased by 41.7% to 16.7%, without statistically difference. The efficacy and safety of DAVF embolization improved with the experience gained at the center, suggesting the existence of a learning curve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Portfolio as a learning assessment strategy in early childhood education: considerations on their practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigite Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of portfolios is presented as an authentic assessment strategy that has been the subject of interest for researchers and practitioners of education since, in addition to implicate early childhood educator in the documentation and assessment of learning involves the child itself caused gains , eg for the development of metacognitive skills and self-regulation , positive attitudes to learning and to building a positive self-concept. In this sense, the present article, with reference to the Portuguese educational reality , and focusing an emerging theme , aims to highlight the potentials and characteristics of the drafting process portfolios of children in the context of early childhood education in order to support their understanding and use by educators . Are referred to the specific learning assessment and described procedures for a proper construction of portfolios of children.

  7. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-10-16

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Early maternal care predicts reliance on social learning about food in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeyer, Charlotte M; Meaney, Michael J; Reader, Simon M

    2013-03-01

    Many vertebrates rely extensively on social information, but the value of information produced by other individuals will vary across contexts and habitats. Social learning may thus be optimized by the use of developmental or current cues to determine its likely value. Here, we show that a developmental cue, early maternal care, correlates with social learning propensities in adult rodents. The maternal behavior of rats Rattus norvegicus with their litters was scored over the first 6 days postpartum. Rat dams show consistent individual differences in the rate they lick and groom (LG) pups, allowing them to be categorized as high, low, or mid-LG mothers. The 100-day old male offspring of high and low-LG mothers were given the opportunity to learn food preferences for novel diets from conspecifics that had previously eaten these diets ("demonstrators"). Offspring of high-LG mothers socially learned food preferences, but offspring of low-LG mothers did not. We administered oxytocin to subjects to address the hypothesis that it would increase the propensity for social learning, but there were no detectable effects. Our data raise the possibility that social learning propensities may be both relatively stable throughout life and part of a suite of traits "adaptively programmed" by early developmental experiences.

  9. Associative learning during early adulthood enhances later memory retention in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arenas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping the future behavior in mammals but also in insects, in which precocious learning can directly modify behaviors later in life depending on both the timing and the rearing environment. However, whether olfactory associative learning acquired early in the adult stage of insects affect memorizing of new learning events has not been studied yet. METHODOLOGY: Groups of adult honeybee workers that experienced an odor paired with a sucrose solution 5 to 8 days or 9 to 12 days after emergence were previously exposed to (i a rewarded experience through the offering of scented food, or (ii a non-rewarded experience with a pure volatile compound in the rearing environment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Early rewarded experiences (either at 1-4 or 5-8 days of adult age enhanced retention performance in 9-12-day-conditioned bees when they were tested at 17 days of age. The highest retention levels at this age, which could not be improved with prior rewarded experiences, were found for memories established at 5-8 days of adult age. Associative memories acquired at 9-12 days of age showed a weak effect on retention for some pure pre-exposed volatile compounds; whereas the sole exposure of an odor at any younger age did not promote long-term effects on learning performance. CONCLUSIONS: The associative learning events that occurred a few days after adult emergence improved memorizing in middle-aged bees. In addition, both the timing and the nature of early sensory inputs interact to enhance retention of new learning events acquired later in life, an important matter in the social life of honeybees.

  10. Reduction in the retinotopic early visual cortex with normal aging and magnitude of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H; Andersen, George J; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Although normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging morphologic analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphologic measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex, and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity.

  11. Early lipoedema diagnosis and the RCGP e-learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Amy; Fetzer, Sharie

    2015-04-01

    Frequently misdiagnosed as obesity, lipoedema is chronic condition involving an abnormal build-up of fat cells in the legs, thighs and buttocks that cannot be shifted by exercise or dieting. Estimated to affect up to 11% of the female population, the condition is widely unknown by health professionals. This means women typically wait for many years before diagnosis. This allows the condition to progress unchecked, resulting in unnecessary deterioration and the development of associated comorbidities, as well as significant pain and mental anguish. A free, 30-minute Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) e-learning course created in partnership with Lipoedema UK aims to rectify this situation by educating nurses, GPs and other health professionals on how to diagnose and manage lipoedema in primary care. This article aims to describe the condition of lipoedema, how to recognise/diagnose it, current treatment options and the findings of a 240-patient survey carried out by Lipoedema UK in 2013 that included documenting the difficulties for patients in obtaining a diagnosis as well as the mental and physical effects of the condition.

  12. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars.

  13. From the curve of the snake, and the scene of the crocodile: musings on learning and losing space, place and body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gannon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Where else can educational research begin and end, if not with the body of the researcher, if not with the particular material/ corporeal/ affective assemblages that this body is and has been part of? This paper traces the mutual constitution of bodies, identities and landscapes through memory as the body of this educator travels through multiple scenes of geo-spatial-temporal movement, and down the east coast of Australia. This movement parallels the movement from being a school teacher to becoming an academic. Throughout the paper landscape is foregrounded, and the body in landscape is evoked through poetic and literary modes of writing around the themes of learning and losing. The body in landscape is not merely the body of the writer. Other bodies in the landscape include ‘the curve of the snake’ - the row of protective hills that were said to protect her tropical home from cyclones – and the ‘scene of the crocodile’ – the rock that hung over the valley she passed on her way to school that she had learned of from Indigenous teachers. The political and ethical consequences of memory work, of body and place writing, and of genres of writing in educational research, are also considered. The paper argues for an embodied and reflexive literacy of place that incorporates multiple modes of knowing, being and writing.

  14. Applied Remote Sensing Education and Training (ARSET): Opportunities to shorten the learning curve in use of NASA satellite data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidman, R. G.; Prados, A. I.; Christopher, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The previous decade has provided ample opportunity to use observations from space to constrain and enhance aerosol modeling efforts, but we find that the typical modeling professional outside of the immediate NASA environment is often overwhelmed by the breadth and depth of NASA satellite data products. NASA has invested in creating ARSET to help users learn and navigate through the maze of atmospheric products available. ARSET activities include training workshops which run from 1 to 5 days, creating educational materials and monthly air quality case study exercises in contest format. Our workshops provide what nobody else does: a clear and concise training on how to obtain and make proper use of atmospheric remote sensing products. Although our focus is on air quality applications we provide information that can be used by anyone wishing to understand and use atmospheric remote sensing products. All the materials we have used in our workshops as well as our educational materials and case studies are available at http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov

  15. Early handling effect on female rat spatial and non-spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa A M; Navarra, Michele; Gambino, Giuditta; Brancato, Anna; Sardo, Pierangelo; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at providing an insight into early handling procedures on learning and memory performance in adult female rats. Early handling procedures were started on post-natal day 2 until 21, and consisted in 15 min, daily separations of the dams from their litters. Assessment of declarative memory was carried out in the novel-object recognition task; spatial learning, reference- and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM). Our results indicate that early handling induced an enhancement in: (1) declarative memory, in the object recognition task, both at 1h and 24h intervals; (2) reference memory in the probe test and working memory and behavioral flexibility in the "single-trial and four-trial place learning paradigm" of the MWM. Short-term separation by increasing maternal care causes a dampening in HPA axis response in the pups. A modulated activation of the stress response may help to protect brain structures, involved in cognitive function. In conclusion, this study shows the long-term effects of a brief maternal separation in enhancing object recognition-, spatial reference- and working memory in female rats, remarking the impact of early environmental experiences and the consequent maternal care on the behavioral adaptive mechanisms in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilizing a Collaborative Learning Model to Promote Early Extubation Following Infant Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahle, William T; Nicolson, Susan C; Hollenbeck-Pringle, Danielle; Gaies, Michael G; Witte, Madolin K; Lee, Eva K; Goldsworthy, Michelle; Stark, Paul C; Burns, Kristin M; Scheurer, Mark A; Cooper, David S; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Sivarajan, V Ben; Colan, Steven D; Schamberger, Marcus S; Shekerdemian, Lara S

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether a collaborative learning strategy-derived clinical practice guideline can reduce the duration of endotracheal intubation following infant heart surgery. Prospective and retrospective data collected from the Pediatric Heart Network in the 12 months pre- and post-clinical practice guideline implementation at the four sites participating in the collaborative (active sites) compared with data from five Pediatric Heart Network centers not participating in collaborative learning (control sites). Ten children's hospitals. Data were collected for infants following two-index operations: 1) repair of isolated coarctation of the aorta (birth to 365 d) and 2) repair of tetralogy of Fallot (29-365 d). There were 240 subjects eligible for the clinical practice guideline at active sites and 259 subjects at control sites. Development and application of early extubation clinical practice guideline. After clinical practice guideline implementation, the rate of early extubation at active sites increased significantly from 11.7% to 66.9% (p collaborative learning strategy designed clinical practice guideline significantly increased the rate of early extubation with no change in the rate of reintubation. The early extubation clinical practice guideline did not significantly change postoperative ICU length of stay.

