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Sample records for early lactation reproductive

  1. Metabolic changes in early lactation and impaired reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, R.; Wensing, T.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because

  2. Effects of dietary energy source on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes three recent studies by the same authors with the objective to study the effect of dietary energy source on the energy balance (EB) and risk for metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation. The first study, a literature survey, illustrated that feeding

  3. Analysis of daily body weight of dairy cows in early lactation and associations withproductive and reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Karina Poncheki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe daily body weight (BW changes in the first 100 days of lactation in confined dairy cows and to associate BW loss with productive and reproductive performance. Data included 26,344 daily BW measurements of 372 Holsteins calving between June 2011 and June 2012 in a commercial herd in the South of Brazil. Cows were automatically weighed and were assigned according to parity. Individual measurements were smoothed using cubic splines, generating nadir BW, days to nadir BW and the BW loss (absolute and relative values. This approach used days in milk (DIM as a single smoothing variable. Body weight at calving differed across parities: 570.5, 653.5, and 699.9 kg, for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd and subsequent parities, respectively. Body weight at nadir also differed across parities: 521.5, 608.8, and 647.3 kg, respectively. Mean days from calving BW to nadir BW and mean loss of BW (kg from calving to nadir BW did not differ across parities, but relative BW change (kg/100 kg was larger in animals in first parity (-8.4 kg/100 kg than second parity (-6.6 kg/100 kg. However, cows in first parity had more chances for good reproduction than cows in third and subsequent parities (44.0% vs. 30.7%, respectively. There was no difference in the probability of adequate reproduction (pregnant until 180 DIM among cows with low, medium, or high milk yield. Furthermore, cows with low and medium BW loss (below 60 kg of BW change showed more likelihood to adequate reproduction than cows with high BW loss (above 60 kg of BW: 45.5 and 45.8% vs. 24.4%, respectively. Improvements in fertility of dairy cows should be achieved by minimizing body weight loss in early lactation.

  4. Effect of Glucogenic vs. Lipogenic Diets on Energy Balance, Blood Metabolites, and Reproduction in Primiparous and Multiparous Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Straalen, van W.M.; Jorritsma, R.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the availability of glucogenic nutrients relative to lipogenic nutrients has been hypothesized to decrease the production of milk fat, to improve the energy balance (EB), and to decrease the incidence and severity of metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation.

  5. Characterization of plasma metabolites at late gestation and lactation in early parity sows on production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation is a very energy demanding period for sows. The current study provides a better understanding of the biochemical response of first- (n = 246) or second-parity (n = 127) sows during late gestation through lactation and assesses relationships with piglet production and dam reproductive perfo...

  6. Effect of concentrate supplementation during early lactation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of concentrate supplementation during early lactation on plasma IGF-I concentrations and reproductive performance of dairy cows. FY Obese, TE Stirling, RC Stockdale, KL Macmillan, AR Egan, S Humphrys ...

  7. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproduction and lactation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for Friesian x Boran crossbred dairy cattle of Kagera region. Parameters estimated were heritability, repeatability and phenotypic correlations of various lactation and reproductive traits. Variance component (VARCOMP) procedure and general linear ...

  8. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  9. The effect of breed type and lactation status on reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breed types and lactation status on reproductive performance of hormonally-treated Awassi ewes. A total of 282 ewes were treated with intravaginal progestagen sponges and equine chorionic gonadotropin. Ewes were mated with fertile rams following sponge removal.

  10. Age at reproductive debut: Developmental predictors and consequences for lactation, infant mass, and subsequent reproduction in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Florent; Johnson, Crystal; Hinde, Katie

    2017-11-01

    The age at which females initiate their reproductive career is a critical life-history parameter with potential consequences on their residual reproductive value and lifetime fitness. The age at reproductive debut may be intimately tied to the somatic capacity of the mother to rear her young, but relatively little is known about the influence of age of first birth on milk synthesis within a broader framework of reproductive scheduling, infant outcomes, and other life-history tradeoffs. Our study investigated the predictors of age at first reproduction among 108 captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females, and associations with their milk synthesis at peak lactation, infant mass, and ability to subsequently conceive and reproduce. The majority of females reproduced in their fourth year (typical breeders); far fewer initiated their reproductive career one year earlier or one year later (respectively early and late breeders). Early breeders (3-year-old) benefited from highly favorable early life development (better juvenile growth, high dominance rank) to accelerate reproduction, but were impaired in milk synthesis due to lower somatic resources and their own continued growth. Comparatively, late breeders suffered from poor developmental conditions, only partially compensated by their delayed reproduction, and evinced compromised milk synthesis. Typical breeders not only produced higher available milk energy but also had best reproductive performance during the breeding and birth seasons following primiparity. Here, we refine and extend our understanding of how life-history tradeoffs manifest in the magnitude, sources, and consequences of variation in age of reproductive debut. These findings provide insight into primate reproductive flexibility in the context of constraints and opportunities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production).......In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...

  12. Fish meal supplementation to early lactation Jersey cows grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that early lactation cows grazing ryegrass pasture and receiving maize and mineral supplementation could respond to additional supplementation with a protein source such as fish meal. Multiparous Jersey cows in early to mid lactation that grazed annual ryegrass pasture in ...

  13. Milk yield prediction at late lactation in reproductive rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arnau-Bonachera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Separating kits and mother to determine milk yield at 4th wk of lactation (MY4 could have negative consequences on the training and development of young rabbits. In this work, a total of 313 lactation curves (28 d long, taken from 2 different trials, were used to fit regression models to estimate MY4. In both trials, females were subjected to a semi-intensive reproductive rhythm [insemination at 11 d post-partum (dpp and weaning at 28 dpp], but diets, genetic types, parity order and day of controls were slightly different. The models included variables which, according to the bibliography, are related to milk yield and are often recorded in joint management (without separation of litters  rom mothers, such as litter size at weaning (LSW; both linear and quadratic, joint energy intake of doe plus litter at 4th wk of lactation (JEI; both linear and quadratic, perirenal fat thickness change (ΔPFTd and milk yield at 3rd wk (MY3. The overlapping degree (OL between current lactation and next pregnancy was included as a dummy variable, as well as their interactions with quantitative traits. To fit these models, 3  procedures were proposed to obtain accurate equations with biological meaning: Eq1, multiple linear regression (MLR of data; Eq2, MLR with previous smoothing of sample distribution; and Eq3, MLR with previous smoothing and avoiding redundant samples and collinearities among variables. MY3 had a positive and relevant linear effect on MY4 for the 3 equations obtained (responsible for 39 to 50% of MY4 prediction. JEI had also a relevant role in MY4 prediction (28 to 61%, its positive effect being linear on Eq1, quadratic on Eq2 and both linear and quadratic on Eq3. ΔPFTd and LSW related traits were only included in Eq3, with a low relative weight, and OL inclusion did not improve prediction in any equation. Predicting MY4 was possible with the variables used, although certain precautions must be taken. Traditional MLR seems to predict

  14. The influence of reproductive experience on milk energy output and lactation performance in the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley L C Lang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence from domestic and laboratory species suggests that reproductive experience plays a critical role in the development of aspects of lactation performance, whether reproductive experience may have a significant influence on milk energy transfer to neonates in wild populations has not been directly investigated. We compared maternal energy expenditures and pup growth and energy deposition over the course of lactation between primiparous and fully-grown, multiparous grey seal (Halichoerus grypus females to test whether reproductive experience has a significant influence on lactation performance. Although there was no difference between primiparous females in milk composition and, thus, milk energy content at either early or peak lactation primiparous females had a significantly lower daily milk energy output than multiparous females indicating a reduced physiological capacity for milk secretion. Primiparous females appeared to effectively compensate for lower rates of milk production through an increased nursing effort and, thus, achieved the same relative rate of milk energy transfer to pups as multiparous females. There was no difference between primiparous and multiparous females in the proportion of initial body energy stores mobilised to support the costs of lactation. Although primiparous females allocated a greater proportion of energy stores to maternal maintenance versus milk production than multiparous females, the difference was not sufficient to result in significant differences in the efficiency of energy transfer to pups. Thus, despite a lower physiological capacity for milk production, primiparous females weaned pups of the same relative size and condition as multiparous females without expending proportionally more energy. Although reproductive experience does not significantly affect the overall lactation performance of grey seals, our results suggest that increases in mammary gland capacity with reproductive

  15. Relationships between energy balance and health traits of dairy cattle in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, B L; Boettcher, P J; Dekkers, J C; Petitclerc, D; Schaeffer, L R

    2000-11-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate phenotypic relationships between energy balance in early lactation and health and reproduction in that lactation. Data were 26,701 daily records of dry matter intake and milk production, periodic measures of milk composition and body weight, and all health and reproductive information from 140 multiparous Holstein cows. Daily energy balance was calculated by multiplying feed intake by the concentration of energy of the ration and subtracting the amount of energy required for maintenance (based on parity and body weight) and for milk production (based on yield and concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose). Six measures of energy balance were defined: mean daily energy balance during the first 20, 50, and 100 d of lactation; minimum daily energy balance; days in negative energy balance; and total energy deficit. Measures of health were the numbers of occurrences of each of the following during lactation: all udder problems, mastitis, all locomotive problems, laminitis, digestive problems, and reproductive problems. Reproductive traits were the number of days to first observed estrus and number of inseminations. Several significant relationships between energy balance and health were observed. Increased digestive and locomotive problems were associated with longer and more extreme periods of negative energy balance.

  16. Best practices in the lactating and weaned sow to optimize reproductive physiology and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    For optimal reproductive performance of the weaned sow, management needs to be optimised in the lactation period, in the interval from weaning to oestrus and during oestrus and insemination. Essentially, management should be focussed on optimizing follicle development during lactation and after

  17. Dietary ractopamine supplementation during the first lactation affects milk composition, piglet growth and sow reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wettere, W H E J; Pain, S J; Hughes, P E

    2016-11-01

    Excessive mobilization of body reserves during lactation delays the return to reproductive function in weaned primiparous sows. This study tested the hypothesis that supplementing the lactation diets of first-parity sows with ractopamine hydrochloride would reduce maternal weight loss and improve subsequent reproductive performance. Gestating gilts were allocated to one of two treatment groups (n=30 sows/treatment), with one group fed a standard lactation diet (2.5g/Mcal LYS: DE) throughout lactation (CTRL), whereas the treatment group received the standard lactation diet supplemented with 10mg/kg ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) from d 1 to 13 of lactation and 20mg/kg RAC from d 14 of lactation until artificial insemination (AI). Weaning occurred on d 21 of lactation, with AI occurring at the first post-weaning estrus. Compared to CTRL, RAC supplementation decreased (P<0.05) liveweight loss between d 13 and 20 of lactation (4.3±0.90 versus 1.3±0.96kg), and tended to increase (P=0.06) the number of second litter piglets born alive (9.5±0.52 versus 8.1±0.74). Treatment (RAC versus CTRL) reduced milk protein levels on d 13 and 20 of lactation (P<0.05), and piglet weight gain between d 13 and 20 of lactation (260±0.01 versus 310±0.01g/day, P<0.01). In conclusion, it is evident that dietary RAC altered milk composition and stimulated conservation of maternal body reserves during the third week of lactation, resulting in a beneficial effect on subsequent reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  19. Effects of early horn growth on reproduction and hunting mortality in female chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughetti, Marco; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2011-03-01

    1. Environmental conditions during early development can affect the growth patterns of vertebrates, influencing future survival and reproduction. In long-lived mammals, females that experience poor environmental conditions early in life may delay primiparity. In female bovids, annual horn growth increments may provide a record of age-specific reproduction and body growth. Horn length, however, may also be a criterion used by hunters in selecting animals to harvest, possibly leading to artificial selection. 2. We studied three populations of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in the western Alps to explore the relationships between female horn length and early growth, age of primiparity and age-specific reproduction. We also compared the risk of harvest to reproductive status and horn length. 3. Early horn growth was positively correlated with body mass in pre-reproductive females and with reproduction in very young and senescent adults. Females with strong early horn growth attained primiparity at an earlier age than those with weak early growth. Horn length did not affect hunter selection, but we found a strong hunter preference for nonlactating females. 4. Our research highlights the persistent effects of early development on reproductive performance in mammals. Moderate sport harvests are unlikely to affect the evolution of phenotypic traits and reproductive strategies in female chamois. A policy of penalizing hunters that harvest lactating females, however, may increase the harvest of 2-year-old females, which have high reproductive potential. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

  20. Lead intoxication in gestational and lactation periods alters the development of male reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas, Isabel; Castillo, M; Marquina, Domingo; Benito, Maria J

    2002-10-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) intoxication during pregnancy and lactation on the male reproductive system was studied to evaluate the alterations caused by Pb in the development of pups. The investigations covered the effect of lead on the course of spermatogenesis and the development of the epididymis and reproductive glands. For this purpose, dams were intoxicated with 300 mg/L Pb during the gestational period and through lactation. Pups were sacrificed on Postnatal (PN) Days 12 and 21. Blood lead (PbB) and plasma iron concentrations were measured, and blood cells counted. Biochemical studies as well as histochemical analyses were performed on testes and accessory glands of the reproductive system. Lead intoxication resulted in a decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weights and an increase in DNA and RNA levels on PN Day 21. Total protein was significantly decreased by the toxicant, and alkaline and acid phosphatase levels of the gonads were reduced. Effects were also reflected in the reduction of the thickness of epithelium and of seminiferous tubule diameter (STD) as a consequence of the action of lead in the reduction in numbers of prospermatogonia and spermatocytes. Results indicate that the reproductive system targets of lead intoxication are not only the testes; lead intoxication results in the inhibition of testicular, epididymal, and seminal vesicle function, altering the biochemical composition of these organs, and consequently, affecting the normal development of germinal cells.

  1. Effect of anthelmintics on reproductive performance and first-lactation culling rate in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M E; Perri, A F; Miglierina, M M; Formía, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2009-12-26

    Female Holstein calves were treated with ivermectin from birth to first oestrus to study the effect of parasitic burden and anthelmintic treatment on reproductive and productive performance. First oestrus, age at first service and age at calving were advanced by 30, 70 and 110 days, respectively (P<0.05), in ivermectin-treated animals compared with controls. No significant differences were observed in the conception rate, the number of services and the characteristics of the newborn calves and any problems at calving between the two groups. Daily milk yield, fat content in milk during first lactation, and the concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor type 1, insulin and prolactin in serum were similar in both groups of cows. Culling during the first lactation was more common in untreated (47 per cent) than in treated (11 per cent) cows (P<0.05).

  2. Identification of hepatic biomarkers for physiological imbalance of dairy cows in early and mid lactation using proteomic technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Bendixen, Emøke; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    2013-01-01

    either the greatest (PI) or least (normal; N) degree of PI and were used for isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative profiling in liver using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified pyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate dehydrogenase......Identification of biomarkers for degree of physiological imbalance (PI), a situation in which physiological parameters deviate from normal, is needed to reduce disease risk and improve production and reproduction performance of cows. The objective was to describe the liver proteome in early and mid...... lactation for cows with different degrees of PI with a special focus on biomarkers and pathways involved in periparturient disease complexes. Twenty-nine cows in early [49 ± 22 d in milk (DIM); n = 14] and mid (159 ± 39 DIM; n = 15) lactation were nutrient restricted for 4 d to increase PI by supplementing...