  17. The Role of Motive Objects in Early Childhood Teacher Development Concerning Children's Digital Play and Play-Based Learning in Early Childhood Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…

  18. Early Childhood Professional Development: An Experimental Study of Adult Teaching Practices Derived from Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Mayrer, Melissa M.

    Research that describes how adults acquire and use new information, collectively called adult learning theory, has potentially important implications for facilitating such adult learning experiences as educator professional development. The purpose of this study was to examine whether integrating adult teaching practices derived from adult learning theories into early childhood educators professional development would result in better gains in educator engagement in professional development, phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness knowledge, and language and literacy beliefs. The impact on educator engagement and educator proximal knowledge was analyzed using one way ANOVA. The impact on educator phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness general knowledge, and beliefs was analyzed using a 3 X (2 X S) mixed analyses of variance to examine the pretest to posttest change between educators participating the three conditions. Results revealed significant findings for increased engagement in professional learning and gains in educators general knowledge. This study is a first step in understanding effective adult teaching practices that may or may not contribute to better educator outcomes and promoting more effective professional learning experiences for early childhood educators.

  19. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account.

  20. Supervised Learning of Two-Layer Perceptron under the Existence of External Noise — Learning Curve of Boolean Functions of Two Variables in Tree-Like Architecture —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezu, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Shuji

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the supervised batch learning of Boolean functions expressed by a two-layer perceptron with a tree-like structure. We adopt continuous weights (spherical model) and the Gibbs algorithm. We study the Parity and And machines and two types of noise, input and output noise, together with the noiseless case. We assume that only the teacher suffers from noise. By using the replica method, we derive the saddle point equations for order parameters under the replica symmetric (RS) ansatz. We study the critical value αC of the loading rate α above which the learning phase exists for cases with and without noise. We find that αC is nonzero for the Parity machine, while it is zero for the And machine. We derive the exponents barβ of order parameters expressed as (α - α C)bar{β} when α is near to αC. Furthermore, in the Parity machine, when noise exists, we find a spin glass solution, in which the overlap between the teacher and student vectors is zero but that between student vectors is nonzero. We perform Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations by simulated annealing and also by exchange Monte Carlo simulations in both machines. In the Parity machine, we study the de Almeida-Thouless stability, and by comparing theoretical and numerical results, we find that there exist parameter regions where the RS solution is unstable, and that the spin glass solution is metastable or unstable. We also study asymptotic learning behavior for large α and derive the exponents hat{β } of order parameters expressed as α - hat{β } when α is large in both machines. By simulated annealing simulations, we confirm these results and conclude that learning takes place for the input noise case with any noise amplitude and for the output noise case when the probability that the teacher's output is reversed is less than one-half.

  1. Effects of early bilingualism on learning phonological regularities in a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C

    2012-03-01

    Drawing on structural sensitivity theory, the current study investigated monolingual and bilingual children's ability to learn how phonemes combine to form acceptable syllables in a new language. A total of 186 monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners, first graders, and second graders in Taiwan participated in the study. Bilingual children, regardless of whether they actively used a second language at home or simply had exposure to it, showed an advantage over their monolingual peers in learning the phonological patterns in the new language. The study provides empirical support for structural sensitivity theory and calls for the need to reconceptualize the effects of early bilingualism.

  2. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  3. Posttraining transcranial magnetic stimulation of striate cortex disrupts consolidation early in visual skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerd, Peter; Reithler, Joel; van de Ven, Vincent; Been, Marin; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-02-01

    Practice-induced improvements in skilled performance reflect "offline " consolidation processes extending beyond daily training sessions. According to visual learning theories, an early, fast learning phase driven by high-level areas is followed by a late, asymptotic learning phase driven by low-level, retinotopic areas when higher resolution is required. Thus, low-level areas would not contribute to learning and offline consolidation until late learning. Recent studies have challenged this notion, demonstrating modified responses to trained stimuli in primary visual cortex (V1) and offline activity after very limited training. However, the behavioral relevance of modified V1 activity for offline consolidation of visual skill memory in V1 after early training sessions remains unclear. Here, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) directed to a trained retinotopic V1 location to test for behaviorally relevant consolidation in human low-level visual cortex. Applying TMS to the trained V1 location within 45 min of the first or second training session strongly interfered with learning, as measured by impaired performance the next day. The interference was conditional on task context and occurred only when training in the location targeted by TMS was followed by training in a second location before TMS. In this condition, high-level areas may become coupled to the second location and uncoupled from the previously trained low-level representation, thereby rendering consolidation vulnerable to interference. Our data show that, during the earliest phases of skill learning in the lowest-level visual areas, a behaviorally relevant form of consolidation exists of which the robustness is controlled by high-level, contextual factors.

  4. Brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients early in abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Le Berre, Anne Pascale; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Background Procedural learning allows for the acquisition of new behavioral skills. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcoholism is characterized by impaired cognitive procedural learning and brain abnormalities affecting regions that are involved in the automation of new cognitive procedures in healthy individuals. The goal of the present study was to investigate the brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients (ALs) early in abstinence. Methods Thirty-one ALs and 31 control participants (NCs) performed the Tower of Toronto task (4 daily learning sessions, each comprising 10 trials) to assess cognitive procedural learning. We also assessed episodic and working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. ALs underwent 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results The initial cognitive phase was longer in the AL group than in the NC group, whereas the autonomous phase was shorter. In ALs, the longer cognitive phase was predicted by poorer planning and visuospatial working memory abilities, and by smaller gray matter (GM) volumes in the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus. ALs’ planning abilities correlated with smaller GM volume in the angular gyrus. Conclusions Cognitive procedural learning was impaired in ALs, with a delayed transition from the cognitive to the autonomous phase. This slowdown in the automation of the cognitive procedure was related to lower planning abilities, which may have hampered the initial generation of the procedure to be learned. In agreement with this neuropsychological finding, a persistent relationship was found between learning performance and the GM volumes of the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus, which are usually regarded as markers of planning and initial learning of the cognitive procedure. PMID:25156613

  5. Endovascular Stroke Therapy Results Improve over Time: The ‘Learning Curve' at a New Comprehensive Stoke Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. Benardete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The requirements for a comprehensive stroke center (CSC include the capability to perform endovascular stroke therapy (EST. EST is a complex process requiring early identification of appropriate patients and effective delivery of intervention. In order to provide prompt intervention for stroke, CSCs have been established away from large academic centers in community-based hospitals. We hypothesized that quantifiable improvements would occur during the first 2 years of a community-based CSC as the processes and personnel evolved. We report the results over time of EST at a new community-based CSC. Methods: We have retrospectively analyzed demographic data and outcome metrics of EST from the initiation phase of a new community-based CSC. Data was divided into year 1 and year 2. Statistical analysis (Student's t test and Fisher's exact test was performed to compare the patient population and outcomes across the two time periods. Outcome variables included the thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI score, a change in the NIH stroke scale score and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS score. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to statistically analyze the relationship between population variables and outcome. Computed tomography (CT angiography and CT perfusion analysis were used to select patients for EST. Approximately half of the patients undergoing EST were excluded from receiving intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA by standard criteria, while the other half showed no sign of improvement following 1 h of IV rt-PA treatment. Mechanical thrombolysis with a stentriever was performed in the majority of cases with or without intra-arterial medication. The majority of treated occlusions were in the middle cerebral artery. Results: A total of 18 patients underwent EST during year 1 and year 2. A statistically significant increase in good outcomes (mRS score ≤2 at discharge was seen from year 1 to year 2 (p = 0

  6. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

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    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions; however, comparing events is difficult. In 2 studies, researchers tested whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events ("progressive alignment") while learning new…

  7. Re-examining the effects of verbal instructional type on early stage motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrownicki, Ray; MacPherson, Alan C; Coleman, Simon G S; Collins, Dave; Sproule, John

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated the differential effects of analogy and explicit instructions on early stage motor learning and movement in a modified high jump task. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: analogy, explicit light (reduced informational load), or traditional explicit (large informational load). During the two-day learning phase, participants learned a novel high jump technique based on the 'scissors' style using the instructions for their respective conditions. For the single-day testing phase, participants completed both a retention test and task-relevant pressure test, the latter of which featured a rising high-jump-bar pressure manipulation. Although analogy learners demonstrated slightly more efficient technique and reported fewer technical rules on average, the differences between the conditions were not statistically significant. There were, however, significant differences in joint variability with respect to instructional type, as variability was lowest for the analogy condition during both the learning and testing phases, and as a function of block, as joint variability decreased for all conditions during the learning phase. Findings suggest that reducing the informational volume of explicit instructions may mitigate the deleterious effects on performance previously associated with explicit learning in the literature.

  8. Phylogenetic origins of biological cognition: convergent patterns in the early evolution of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijn, Marc

    2017-06-06

    Various forms of elementary learning have recently been discovered in organisms lacking a nervous system, such as protists, fungi and plants. This finding has fundamental implications for how we view the role of convergent evolution in biological cognition. In this article, I first review the evidence for basic forms of learning in aneural organisms, focusing particularly on habituation and classical conditioning and considering the plausibility for convergent evolution of these capacities. Next, I examine the possible role of convergent evolution regarding these basic learning abilities during the early evolution of nervous systems. The evolution of nervous systems set the stage for at least two major events relevant to convergent evolution that are central to biological cognition: (i) nervous systems evolved, perhaps more than once, because of strong selection pressures for sustaining sensorimotor strategies in increasingly larger multicellular organisms and (ii) associative learning was a subsequent adaptation that evolved multiple times within the neuralia. Although convergent evolution of basic forms of learning among distantly related organisms such as protists, plants and neuralia is highly plausible, more research is needed to verify whether these forms of learning within the neuralia arose through convergent or parallel evolution.

  9. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  10. Filial responses as predisposed and learned preferences: Early attachment in chicks and babies.

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    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Loveland, Jasmine L; Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-08

    To what extent are filial responses the outcome of spontaneous or acquired preferences? The case of domestic chicks illustrates the connection between predisposed and learned knowledge in early social responses. In the absence of specific experience, chicks prefer to approach objects that are more similar to natural social partners (e.g. they prefer face-like configurations, biological motion, self-propelled objects and those that move at variable speed). Spontaneous preferences are complemented by filial imprinting, a powerful learning mechanism that enables chicks to quickly learn the features of specific social partners. While neurobiological studies have clarified that the substrates of spontaneous and learned preferences are at least partially distinct in chicks, evidence shows that spontaneous preferences might orient and facilitate imprinting on animate stimuli, such as the mother hen, and that hormones facilitate and strengthen preferences for predisposed stimuli. Preferences towards animate stimuli are observed in human neonates as well. The remarkable consistency between the perceptual cues attended to by newborn babies and naïve chicks suggests that the attentional biases observed in babies are unlikely to result from very rapid post-natal learning, and confirms that research on precocial species can inform and guide human infant research with regards to both typical and atypical development. This has potentially important biomedical implications, opening new possibilities for the early detection of subjects at risk for autism spectrum disorders. We show how the parallel investigation of predispositions in naïve chicks and human infants, both benefiting from contact with social partners since the beginning of life, has greatly improved our understanding of early responses to social stimuli at the behavioural and neurobiological level.

  11. Decoding the future from past experience: learning shapes predictions in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Caroline D B; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-05-01

    Learning the structure of the environment is critical for interpreting the current scene and predicting upcoming events. However, the brain mechanisms that support our ability to translate knowledge about scene statistics to sensory predictions remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that learning of temporal regularities shapes representations in early visual cortex that relate to our ability to predict sensory events. We tested the participants' ability to predict the orientation of a test stimulus after exposure to sequences of leftward- or rightward-oriented gratings. Using fMRI decoding, we identified brain patterns related to the observers' visual predictions rather than stimulus-driven activity. Decoding of predicted orientations following structured sequences was enhanced after training, while decoding of cued orientations following exposure to random sequences did not change. These predictive representations appear to be driven by the same large-scale neural populations that encode actual stimulus orientation and to be specific to the learned sequence structure. Thus our findings provide evidence that learning temporal structures supports our ability to predict future events by reactivating selective sensory representations as early as in primary visual cortex.

  12. Changes in visual object recognition precede the shape bias in early noun learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan N Yee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- 24 month olds tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in the visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recognize common basic level categories from sparse structural shape representations of object shape emerges between the ages of 18 and 24 months, is related to noun vocabulary size, and is lacking in children with language delay. Other research shows that in artificial noun learning tasks, during this same developmental period, young children systematically generalize object names by shape, that this shape bias predicts future noun learning, and is lacking in children with language delay. The two experiments examine the developmental relation between visual object recognition and the shape bias for the first time. The results show that developmental changes in visual object recognition systematically preceded the emergence of the shape bias. The results suggest a developmental pathway in which early changes in visual object recognition that are themselves linked to category learning enable the discovery of higher-order regularities in category structure and thus the shape bias in novel noun learning tasks. The proposed developmental pathway has implications for understanding the role of specific experience in the development of both visual object recognition and the shape bias in early noun learning.

  13. 骨科入院护理流程再造的学习曲线分析%Learning curve research on redesign of orthopedic admission nursing procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银平; 黄桂玲; 汪祝莎; 王雅丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the principles of learning curve on redesign of orthopedic admission nursing procedure in order to provide reference to promote the overall nursing procedure .Methods A total of 250 cases after redesign of orthopedic admission nursing procedure were analyzed .These cases covered the stage from the beginning to the matured stage .Every 50 cases were taken as a group and a phase of learning curve . The admission time and satisfaction score were compared among the five different phases ( groups ) .The linear regression technique was employed to research the learning curve and the effect of admission time on the patients 'satisfaction.Results The mean admission time in each group was (27.47 ±3.64) min in Group A, (23.86 ± 1.95)min in Group B, (21.84 ±2.09)min in Group C, (21.74 ±1.83)min in Group D, and (21.85 ±1.79) min in Group E, respectively.The scores of patients'satisfaction in each group were (95.32 ±1.57)min in Group A, (97.44 ±0.95)min in Group B, (98.78 ±0.51)min in Group C, (99.00 ±0.35)min in Group D, and (98.96 ±0.35) min in Group E, respectively.The differences were significant (P 0.05).The learning curve (R2 =0.747,F=289.389,P<0.05) of redesign of orthopedic admission nursing procedure showed that there was linear regression relationship between the admission time (R2 =0.669,F=500.532,P<0.05) and patients'satisfaction.Conclusions The redesign of orthopedic admission nursing procedure is characterized by the learning curve , which the first 100 cases are in the learning stage and after 100 cases is the matured stage .The redesign of orthopedic admission nursing procedure can significantly decrease the admission time and is benefit to establish “the good first impression” and the improvement of the patients'satisfaction.%目的:探讨骨科入院护理流程再造的学习曲线规律,为全面推进骨科护理流程再造提供参考。方法回顾性分析实施入院护理流程再造后250例入院患者的临

  14. Can a teaching assistant experience in a surgical anatomy course influence the learning curve for nontechnical skill development for surgical residents?

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    Heidenreich, Mark J; Musonza, Tashinga; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    The foundation upon which surgical residents are trained to work comprises more than just critical cognitive, clinical, and technical skill. In an environment where the synchronous application of expertise is vital to patient outcomes, the expectation for optimal functioning within a multidisciplinary team is extremely high. Studies have shown that for most residents, one of the most difficult milestones in the path to achieving professional expertise in a surgical career is overcoming the learning curve. This view point commentary provides a reflection from the two senior medical students who have participated in the Student-as-Teacher program developed by the Department of Anatomy at Mayo Clinic, designed to prepare students for their teaching assistant (TA) role in anatomy courses. Both students participated as TAs in a six week surgical anatomy course for surgical first assistant students offered by the School of Health Sciences at Mayo Clinic. Development of teaching skills, nontechnical leadership, communication, and assessment skills, are discussed in relation to their benefits in preparing senior medical students for surgical residency.

  15. 基于学习遗忘曲线模型的员工生产率研究%Study on Worker Productivity with Learn Forget Curve Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇菲; 汪应洛

    2011-01-01

    基于学习遗忘曲线模型,研究劳动密集型产业的员工生产率.在将该模型扩展到多周期的基础上,探讨了劳动技能培训与巩固、短期雇佣与长期雇佣等对员工生产率的影响.此外,在考虑发生停产的情况下,分析了不同的人力资源管理策略对员工生产率的影响.研究结果为企业人力资源管理提供了理论依据和参考,并为企业保持较高的员工生产率提供了解决思路.%Based on LFCM (learn forget curve model), this paper studies the worker productivity in labor-intense industry. By extending the original LFCM to multi-period situation, this paper discusses the effects of skill training, long-term and short-term employment on worker productivity. Besides, under the situation of temporary production stop, it invastigates how different human resource management policies influence worker productivity. The conclusions from this research may offer theoretical support and solutions for human resource management to maintain worker productivity.