  3. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  4. Lactate concentrations in the rectal lumen in patients in early septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Michael; Tenhunen, J.; Wiis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we observed that rectal luminal lactate was higher in non-survivors compared with survivors of severe sepsis or septic shock persisting >24 h. The present study was initiated to further investigate this tentative association between rectal luminal lactate and mortality in a larger...... population of patients in early septic shock....

  5. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne H.; El-Bordeny, Nasr E.; Ebeid, Hossam M.

    2017-01-01

    Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026), on primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffalo...

  6. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1

  7. A bovine oxytocin transgene in mice: expression in the female reproductive organs and regulation during pregnancy, parturition and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M Y; Murphy, D

    1997-12-31

    Transgene bovine oxytocin 3.5 (bOT3.5) consists of the bovine oxytocin structural gene flanked by 0.6 kbp of upstream and 1.9 kbp of downstream sequences. We have examined the expression of bOT3.5 in the female reproductive organs, and we show tissue-specific and physiological regulation dependent on the stage of pregnancy and lactation. In the ovary, no transgene expression could be detected during the estrus cycle, or during pregnancy. However, high levels of transgene RNA were found at day 1 of lactation. Expression dropped 10-fold by day 2 of lactation, and was undetectable thereafter. Interestingly, the expression of bOT3.5 in the mouse ovary at the beginning of lactation mimics that of the endogenous OT gene in the bovine ovary. Expression of the bOT3.5 transgene correlates with a parturition defect that results in considerable maternal mortality.

  8. Effects of feeding organic trace minerals on milk production and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J; Stevenson, M A; Socha, M T

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this meta-analysis were to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation with the organic trace minerals (OTM; Availa-4 and 4-Plex, Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie, MN) on milk yield, composition, and component yields and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Twenty research papers and reports on the effects of OTM were considered in this meta-analysis. Criteria for inclusion in the study were information on the form of OTM, an adequate description of randomization, production and reproduction data, and associated measures of variance (SE or SD) and P-values. The OTM increased milk production by 0.93 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.61 to 1.25], milk fat by 0.04 kg (95% CI=0.02 to 0.05), and milk protein by 0.03 kg (95% CI=0.02 to 0.04) per day. Milk SCC was not different in cows supplemented with OTM. All production outcomes except milk solids (yield) and milk SCC were heterogeneous. Meta-regression analysis showed that feeding before calving, feeding for a full lactation after calving, and the use of other supplements increased responses over feeding after calving only, feeding for part of lactation, or not using other supplements, respectively. Supplementation of cows with OTM reduced days open (weighted mean difference=13.5 d) and number of services per conception (weighted mean difference=0.27) in lactating dairy cows. The risk of pregnancy on d 150 of lactation was greater in cows fed OTM (risk ratio=1.07), but OTM had no significant effect on the interval from calving to first service and 21-d pregnancy rate. There was no evidence of heterogeneity for any of the reproductive outcomes evaluated. The results of this meta-analysis showed that organic trace mineral supplementation could improve production and reproduction in lactating dairy cows. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal observation on reproductive and lactation performances of smallholder crossbred dairy cattle in Fitche, Oromia region, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobago, Fikre; Bekana, Merga; Gustafsson, Hans; Kindahl, Hans

    2007-08-01

    A two-year longitudinal study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performances of smallholder crossbred dairy cattle in Fitche, central Ethiopia. Twenty-four smallholder dairy farms were monitored and data on reproductive, breeding, lactation and management aspects of crossbred dairy cows (n=69) were collected and analysed. Moreover, milk samples were collected and analysed for progesterone. The overall Least-squares means for calving interval (CI), calving to conception interval (CCI) and first observed oestrus after calving were 516, 253 and 141 days, respectively. Suckling significantly prolonged these intervals. The mean first onset of luteal activity (OLA) after calving was 52 days, while 67.4% n=43) had a delayed (>55 days) return to cyclicity after calving. Suckling and parity number significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the OLA. The mean lactation length was 54.4 weeks. The overall daily mean milk yield for the first 43 weeks of lactation after calving was 11.7 L/day. The estimated daily milk yield increased slowly and reached peak (13.8 L/day) around the 11th week post partum and declined gradually and steadily. Suckling status, season of calving and parity number significantly influenced the estimated daily milk yield. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the smallholder crossbred dairy cows in the study area had prolonged intervals to first oestrus after calving, to conception and to the next calving, and thus their reproductive performance is unsatisfactory. Delayed first onset of luteal activity (postpartum anoestrus) contributed to these extended intervals. Further detailed investigation is suggested to examine the effects of other relevant factors on the reproductive and lactation performances of smallholder crossbred dairy cows for appropriate intervention.

  10. Use of early lactation milk recording data to predict the calving to conception interval in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J G; Green, M J

    2016-06-01

    Economic success in dairy herds is heavily reliant on obtaining pregnancies at an early stage of lactation. Our objective in this study was to attempt to predict the likelihood of conception occurring by d 100 and 150 of lactation (days in milk, DIM) by Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis using test day milk recording data and reproductive records gathered retrospectively from 8,750 cows from 33 dairy herds located in the United Kingdom. Overall, 65% of cows recalved with 30, 46, and 65% of cows conceiving by 100 DIM, 150 DIM, and beyond 150 DIM, respectively. Overall conception rate (total cows pregnant/total number of inseminations) was 27.47%. Median and mean calving to conception intervals were 123 and 105 d, respectively. The probability of conception by both 100 DIM and 150 DIM was positively associated with the average daily milk weight produced during the fourth week of lactation (W4MK) and protein percentage for test day samples collected between 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM. Butterfat percentage at 0 to 30 DIM was negatively associated with the probability of conception by 100 DIM but not at 150 DIM. High somatic cell count (SCC) at both 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM was negatively associated with the probability of conception by 100 DIM, whereas high SCC at 31 to 60 DIM was associated with a reduced probability of conception by 150 DIM. Increasing parity was associated with a reduced odds of pregnancy. Posterior predictions of the likelihood of conception for cows categorized as having "good" (W4MK >30kg and protein percentage at 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM >3.2%) or "poor" (W4MK <25kg and protein percentage at 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM <3.0%) early lactation attributes with actual observed values indicated model fit was good. The predicted likelihood of a "good" cow conceiving by 100 and 150 DIM was 0.39 and 0.57, respectively (actual observed values 0.40 and 0.59). The corresponding values for a "poor" cow were 0.28 and 0.42 (actual observed values 0.26 and 0

  11. Liver fat content and lipid metabolism in dairy cows during early lactation and during a mid-lactation feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J J; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-08-01

    concentration in the liver of dairy cows at early and later lactation. Therefore, the homeorhetic adaptations during the periparturient period trigger excessive responses in metabolism, whereas during the homeostatic control of endocrine and metabolic systems after established lactation, as during the period of feed restriction in the present study, organs are well adapted to metabolic and environmental changes. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  13. Influence of Early Reproductive Success on Longevity and Late Reproductive Success in an Alpine Ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagakis, Andrea; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2017-06-01

    The life-history theories of aging predict lifetime trade-offs between early reproductive allocation and late-life survival, reproduction, or both components of fitness. Recent studies in wild populations have found evidence for these early-late life trade-offs, but rarely have they been found across multiple traits while exploring the additional effects of variation in environmental conditions and individual quality. Benefiting from longitudinal data on adult female mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we investigated the influence of age at first reproduction (AFR) and early reproductive success (ERS) on longevity, late reproductive success, and senescence rates while accounting for the influence of natal environmental conditions and individual quality. Contrary to predictions, we did not find evidence for early-late life trade-offs. Instead, an earlier AFR and a greater ERS had positive but weak direct effects on late reproductive success. Natal population density, however, was the strongest determinant of all life-history traits, having a direct negative effect on female longevity, late reproductive success, AFR, and ERS. Although natal density reduced the probability of annual reproduction and annual survival during adulthood, higher allocation to reproduction in early life and poorer natal conditions did not lead to accelerated rates of senescence during adulthood. The results of this investigation provide an integrated picture of early-late life trade-offs, underscoring the importance of accounting for environmental conditions because of their potentially strong implications for population dynamics.

  14. THE USE OF DIETARY FATS AND CONCENTRATES TO ALLEVIATE THE NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE IN CROSSBRED COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance (EB is defined as the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Fertility in the high-merit cow has been adversely associated with high milk production, low intake of energy and mobilisation of body reserves in early lactation, which combine in the term negative energy balance (NEB.  The timing of insemination usually coincides with peak milk yield, when dairy cows are often in NEB. Crossbred cows (Bos taurus x Bos indicus in the tropics have comparatively lower nutrient requirements and different partition of nutrients than high merit dairy cows. Thus, it would be expected that both the magnitude and length of negative energy balance were different in a crossbred cow. Because of marked differences compared with high-merit cows, crossbred cows in the tropics would be expected to show greater response to additional energy in early lactation improving their energy status and hence reproductive performance. Knowing the influence of nutrition on reproduction, many methods have been proposed for manipulating the diet to avoid or to alleviate negative energy balance. The use of fats is one alternative, which has been extensively studied in dairy and beef cows but with inconclusive results. Another alternative is to use starch-based concentrates, taking into account level of inclusion and quality and availability of pasture, in order to avoid substitution effects and to get maximum profits. Two experiments were carried out in Yucatan Mexico, in order to evaluate the use of bypass fats (calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids, CAFA or a starch-based concentrate to alleviate the NEB in grazing crossbred cows in early lactation. The NEB in early lactation was successfully avoided by the use of the starch-based concentrate but not by the use of bypass fats, this due to a reduction in the grass DM intake. It was concluded that crossbred cows in the tropics may experience a period of NEB postpartum, which can be avoided if

  15. Reproductive efficiency of rats whose mothers treated with lead acetate during lactation: role of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control. The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W, while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt. Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05 in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail, prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P0.05 in ovary and uterus weights. Lead acetate with vit. E cause significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, testes, epididymal (head, body weights, number of epididymal sperm count, percentage of live/dead and sperm abnormalities. Concerning young female rats treated with lead acetate and vit E showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, uterus weights with a significant increase (P<0.05 in the duration of vaginal opening. Histopathological study revealed changes in the testes such as desquemination in some epithelial lining of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells. Undevelopment of localized area of some seminiferous tubules with blood vessels congestion in both testes and ovaries with hyperemia in ovarian stroma, increase in follicular cells, decrease in corpus luteum formation, degeneration of ovarian follicles and increase in ovarian adipose tissue. This study concluded that lead acetate can be transmitted through mother milk to their pups. The dose of lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W was enough to make bad effects on both male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant found to have no improving effect in treatment of lead acetate disturbances on reproductive systems of

  16. Warburg-like Glycolysis and Lactate Shuttle in Mouse Decidua during Early Pregnancy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ru-Juan; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Qi, Qian-Rong; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization is an essential process of maternal endometrial stromal cells to support pregnancy. Although it is known that enhanced glucose influx is critical for decidualization, the underlying mechanism in regulating glucose metabolism in decidua remains insufficiently understood. Here, we demonstrate that aerobic glycolysis-related genes and factors are all substantially induced during decidualization, indicating the existence of Warburg-like glycolysis in decidua. In vitro, progesterone activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) and c-Myc through Pi3k-Akt signaling pathway to maintain aerobic glycolysis in decidualizing cells. Knocking down of pyruvate kinase M2 (Pkm2) attenuates the induction of decidual marker gene. Decidual formation in vivo is also impaired by glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate. Besides, lactate exporter monocarboxylate transporter 4 (Mct4) is induced in newly formed decidual cells, whereas lactate importer Mct1 and proliferation marker Ki-67 are complementarily located in the surrounding undifferentiated cells, which are supposed to consume lactate for proliferation. Hif1α activation is required for lactate-dependent proliferation of the undifferentiated cells. Inhibition of lactate flux leads to compromised decidualization and decelerated lactate-dependent proliferation. In summary, we reveal that Warburg-like glycolysis and local lactate shuttle are activated in decidua and play important roles for supporting early pregnancy. PMID:26178372

  17. Warburg-like Glycolysis and Lactate Shuttle in Mouse Decidua during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ru-Juan; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Qi, Qian-Rong; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-08-28

    Decidualization is an essential process of maternal endometrial stromal cells to support pregnancy. Although it is known that enhanced glucose influx is critical for decidualization, the underlying mechanism in regulating glucose metabolism in decidua remains insufficiently understood. Here, we demonstrate that aerobic glycolysis-related genes and factors are all substantially induced during decidualization, indicating the existence of Warburg-like glycolysis in decidua. In vitro, progesterone activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) and c-Myc through Pi3k-Akt signaling pathway to maintain aerobic glycolysis in decidualizing cells. Knocking down of pyruvate kinase M2 (Pkm2) attenuates the induction of decidual marker gene. Decidual formation in vivo is also impaired by glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate. Besides, lactate exporter monocarboxylate transporter 4 (Mct4) is induced in newly formed decidual cells, whereas lactate importer Mct1 and proliferation marker Ki-67 are complementarily located in the surrounding undifferentiated cells, which are supposed to consume lactate for proliferation. Hif1α activation is required for lactate-dependent proliferation of the undifferentiated cells. Inhibition of lactate flux leads to compromised decidualization and decelerated lactate-dependent proliferation. In summary, we reveal that Warburg-like glycolysis and local lactate shuttle are activated in decidua and play important roles for supporting early pregnancy. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  19. Buffalo behavioural response to machine milking in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo farming in Italy is traditionally oriented towards mozzarella cheese production and over the last decade it has been rapidly increased. As a result, intensive techniques and mechanisation of farm activities have been introduced. Those sudden changes in rearing techniques have aroused a general concern about buffaloes welfare and its possible consequences on products quality.Human-animal interactions are recognized to have an impact on productivity, behaviour and welfare, particularly in dairy farms, where the milking process involves a close interaction with a human handler. Focusing on the first month of lactation, this preliminary study aimed at evidencing buffalo behavioural responses to machine milking. Relationship between behaviour and oxytocin administrations, often performed to allow milk let down, has been also investigated. The experiment included 8 multiparous and 6 primiparous buffaloes, calving in the same period. Starting from the first entrance in the milking parlour, the animals were followed two days/ week during the morning milking for the first 5 weeks of lactation. Behaviour observation was performed following a “focal animal sampling” (continuous recording technique. Proportional frequencies of the following behaviours were calculated: kicking, stepping, defecating, urinating, vocalizing, pulling the teat cup off the teats. The exogenous oxytocin administration at milking was recorded. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to verify the presence of differences between primiparous and multiparous cows’ behaviour at milking. Cochran’s Q test was used to assess the variability of behaviour over time and a binomial regression was performed in order to verify the correlations between animal behaviours and the need to administer oxytocin. Considering lactation number, every behavioural pattern in primiparous cows, except for stepping, resulted to be more frequently performed (36.67% vs 24.36% for kicking; 5% vs 2

  20. Lactate as an early predictor of psychomotor development in neonates with asphyxia receiving therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, Renata; Salounova, Dana; Kantor, Lumir

    2017-12-04

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between persistently elevated lactate values in the arterial blood of newborns with grade II and III hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (treated with therapeutic hypothermia) and psychomotor development at 24 months. 51 neonates of gestational age from 36 to 41 weeks receiving therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy had arterial blood lactate levels regularly analysed. At 24 months the infants' psychomotor development was evaluated and they were divided into two groups - those where the outcome was favourable (i.e. normal psychomotor development) and adverse (severe motor or sensory impairment or death). The lactate dynamics over time were retrospectively evaluated from the data collected, with the normal upper limit set at 4 mmol/L. Of the 51 affected neonates, 7 died over the course of the study. 34 of the remaining 44 infants demonstrated normal psychomotor findings at 2 years old, with adverse findings in 10 cases. Although both groups experienced significant reductions in lactate over time, there were statistically significant differences between them regarding currently measured lactate levels. Absolute lactate values and their development over time can be a used as an auxiliary factor in making early estimates of the long-term outcome for newborns with neonatal asphyxia being treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  1. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  2. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  3. Reproductive performance and bone status markers of gilts and lactating sows supplemented with two different forms of vitamin D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Halekoh, U; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    In swine nutrition, little is known about the requirements of vitamin D in reproductive processes and bone health. Vitamin D recommendation of sows during gestation and lactation is not consequently based on scientific reports. The current study was undertaken to obtain information on the dose...... weaning. The plasma concentration of 25(OH)D3 was influenced by a dose and form interaction (P Reproductive performance...... was not influenced by dietary vitamin D treatments, except for a lower number of still born piglets (P = 0.03, SE = 0.40) with the high doses of vitamin D (1,400 and 2,000 IU vitamin D, giving 1.17 and 1.13 still born piglets per litter, respectively) compared with the low doses of vitamin D (200 and 800 IU vitamin...