  16. Learning Curve in a Western Training Center of the Circumferential En Bloc Esophageal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in an In Vivo Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Miguel A.; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Fujita, Rikiya; Santillan-Doherty, Patricio; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Chable-Montero, Fredy; Martin-del-Campo, Luis A.; Vasquez, Lucia; Bravo-Reyna, Carlos; Villanueva, Octavio; Villalobos, Jose J.; Uribe, Misael; Valdovinos, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. Evaluate the feasibility to overcome the learning curve in a western training center of the en bloc circumferential esophageal (ECE-) ESD in an in vivo animal model. Methods. ECE-ESD was performed on ten canine models under general anesthesia on artificial lesions at the esophagus marked with coagulation points. After the ESD each canine model was euthanized and surgical resection of the esophagus and stomach was carried out according to “the Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, Russel and Burch.” The specimen was fixed with needles on cork submerged in formalin with the esophagus and stomach then delivered to the pathology department to be analyzed. Results. ECE-ESD was completed without complications in the last 3/10 animal models. Mean duration for the procedures was 192 ± 35 minutes (range 140–235 minutes). All the procedures were done at the animal lab surgery room with cardio pulmonary monitoring and artificial ventilation by staff surgery members and a staff member of the Gastroenterology department trained during 1999–2001 at the Fujigaoka hospital of the Showa U. in Yokohama, Japan, length (range 15–18 mm) and 51 ± 6.99 width (range 40–60 mm). Conclusion. ECE-ESD training is feasible in canine models for postgraduate endoscopy fellows. PMID:21976950

  17. Learning Curve in a Western Training Center of the Circumferential En Bloc Esophageal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in an In Vivo Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Tanimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Evaluate the feasibility to overcome the learning curve in a western training center of the en bloc circumferential esophageal (ECE- ESD in an in vivo animal model. Methods. ECE-ESD was performed on ten canine models under general anesthesia on artificial lesions at the esophagus marked with coagulation points. After the ESD each canine model was euthanized and surgical resection of the esophagus and stomach was carried out according to “the Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, Russel and Burch.” The specimen was fixed with needles on cork submerged in formalin with the esophagus and stomach then delivered to the pathology department to be analyzed. Results. ECE-ESD was completed without complications in the last 3/10 animal models. Mean duration for the procedures was 192±35 minutes (range 140–235 minutes. All the procedures were done at the animal lab surgery room with cardio pulmonary monitoring and artificial ventilation by staff surgery members and a staff member of the Gastroenterology department trained during 1999–2001 at the Fujigaoka hospital of the Showa U. in Yokohama, Japan, length (range 15–18 mm and 51±6.99 width (range 40–60 mm. Conclusion. ECE-ESD training is feasible in canine models for postgraduate endoscopy fellows.

  18. Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: a new imitation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dissociable changes in functional network topology underlie early category learning and development of automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Fabian A; Bassett, Danielle S; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-11-01

    Recent work has shown that multimodal association areas-including frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex-are focal points of functional network reconfiguration during human learning and performance of cognitive tasks. On the other hand, neurocomputational theories of category learning suggest that the basal ganglia and related subcortical structures are focal points of functional network reconfiguration during early learning of some categorization tasks but become less so with the development of automatic categorization performance. Using a combination of network science and multilevel regression, we explore how changes in the connectivity of small brain regions can predict behavioral changes during training in a visual categorization task. We find that initial category learning, as indexed by changes in accuracy, is predicted by increasingly efficient integrative processing in subcortical areas, with higher functional specialization, more efficient integration across modules, but a lower cost in terms of redundancy of information processing. The development of automaticity, as indexed by changes in the speed of correct responses, was predicted by lower clustering (particularly in subcortical areas), higher strength (highest in cortical areas), and higher betweenness centrality. By combining neurocomputational theories and network scientific methods, these results synthesize the dissociative roles of multimodal association areas and subcortical structures in the development of automaticity during category learning.

  20. How learning analytics can early predict under-achieving students in a blended medical education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqr, Mohammed; Fors, Uno; Tedre, Matti

    2017-07-01

    Learning analytics (LA) is an emerging discipline that aims at analyzing students' online data in order to improve the learning process and optimize learning environments. It has yet un-explored potential in the field of medical education, which can be particularly helpful in the early prediction and identification of under-achieving students. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative markers collected from students' online activities that may correlate with students' final performance and to investigate the possibility of predicting the potential risk of a student failing or dropping out of a course. This study included 133 students enrolled in a blended medical course where they were free to use the learning management system at their will. We extracted their online activity data using database queries and Moodle plugins. Data included logins, views, forums, time, formative assessment, and communications at different points of time. Five engagement indicators were also calculated which would reflect self-regulation and engagement. Students who scored below 5% over the passing mark were considered to be potentially at risk of under-achieving. At the end of the course, we were able to predict the final grade with 63.5% accuracy, and identify 53.9% of at-risk students. Using a binary logistic model improved prediction to 80.8%. Using data recorded until the mid-course, prediction accuracy was 42.3%. The most important predictors were factors reflecting engagement of the students and the consistency of using the online resources. The analysis of students' online activities in a blended medical education course by means of LA techniques can help early predict underachieving students, and can be used as an early warning sign for timely intervention.

  1. Systems-Oriented Workplace Learning Experiences for Early Learners: Three Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Bachhuber, Melissa R; Teherani, Arianne; Iker, Theresa M; Batt, Joanne; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2017-05-01

    Early workplace learning experiences may be effective for learning systems-based practice. This study explores systems-oriented workplace learning experiences (SOWLEs) for early learners to suggest a framework for their development. The authors used a two-phase qualitative case study design. In Phase 1 (spring 2014), they prepared case write-ups based on transcribed interviews from 10 SOWLE leaders at the authors' institution and, through comparative analysis of cases, identified three SOWLE models. In Phase 2 (summer 2014), studying seven 8-week SOWLE pilots, the authors used interview and observational data collected from the seven participating medical students, two pharmacy students, and site leaders to construct case write-ups of each pilot and to verify and elaborate the models. In Model 1, students performed specific patient care activities that addressed a system gap. Some site leaders helped students connect the activities to larger systems problems and potential improvements. In Model 2, students participated in predetermined systems improvement (SI) projects, gaining experience in the improvement process. Site leaders had experience in SI and often had significant roles in the projects. In Model 3, students worked with key stakeholders to develop a project and conduct a small test of change. They experienced most elements of an improvement cycle. Site leaders often had experience with SI and knew how to guide and support students' learning. Each model could offer systems-oriented learning opportunities provided that key elements are in place including site leaders facile in SI concepts and able to guide students in SOWLE activities.

  2. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children's literature.

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    Flevares, Lucia M; Schiff, Jamie R

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children's literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children's mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O'Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children's understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children's literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children's books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

  3. Early Literacy and Comprehension Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Monolingual Children with Language Weaknesses

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    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80…

  4. Can Service Learning Reinforce Social and Cultural Bias? Exploring a Popular Model of Family Involvement for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Kenney, Maylan

    2010-01-01

    Service learning is often used in teacher education as a way to challenge social bias and provide teacher candidates with skills needed to work in partnership with diverse families. Although some literature suggests that service learning could reinforce cultural bias, there is little documentation. In a study of 21 early childhood teacher…

  5. Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

  6. Unleashing the Power of Science in Early Childhood: A Foundation for High-Quality Interactions and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Daryl B.; Alexander, Alexandra; Frechette, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    When science is integrated into early childhood learning experiences, it becomes a critical area supporting young children's development. Young children are natural scientists, curious about their world, and they engage in scientific practices to learn about and explore their world. This article describes how the K-12 Framework for Science…

  7. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual

  8. Enhancing Peer Interaction: An Aspect of a High-Quality Learning Environment in Finnish Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjämäki, Marja; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Alijoki, Alisa; Nislin, Mari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the pedagogical learning environment in early childhood special education (ECSE). The theoretical framework is based on a conception of interaction being as well a basic human need as, according to sociocultural theories, the basis of learning. Our study was conducted in ECSE kindergarten groups (N = 17)…

  9. The workplace as learning environment in early childhood teacher education: an investigation of work-based education

    OpenAIRE

    Kaarby, Karen Marie Eid; Lindboe, Inger Marie

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the workplace as a learning environment in work-based early childhood teacher education in Norway. The main question is: Which understandings of the workplace as a learning environment are to be found in regulations and policy documents, among students and among staff managers? Taking as the point of departure, a theoretical framework based on J.A. Raelin’s model of work-based learning, findings from text-analysis, group interviews, and questionnaires are presented. In ...

  10. The Workplace as a Learning Environment in Early Childhood Teacher Education: An Investigation of Work-Based Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kaarby, Karen Marie Eid; Lindboe, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on the workplace as a learning environment in work-based early childhood teacher education (ECTE) in Norway. The main question is: Which understandings of the work-place as a learning environment are to be found in regulations and policy documents, among students and among directors? Taking as the point of departure a theoretical framework based on J. A. Raelin's model of work-based learning, findings from text-analysis, group interviews and questionnaires are presented. I...

  11. Potentiation of the early visual response to learned danger signals in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levita, Liat; Howsley, Philippa; Jordan, Jeff; Johnston, Pat

    2015-02-01

    The reinforcing effects of aversive outcomes on avoidance behaviour are well established. However, their influence on perceptual processes is less well explored, especially during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Using electroencephalography, we examined whether learning to actively or passively avoid harm can modulate early visual responses in adolescents and adults. The task included two avoidance conditions, active and passive, where two different warning stimuli predicted the imminent, but avoidable, presentation of an aversive tone. To avoid the aversive outcome, participants had to learn to emit an action (active avoidance) for one of the warning stimuli and omit an action for the other (passive avoidance). Both adults and adolescents performed the task with a high degree of accuracy. For both adolescents and adults, increased N170 event-related potential amplitudes were found for both the active and the passive warning stimuli compared with control conditions. Moreover, the potentiation of the N170 to the warning stimuli was stable and long lasting. Developmental differences were also observed; adolescents showed greater potentiation of the N170 component to danger signals. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that learned danger signals in an instrumental avoidance task can influence early visual sensory processes in both adults and adolescents.

  12. Dynamic changes in network activations characterize early learning of a natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Patterson, Dianne; Dailey, Natalie S; Kyle, R Almyrde; Fridriksson, Julius

    2014-09-01

    Those who are initially exposed to an unfamiliar language have difficulty separating running speech into individual words, but over time will recognize both words and the grammatical structure of the language. Behavioral studies have used artificial languages to demonstrate that humans are sensitive to distributional information in language input, and can use this information to discover the structure of that language. This is done without direct instruction and learning occurs over the course of minutes rather than days or months. Moreover, learners may attend to different aspects of the language input as their own learning progresses. Here, we examine processing associated with the early stages of exposure to a natural language, using fMRI. Listeners were exposed to an unfamiliar language (Icelandic) while undergoing four consecutive fMRI scans. The Icelandic stimuli were constrained in ways known to produce rapid learning of aspects of language structure. After approximately 4 min of exposure to the Icelandic stimuli, participants began to differentiate between correct and incorrect sentences at above chance levels, with significant improvement between the first and last scan. An independent component analysis of the imaging data revealed four task-related components, two of which were associated with behavioral performance early in the experiment, and two with performance later in the experiment. This outcome suggests dynamic changes occur in the recruitment of neural resources even within the initial period of exposure to an unfamiliar natural language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning process on emotional intelligence among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Yimklib, Somkid; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Apinanthavech, Suporn

    2009-12-01

    To study the effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning program on emotional intelligence among early adolescents. The quasi-experimental study was conducted in grade 9 students from two schools in Bangbuathong district, Nonthaburi province. Each experimental and comparative group consisted of 34 students with the lowest score of emotional intelligence. The instruments were questionnaires, Program to Develop Emotional Intelligence and Handbook of Emotional Intelligence Development. The experimental group attended 8 participatory learning activities in 4 weeks to Develop Emotional Intelligence while the comparative group received the handbook for self study. Assessment the effectiveness of program was done by pre-test and post-test immediately and 4 weeks apart concerning the emotional intelligence. Implementation and evaluation was done during May 24-August 12, 2005. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square, independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Before program implementation, both groups had no statistical difference in mean score of emotional intelligence. After intervention, the experimental group had higher mean score of emotional intelligence both immediately and 4 weeks later with statistical significant (p = 0.001 and emotional intelligence in early-adolescent. This program could be modified and implemented for early adolescent in the community.

  14. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-11-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure.

  15. Toward a Model for Early Childhood Environmental Education: Foregrounding, Developing, and Connecting Knowledge through Play-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education represents a growing area of interest in early childhood education, especially since the inclusion of environmental principles and practices in the Australian Early Years Learning Framework. Traditionally, these two fields of education have been characterized by diverse pedagogical emphases. This article considers how…

  16. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing Challenging Behavior in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Amy; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2009-01-01

    The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is a federally funded national resource center designed to support early care and education providers address the social-emotional needs of children birth through age 5 years. Recent research has found that an extraordinarily high number of young children are being…

  17. Potentials, Dissonances and Reform Initiatives in Field-Based Learning and Mentoring Practices in the Early Childhood Sector in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flämig, Katja; König, Anke; Spiekermann, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, the field-based element in the education/training of early childhood educators is given high priority in the development of professional competencies. Nevertheless, Germany lacks a firmly anchored regulatory and curricular framework for early childhood education and care settings as "workplace learning sites" ("Lernort…

  18. Toward a Model for Early Childhood Environmental Education: Foregrounding, Developing, and Connecting Knowledge through Play-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education represents a growing area of interest in early childhood education, especially since the inclusion of environmental principles and practices in the Australian Early Years Learning Framework. Traditionally, these two fields of education have been characterized by diverse pedagogical emphases. This article considers how…

  19. Analysis of the learning curve for transurethral resection of the prostate. Is there any influence of musical instrument and video game skills on surgical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaçake, Kleiton Gabriel Ribeiro; Nakano, Elcio Tadashi; Soares, Iva Barbosa; Cordeiro, Paulo; Srougi, Miguel; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the learning curve for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) among urology residents and study the impact of video game and musical instrument playing abilities on its performance. A prospective study was performed from July 2009 to January 2013 with patients submitted to TURP for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Fourteen residents operated on 324 patients. The following parameters were analyzed: age, prostate-specific antigen levels, prostate weight on ultrasound, pre- and postoperative serum sodium and hemoglobin levels, weight of resected tissue, operation time, speed of resection, and incidence of capsular lesions. Gender, handedness, and prior musical instrument and video game playing experience were recorded using survey responses. The mean resection speed in the first 10 procedures was 0.36 g/min and reached a mean of 0.51 g/min after the 20(th) procedure. The incidence of capsular lesions decreased progressively. The operation time decreased progressively for each subgroup regardless of the difference in the weight of tissue resected. Those experienced in playing video games presented superior resection speed (0.45 g/min) when compared with the novice (0.35 g/min) and intermediate (0.38 g/min) groups (p=0.112). Musical instrument playing abilities did not affect the surgical performance. Speed of resection, weight of resected tissue, and percentage of resected tissue improve significantly and the incidence of capsular lesions reduces after the performance of 10 TURP procedures. Experience in playing video games or musical instruments does not have a significant effect on outcomes.

  20. Ways of dealing with science learning: a study based on Swedish early childhood education practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Laila; Jonsson, Agneta; Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Thulin, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    The Swedish school system offers curriculum-based early childhood education (ECE) organised as preschool (for 0-5-year-olds) and preschool class (for 6-year-olds). The intention to create a playful and educational environment based on children's perspectives, interests, and questions is strongly based on historical and cultural traditions. This article develops knowledge of ECE teachers' approaches to science-learning situations. The study applies a phenomenographic approach. The analysis is based on approximately 9.5 hours of video documentation of teacher-led and child-initiated Swedish ECE science activities. We identified two descriptive categories and four subcategories dealing with science-learning situations: (A) making anything visible, containing the three subcategories (Aa) addressing everyone, (Ab) addressing everything, and (Ac) addressing play and fantasy; and (B) creating a shared space for learning (Ba) addressing common content. These categories are related to how efforts to take advantage of children's perspectives are interpreted and addressed in educational practice. The article discusses and exemplifies the use of various categories and their potential implications for ECE learning practice.

  1. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  2. Learning thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2010-01-01

    Thoracoscopic (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)) lobectomy is a safe and effective method for treating early-stage lung cancer. Despite this, it is still not widely practised, which could be due to a shallow learning curve. We have evaluated the surgical outcome in a training programme...

  3. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  4. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    , learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  5. An inflection in the rate of early mid-Holocene eustatic sea-level rise: A new sea-level curve from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, M. I.; Fifield, L. K.; Teh, T. S.; Chang, C. H.; Shirlaw, N.; Lambeck, K.