  4. Effects of nutritional stress during lactation on immunity costs and indices of future reproduction in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; García, Andrés; Gómez, Jose Angel; Laborda, Jorge; Gallego, Laureano

    2002-11-01

    Nutrition may affect the balance between immunity and traits such as reproduction or growth. This study examines the effect of low nutrient availability on immunity indices and lactation in captive Iberian red deer. Twelve hinds and their calves were allotted to a food-restricted (50-60% daily energy requirements) or a control group just after calving. Low calorie intake exerted a greater effect on the immunity of calves than on that of hinds. Whereas no difference was found for hinds, calves of the low intake group showed mean immunoglobulin (Ig) levels higher than those on a standard diet, which suggests that Ig level may indicate the level of fighting against pathogens. Serum indices of body condition in calves showed generally positive correlations with milk nutrient production. In contrast, Ig level within each group showed a pattern inverse to that of the other group for early lactation: in the standard diet group, the greater the milk nutrient produced and calf growth, the lower the Ig level; this relationship was inversed in the low-nutrition group. These results suggest that, on a standard diet, high Ig levels may indicate high levels of pathogen fighting paired to poorer body condition. Inversely, once the first barriers of innate immunity are surpassed, only those calves on the low-nutrition group with greater resources would be able to spend more resources to fight infection. Thus, low calorie intake might boost its slowing effect on growth by increasing the costs of infection fighting.

  5. Conjugated linoleic Acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation reduces maternal high-fat-diet-induced programming of early-onset puberty and hyperlipidemia in female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation can result in adverse metabolic and reproductive outcomes in female offspring independent of postnatal diet. Interventions during critical windows of developmental plasticity may prevent developmental programming in offspring. The effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on early-onset puberty, metabolic dysfunction, and estrous cycle dysfunction was assessed. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA). Diets were fed ad libitum for 10 days prior to time mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring plasma/tissues were taken at Day 24 (prepubertal) or Day 150 (adult). Puberty was assessed from Day 26 and estrous cycle from Day 128. Female offspring from HF mothers had lower birth weights but by Postnatal Day 24 had exhibited catch-up growth concomitant with increased fat mass, hyperleptinemia, and dyslipidemia. Maternal CLA supplementation reversed these effects. Early-onset puberty was only observed in HF offspring; this was reversed in HFCLA offspring. In adulthood, despite no evidence of glucose intolerance or altered insulin sensitivity, HF offspring displayed increased fat mass, dyslipidemia, disrupted estrous cyclicity. and hyperleptinemia; this was reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. Data presented in this study demonstrate the importance of diet in women of reproductive age and during pregnancy on reproductive and metabolic parameters in their offspring and that supplementation with CLA during critical windows of development may represent a therapeutic strategy in the prevention of early-life programming of metabolic and reproductive dysfunction. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM...

  7. Generation of an index for physiological imbalance and its use as a predictor of primary disease in dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2013-01-01

    blood samples were analyzed for selected metabolites; that is, urea nitrogen, albumin, cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Energy intake and EBAL were calculated; veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were used......Physiological imbalance (PI) is a situation in which physiological parameters deviate from the normal and cows consequently have an increased risk of developing production diseases and reduced production or reproduction. The objectives of this work were (1) to generate an index for PI based...... on several plasma metabolites and (2) to compare the use of this index with calculated energy balance (EBAL) and individual plasma metabolites in relation to risk of disease during early lactation. We used a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows consisting of 3 breeds ranging from a parity of 1 to 4. Weekly...

  8. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    % primiparous cows. The cows were divided into 2 feeding strategies: half of the cows received a high-energy density diet (HD) in early lactation followed by a lower-energy density diet (LD; strategy HD-LD). The change in diet was defined individually after 42 d of lactation, and when the live weight (LW) gain...... of the cow was ≥0 based on a 5-d average. The other half of the cows were fed the LD diet during the entire lactation (strategy LD-LD). Both groups received 3 kg of concentrates per day during milking. Weekly milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cells), daily milk production, daily feed...... and treatment effects using a linear mixed-effects model. The HD-LD and LD-LD cows had a similar length of lactation (461 ± 7 d). The HD diet reduced the intensity of the mobilization period and increased the milk production of the multiparous cows in early lactation compared with the cows fed the LD diet...

  9. The effect of feeding dairy heifers diets with and without supplemental phosphorus on growth, reproductive efficiency, health, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K

    2011-12-01

    The phosphorus requirements for dairy heifers (0.20-0.35%) and endogenous concentrations (0.20-35%) of P in feeds fed to dairy heifers are similar, suggesting that the need for supplemental P in dairy heifer diets may be minimal. Because long-term P feeding studies on dairy heifers are unavailable, 183 Holstein heifers and 182 backcross Holstein × Jersey heifers were offered diets with (SP=0.40% of dry matter) and without (NP=0.30% of dry matter) supplemental P from 4 to 22 mo of age in a replicated pen design. Forty-eight pens of 8 heifers each were split evenly by breed and treatment group. Heifers were evaluated for body weight (BW), external bone/frame growth, dystocia, calf BW, reproductive efficiency, and first-lactation performance. Growth phase data were analyzed using pen-based statistical models, and lactation data were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, heifer pen, sire, sire birth year, and days in milk. Heifers fed NP had similar average daily gain from 170 to 410 and from 410 to 650 d of age compared with heifers fed SP. At 22 mo of age, heifers fed NP did not differ in BW, hip height, hip width, body length, heart girth, cannon bone circumference, or pelvic area compared with heifers fed SP. Blood P concentrations between heifers fed SP or NP did not differ at 8 or 18 mo of age, and heifers fed SP excreted more P (29.2 vs. 24.2g/d) than heifers fed NP. As heifers, services per conception and age at pregnancy were not different between heifers fed NP or SP. At parturition, heifers fed NP or SP had similar dystocia scores and calves were similar in BW. Complete first-lactation data (305 d) were available for 333 primiparous cows, and cows fed NP as heifers produced similar milk, fat, and protein compared with cows fed SP as heifers. Days open, days in milk at first breeding, and services per conception also were similar for primiparous cows fed NP or SP as heifers. No growth, reproductive, or lactation

  10. Increased plasma leptin attenuates adaptive metabolism in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Richard A; Foskolos, Andreas; Giesy, Sarah L; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Krumm, Christopher S; Butler, W Ronald; Quirk, Susan M; Waldron, Matthew R; Boisclair, Yves R

    2016-05-01

    Mammals meet the increased nutritional demands of lactation through a combination of increased feed intake and a collection of adaptations known as adaptive metabolism (e.g., glucose sparing via insulin resistance, mobilization of endogenous reserves, and increased metabolic efficiency via reduced thyroid hormones). In the modern dairy cow, adaptive metabolism predominates over increased feed intake at the onset of lactation and develops concurrently with a reduction in plasma leptin. To address the role of leptin in the adaptive metabolism of early lactation, we asked which adaptations could be countered by a constant 96-h intravenous infusion of human leptin (hLeptin) starting on day 8 of lactation. Compared to saline infusion (Control), hLeptin did not alter energy intake or milk energy output but caused a modest increase in body weight loss. hLeptin reduced plasma glucose by 9% and hepatic glycogen content by 73%, and these effects were associated with a 17% increase in glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. hLeptin attenuated the accumulation of triglyceride in the liver by 28% in the absence of effects on plasma levels of the anti-lipolytic hormone insulin or plasma levels of free fatty acids, a marker of lipid mobilization from adipose tissue. Finally, hLeptin increased the plasma concentrations of T4 and T3 by nearly 50% without affecting other neurally regulated hormones (i.e., cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH)). Overall these data implicate the periparturient reduction in plasma leptin as one of the signals promoting conservation of glucose and energy at the onset of lactation in the energy-deficient dairy cow. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Early Growth and Reproductive Performances of Horro Cattle and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey, an assessment of recorded data and measurements of different traits were conducted to determine the reproductive and early growth performances of Horro cattle and their F1 Jersey crosses of the study area. The mean(SD) total farmland, cropland and grazing land holdings of individual ...

  12. the relationship of birth status and early reproductive performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of selection for improvement in reproductive performance of sheep depends on measure- ment at any early age. For this reason selection of rams and ewes on their birth status, (single or twin), (Kennedy,. 1967; Turner, Hayman, Triffitt and Prunster, 1969), and ewes having multiple births during their first or ...

  13. Principal causes and ways of prevention of early reproductive losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebelev В. G.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on principal causes of early abortions and ways of treatment in the first trimester was studied. Reproductive losses in the first trimester were found out to be the most active because of 5 main groups of reasons. In each group the therapeutic way of abortion was considered

  14. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    of the cow was ≥0 based on a 5-d average. The other half of the cows were fed the LD diet during the entire lactation (strategy LD-LD). Both groups received 3 kg of concentrates per day during milking. Weekly milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cells), daily milk production, daily feed......% primiparous cows. The cows were divided into 2 feeding strategies: half of the cows received a high-energy density diet (HD) in early lactation followed by a lower-energy density diet (LD; strategy HD-LD). The change in diet was defined individually after 42 d of lactation, and when the live weight (LW) gain...

  15. Involvement of skeletal muscle protein, glycogen, and fat metabolism in the adaptation on early lactation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Björn; Nürnberg, Gerd; Albrecht, Dirk; Görs, Solvig; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2011-09-02

    During early lactation, high-yielding dairy cows cannot consume enough feed to meet nutrient requirements. As a consequence, animals drop into negative energy balance and mobilize body reserves including muscle protein and glycogen for milk production, direct oxidation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. To examine which muscle metabolic processes contribute to the adaptation during early lactation, six German Holstein cows were blood sampled and muscle biopsied throughout the periparturient period. From pregnancy to lactation, the free plasma amino acid pattern imbalanced and plasma glucose decreased. Several muscle amino acids, as well as total muscle protein, fat, and glycogen, and the expression of glucose transporter-4 were reduced within the first 4 weeks of lactation. The 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis identified 43 differentially expressed muscle protein spots throughout the periparturient period. In early lactation, expression of cytoskeletal proteins and enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and in the TCA cycle was decreased, whereas proteins related to glycolysis, fatty acid degradation, lactate, and ATP production were increased. On the basis of these results, we propose a model in which the muscle breakdown in early lactation provides substrates for milk production by a decoupled Cori cycle favoring hepatic gluconeogenesis and by interfering with feed intake signaling.

  16. Non-targeted Plasma Metabolome of Early and Late Lactation Gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lea A; Miles, Jeremy R; Oliver, William T; Broeckling, Corey D

    2016-01-01

    Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late lactation), (2) degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal), and (3) interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts. Twenty first-parity gilts were selected with similar ( P ≥ 0.4475) number of piglets born and nursed, and similar ( P ≥ 0.3141) body condition traits (e.g., body weight and backfat thickness) post-farrowing, yet exhibited minimal or extreme loss ( P ≤ 0.0094) in body weight (8.6 ± 1.48 kg and 26.1 ± 1.90 kg, respectively) and backfat thickness (1.3 ± 0.67 mm and 4.7 ± 0.86 mm, respectively) following lactation (weaning). Plasma samples from first-parity gilts at post-farrowing and weaning were investigated using UPLC-MS and GC-MS to generate a comprehensive metabolic profile. Each approach yielded approximately 700 detected features. An ANOVA was performed on each detected compound in R for time of collection, body condition change, and the interaction, followed by a false discovery correction. Two unknown features were different ( P ≤ 0.05) for extreme vs. minimal body condition change. Several compound differences ( P ≤ 0.05) were identified between post-farrowing and weaning. Thirty-two features detected by UPLC-MS had at least a log 2 fold-change of ±1.0 while only 18 features had a log 2 fold-change of ±0.6 or more for the significant GC-MS features. Annotation implicated various metabolic pathways. Creatinine was greater at weaning ( P = 0.0224) and others have reported increased serum concentrations of creatinine in response to body weight loss. Hippurate and caprolactam, associated with protein catabolism, were also greater ( P

  17. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  18. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    of DM (dry matter), fat and protein (P=0.99, 0.82 and 0.94). Milk lactose content was, however, higher for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime (P=0.01). Sows on both dietary regimes were in negative energy balance throughout lactation. Sows fed the 1-diet regime were negative in N and Lys and reached...... a positive or zero balance in late lactation. For the 2-diet feeding regime sows’ N and Lys balance was positive throughout lactation, and N loss was higher for sows fed the 2-diet feeding regime. The concentration of urea in plasma was lower for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime. In conclusion, feeding...... until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according...