    2007-02-01

    This study presents a sea-level curve from ˜9500 to ˜6500 cal BP for the farfield location of Singapore, on the Sunda Shelf in southeast Asia. The curve is based on more than 50 radiocarbon dates from elevations of +1.43 m to -15.09 m representing sea-level index points in intertidal mangrove and shallow marine sediments deposited by sea-level rise accompanying deglaciation. The results indicate that mean sea level rose rapidly from around -17 m at 9500 cal BP to around -3 m by 8000 cal BP. After this time, the data suggest (but do not unequivocally prove) that the rate of sea-rise slowed for a period of 300-500 years centred on ˜7700 cal BP, shortly after the cessation of meltwater input to the oceans from the northern hemisphere. Renewed sea-level rise amounting to 3-5 m began around 7400 cal BP and was complete by 7000 cal BP. The existence of an inflection in the rate of sea-level rise, with a slow-down centred on ˜7700 cal BP, is broadly consistent with other available sea-level curves over this interval and is supported by evidence of stable shorelines and delta initiation elsewhere at this time, as well as evidence of comparatively rapid retreat of the West Antarctic ice sheet beginning around 7500 cal BP. 'Stepped' sea-level rise occurring shortly after 7500 cal BP and also earlier during deglaciation may have served to focus significant post-glacial episodes of human maritime/coastal dispersal, into comparatively narrow time intervals.

  6. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps evident in persistently low-performing schools, in many instances, manifest prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality early learning programs have proven to demonstrate positive effects on closing academic gaps both for individual children and in the aggregate for the school.…

  7. Development of an e-learning system for teaching endoscopists how to diagnose early gastric cancer: basic principles for improving early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kenshi; Uedo, Noriya; Muto, Manabu; Ishikawa, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    We developed an internet e-learning system in order to improve the ability of endoscopists to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage. The efficacy of this system at expanding knowledge and providing invaluable experience regarding the endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer was demonstrated through an international multicenter randomized controlled trial. However, the contents of the system have not yet been fully described in the literature. Accordingly, we herein introduce the contents and their principles, which comprise three main subjects: technique, knowledge, and experience. Since all the e-learning contents and principles are based on conventional white-light endoscopy alone, which is commonly available throughout the world, they should provide a good reference point for any endoscopist who wishes to devise learning materials and guidelines for improving their own clinical practice.

  8. The new courses of ethanol production in Brazil: an analysis from learning curves; Os novos rumos da producao de alcool combustivel no Brasil: uma analise a partir de curvas de aprendizagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pereira, Andre Santos [Centre de Recherche sur Environement et Developement (CIRED), Paris (France); Mendonca, Marco Aurelio [Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    PROALCOOL is known internationally as the most successful biofuel promotion program. Prior analysis of the effectiveness of such a program is fundamental to formulation of public policy, not only in the area of energy, but in all sectors of the economy. The article applies learning curve methodology to evaluate the ethanol market in Brazil in order to give an idea about the effort, in terms of investments, required for its advancement. (author)

  9. The Very Early Light Curve of SN 2015F in NGC 2442: A Possible Detection of Shock-Heated Cooling Emission and Constraints on SN Ia Progenitor System

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Myungshin; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Kim, Jae-Woo; Ehgamberdiev, Shuhrat A; Monard, Libert A G; Sung, Hyun-Il

    2015-01-01

    The main progenitor candidate of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is white dwarfs in binary systems where the companion star is another white dwarf (double degenerate system) or a less evolved non-degenerate star with R* >~ 0.1 Rsun (single degenerate system), but no direct observational evidence exists that tells which progenitor system is more common. Recent studies suggest that the light curve of a supernova shortly after its explosion can be used to set a limit on the progenitor size, R*. Here, we report a high cadence monitoring observation of SN 2015F, a normal SN Ia, in the galaxy NGC 2442 starting about 84 days before the first light time. With our daily cadence data, we catch the emergence of the radioactively powered light curve, but more importantly detect with a > 97.4% confidence a possible dim precursor emission that appears at roughly 1.5 days before the rise of the radioactively powered emission. The signal is consistent with theoretical expectations for a progenitor system involving a companion st...

  10. A role for the anterior piriform cortex in early odor preference learning: evidence for multiple olfactory learning structures in the rat pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gillian L; Fontaine, Christine J; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2013-07-01

    cFos activation in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) occurs in early odor preference learning in rat pups (Roth and Sullivan 2005). Here we provide evidence that the pairing of odor as a conditioned stimulus and β-adrenergic activation in the aPC as an unconditioned stimulus generates early odor preference learning. β-Adrenergic blockade in the aPC prevents normal preference learning. Enhancement of aPC cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in trained hemispheres is consistent with a role for this cascade in early odor preference learning in the aPC. In vitro experiments suggested theta-burst-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) at the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) to aPC synapse depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and can be significantly enhanced by β-adrenoceptor activation, which causes increased glutamate release from LOT synapses during LTP induction. NMDA receptors in aPC are also shown to be critical for the acquisition, but not expression, of odor preference learning, as would be predicted if they mediate initial β-adrenoceptor-promoted aPC plasticity. Ex vivo experiments 3 and 24 h after odor preference training reveal an enhanced LOT-aPC field excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). At 3 h both presynaptic and postsynaptic potentiations support EPSP enhancement while at 24 h only postsynaptic potentiation is seen. LOT-LTP in aPC is excluded by odor preference training. Taken together with earlier work on the role of the olfactory bulb in early odor preference learning, these outcomes suggest early odor preference learning is normally supported by and requires multiple plastic changes at least at two levels of olfactory circuitry.

  11. Attitude of medical students towards Early Clinical Exposure in learning endocrine physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Solomon; Thomas, Nihal; Tharion, Elizabeth; Neelakantan, Nithya; Vyas, Rashmi

    2007-09-05

    Different teaching-learning methods have been used in teaching endocrine physiology for the medical students, so as to increase their interest and enhance their learning. This paper describes the pros and cons of the various approaches used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology and goes on to describe the value of adding an Early Clinical Exposure program (ECE) to didactic instruction in endocrine physiology, as well as student reactions to it as an alternative approach. Various methods have been used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology such as case-stimulated learning, problem-based learning, patient-centred learning and multiple-format sessions. We devised a teaching-learning intervention in endocrine physiology, which comprised of traditional didactic lectures, supplemented with an ECE program consisting of case based lectures and a hospital visit to see patients. A focus group discussion was conducted with the medical students and, based on the themes that emerged from it, a questionnaire was developed and administered to further enquire into the attitude of all the students towards ECE in learning endocrine physiology. The students in their feedback commented that ECE increased their interest for the subject and motivated them to read more. They also felt that ECE enhanced their understanding of endocrine physiology, enabled them to remember the subject better, contributed to their knowledge of the subject and also helped them to integrate their knowledge. Many students said that ECE increased their sensitivity toward patient problems and needs. They expressed a desire and a need for ECE to be continued in teaching endocrine physiology for future groups of students and also be extended for teaching other systems as well. The majority of the students (96.4%) in their feedback gave an overall rating of the program as good to excellent on a 5 point Likert scale. The ECE program was introduced as an alternative approach to

  12. Attitude of medical students towards Early Clinical Exposure in learning endocrine physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Nithya

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different teaching-learning methods have been used in teaching endocrine physiology for the medical students, so as to increase their interest and enhance their learning. This paper describes the pros and cons of the various approaches used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology and goes on to describe the value of adding an Early Clinical Exposure program (ECE to didactic instruction in endocrine physiology, as well as student reactions to it as an alternative approach. Discussion Various methods have been used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology such as case-stimulated learning, problem-based learning, patient-centred learning and multiple-format sessions. We devised a teaching-learning intervention in endocrine physiology, which comprised of traditional didactic lectures, supplemented with an ECE program consisting of case based lectures and a hospital visit to see patients. A focus group discussion was conducted with the medical students and, based on the themes that emerged from it, a questionnaire was developed and administered to further enquire into the attitude of all the students towards ECE in learning endocrine physiology. The students in their feedback commented that ECE increased their interest for the subject and motivated them to read more. They also felt that ECE enhanced their understanding of endocrine physiology, enabled them to remember the subject better, contributed to their knowledge of the subject and also helped them to integrate their knowledge. Many students said that ECE increased their sensitivity toward patient problems and needs. They expressed a desire and a need for ECE to be continued in teaching endocrine physiology for future groups of students and also be extended for teaching other systems as well. The majority of the students (96.4% in their feedback gave an overall rating of the program as good to excellent on a 5 point Likert scale. Summary The