  19. Mitochondrial DNA copy number and biogenesis in different tissues of early- and late-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenthal, L; Hoelker, M; Frahm, J; Dänicke, S; Gerlach, K; Südekum, K-H; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2016-02-01

    Energy balance in dairy cows changes during the course of lactation due to alterations in voluntary feed intake and energy required for milk synthesis. To adapt to the demands of lactation, energy metabolism needs to be regulated and coordinated in key organs such as adipose tissue (AT), liver, and mammary gland. Mitochondria are the main sites of energy production in mammalian cells and their number varies depending on age, organ, and physiological condition. The copy number of the mitochondrial genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), reflects the abundance of mitochondria within a cell and is regulated by transcriptional and translational factors. Environmental, physiological, and energetic conditions change during lactation and we thus hypothesized that these changes may influence the mtDNA copy number and the abundance of genes regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to provide an overview of mitochondrial biogenesis in liver, subcutaneous (sc)AT, mammary gland, and peripheral blood cells during early and late lactation in dairy cows. German Holstein cows (n=21) were fed according to their requirements, and biopsies from scAT, liver, mammary gland, and blood were collected in early and late lactation and assayed for relative mtDNA copy numbers and the mRNA abundance of genes regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, such as nuclear-respiratory factor 1 and 2 (NRF-1, NRF-2), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α). The number of mtDNA copies increased from early to late lactation in all tissues, whereas that in peripheral blood cells was greater in early compared with late lactation. Moreover, mitochondrial activity enzymes (i.e., citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase) increased from early to late lactation in scAT. Comparing the number of mtDNA copies between tissues and blood in dairy cows, the highest mtDNA content was observed in liver. The mRNA abundance of

  20. Are reproductive and somatic senescence coupled in humans? Late, but not early, reproduction correlated with longevity in historical Sami women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Samuli; Lummaa, Virpi; Jokela, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary theory of senescence emphasizes the importance of intense selection on early reproduction owing to the declining force of natural selection with age that constrains lifespan. In humans, recent studies have, however, suggested that late-life mortality might be more closely related to late rather than early reproduction, although the role of late reproduction on fitness remains unclear. We examined the association between early and late reproduction with longevity in historical post-reproductive Sami women. We also estimated the strength of natural selection on early and late reproduction using path analysis, and the effect of reproductive timing on offspring survival to adulthood and maternal risk of dying at childbirth. We found that natural selection favoured both earlier start and later cessation of reproduction, and higher total fe cundity. Maternal age at childbirth was not related to offspring or maternal survival. Interestingly, females who produced their last offspring at advanced age also lived longest, while age at first reproduction and total fecundity were unrelated to female longevity. Our results thus suggest that reproductive and somatic senescence may have been coupled in these human populations, and that selection could have favoured late reproduction. We discuss alternative hypotheses for the mechanisms which might have promoted the association between late reproduction and longevity. PMID:15875567

  1. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Effects of niacin supplementation on the insulin resistance in Holstein cows during early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talija Hristovska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in early lactation includes low glucose concentration, low insulin release and responsiveness and high lipolysis. Niacin is important antilipolytic agent and leads to increase glucose and insulin concentration. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of niacin on the insulin resistance in cows during early lactation using the difference of value and regression analysis between blood non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, glucose and insulin concentrations, revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and glucose-to-insulin ratio. Niacin supplementation led to a decrease of NEFA concentration and an increase of glucose and insulin concentrations during the first three weeks after calving. Cows in the niacin group which were more resistant to insulin showed higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid in comparison with more sensitive cows from the same group, but still lower than the control. The regression analyses suggest the following characteristics of cows supplemented with niacin in comparison with the control group: the insulin response to glucose was more intense; the antilipolytic effect of insulin was lower; insulin efficiency expressed as glucose-to-insulin ratio increase with a decrease in NEFA. The metabolic changes due to niacin supplementation showed a dual influence on the insulin resistance in dairy cows during early lactation: decreased NEFA concentrations led to a decrease in the insulin resistance (due to an increase in insulin efficiency and insulin sensitivity index, but increased concentrations of insulin and glucose possibly caused an increase in the insulin resistance in dairy cows (due to lower insulin sensitivity index and possibly lower antilipolytic effects of insulin.

  3. Prediction of the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows managed for different lactation durations, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Martin, O; Blavy, P

    2016-01-01

    The GARUNS model is a lifetime performance model taking into account the changing physiological priorities of an animal during its life and through repeated reproduction cycles. This dynamic and stochastic model has been previously used to predict the productive and reproductive performance...... of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the present paper, we used this model to predict the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows for different lactation durations, with the aim of determining the lifetime scenario that optimizes cows' performance defined...... by lifetime efficiency (ratio of total milk energy yield to total energy intake) and pregnancy rate. To evaluate the model, data from a 16-mo extended lactation experiment on Holstein cows were used. Generally, the model could consistently fit body weight, milk yield, and milk components of these cows...

  4. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  5. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  6. Thyroid hormones (TH) and 5'-monodeiodinase (5'-MD) activity in goat's milk from the early, mid- and late lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebodziński, A B; Twardon, J

    2004-01-01

    The physiological significance of thyroid hormones (TH) present in colostrum and milk is still under consideration. The present study was aimed at determining milk thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in three lactation phases (early, mid- and late) of the goat, and to measure activity of the milk 5'-deiodinase (5'-MD) enzyme responsible for the intramammary conversion of prohormone T4 to its metabolically highly active form T3. Thirty-two milk goats (Polish White breed) fed a standard diet were used for milk sampling. The highest TH levels in mammary secretion were recorded during the first 2-3 days post partum. Then the hormone levels decreased, and by about Day 7 fluctuated around the overall mean for the early-lactation phase (Days 1 to 24 of lactation), recording 0.134+/-0.059 microg T4 and 150.8+/-2.80 ng T3 in 100 ml of the milk. Such T4 concentrations appeared to be comparable to those in the rabbit and human, whereas the concentration of T3 was higher than in the cow, pig and mare's milk. Milk 5'-MD activity was higher (P milk levels during early lactation, and with high milk T4 and low T3 concentrations during late lactation. The quantity of T4 and T3 available to newborn kids in milk suggests that TH ingested with the colostrum may have a physiological role during the early postnatal life of suckling goats.

  7. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and

  8. Effect of peripartum dietary energy supplementation on thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-i and its binding proteins in early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary energy supplementation on hormones that are considered to be the main signals of a shift in energy balance around parturition. Sixty dry cows, 15 days before calving, were chosen and divided into two eaqual groups: control and experimental (GLY. Both groups were fed a standard ration balanced in accordance to the stage of the productivereproductive cycle. Additionally, each cow in the GLY group was given glycerol based dietary energy supplementation (250 mL daily during the dry and 300 mL daily during the lactation period, which provided additional 9.30 MJ NEL during the dry and 13.95 MJ NEL during the early lactation period. Milk production was measured on days 30 and 60 of lactation and milk production was significantly higher in GLY compared to control group at day 60 of lactation (p<0.05. Service period and insemination index were used as reproductive outcome parameters. Average service period in the control group was significantly longer than in the GLY group (p<0.05. Average insemination index in the control group was not significantly different than the index obtained for the GLY group. Blood samples were taken before the begining of the experiment (15 days before parturition, and at days 7, 30 and 60 of lactation. Concentrations of thyroid hormones, IGF-I, relative abundance of IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4, concentrations of total protein and albumin in the blood were measured. Results showed that at days 7 and 30 after parturition, T4 concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.001, respectively in GLY than in the control group, while T3 concentrations were significantly higher in GLY group only at day 7 after parturition (p<0.001. IGF-I concentrations and IGFBP-3 abundance were significantly higher in the GLY compared to the control group in all three examined postpartum periods. IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 concentrations were higher in GLY compared to the control group in all

  9. Effects of different n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Lee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Jong Keun; Kim, In Ho

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets. Fifteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted into three treatments. Fed diets contained different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA, including 20:1, 15:1 and 10:1. No differences were detected among the treatments for average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and the back fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Body weight (BW) loss of sows after farrowing to weanling was greater in the 10:1 treatment compared with 15:1 or 20:1 (P  0.05). A great significant difference for fecal microbiota was in the 10:1 treatment compared with 20:1 and 15:1 treatments (P < 0.01). In conclusion, altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in gestation-lactating sow diet had no difference on nutrient digestibility in gestation-lactating sows, but it can partially improve reproductive performance. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... or the outcome of three fear tests were found. The results indicate that the unintended individual variation in feed intake in sows group-housed in commercial herds may be large enough to affect the reproduction performance. This calls for management initiatives to reduce unequal feed intake in group-housed sows....

  11. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquivar, M G; Barragan, A A; Velez, J S; Bothe, H; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess responses to treatments (clinical cure and resumption of estrous cycles) of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or untreated control (CON) cows and the subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) in cows with and without PVD. Cows (n=2,852) from 2 dairy herds were screened for PVD using the gloved hand technique at exam 1 [26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (0-3 scale) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=456), or (2) untreated control animals (CON, n=491). Fourteen days posttherapy (40±3 DIM), cows with PVD were re-examined at exam 2 (40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were subjected to the same reproductive program, which consisted of estrus detection twice daily (using tail chalking and visual observation) for the first 5 artificial inseminations; then, open lactating cows were turned out with bulls. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus underwent AI and no reproductive hormones were used. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was performed via transrectal palpation at 40±3 d post-AI. The risk of culling within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with PVD had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased PAI compared with cows without PVD. Treatment with DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (clinical cure) and cyclicity 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows. Pregnancy per AI for DEX (29.2±2%) cows was significantly greater than that for CON (22.5±2%) cows. Cows without PVD had a greater proportion of cycling cows (65.6%) and PAI (37%) with reduced pregnancy losses (5.7%) compared with DEX or CON cows. The use of intrauterine DEX alone improved reproductive performance of cows with PVD. Copyright © 2015

  12. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  13. Pre-and postcalving supplementation of multinutrient blocks on lactation and reproductive performances of grazing Bali cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L.L Belli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of multinutrient blocks during pre and postcalving on lactation and reproductive performances of Bali cows were evaluated. Seventeen multiparous pregnant cows with body condition score (BCS 1 to 2, approximately 90 d before the expected date of calving, were divided randomly into groups A (n=9 and B (n=8, and were grazed on the native pasture as a basal diet, while those of Group B received 1.25 kg multinutrient blocks, whose constituent was as follows (%: molasses (28, urea (5, coconut cake (15, fishmeal (5, rice bran (25, lime (8.5, salt (7.5, grit (5 and ultramineral (1. Cows were weighed and assessed for BCS (on a five-point scale every two weeks, commencing at 12 weeks prior to calving, within 24 h after calving up to 16 weeks after calving. Milk production and composition were assessed by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at four times i.e. 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after calving. Suckling behaviour i.e. frequency of suckling, duration of nursing and total min nursed were observed 6 times in the course of lactation at weekly intervals commencing at 1 week after calving. Calf birth weight was measured within 24 h after calving and continued at weekly intervals until 12 weeks of age. Uterine involution was determined by rectal palpation at 7 d postcalving. The interval from calving to first estrus was monitored by estrus observation twice a day. Conception at first service was assessed by pregnancy diagnosis 45 to 60 d after insemination. Cows fed multinutrient blocks supplement had higher liveweight, BCS throughout the experiment. The cows produced significantly more milk and had higher growth rates of the calves than the unsupplemented cows. The mean values of the characteristics of suckling were influenced by supplementation. The rate of uterine involution and conception to first service were similar in the two treatment groups, but interval from calving to the exhibition of the first estrus was shorter in supplemented cows.

  14. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piepers, S.; Peeters, K.; Opsomer, G.; Barkema, H.W.; Frankena, K.; Vliegher, de S.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected

  15. Early social instability affects plasma testosterone during adolescence but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegeler, Katja; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2013-08-15

    The social environment plays an important role in modulating processes of the hormonal and behavioural profile of an animal in a variety of group-living species. In wild cavies for instance, unstable social environmental conditions during pregnancy and lactation lead to an infantilised biobehavioural profile of the male offspring. In the present study, the influence of the social environment during pregnancy and lactation on the male wild cavy offsprings' plasma testosterone development, reproductive capacity and stress system activity was investigated. To this purpose, 12 sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation were compared with 12 sons whose mothers had lived in a stable social environment during the same time. Plasma testosterone (T) and plasma cortisol (C) concentrations were determined from days 20 to 107 of age. Adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and different parameters of reproductive capacity (weights of testes, epididymides and accessory sex glands, cellular composition of the testes, DNA fragmentation indices and sperm motility parameters) were analysed at day 107 of age. TH activity and plasma C were unaffected by different social environmental conditions early in life. The developmental time course of T concentrations, however, was significantly different: Sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation showed a delayed increase in T concentrations around adolescence compared to controls. In contrast, no reproduction-related parameters measured within this study differed significantly between the two groups. Thus, early social instability affects plasma testosterone development during adolescence in a significant way but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life. © 2013.

  16. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  17. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Koch

    Full Text Available Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development

  18. Does Lactate Affect the Association of Early Hyperglycemia and Multiple Organ Failure in Severely Injured Blunt Trauma Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Justin E; Scalea, Thomas M; Mazzeffi, Michael A; Rock, Peter; Galvagno, Samuel M

    2018-03-01

    Early hyperglycemia is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) after traumatic injury; however, few studies have considered the contribution of depth of clinical shock. We hypothesize that when considered simultaneously, glucose and lactate are associated with MOF in severely injured blunt trauma patients. We performed a retrospective investigation at a single tertiary care trauma center. Inclusion criteria were patient age ≥18 years, injury severity score (ISS) >15, blunt mechanism of injury, and an intensive care unit length of stay >48 hours. Patients with a history of diabetes or who did not survive the initial 48 hours were excluded. Demographics, injury severity, and physiologic data were recorded. Blood glucose and lactate values were collected from admission through the initial 24 hours of hospitalization. Multiple metrics of glucose and lactate were calculated: the first glucose (Glucadm, mg/dL) and lactate (Lacadm, mmol/L) at hospital admission, the mean initial 24-hour glucose (Gluc24hMean, mg/dL) and lactate (Lac24hMean, mmol/L), and the time-weighted initial 24-hour glucose (Gluc24hTW) and lactate (Lac24hTW). These metrics were divided into quartiles. The primary outcome was MOF. Separate Cox proportional hazard models were generated to assess the association of each individual glucose and lactate metric on MOF, after controlling for ISS, admission shock index, and disposition to the operating room after hospital admission. We assessed the interaction between glucose and lactate metrics in the multivariable models. Results are reported as hazard ratios (HRs) for an increase in the quartile level of glucose and lactate measurements, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 507 severely injured blunt trauma patients were evaluated. MOF occurred in 46 of 507 (9.1%) patients and was associated with a greater median ISS (33.5, interquartile range [IQR]: 22-41 vs 27, IQR: 21-34; P HR for an increase in the individual glucose metric quartile and

  19. Effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during late gestation and lactation on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of multiparous sows in hot weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Guo, Ji; Guan, Wu-Tai; Song, Jun-Jie; Deng, Zi-Xiao; Cheng, Lin; Deng, Yue-Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Hai; Zhang, Yin-Zi; Yang, Fei; Ren, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Chao-Xian

    2018-03-04

    A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (rearing room with or without pad-fan cooling × diet with or without 2.5 kg/t organic acid) was used to evaluate the effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during perinatal period on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of sows in hot weather. This study was conducted in a subtropical city in Guangdong Province in South China between August and October, 2015. At day 85 of gestation, a total of 112 sows were randomly assigned to the four treatments with 28 sows per treatment, and maintained until day 21 of lactation, and the feeding trial lasted for 51 days. During the experimental period, room temperature and humidity were recorded hourly. The lactation feed intake of sows (P = 0.109) and stillbirths (P fan cooling against the room without pad-fan cooling. The number of weak newborns per litter and the malondialdehyde content in days 14 and 21 milk decreased (P fan cooling in rearing room improved the lactation feed intake of sows, and dietary organic acid supplementation improved reproductive performance and milk antioxidant status of sows. Pad-fan cooling is recommended in farrowing room, but not in gestating room.