  13. Attitude of medical students towards Early Clinical Exposure in learning endocrine physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Solomon; Thomas, Nihal; Tharion, Elizabeth; Neelakantan, Nithya; Vyas, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Background Different teaching-learning methods have been used in teaching endocrine physiology for the medical students, so as to increase their interest and enhance their learning. This paper describes the pros and cons of the various approaches used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology and goes on to describe the value of adding an Early Clinical Exposure program (ECE) to didactic instruction in endocrine physiology, as well as student reactions to it as an alternative approach. Discussion Various methods have been used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology such as case-stimulated learning, problem-based learning, patient-centred learning and multiple-format sessions. We devised a teaching-learning intervention in endocrine physiology, which comprised of traditional didactic lectures, supplemented with an ECE program consisting of case based lectures and a hospital visit to see patients. A focus group discussion was conducted with the medical students and, based on the themes that emerged from it, a questionnaire was developed and administered to further enquire into the attitude of all the students towards ECE in learning endocrine physiology. The students in their feedback commented that ECE increased their interest for the subject and motivated them to read more. They also felt that ECE enhanced their understanding of endocrine physiology, enabled them to remember the subject better, contributed to their knowledge of the subject and also helped them to integrate their knowledge. Many students said that ECE increased their sensitivity toward patient problems and needs. They expressed a desire and a need for ECE to be continued in teaching endocrine physiology for future groups of students and also be extended for teaching other systems as well. The majority of the students (96.4%) in their feedback gave an overall rating of the program as good to excellent on a 5 point Likert scale. Summary The ECE program was introduced

  14. Intelligent Guided E-Learning Systems for Early Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Barranco-Mendoza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a burgeoning need to consider new ways of providing early educational services for young and often newly diagnosed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and their families. Such children do not respond naturally to linear curricular delivery, normally utilized in inclusive classrooms that predominate public education, but rather need an educational model incorporating intra and interpersonal development skills. In addition, there is an urgent need for the ability of keeping track of and addressing uneven progress in specific areas; characteristic of learners with ASD. It is suggested that a new curricular model be designed that integrates the advantages of e-learning for data management and communication exchange with the inclusion classroom learning. A multi-disciplinary approach to the problem has lead to the proposal of an alternate model using an Intelligent Guided E-Learning System, which can be of benefit to such learners, their parents, and their teachers. This system utilizes a Knowledge Representation model that incorporates the complex multidisciplinary data related with ASD, along with curricular information as well as other Artificial Intelligence techniques that guide the curriculum in a simple and directed, yet evolving, manner such that the complexity increases as the learner with ASD's understanding progresses.

  15. Intelligent Guided E-Learning Systems for Early Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Barranco-Mendoza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a burgeoning need to consider new ways of providing early educational services for young and often newly diagnosed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and their families. Such children do not respond naturally to linear curricular delivery, normally utilized in inclusive classrooms that predominate public education, but rather need an educational model incorporating intra and interpersonal development skills. In addition, there is an urgent need for the ability of keeping track of and addressing uneven progress in specific areas; characteristic of learners with ASD. It is suggested that a new curricular model be designed that integrates the advantages of e-learning for data management and communication exchange with the inclusion classroom learning. A multi-disciplinary approach to the problem has lead to the proposal of an alternate model using an Intelligent Guided E-Learning System, which can be of benefit to such learners, their parents, and their teachers. This system utilizes a Knowledge Representation model that incorporates the complex multidisciplinary data related with ASD, along with curricular information as well as other Artificial Intelligence techniques that guide the curriculum in a simple and directed, yet evolving, manner such that the complexity increases as the learner with ASD's understanding progresses.

  16. Childhood chronic-kidney-disease: a longitudinal-qualitative study of families learning to share management early in the trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Veronica; Lambert, Heather; Clarke, Charlotte; Campbell, Steve; Jacoby, Ann

    2008-11-01

    To explore the ways families learn to share management during the early stages of childhood chronic-kidney-disease. This longitudinal, descriptive study based on the tenets of grounded theory, aimed to derive meaning about family-professional interactions during shared management. Data were obtained from six newly referred families, four renal nurses, four paediatric nephrologists and one dietician through: 36 semi-structured interviews, 21 case-note reviews and four child/parent learning diaries. Three learning stages were identified: dependent (families' understanding was superficial, they lacked underlying knowledge and were totally reliant on professional guidance); co-dependent (families engaged competently in management but still required extensive guidance); independent (families communicated effectively with staff and competently adjusted management within professionally defined parameters). Five families actively shared management from early in the trajectory and progressed to independent learning when, by mutual agreement, professional input to management gradually decreased. The remaining family adopted a passive approach to management, did not progress to independent learning and remained reliant on professional input. Families in this study demonstrated three learning stages in becoming competent at management. Future research is needed to investigate the ways professionals promote family competence early in the trajectory and the factors that can facilitate or hinder families' progression to independent learning.

  17. Endoscopy-assisted surgery for the management of benign breast tumors: technique, learning curve, and patient-reported outcome from preliminary 323 procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Lin, Hui-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Kuo, Shou-Jen

    2017-01-11

    Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS), a technique that optimizes cosmetic outcome because it is performed through small wounds hidden in inconspicuous areas, could be an alternative surgical technique for benign breast tumors. In this study, we report the preliminary results of 323 EABS procedures performed at our institution for the management of benign breast tumors. The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for benign breast lesions during the periods August 2010 to December 2015 were collected from the Changhua Christian Hospital EABS database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, hospital stay, and complications were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the procedure for benign breast tumors. The operating time with the number of procedure performed was analyzed for learning curve evaluation. Patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome was evaluated with a self-report questionnaire. A total of 323 EABS procedures were performed in 286 patients with benign breast lesions, including 249 (90.5%) patients with unilateral lesions. The mean age was 36 years, the mean tumor size was 2.2 cm, and the mean distance from the nipple to the tumor was 5.2 cm. Most (93.8%, 303/323) of these tumors were excised through a transareolar wound, 2.4% (8/323) through an axillary wound, and 0.3% (1/323) through the infra-mammary fold. Histopathologic analysis revealed that 63.5% (202/318) of the tumors were fibroadenoma-related lesions. The mean operative time was 81.4 min (59~89 min), which was decreased with experience increased. The overall rate of complications was 6.5%, and all were minor and wound-related. Among the 110 patients who participated in the self-report cosmetic outcome evaluation, 85.4% reported being satisfied with the cosmetic result, and almost all were satisfied with breast symmetry. Of the patients interviewed, 92.7% reported that they would choose the same procedure if they had to undergo the operation again. Our

  18. Report on Lessons Learned from the NP 2010 Early Site Permit Program FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-26

    This report provides a summary of lessons learned from the demonstration of the licensing process for three Early Site Permit (ESP) applications supported as part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Power 2010 (NP 2010) program. The ESP process was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to enable completion of the site evaluation component of nuclear power plant licensing under 10 CFR Part 52 before a utility makes a decision to build a plant. Early Site Permits are valid for 10 to 20 years and can be renewed for an additional 10 to 20 years. NRC review of an ESP application addresses site safety issues, environmental protection issues, and plans for coping with emergencies. Successful completion of the ESP process will establish that a site is suitable for possible future construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Most importantly, an ESP resolves significant site-related safety and environmental issues early in the decision process and helps achieve acceptance by the public. DOE competitively selected Dominion Nuclear Energy North Anna, LLC (Dominion); System Energy Resources, Inc. (an Entergy subsidiary); and Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon) in 2002 to demonstrate the ESP process and provided cost-shared support through the NP 2010 program. Dominion pursued an ESP for the North Anna site in Virginia; System Energy Resources, Inc. pursued an ESP for the Grand Gulf site in Mississippi; and Exelon pursued an ESP for the Clinton site in Illinois. After successfully demonstrating the process, the NRC issued an ESP for Clinton on March 17, 2007; Grand Gulf on April 5, 2007; and North Anna on November 27, 2007. As with all successful projects, there are lessons to be learned from the NP 2010 early site permitting demonstration that can help improve future implementation guidance documents and regulatory review standards. In general, these lessons pertain to the effectiveness of the regulatory process, experience related to

  19. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  20. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and sy

  1. Editorial: E-learning and Knowledge Management in the Early Years: Where Are We and Where Should We Go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available E-learning and knowledge management are increasingly accepted as established practices in the field of early childhood education. Living in the age of Web 2.0, young children can learn through experience, application, and conversation in community, physically or virtually, with peers, parents, teachers, and other adults, beyond the classroom and across the media. These concepts are of growing interest in communities of practice and knowledge networks. Although most early childhood educators recognize and practice some kinds of e-learning, most have yet to master the basic theory and practice of knowledge management. What does e-learning mean for young children? How do we apply knowledge management in early childhood setting? These questions are of great importance and a special collection such as this issue will be beneficial to take stock of the ongoing practices as well as to explore future directions in the field. This issue will combine knowledge management and e-learning with early childhood education to provide a valuable arena for the discussion and dissemination of this topic and related studies.