  20. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...

  1. Breast cancer risk among women with long-standing lactation and reproductive parameters at low risk level: a case-control study in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Irmgard; Hebestreit, Antje; Swai, Britta; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-11-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women worldwide. Studies in industrialised countries identified age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, and lactation as determining factors in the aetiology of breast cancer. 115 female breast cancer patients (cases) and 230 age- and district-matched women clinically free from breast cancer (controls) were interviewed about their reproductive history and socioeconomic condition. Semi-structured interviews including anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained enumerators. The median age was 50 years (min/max 26 to 85 years). Estimated median BMI at age 20 was 21 kg/m(2) in both cases and controls. Median lifelong lactation of the mothers was 96 months (cases) and 108 months (controls). A high BMI at 20 years was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.31 95% CI 1.11-1.55, P breast cancer risk in the region. As current changes in lifestyle affect age at menarche, reproductive behaviour, and nutritional status, an increased incidence of breast cancer is to be expected. Preventive efforts should include advice on reproductive and breastfeeding behaviour.

  2. Bovine serum prolactin, growth hormone, and triiodothyronine levels during late pregnancy and early lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johke, Tetsu; Hodate, Kouichi

    1977-01-01

    Changes of serum prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in Holstein dairy cows during late pregnancy and early lactation were determined by radioimmunoassays. The cows calved in September. Mean serum PRL ranged 9.9 ng/ml to 12.4 ng/ml during the 3rd to 7th day prepartum. It increased to a peak value of 87.3 ng/ml on the day of parturition from 57.5 ng/ml on the day before calving, and decreased to 13.9 ng/ml within 3 days postpartum. During the 2nd to 30th day prepartum, serum GH varied between 2.4 and 4.0 ng/ml and increased to 8.0 ng/ml on the day of calving. During a week postpartum, serum GH ranged from 5.2 to 8.2 ng/ml. Mean serum GH during a week postpartum was higher than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). Mean serum T3 level during 5 days prepartum varied 104.2 to 108.8 ng/dl and decreased to 93 ng/dl on the day of calving. During 5 days postpartum, mean T3 level varied 73.0 to 83.8 ng/dl. Contrary to GH, mean serum T3 level during 5 day postpartum was significantly lower than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). (auth.)

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S Alzahri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among many complications of sickle cell disease, renal failure is the main contributor to early mortality. It is present in up to 21% of patients with sickle cell disease. Although screening for microalbuminuria and proteinuria is the current acceptable practice to detect and follow renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease, there is a crucial need for other, more sensitive biomarkers. This becomes especially true knowing that those biomarkers start to appear only after more than 60% of the kidney function is lost. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether lactate dehydrogenase (LDH correlates with other, direct and indirect bio-markers of renal insufficiency in patients with sickle cell disease and, therefore, could be used as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease. Fifty-five patients with an established diagnosis of sickle cell disease were recruited to in the study. Blood samples were taken and 24-h urine collection samples were collected. Using Statcrunch, a data analysis tool available on the web, we studied the correlation between LDH and other biomarkers of kidney function as well as the distribution and relationship between the variables. Regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between serum LDH and creatinine clearance, R (correlation coefficient = -0.44, P = 0.0008. This correlation was more significant at younger age. This study shows that in sickle cell patients LDH correlates with creatinine clearance and, therefore, LDH could serve as a biomarker to predict renal insufficiency in those patients.

  4. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  5. Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on performance and blood profile in early and mid-lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Peters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE to dairy cows diets could be a strategy to improve fiber degradation in the rumen which is especially important for the early lactating cows characterized by a high milk energy output and an insufficient energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Roxazyme G2 Liquid, 3.8 and 3.9 mL/kg total mixed ration [TMR] DM supplemented to a TMR on production performance and blood parameters of dairy cows during early (trial 1 and mid-lactation (trail 2. In addition, rumination activity was measured in trial 2. The nutrient digestibility of the experimental TMR was obtained by using wethers. In the digestibility trial, EFE was supplemented at a rate of 4.4 mL/kg Roxazyme G2 Liquid TMR-DM. The TMR contained 60% forage and 40% concentrate (DM basis. Twenty eight 50 ± 16 days in milk (DIM and twenty six 136 ± 26 DIM Holstein cows were used in two 8-wk completely randomized trails, stratified by parity and milk yield level. One milliliter of the enzyme product contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (8,000 units endo-1,4-ß glucanase, 18,000 units endo-1,3(4-ß glucanase and 26,000 units 1,4-ß xylanase. No differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were observed (P > 0.05 between the control and the EFE supplemented TMR. Addition of EFE to the TMR fed to early (trial 1 and mid-lactation cows (trial 2 did not affect daily dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM, concentration of milk fat, protein, fat-protein-quotients, somatic cell score, energy balance, and gross feed efficiency of early and mid-lactation cows (P > 0.05. Mid-lactation cows (trial 2 fed with TMR enzyme showed a tendency of a slightly higher ECM yield (P = 0.09. The tested blood parameters were not affected by treatment in trials 1 and 2 (P > 0.05. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation did not alter

  6. Nutritional strategies to combat physiological imbalance of dairy cows during early lactation: The effect of changes in dietary protein to starch-ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Friggens, Nic; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2010-01-01

    Thirty Danish Holstein cows were used to determine how cows in early lactation adapt to changes in protein to starch supply in order to manipulate metabolism to combat physiological imbalance. During weeks 4 through 6 of lactation, 10 cows were fed either a high protein to starch ratio (high) diet...

  7. Non-targeted plasma metabolomic profile at early and late lactation in parity 1 dams with diverging body composition at weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation is an extremely energy demanding event, impacting naïve dams to a greater extent as they are still physiologically immature. The objective of the current study was to determine if a unique plasma metabolome exists at early and late lactation from first parity gilts having similar body meas...

  8. Identification of potential markers in blood for the development of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at parturition and during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben; Friggens, Nic

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood samp...

  9. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Bannink, A.; Geurts, I. A L; Schonewille, J. T.; Gort, G.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate

  10. Influence of udder infection status on milk enzyme activities and somatic cell count throughout early lactation in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr, T; Aulrich, K; Barth, K

    2013-01-01

    At present the analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) used for the detection of intramammary infections (IMI) in bovine milk is also recommended for goat milk, but due to the various factors influencing SCC it allows only limited conclusions on the udder health of goats. The research on enzyme...... activity in milk appears to show promise in finding an approach with more suitable indicators of the early detection of IMI in goats. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of goat udder infection status on different milk enzyme activities and SCC throughout early lactation....... A total of 60 dairy goats were sampled at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks after kidding and the bacteriological status, milk SCC and the activity of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of udder halves were analysed. Infections with minor...

  11. Early Lactate Clearance Is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Patients With Postcardiac Arrest Syndrome: A Prospective, Multicenter Observational Study (SOS-KANTO 2012 Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kei; Suzuki, Masaru; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Hori, Shingo; Tamura, Tomoyoshi; Sakurai, Atsushi; Tahara, Yoshio; Nagao, Ken; Yaguchi, Arino; Morimura, Naoto

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether early lactate reduction is associated with improved survival and good neurologic outcome in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ad hoc data analysis of a prospective, multicenter observational study. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients at 67 emergency hospitals in Kanto, Japan between January 2012 and March 2013. Adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest admitted to the hospital after successful resuscitation were identified. Blood lactate concentrations were measured at hospital admission and 6 h after hospital admission. Early lactate clearance was defined as the percent change in lactate level 6 h after a baseline measurement. The 543 patients (mean age, 65 ± 16 yr; 72.6% male) had a mean lactate clearance of 42.4% ± 53.7%. Overall 30-day survival and good neurologic outcome were 47.1% and 27.4%, respectively. The survival proportion increased with increasing lactate clearance (quartile 1, 29.4%; quartile 2, 42.6%; quartile 3, 51.5%; quartile 4, 65.2%; p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that lactate clearance quartile was an independent predictor of the 30-day survival and good neurologic outcome. In the Cox proportional hazards model, the frequency of mortality during 30 days was significantly higher for patients with lactate clearance in quartile 1 (hazard ratio, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.14-4.53), quartile 2 (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.46-3.11), and quartile 3 (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.01-2.19) than those with lactate clearance in quartile 4. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lactate clearance was a significant predictor of good neurologic outcome at 30 days after hospital admission. Effective lactate reduction over the first 6 hours of postcardiac arrest care was associated with survival and good neurologic outcome independently of the initial lactate level.

  12. Effects of different levels of physically effective fibers in diets for cows in early lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Grubic, G.; Djordjevic, N.; Glamocie, D.; Bozieckovic, A.; Ivetic, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of a total mixed ration (TMR) particle size on digestibility and production performances of the high-yielding cows in early lactation. The treatments were TMRs with forage-toconcentrate ratio 43:57 in diet dry matter, with four different mean particle lengths and physically effective fiber (PENDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Determined values of PEF (physical effectiveness factor) and PENDF (through original and modified Penn State Particle Separator, PSPS) were considerably higher for forages and TMRs using the modified PSPS. The cut length of forage and particle size of TMRs did not affect dry matter intake. However reduced forage cut length significantly increased the apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (from 53.9 to 58.66%), and crude protein (from 71.56 to 77.90%), with the decrease in the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility (from 91.99 to 86.80%). The increase in the milk yield (35.62 vs. 38.36 kg), and decrease in the milk fat (3.50 vs. 3.10%) and protein content (3.11 vs. 2.99%) were observed with the reduction of particle size in forages. There was no effect on milk fat daily yield, but the increase of the milk protein yield (1.08 vs. 1.15 kg) was determined with the reduced forage cut lengths. The milk fat to protein ratio had tendency to decrease with the reduced forage cut length. Decrease in forage particle size improved feed conversion ratio for milk production, improved digestibility and the milk yield, whereas milk protein content was reduced. (Author) 25 refs.

  13. Determination of pyruvate and lactate as potential biomarkers of embryo viability in assisted reproduction by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mádr, Aleš; Celá, Andrea; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelcová, Marta; Crha, Igor; Žáková, Jana; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    Human-assisted reproduction is increasing in importance due to the constantly rising number of couples suffering from infertility issue. A key step in in vitro fertilization is the proper assessment of embryo viability in order to select the embryo with the highest likelihood of resulting in a pregnancy. This study proposes a method based on CE with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of pyruvate and lactate in spent culture media used in human-assisted reproduction. A fused-silica capillary of 64.0 cm total length and 50 μm inner diameter was used. The inner capillary wall was modified by the coating of successive layers of the ionic polymers polybrene and dextran sulfate to reverse EOF. The BGE was composed of 10 mM MES/lithium hydroxide, pH 6.50. The sample was injected by pressure 50 mbar for 18 s, separation voltage was set to -24 kV, and capillary temperature to 15°C. The presented method requires only 2 μL of the culture medium, with LODs for pyruvate and lactate of 0.03 and 0.02 μM, respectively. The results demonstrated the method's suitability for the analysis of spent culture media to support embryo viability assessment by light microscopy, providing information about key metabolites of the energy metabolism of a developing embryo. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Early smoking initiation, sexual behavior and reproductive health - a large population-based study of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo Terning; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2010-01-01

    To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health.......To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health....

  15. Genetic and nongenetic variation in plasma and milk beta-hydroxybutyrate and milk acetone concentrations of early-lactation dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S.G.; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Teweldemedhn, T.G.; Jorritsma, R.; Nielen, M.; Heuven, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed genetic variation, heritability estimates, and genetic correlations for concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), milk BHBA, and milk acetone in early lactation to investigate differences between cows in susceptibility to hyperketonemia and possibilities to use

  16. Prepartum teat apex colonization with Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers is associated with low somatic cell count in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, S; Laevens, H; Devriese, L A; Opsomer, G; Leroy, J L M; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A

    2003-04-02

    A high number of dairy heifers freshen with udder health problems. The prevalence of teat apex colonization (TAC) with Staphylococcus chromogenes, one of the most widespread coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in milk samples from freshly calved dairy heifers, was measured cross-sectionally in non-lactating heifers on eight commercial dairy farms in Belgium. The influence of age on this prevalence, and the association between teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes prepartum and quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) in early lactation were studied. In total, 492 teat apices were sampled from 123 heifers. The age of the heifers varied from 8 to 34 months. Overall, 20% of the heifers had at least one teat apex colonized with S. chromogenes. Of all teats sampled, 10% were colonized with S. chromogenes. The chance of having at least one teat apex colonized with S. chromogenes increased with age of the heifer. The presence of prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes was not associated with intramammary infection (IMI) early postpartum with the same bacterium. On the contrary, teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes prepartum appeared to protect quarters in the first few days of lactation from having somatic cell count >or=200000cells/ml milk, commonly accepted as the threshold for intramammary infection.

  17. Supplementation with partially hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, G F; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2002-03-01

    the digestion of pasture fiber. The addition of energy in the form of partially hydrogenated fat to early lactation dairy cows fed primarily on pasture increased the yield of fat-corrected milk and milk fat content when it represented about 11% of the total metabolizable energy requirement of cows, without affecting milk protein content. The partial hydrogenation of a byproduct of the oil industry apparently prevented detrimental effects of fat supplementation on ruminal digestion.

  18. Partial replacement of corn grain by hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado, E E; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2004-05-01

    degradation was not affected. The partial replacement of corn grain with fat improved the productive performance of early-lactation cows grazing spring pastures. No negative effects of supplemental fat on ruminal fiber digestion were detected.