  2. Family perceptions of early hearing, detection, and intervention systems: listening to and learning from families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesGeorges, Janet

    2003-01-01

    As universal newborn hearing systems (screening, diagnosis, intervention) are being established around the world, the success of children who are identified to be deaf and hard of hearing is critically impacted by parent's reactions, acceptance, and advocacy for their child. It is imperative for professionals who are creating systems for Early Hearing, Detection, and Intervention to understand and learn from families' experiences in order to improve this process. This manuscript will identify the areas in which parents have spoken out about the professionals they have encountered through the system: what parents wish for in a healthy, productive relationship with professionals; and how parents can play a part in advocating for a system in which families needs are met so that infants identified to be deaf or hard of hearing can reach their full potential.

  3. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning.

  4. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces a...

  5. Enhancing the early home learning environment through a brief group parenting intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The quality of the home learning environment has a significant influence on children’s language and communication skills during the early years with children from disadvantaged families disproportionately affected. This paper describes the protocol and participant baseline characteristics of a community-based effectiveness study. It evaluates the effects of ‘smalltalk’, a brief group parenting intervention (with or without home coaching) on the quality of the early childhood home l...

  6. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  7. Early exposure to volatile anesthetics impairs long-term associative learning and recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley H Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anesthetic exposure early in life affects neural development and long-term cognitive function, but our understanding of the types of memory that are altered is incomplete. Specific cognitive tests in rodents that isolate different memory processes provide a useful approach for gaining insight into this issue. METHODS: Postnatal day 7 (P7 rats were exposed to either desflurane or isoflurane at 1 Minimum Alveolar Concentration for 4 h. Acute neuronal death was assessed 12 h later in the thalamus, CA1-3 regions of hippocampus, and dentate gyrus. In separate behavioral experiments, beginning at P48, subjects were evaluated in a series of object recognition tests relying on associative learning, as well as social recognition. RESULTS: Exposure to either anesthetic led to a significant increase in neuroapoptosis in each brain region. The extent of neuronal death did not differ between groups. Subjects were unaffected in simple tasks of novel object and object-location recognition. However, anesthetized animals from both groups were impaired in allocentric object-location memory and a more complex task requiring subjects to associate an object with its location and contextual setting. Isoflurane exposure led to additional impairment in object-context association and social memory. CONCLUSION: Isoflurane and desflurane exposure during development result in deficits in tasks relying on associative learning and recognition memory. Isoflurane may potentially cause worse impairment than desflurane.

  8. Organizational Principles and Content of Early Foreign Language Learning in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biletska Iryna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of leading American scientists that convincingly demonstrate the effectiveness and necessity of early foreign language learning the features of teaching foreign languages at elementary level in the United States have been analyzed. It has been found out that the US government is working on the improvement of foreign language at elementary education all over the country. The attention is paid the languages that were not so popular, and now have obtained the status of “extremely necessary”, such as Arabic, Farsi and Russian, as they have become very important for the future participation of the state in world politics. The requirements for programs development of foreign language for elementary school have been described; such aspects as quantity of classes, curriculum project, teaching materials, teaching staff and knowledge of the students, the choice of languages, coordination and efficiency are taken into consideration. The short description of the content of foreign language teaching of elementary education has been presented. It has been indicated that success in foreign language learning as a device of foreign language communication depends on the level of listening, lexical, grammatical and spelling skills, as well as the abilities of listening, speaking, reading and writing, which are defined in the program for elementary school.

  9. Impaired Verbal Learning Is Associated with Larger Caudate Volumes in Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Juuhl-Langseth

    Full Text Available Both brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia. We have previously reported enlargements in subcortical brain structure volumes and impairment of neurocognitive functioning as measured by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB in early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated whether neurocognitive performance and volumetric abnormalities in subcortical brain structures are related in EOS.Twenty-four patients with EOS and 33 healthy controls (HC were included in the study. Relationships between the caudate nucleus, the lateral and fourth ventricles volumes and neurocognitive performance were investigated with multivariate linear regression analyses. Intracranial volume, age, antipsychotic medication and IQ were included as independent predictor-variables.The caudate volume was negatively correlated with verbal learning performance uniquely in the EOS group (r=-.454, p=.034. There were comparable positive correlations between the lateral ventricular volume and the processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving domains for both the EOS patients and the healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication was related to ventricular enlargements, but did not affect the brain structure-function relationship.Enlargement of the caudate volume was related to poorer verbal learning performance in patients with EOS. Despite a 32% enlargement of the lateral ventricles in the EOS group, associations to processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving were similar for both the EOS and the HC groups.

  10. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  11. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  12. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new...... Keynesian Phillips curve has been severely criticized for poor empirical dynamics. Suggested improvements involve making some adjustments to the standard sticky price framework, e.g. introducing backwardness and real rigidities, or abandoning the sticky price model and relying on models of inattentiveness......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...

  13. Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

    2015-03-01

    Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 机器人结直肠癌根治术的学习曲线%Learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical resection for colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东宁; 唐城; 江群广; 李太原

    2016-01-01

    目的:评估机器人结直肠癌根治术不同阶段的手术效果,探讨机器人结直肠癌根治术学习曲线问题。方法分析2014年12月至2015年8月由同一组医师完成的75例腹腔镜结直肠癌根治术,按手术先后次序分3组(A、B、C),每组25例,比较各组机器人安装时间、手术时间、出血量、肛门排气时间、术后住院天数、术后并发症和3站淋巴结清扫数目及其总数的差异。结果 A组机器人安装时间(38±5)min,显著长于B组(22±4)min和C组(21±2)min(P均<0.05);A组手术时间(201±39)min,显著长于B组(160±42)min和C组(156±43)min(P均<0.05);A 组出血量(142±35)ml,显著多于B组(105±28)ml和C组(102±28)ml(P均<0.05)。3组肛门排气时间、术后住院天数、术后并发症和3站淋巴结清扫数目及其总数无显著性差异(P>0.05)。A组手术25例在4个月内完成,平均每月6.3台手术,B组和C组均在2个月内完成,平均每月12.5台手术。结论有丰富腹腔镜结直肠癌手术经验的外科医师行机器人结直肠癌根治术的学习曲线大约为25例,手术频度为平均每月6.3例。%ObjectiveTo evaluate the outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical colorectal resection and to define the learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical colorectal resections. MethodsClinical data of 75 cases underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical resection for colorectal cancer were reviewed form December 2014 to August 2015.The patients were divided into 3 groups (groups A, B and C) by operative sequence.The robotic set-up time, operating time, bleeding volume, postoperative aerofluxus time, hospital stay, postoperative complications, number of removed lymphatic nodes were compared among the 3 groups.ResultsThe robotic set-up time in group A was significantly longer than that in group B and C [ (38± 5) min vs. (22± 4) min,P0.05). The

  15. Future technological and economic performance of IGCC and FT production facilities with and without CO2 capture: Combining component based learning curve and bottom-up analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.; Meerman, J.C.; Ramirez, C.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the technological and economic prospects of integrated gasification facilities for power (IGCC) and Fischer–Tropsch (FT) liquid production with and without CCS over time. For this purpose, a component based experience curve was constructed and applied to identify the p

  16. Longitudinal Examination of Procrastination and Anxiety, and Their Relation to Self-Efficacy for Self- Regulated Learning: Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen, Sündüs; McCaffrey, Adam; Klassen, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal association between students' anxiety and procrastination and the relation of self-efficacy for self-regulation to these constructs. Latent Growth Curve Modeling was used to analyze data gathered from 182 undergraduate students (134 female, 48 male) at 4 times during a semester. Our results showed that…

  17. Infant-Toddler Early Learning Guidelines: The Content that States Have Addressed and Implications for Programs Serving Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Little, Catherine; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins; Reid, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Early learning guidelines (ELGs)--documents that describe the skills, characteristics, and dispositions adults seek to foster in young children--are increasingly common. Although less prevalent than ELGs for 3- and 4-year-old children, ELGs for infants and toddlers have been developed in more than half of the 50 states. Given this momentum, a…

  18. Early Disparities in Mathematics Gains among Poor and Non-Poor Children: Examining the Role of Behavioral Engagement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between poverty status, mathematics achievement gains, and behavioral engagement in learning over kindergarten. Data included information on 11,680 poor, low-income, and non-poor kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). Results…

  19. Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching Practices for Moral Learning in the Early Years of School: Relationships and Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…

  20. Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching Practices for Moral Learning in the Early Years of School: Relationships and Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…