  19. Reproductive Health Education Model in Early Childhood through Education Film "Damar Wulan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrulianingdyah, Atiek

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health education for early childhood it has been the time to teach, because the demand of the changing times and will affect the child's life when he/she is a teenager. During this time, the reproductive health education, which is in it there is sex education, considered taboo among some communities. They argue that the reproductive…

  20. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  1. Dietary Energy Source in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation: Energy Partitioning and Milk Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Straalen, van W.M.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic problems related to negative energy balance suggest a role for the balance in supply of lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients. To test the effect of lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients on energy partitioning, energy balance and nitrogen balance of 16 lactating dairy cows were determined by

  2. Extended lactations in a seasonal-calving pastoral system of production to modulate the effects of reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S T; Shalloo, L; Murphy, J J

    2010-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether extending the calving interval (CI) to 24 mo would be an alternative to culling and replacing cows that had failed to become pregnant. Forty-six nonpregnant lactating cows were assembled in November 2004 and assigned to receive either 3kg (low) or 6kg (high) of concentrate supplement and a basal diet of grass silage and maize silage over the winter period (13 wk). Cows returned to pasture in late March and received 1kg of concentrate/d until dry-off (milk yield analysis of different ranks with a 12-mo CI, a 24-mo CI, and an annualized herd effect, which compared an efficient spring calving system with 30% recycled cows in R1 and 10% recycled cows in R3, was carried out. Farm profit was reduced by 60% and 65% at a milk price of 22.3 euro-cents (c)/L with the corresponding values of 17% and 30% for a milk price of 30 c/L, respectively, when R1 and R3 systems were compared with an efficient spring milk (12-mo CI) production system. Within a spring system where 30% and 10% of R1 and R3 animals were subjected to extended lactations, the profit difference was reduced compared with an efficient spring system, The results indicated that lactations with a 24-mo CI may be a viable alternative to culling nonpregnant cows and be economically more suited to higher producing cows.

  3. First report about the mode of action of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin on hepatic metabolism in nonketotic early lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, L; Deniz, A; Bruckmaier, R M; van Dorland, H A

    2011-10-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the effect of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin on liver metabolism in early lactating cows through mRNA expression measurements of genes encoding 31 enzymes and transport proteins of major metabolic processes in the liver using 16 multiparous early lactating dairy cows. The treatments included i.v. injection of 10 mL/100 kg of body weight combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin (TG, n = 8) on 3 d consecutively at 25 ± 3 d in milk or injection with physiological saline solution similarly applied (CG, n = 8). Results include a higher daily milk production for TG cows (41.1 ± 0.9 kg, mean ± SEM) compared with CG cows (39.5 ± 0.7 kg). In plasma, the concentration of inorganic phosphorus was lower in the TG cows (1.25 ± 0.08 mmol/L) after the treatment than in the CG cows (1.33 ± 0.07 mmol/L). The plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was 0.65 ± 0.13 mmol/L for all cows before the treatment, and remained unaffected post treatment. The unique result was that in the liver, the mRNA abundance of acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 1, involved in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis, was lower across time points after the treatment for TG compared with CG cows (17.5 ± 0.15 versus 18.1 ± 0.24 cycle threshold, log(2), respectively). In conclusion, certain effects of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin were observed on mRNA abundance of a gene in the liver of nonketotic early lactating cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in myocardial lactate, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate ratio during cardiopulmonary bypass for elective adult cardiac surgery: Early indicator of morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial lactate assays have been established as a standard method to compare various myocardial protection strategies. This study was designed to test whether coronary sinus (CS lactates, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate (LP ratio correlates with myocardial dysfunction and predict postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CS blood sampling was done for estimation of myocardial lactate (ML, pyruvate (MP and lactate-pyruvate ratio (MLPR namely: pre-CPB (T 1 , after removal of aortic cross clamp (T 2 and 30 minutes post-CPB (T 3 . Results: Baseline myocardial LPR strongly correlated with Troponin-I at T1 (s: 0.6. Patients were sub grouped according to the median value of myocardial lactate (2.9 at baseline T1 into low myocardial lactate (LML group, mean (2.39±0.4 mmol/l, n=19 and a high myocardial lactate (HML group, mean (3.65±0.9 mmol/l, n=21. A significant increase in PL, ML, MLPR and TropI occurred in both groups as compared to baseline. Patients in HML group had significant longer period of ICU stay. Patients with higher inotrope score had significantly higher ML (T2, T3. ML with a baseline value of 2.9 mmol/l had 70.83% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity (ROC area: 0.7109 Std error: 0.09 while myocardial pyruvate with a baseline value of 0.07 mmol/l has 79.17% sensitivity and 68.75% specificity (ROC area: 0.7852, Std error: 0.0765 for predicting inotrope requirement after CPB. Conclusion: CS lactate, pyruvate and LP ratio correlate with myocardial function and can predict postoperative outcome.

  5. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  6. Costs and benefits of early reproduction: Haemoproteus prevalence and reproductive success of infected male pied flycatchers in a montane habitat in central Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castaneda, R.R.; Morales, J.; Moreno, J.; Lobato, E.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Tomas Gutierrez, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laying date is a key factor in avian reproductive ecology. Benefits of early breeding are important in terms of reproductive output. Costs are mainly associated to weather adversities at early stages of the breeding season. As males arrive earlier than females, they may face these weather

  7. Differences in rumen fermentation characteristics between low-yield and high-yield dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Ahmad; Mitsumori, Makoto; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Uyeno, Yutaka; Hasunuma, Toshiya; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yokokawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Tsuneko; Shinkai, Takumi; Hirako, Makoto; Kushibiki, Shiro

    2017-07-01

    Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in the HY group were higher (P milk yield and milk compositions were differently clustered between groups. These parameters showed similar direction with dry matter intake in the HY group and adverse direction in the LY group. Linear regression analysis indicated that butyrate was positively correlated with BHBA (P cows in the HY group seem to accommodate appropriately to negative energy balance in early lactation through rumen fermentation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. EFFECTS OF RUMEN PROTECTED METHIONINE AND VITAMIN B12 ON RBC PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safarkhanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  9. Early marriage, poor reproductive health status of mother and child well-being in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Singh, Abhishek; Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Parasuraman, Sulabha

    2011-07-01

    Early marriage, women's poor reproductive health and child well-being are important areas of concern, especially in developing countries like India. Data from the third wave of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-2006) was used to examine the effects of early marriage on the reproductive health status of women and on the well-being of their children. Bivariate analyses, multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used for analyses. The results show that early age at marriage had detrimental effects on the reproductive health status of women. Women married at an early age were exposed to frequent childbearing, unplanned motherhood and abortions, which negatively affected their nutritional status. Children born to mothers with poor reproductive health had lower chances of survival and a higher likelihood of anthropometric failure (i.e. stunting, wasting and underweight). Programmes should focus on delaying entry of adolescents into wedlock and motherhood through information, education and communication. More emphasis needs to be put on meeting the reproductive needs of poor adolescent mothers, and improving the nutritional status of their children, to break the vicious circle of poor reproductive health and poverty.

  10. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J

    2010-01-01

    calving; the H TMR was fed ad libitum whereas the L TMR was restricted to 10 kg dry matter/day during late lactation, and to approximately 75% of energy requirements from drying off until calving. Both diets were offered ad libitum post-calving. Feeding diet H compared to L pre-calving led to higher BCS...... at calving (2.68 v. 2.34, P intake post-calving were not affected by pre-calving diets. Changes in BCS and blood concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glucose in early lactation showed that cows offered diet H pre-calving...... allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, where the factors were H- or L-energy density in a total mixed ration (TMR) both pre- and post-calving. Consequently, there were four treatment groups: HH, HL, LL and LH. The pre-calving treatment was initiated 100 days prior to expected...

  11. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  12. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A.T.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4...... was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate...

  13. Analysis of Milk Production Traits in Early Lactation Using a Reaction Norm Model with Unknown Covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad; Su, Guosheng; Madsen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The reaction norm model is becoming a popular approach to study genotype x environment interaction (GxE), especially when there is a continuum of environmental effects. These effects are typically unknown, and an approximation that is used in the literature is to replace them by the phenotypic...... means of each environment. It has been shown that this method results in poor inferences and that a more satisfactory alternative is to infer environmental effects jointly with the other parameters of the model. Such a reaction norm model with unknown covariates and heterogeneous residual variances...... across herds was fitted to milk, protein, and fat yield of first-lactation Danish Holstein cows to investigate the presence of GxE. Data included 188,502 first test-day records from 299 herds and 3,775 herd-years in a time period ranging from 1991 to 2003. Variance components and breeding values were...

  14. Effects of different dosages of propylene glycol in dry cows and cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Michaela; Peinhopf, Walter; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almut; Koeller, Gabor; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum). On each of these days 3 h after morning feeding propylene glycol was drenched in different dosages of 100, 300 or 500 ml once per day (cross over study). The different doses were applied in an alternating order (Latin square). Blood samples were taken before, every 30 min up to 4 h, after 6 and 12 h after PG application. Following parameters have been measured: insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, cholesterol, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) was calculated. It was found that glucose, insulin, NEFA, BHB, bilirubin and potassium concentrations were influenced differently by the three defined dosages of propylene glycol at four different sampling periods. Whereas RQUICKI, cholesterol, AST and GLDH did not differ between the sampling periods and treatments. The major results of the study are that the effect of PG is dose-dependent and that the effect of PG is depending on the time of application according to calving. It can be concluded that in fresh cows higher dosages are necessary to provoke similar effects in comparison to dry, close up and lactating cows. Although the study did not compare to topdressing of PG from the results it is reasonable to believe that bolus application of a specific PG volume is necessary to provoke the effect.

  15. Effect of one or three timed artificial inseminations before natural service on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Ayres, H; Greco, L F; Galvão, K N; Risco, C A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of one or three timed artificial insemination (AI) before natural service (NS) in lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus on hazard of pregnancy, days nonpregnant, and 21-days cycle pregnancy rate. A total of 1050 lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a double Ovsynch program for their first postpartum AI. On the day of first AI (78 ± 3 days in milk), cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either one timed AI (1TAI, n = 533) or three timed AI (3TAI, n = 517) before being exposed to NS. Cows assigned to 1TAI were exposed to bulls 7 days after the first AI. Nonpregnant cows in 3TAI were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol supplemented with progesterone twice, with intervals between AI of 42 days, before being exposed to NS 7 days after the third AI. Cows were evaluated for pregnancy 32 days after each timed AI, or every 28 days after being exposed to NS. Pregnant cows were re-examined for pregnancy 28 days later (i.e., 60-day gestation). Exposure to heat stress was categorized based on the first AI being performed during the hot or cool season, according to the temperature-humidity index. Body condition was scored at first AI. All cows were allowed a period of 231 days of breeding, after which nonpregnant cows were censored. Pregnancy to the first AI did not differ between 1TAI and 3TAI on Day 60 after insemination (30.8 vs. 33.5%). Cows receiving 3TAI had a 15% greater hazard of pregnancy and a 17% greater 21-days cycle pregnancy rate than 1TAI and these benefits originated from the first 84 days of breeding. These changes in rate of pregnancy reduced the median and mean days nonpregnant by 9 and 10 d, respectively. Despite the long inter-AI interval in cows subjected to 3TAI, reproductive performance was improved compared with a single timed AI and subsequent exposure to NS. In dairy herds that use a combination of AI and NS, allowing cows additional opportunities to AI

  16. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements......-parametric survival models (Cox proportional hazards models) controlling for the effect of parity, breed, calving season, milk yield and the clustering effect of herd. There was no difference in time to FLA between the cows in group C and in group GLY or PG. No differences in time to FAI or in time to CON were found...... between cows in group PG and group C. However, cows in the GLY group tended to get their FAI later compared with cows in the control group but without at subsequent delaying of time to CON....

  17. Effect of group size and health status on behavior and feed intake of multiparous dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Proudfoot, Kathryn L.

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows in early lactation are often housed in a large group, where they may have to compete for access to feed and space. However, a cow's ability to compete may be impaired due to production disease, and housing in a small group with minimal competition may be beneficial for cow welfare....... The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of group size and health on social and feeding behavior of cows during the first 3 d after introduction to a new group. Data included 54 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that were moved from an individual maternity pen and individually joined...... an existing group pen for 6 (N6) or 24 cows (N24) on d 4 after calving. Cows were considered sick if they were diagnosed with and treated for milk fever, mastitis, or retained placenta, diagnosed with subclinical ketosis or metritis within 3 d of calving, or were diagnosed and treated for any other infection...

  18. Effect of reproductive history, lactation, first pregnancy age and dietary habits on bone mineral density in natural postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Atak, Zeliha; Findik, Rahime Bedir; Ture, Sevgi; Kokanali, Demet

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible risk factors related with osteoporosis in women with spontaneous menopause. Five hundred and one postmenopausal women were divided into three groups as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic according to their bone mineral density (BMD). By face-to-face interview, parity, age at menarche, age at menopause, duration of fertility, duration of menopause, first pregnancy age, total lactation period, exercise, smoking were assessed. Women with menopause age before 40 years, surgical menopause, who had any anti-osteoporosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy at the time of BMD measurement and corticosteroid use longer than 6 months were excluded from the study. Among 501 postmenopausal women, 107 women were classified as normal, 170 as osteopenic and 224 as osteoporotic. Among demographic features of patients, there was statistically significant difference between the groups in age, BMI and parity (p menopause, duration of fertility and duration of menopause (p = 0.013, p = 0.013 and p osteoporosis (OR 0.42, CI 95 % 0.27-0.66; OR 0.36, CI 95 % 0.24-0.56, respectively), but age was positively correlated with osteoporosis (OR 1.13, CI 95 % 1.01-1.17) CONCLUSIONS: Duration of fertility (years of menstruation) longer than 33 years and body mass index higher than 32 seem to protect against postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age is also an independent risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Blum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat-  ment with 8 blood collections within 24h of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and  2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline.  The rbST  injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA  were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun-  teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted  higher (P  blood urea level (P  ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of  glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other  metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations  were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent  to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily  feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of  lactation

  20. Early lactate clearance in septic patients with elevated lactate levels admitted from the emergency department to intensive care: time to aim higher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Craig A; Griffith, David M; Gray, Alasdair J; Datta, Deepankar; Hay, Alasdair W

    2013-10-01

    Septic patients with hyperlactatemia have increased mortality rates, irrespective of hemodynamic and oxygen-derived variables. The aims of the study are the following: (1) to ascertain whether lactate clearance (LC) (percentage change in lactate over unit time) predicts mortality in septic patients admitted to intensive care directly from the emergency department and (2) to calculate the optimal "cut-off" value for mortality prediction. Three-year retrospective observational study of consecutive patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to intensive care from the emergency department of a tertiary UK hospital. We calculated 6-hour LC, performed receiver operating characteristic analyses to calculate optimal cut-off values for initial lactate and LC, dichotomized patients according to the LC cut-off, and calculated hazard ratios using a Cox proportional hazards model. One hundred six patients were identified; 78, after exclusions. Lactate clearance was independently associated with 30-day mortality (P<.04); optimal cut-off, 36%. Mortality rates were 61.1% and 10.7% for patients with 6-hour LC 36% or less and greater than 36%, respectively. Hazard ratio for death with LC 36% or less was 7.33 (95% confidence interval, 2.17-24.73; P<.001). Six-hour LC was independently associated with mortality, and the optimal cut-off value was 36%, significantly higher than previously reported. We would support further research investigating this higher LC as a distinct resuscitation end point in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Responses of Early Lactating Ewes to Cold Stress Exposure Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure cold stress of ewes during post lambing period. The trial was undertaken at theExperimental Farm of Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara, duringFebruary 2012. Six secundiparous Turcana breed ewes were housed in two collective pens of 3.5 m x 2 m each, withdeep straw bedding, in shed where the average temperature was of -1.2°C. Cortisol levels from milk samples weredetermined as indicators of cold stress. Samples were collected at 14 hours after lambing, and at 7, 14 and 21 daysfollowing parturition. At 14 hours after lambing, mean cortisol levels were 7.78±0.47 μg/dl, and decreased asfollows: 5.08±0.72 μg/dl in the 7th of the trial, 2.75±0.50 μg/dl in day 14 and 1.61±0.43 μg/dl in day 21 of theobservations. Differences were significant between the 7 day sampling intervals (p≤0.01 during the first 14 daysafter lambing, while non-significant differences (p≥0.05 have been found between the 14 and 21 days samplings. Ithas been concluded that cortisol levels in milk samples could prove an indicator of sheep adrenal-cortex activity thatmay be applied to measure cold stress in lactating ewes.

  2. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of lactate as a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy index for noninvasive prediction and early detection of tumor response to radiation therapy in EMT6 tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, E O; Bhujwalla, Z M; He, Q; Glickson, J D

    1998-07-01

    lactate levels may serve as sensitive early indices of tumor response to gamma radiation at doses of the order of 2 to 4 Gy.

  4. Upregulation of zinc absorption matches increases in physiological requirements for zinc in women consuming high-or-moderate-phytate diets during late pregnancy and early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To determine the roles of host and dietary factors in matching increases in physiological requirements for zinc (Zn) during late pregnancy and early lactation in women whose major dietary staple is maize with and without phytate reduction. Methods: Subjects were 22 indigenous Guatemalan ...

  5. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000550; Dijkstra, J.; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Bannink, A.

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (k aVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the

  6. The influence of early age at breeding on reproductive parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002–2006), early-age (2–5 years) Roseate Terns Sterna dougallii nested in more concealed sites than older-age (6–7 years) birds, possibly because of a relatively lower competitive ability. Fledging success and breeding productivity were ...

  7. ATRAZINE-INDUCED REPRODUCTIVE TRACT ALTERATIONS AFTER TRANSPLACENTAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE IN MALE LONG-EVANS RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR wou...

  8. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results...... datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic......Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence...

  9. Cholesterol metabolism, transport, and hepatic regulation in dairy cows during transition and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, E C; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Albrecht, C

    2014-09-01

    The transition from the nonlactating to the lactating state represents a critical period for dairy cow lipid metabolism because body reserves have to be mobilized to meet the increasing energy requirements for the initiation of milk production. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview on cholesterol homeostasis in transition dairy cows by assessing in parallel plasma, milk, and hepatic tissue for key factors of cholesterol metabolism, transport, and regulation. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken from 50 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in wk 3 antepartum (a.p.), wk 1 postpartum (p.p.), wk 4 p.p., and wk 14 p.p. Milk sampling was performed in wk 1, 4, and 14 p.p. Blood and milk lipid concentrations [triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, and lipoproteins], enzyme activities (phospholipid transfer protein and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) were analyzed using enzymatic assays. Hepatic gene expression patterns of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGC) synthase 1 (HMGCS1) and HMGC reductase (HMGCR), sterol regulatory element-binding factor (SREBF)-1 and -2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1, liver X receptor (LXR) α and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Plasma TG, cholesterol, and lipoprotein concentrations decreased from wk 3 a.p. to a minimum in wk 1 p.p., and then gradually increased until wk 14 p.p. Compared with wk 4 p.p., phospholipid transfer protein activity was increased in wk 1 p.p., whereas lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was lowest at this period. Total cholesterol concentration and mass, and cholesterol concentration in the milk fat fraction decreased from wk 1 p.p. to wk 4 p.p. Both total and milk fat cholesterol concentration were decreased in wk 4 p.p. compared with wk 1 and 14 p.p. The mRNA abundance of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (SREBF-2, HMGCS1, and

  10. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Productive and metabolic response to two levels of corn silage supplementation in grazing dairy cows in early lactation during autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. silage (CS is a nutritious food that can be used as a supplement in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with two amounts of CS on milk production and composition, live weight and body condition, as well as on some blood indicators for energy and protein metabolism on dairy cows in early lactation and grazing low mass pasture during autumn. The study was carried out in 40 Holstein Friesian cows over 57 d. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production and days of lactation averaged 24.1 ± 2.8 kg d-1 and 62 ± 14 d, respectively. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of supplementation with CS; 4.5 and 9 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (treatments LCS and HCS, respectively. Additionally, all the cows received a pasture allowance of 21 and 3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 of concentrate. Milk composition was determined using infrared spectrophotometry, while blood indicators were obtained using an autoanalyzer. There were not differences between treatments regarding milk production or composition, total DM or energy intake. Herbage and protein intake was higher for LCS treatment (P < 0.001. Increasing supplementation decreased (P < 0.001 daily weight gain but did not affect body condition. Plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate were lower (P = 0.038 for the LCS treatment; while urea concentrations were higher (P = 0.003, with no differences for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations. Supplementation with 4.5 kg d-1 of CS was sufficient to meet the production requirements of the cows.

  12. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and research, such as human reproductive cloning.“ However, despite advances in ART the proportion of ... religions such as Islam completely forbid them, and in many countries there is strict regulation of treatment. Although sperm cryopreservation in humans was introduced in 1953,13 sperm donation commenced using.

  13. Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidarshani Wasana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling

  14. [Blood serum vitamin B12 concentration in dairy cows during early lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitz, K; Fürll, M

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of the blood serum vita- min B12 concentration of dairy cows post partum (p. p.) and to investigate its relationship with metabolic parameters, the erythrogram and the health status of the cows. Blood samples from 157 Holstein-Friesian-cows were obtained for metabolic analysis at 2-6 days p. p. and at 4-5 weeks p. p. In addition, clinical findings were compiled to evaluate the health status (healthy/morbid). In all animals a decline in the vitamin B12 concentration (p ≤ 0.05) at 4 weeks p. p. was observed. Animals of both groups (healthy/morbid) had higher values for the erythrocyte count, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration 2-6 days p. p. when compared to 4 weeks p. p. In all cows, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity was closely correlated to the vitamin B12 concentration (p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, all animals displayed elevated concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and bilirubin (p ≤ 0.05) at 2-6 days p. p. as a consequence of partus-dependent increased lipolysis. There was a smaller decrease in the vitamin B12 concentration in the morbid cows compared to the healthy cows (p   ≤   0.05). The vitamin B12 concentration is significantly dynamic during lactation and displays a close relationship with the GGT activity and the parameters of energy metabolism. Vitamin B12 may act as an indicator for increased lipolysis and cholestasis. Higher vitamin B12 concentrations may indicate clinical problems. A relationship with haematopoiesis is recognizable from the red cell readings. Decreasing red cell readings associated with reduced performance could be related to a low vitamin B12 concentration. The close correlations of vitamin B12 with GGT activity and bilirubin concentration may indicate cholestatic metabolic stress in dairy cows at blood serum concentrations ≥ 227 ng/l (3rd quartile 2-6 days p. p. healthy group). Morbid cows can already be identified at the

  15. Diminished lifetime reproductive capacity in the female after early radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Brunckhorst, B.F.; Straume, T.

    1986-01-01

    To measure effects of early tritium-induced oocyte loss on lifetime reproduction, we determined total reproductive capacity (RC) of female mice in which known oocyte deficiencies had been produced in early life by chronic exposure to 3 HOH administered to their mothers in drinking water from the day of conception to 14 days postpartum. At that time 3 HOH administration was stopped, and oocytes were enumerated in the suckling young. Over the subsequent two years, RC was determined in these young by counting the litters and offspring they produced during continuous breeding over their entire reproductive life spans. Offspring were removed at birth to avoid interrupting the breeding process. Tritium-induced diminution of RC was found to be done dependent but less than - and, interestingly, different from - diminution of oocyte number. Oocyte loss was stochastic; RC reduction, nonstochastic. Also, despite oocyte deficiencies, productivity of exposed females tended to be normal during early reproductive life but failed prematurely as oocytes ran out. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Lactation Consultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of lactation education, as well as specified general education in the health sciences and clinical experience in providing lactation and breastfeeding care. Pathway 2, the postsecondary academic pathway, requires that the ...

  17. Supplementation of monensin and Optimase to beef cows consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneen, S K; McGee, A L; Cole, J R; Jennings, J S; Stein, D R; Horn, G W; Lalman, D L

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of feeding monensin and/or slow release urea with a fibrolytic feed enzyme (Optimase; Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance, milk production, calf growth performance, and blood metabolites in beef cows. Spring-calving cows and heifers were used in a completely randomized design in Exp. 1 (N = 84; 534 ± 68 kg initial BW) and Exp. 2 (N = 107; 508 ± 72 kg initial BW). Exp. 1 supplements were formulated to meet cow protein requirements and fed daily and included 1) cottonseed meal with no monensin (control); or 2) monensin added to control to supply 200 mg per head per d (MON). In Exp. 2, experimental supplements included 1) cottonseed meal/wheat middlings (CS) fed at a rate to provide adequate DIP and CP according to , 2) the CS plus soybean hulls and 61 g per cow per d Optimase (OPT), 3) the CS plus monensin to supply 200 mg per cow per d (MON2), and 4) OPT plus MON2 (Combo). Cows were fed in last trimester through early lactation in Exp. 1 and during 2nd trimester in Exp. 2. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure in SAS with animal as the experimental unit. In Exp. 1, treatment did not affect cow BW or BCS change (P > 0.19). Calf birth BW was not affected by dam treatment (P = 0.24); however, calves from dams consuming MON weighed more (P Milk production did not significantly differ among treatments (P > 0.41). In Exp. 2, mean cow BW and BCS were similar (P > 0.35) among treatments on d 90. However, from d 0 to 54, cows assigned to the OPT supplement gained less BCS (P = 0.02) compared with cows assigned to the CS supplement. Cumulative BCS gain was greater (P calf performance during early lactation seems to be clearer. Replacing a portion of oilseed N in the supplement with Optimase may marginally reduce cow performance. Further research is needed to determine both the effects of monensin and the implications of combining monensin with Optimase on forage intake and cow performance at

  18. The effect of strategic supplementation with trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on the milk production, estrous cycle characteristics, and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I A; Hennessy, A A; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of a protected (lipid-encapsulated) conjugated linoleic acid (LE-CLA) supplement on milk production, estrous cycle characteristics, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows on a pasture-based diet. Spring calving dairy cows (n=409) on a single pasture-based commercial dairy farm were used in a completely randomized block design. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary supplements [LE-CLA (n=203) or no supplement (control, n=206)]. The LE-CLA cows received 51 g/d of a lipid supplement containing 5 g of both trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA from 0 to 60 d in milk. Milk samples were collected 3 times weekly, and each sample was analyzed for progesterone to determine the interval to first ovulation and estrous cycle characteristics. Milk yield and concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose were measured every 2 wk. Cows were inseminated following visual observation of estrus. The breeding season commenced on April 8, 2009 and continued for 16 wk. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out at 30 to 36 d and 60 to 66 d post-AI to diagnose pregnancy. The LE-CLA treatment resulted in a decrease in milk fat concentration (36.9±0.06 g/kg vs. 30.7±0.06 g/kg for control and LE-CLA, respectively) and yield (0.91±0.02 kg/d vs. 0.84±0.02 kg/d for control and LE-CLA, respectively); however, milk yield was increased by LE-CLA supplementation (24.7±0.7 kg/d vs. 27.2±0.7 kg/d for control and LE-CLA, respectively), resulting in no overall difference in milk energy output. No effect of LE-CLA was observed on any estrous cycle characteristics or measures of reproductive performance. These results support that in pasture-based systems of dairy production, where energy intake limits milk production, energy spared by CLA-induced milk fat depression is partitioned toward increasing milk yield rather than toward body reserves. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cattle after intrauterine administration of a prostaglandin F2α receptor antagonist 4 days after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, S E; Felix, A M; Rhoads, M L

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has determined that PGF2α detrimentally affects pregnancy via direct effects on early embryonic development. Because early embryonic loss is relatively prevalent in lactating dairy cows, we hypothesized that pregnancy retention (and resulting conception rates) would be improved by administering a PGF2α receptor antagonist (AL-8810) shortly after insemination. Multiparous, lactating Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to receive one of four intrauterine treatments: (1) control group-untreated cohort (CON; n = 93); (2) control group-vehicle infusion (CON-V; n = 90); (3) 2000 nM AL-8810 infusion (AL-2000; n = 96); or (4) 10,000 nM AL-8810 infusion (AL-10,000; n = 93). Treatments were administered transcervically 4 days after insemination in the horn ipsilateral to the CL. There was no effect of treatment on conception rate (36.6%, 38.9%, 25.0%, and 35.5% for CON, CON-V, AL-2000, and AL-10,000, respectively) or calving rate (24.7%, 24.4%, 16.7%, and 28.0% for CON, CON-V, AL-2000, and AL-10,000, respectively). There was a significant effect of treatment on return to estrus with CON-V (23.6 ± 0.6) and AL-10,000 (23.3 ± 0.6) groups having a longer interval to next estrus over the CON group (21.5 ± 0.6; P insemination. It is important to note that although the addition of AL-8810 into the uterus on Day 4 after insemination did not increase conception rates in the present experiment, it also did not have a negative impact. Furthermore, the treatment procedure itself did not impair the establishment of pregnancy (CON vs. CON-V, AL-2000, and AL-10,000). These results demonstrate that a therapeutic agent can be administered directly into the uterus on Day 4 after insemination without detrimentally affecting conception rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of butafosfan with or without cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of early lactating cows with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuber, U; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one dairy cows with subclinical ketosis were used to investigate the effects of butafosfan alone or in combination with cyanocobalamin on metabolism. Treatments included i.v. injection of 10 ml/100 kg of body weight with butafosfan (BUT) or combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan (BUTCO) at a similar concentration as in Catosal(®) . Control cows (CON) received a 0.9% saline solution. Cows were injected on days 1-3 at 22.3 ± 0.7 days post-partum. Milk production and composition were not affected by the treatments. In plasma, CON cows had a significantly higher plasma NEFA concentration (0.59 ± 0.03 mm) across the study period than BUTCO cows (p butafosfan post-partum in early lactation ketotic dairy cows act on lipid metabolism with effects on plasma metabolites, most likely mediated via modified activity of key factors in the liver. Results indicate that the application of butafosfan only in combination with cyanocobalamin exhibits the expected positive effects on metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Experimental evidence of early costs of reproduction in conspecific viviparous and oviparous lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleu, J; Heulin, B; Haussy, C; Meylan, S; Massot, M

    2012-07-01

    Reproduction entails costs, and disentangling the relative importance of each stage of the reproductive cycle may be important to assess the costs and benefits of different reproductive strategies. We studied the early costs of reproduction in oviparous and viviparous lizard females of the bimodal reproductive species Zootoca vivipara. Egg retention time in oviparous females is approximately one-third of the time in viviparous females. We compared the vitellogenesis and egg retention stages that are common to both reproductive modes. Precisely, we monitored the thermoregulatory behaviour, the weight gain and the immunocompetence of the females. Moreover, we injected an antigen in half of the females (immune challenge) to study the trade-offs between reproductive mode and immune performance and between different components of the immune system. Finally, we experimentally induced parturition in viviparous females at the time of egg laying in oviparous females. Oviparous and viviparous females did not show strong differences in response to the immune challenge. However, viviparous females spent more time thermoregulating while partially hidden and gained more weight than oviparous females. The greater weight gain indicates that the initial period of egg retention is less costly for viviparous than for oviparous females or that viviparous females are able to save and accumulate energy at this period. This energy may be used by viviparous females to cope with the subsequent costs of the last two-third of the gestation. Such an ability to compensate the higher costs of a longer egg retention period may account for the frequent evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  3. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2016-10-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible-infectious-removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  4. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible–infectious–removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  5. Changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during experimental Escherichia coli mastitis for primiparous Holstein dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe objective of this study was to characterize the changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during IMI challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli) for dairy cows during early lactation. Thirty, healthy primiparous Holstein cows were infused (h = 0) with ~20-40 cfu of live...... to lactose. Rises in G6P yield and concentration in milk after challenge (24 h) may signify increased conversion of fglu to G6P. Results identify changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk after IMI challenge with E. coli in dairy cows that may partly explain the partitioning of nutrients...... the effect of IMI challenge on metabolic responses of cows during early lactation.ResultsBy 12 h, E. coli was recovered from challenged quarters and shedding continued through 72 h. Rectal temperature peaked by 12 h post-challenge and returned to pre-challenge values by 36 h post-IMI challenge. Daily feed...

  6. An economic analysis of hyperketonemia testing and propylene glycol treatment strategies in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R; Guard, C L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose was to develop stochastic economic models which address variation in disease risks and costs in order to evaluate different simulated on-farm testing and propylene glycol (PG) treatment strategies based on herd hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence during the first 30 DIM. Data used in model development concerning the difference in health and production consequences between HYK and non-ketotic cows were based on results from 10 studies representing over 13,000 cows from 833 dairy farms in North America, Canada, and Europe. Inputs for PG associated variables were based on a large field trial using cows from 4 free-stall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin). Four simulated on-farm testing and treatment strategies were analyzed at herd HYK incidences ranging from 5% to 80% and included: 1) treating all cows with 5d of PG starting at 5 DIM, 2) testing all cows for HYK 1 day per week (e.g. Mondays) from 3 to 16 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG, 3) testing all cows for HYK 2 days per week (e.g. Mondays and Thursdays) from 3 to 9 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG, and 4) testing all cows for HYK 3 days per week (e.g. Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from 3 to 16 DIM and treating all positive cows with 5d of oral PG. Cost-benefit analysis included the costs associated with labor to test cows, β-hydroxybutyrate test strips, labor to treat cows, PG, and the associated gain in milk production, decrease in DA and early removal risks of PG treated HYK positive cows compared to non-treated HYK positive cows. Stochastic models were developed to account for variability in the distribution of input variables. Per 100 fresh cows in a herd with an HYK incidence of 40%, the mean economic benefits of the 4 different strategies were $1088, $744, $1166, and $760, respectively. Testing cows 2 days per week from 3 to 9 DIM was the most cost-effective strategy for herds with HYK incidences between 15% and 50%; above 50%, treating all

  7. Changes in rumen microbiota composition and in situ degradation kinetics during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieho, K; van den Bogert, B; Henderson, G; Bannink, A; Ramiro-Garcia, J; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-04-01

    Changes in rumen microbiota and in situ degradation kinetics were studied in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation. The effect of a rapid (RAP) or gradual (GRAD) postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance was also investigated. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to a mixed ration consisting of chopped wheat straw (dry period only), grass silage, corn silage, and soybean meal. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) or gradual (0.25 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of dry matter/d), starting at 4 d pp. In whole rumen contents, bacterial community composition was assessed using samples from 50, 30, and 10 d antepartum (ap), and 3, 9, 16, 30, 44, 60, and 80 d pp, and protozoal and archaeal community composition using samples from 10 d ap, and 16 and 44 d pp. Intake of fermentable organic matter, starch, and sugar was temporarily greater in RAP than GRAD at 16 d pp. Bacterial community richness was higher during the dry period than during the lactation. A rapid increase in concentrate allowance decreased bacterial community richness at 9 and 16 d pp compared with a gradual increase in concentrate allowance, whereas from 30 d pp onward richness of RAP and GRAD was similar. In general, the relative abundances of Bacteroidales and Aeromonadales were greater, and those of Clostridiales, Fibrobacterales, and Spirochaetales were smaller, during the lactation compared with the dry period. An interaction between treatment and sampling day was observed for some bacterial community members, and most of the protozoal and archaeal community members. Transition to lactation increased the relative abundance of Epidinium and Entodinium, but reduced the relative abundance of Ostracodinium. Archaea from genus Methanobrevibacter dominated during both the dry period and lactation. However, during lactation the abundance of the

  8. Genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Kelton, D F; Schenkel, F S

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins. Health data recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yields were obtained from the routine milk recoding scheme. Ketosis and displaced abomasum were defined as binary traits (0 = healthy; 1 = sick) based on whether or not the cow had at least 1 case of the respective disease in the period from calving to 100 d after calving. Mean frequencies of ketosis and displaced abomasum were 4.1 and 2.7%, respectively. The following milk production traits were considered: milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), fat-to-protein (F:P) ratio, and F:P ratio >1.5. The trait F:P ratio >1.5 was scored as 1 or 0, based on whether or not the cow had an F:P ratio >1.5. For milk production traits, the first (5-30 d in milk) and the second (31-60 d in milk) test days were considered. Data were analyzed using bivariate linear animal models. Average heritabilities of 0.02 and 0.04 were obtained for ketosis and displaced abomasum, respectively. For milk production traits, the lowest heritabilities were obtained for F:P >1.5 (0.04 to 0.08), whereas the highest estimates were found for Prot% (0.27 to 0.38). Ketosis and displaced abomasum were genetically uncorrelated with milk yield in early lactation. Moderate favorable correlations were found between metabolic diseases and milk composition traits. Ketosis was significantly correlated with Fat% (0.33), F:P ratio (0.30), and F:P ratio >1.5 (0.35) at the first test day, whereas all genetic correlations with milk composition traits at the second test day were not significant and close to zero. Significant favorable genetic correlations were also found between displaced abomasum and F:P ratio (0.26), F:P ratio >1.5 (0.25) and Prot% (-0.19) at the first test

  9. Using post-grazing sward height to impose dietary restrictions of varying duration in early lactation: its effects on spring-calving dairy cow production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosse, M; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Delaby, L; Ganche, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate and carryover effects of imposing two post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) for varying duration during early lactation on sward characteristics and dairy cow production. The experiment was a randomised block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A total of 80 spring-calving (mean calving date - 6 February) dairy cows were randomly assigned, pre-calving, to one of the two (n=40) PGSH treatments - S (2.7 cm) and M (3.5 cm) - from 13 February to 18 March, 2012 (P1). For the subsequent 5-week period (P2: 19 March to 22 April, 2012), half the animals from each P1 treatment remained on their treatment, whereas the other half of the animals switched to the opposing treatment. Following P2, all cows were managed similarly for the remainder of the lactation (P3: 23 April to 4 November, 2012) to measure the carryover effect. Milk production, BW and body condition score were measured weekly, and grass dry matter intake (GDMI) was measured on four occasions - approximately weeks 5, 10, 15 and 20 of lactation. Sward utilisation (above 2.7 cm; P1 and P2) was significantly improved by reducing the PGSH from 3.5 (0.83) to 2.7 cm (0.96). There was no effect of PGSH on cumulative annual grass dry matter (DM) production (15.3 t DM/ha). Grazing to 2.7 cm reduced GDMI by 1.7 and 0.8 kg DM/cow in P1 and P2, respectively, when compared with 3.5 cm (13.3 and 14.0 kg/cow per day, respectively). Cows grazing to 2.7 cm for both P1 and P2 (SS) tended to have reduced cumulative 10-week milk yield (-105 kg) and milk solids yield (-9 kg) when compared with cows grazing to 3.5 cm for both periods (MM; 1608 and 128 kg/cow, respectively). Treatments that alternated PGSH at the end of P1, SM and MS had intermediate results. There was no interaction between P1 and P2 treatments. There was also no carryover effect of early lactation grazing regime on milk and milk solids production in P3, given the reduction in early lactation

  10. Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent girls aged 15-19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria-nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage-an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Given the association of early

  11. Effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on uterine health, resolution of purulent vaginal discharge, and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João G N; Silva, Paula R B; Mendonça, Luís G D; Scanavez, Alexandre A; Silva, Joseane C C; Chebel, Ricardo C

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) on intrauterine cell population, resolution of PVD, uterine health, and reproductive performance. Jersey cows (n = 3,084) were examined using the Metricheck device to diagnose PVD at 35 ± 6 d postpartum. Purulent vaginal discharge was defined as the presence of purulent (≥50% pus) discharge detectable in the vagina. Of the 310 cows positive for PVD, 267 cows were enrolled in the current experiment. To ensure proper timing of treatment and collection of samples, only 9 PVD-positive cows were treated per day. Selected cows were balanced at 35 ± 6 d postpartum for lactation number, body condition score, and milk yield and were randomly assigned to receive an intrauterine infusion of 20 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; control, n = 87), 20 mL of PBS with 150 µg LPS (LPS150, n = 91), or 20 mL of PBS with 300 µg of LPS (LPS300, n = 89). Uterine cytology was performed immediately before treatment and 1, 2, and 7 d after treatment to evaluate the effect of LPS treatment on intrauterine cell population. Cows were examined with the Metricheck device at 7 and 28 d after treatment to evaluate the effects of treatment on resolution of PVD. Reproductive status was recorded up to 200 d postpartum. Cows diagnosed with PVD had greater incidence of twinning, dystocia, retained placenta, and metritis after calving than cows without PVD. Count of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in uterine cytology 1, 2, and 7 d after intrauterine infusion was not statistically different among treatments. From d 0 to 1, however, PMNL count in uterine cytology of PBS cows increased by 5%, whereas the PMNL count in uterine cytology of LPS150 and LPS300 cows increased by 54 and 48%, respectively. Treatment did not affect the likelihood of cows being diagnosed with PVD 7 and 28 d after intrauterine

  12. Ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine enhances performance during the periparturient period and early lactation in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistel, F; Arroyo, J M; Bellingeri, A; Wang, L; Saremi, B; Parys, C; Trevisi, E; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2017-09-01

    The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by severe negative energy and protein balance. Increasing Met availability during this time may improve milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine (RPM; Mepron, Evonik Nutrition and Care GmbH, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany) on the performance of dairy cows during prepartum and early-lactation periods. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a block design and assigned to either a control or an ethyl-cellulose RPM diet. Ethyl-cellulose RPM was supplied from -28 to 60 d relative to parturition at a rate of 0.09% and 0.10% of dry matter during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. That rate ensured that the ratio of Lys to Met in metabolizable protein was close to 2.8:1. Cows fed ethyl-cellulose RPM had dry matter intakes (DMI) that were 1.2 kg/d greater during the prepartum period and consequently had overall greater cumulative DMI than cows in the control group. Compared with controls, during the fresh period (1-30 d in milk; DIM) feeding ethyl-cellulose RPM increased DMI by 1.7 kg/d, milk yield by 4.1 kg/d, fat yield by 0.17 kg/d, milk protein yield by 0.20 kg/d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk by 4.3 kg/d, and energy-corrected milk by 4.4 kg/d. Although ethyl-cellulose RPM supplementation increased milk protein content by 0.16 percentage units compared with the control during the fresh period, no differences were observed for milk fat, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen concentration. During the high-producing period (31-60 DIM), cows fed ethyl-cellulose RPM increased DMI and milk yield by 1.45 and 4.4 kg/d, respectively. Ethyl-cellulose RPM also increased fat yield by 0.19 kg/d, milk protein yield by 0.17 kg/d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk by 4.7 kg/d, and energy-corrected milk by 4.8 kg/d compared with controls. Ethyl-cellulose RPM supplementation reduced plasma fatty acids in the fresh

  13. "Secrets of the female sex": Jane Sharp, the reproductive female body, and early modern midwifery manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobby, E

    2001-01-01

    Early modern midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675).

  14. Upregulation of Zinc Absorption Matches Increases in Physiologic Requirements for Zinc in Women Consuming High- or Moderate-Phytate Diets during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Mazariegos, Manolo; Westcott, Jamie; Solomons, Noel W; Raboy, Victor; Kemp, Jennifer F; Das, Abhik; Goco, Norman; Hartwell, Ty; Wright, Linda; Krebs, Nancy F

    2017-06-01

    Background: Estimated physiologic requirements (PRs) for zinc increase in late pregnancy and early lactation, but the effect on dietary zinc requirements is uncertain. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine changes in daily fractional absorbed zinc and total absorbed zinc (TAZ) from ad libitum diets of differing phytate contents in relation to physiologic zinc requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of zinc absorption at 8 (phase 1) and 34 (phase 2) wk of gestation and 2 (phase 3) and 6 (phase 4) mo of lactation. Participants were indigenous Guatemalan women of childbearing age whose major food staple was maize and who had been randomly assigned in a larger study to either of 2 ad libitum feeding groups: low-phytate maize (LP; 1.6 mg/g; n = 14) or control maize (C; 7.1 mg/g; n = 8). Total dietary zinc (milligrams per day, TDZ) and phytate (milligrams per day) were determined from duplicate diets and fractional absorption (FAZ) by dual isotope ratio technique (TAZ = TDZ × FAZ). All variables were examined longitudinally and by group and compared with PRs. TAZ values at later phases were compared with phase 1. Measured TAZ was compared with predicted TAZ for nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) women. Results: TAZ was greater in the LP group than in the C group at all phases. All variables increased from phase 1 to phases 2 and 3 and declined at phase 4. TAZ increased by 1.25 mg/d ( P = 0.045) in the C group and by 0.81 mg/d ( P = 0.058) in the LP group at phase 2. At phase 3, the increases were 2.66 mg/d ( P = 0.002) in the C group and 2.28 mg/d ( P = 0.0004) in the LP group, compared with a 1.37-mg/d increase in PR. Measured TAZ was greater than predicted values in phases 2-4. Conclusions: Upregulation of zinc absorption in late pregnancy and early lactation matches increases in PRs of pregnant and lactating women, regardless of dietary phytate, which has implications for dietary zinc requirements of

  15. Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Adam D; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-04-07

    The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Resveratrol Intake During Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Early Metabolic Effects of Maternal Nutrition Differently in Male and Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Purificación; Díaz, Francisca; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Barrios, Vicente; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2018-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts antioxidant and antiobesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD; 10.2% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 61.6% kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight (BW) of dams was measured at treatment onset and weaning [postnatal day (PND) 21] and of pups at birth and PND21, at which time dams and pups were euthanized. Although HFD dams consumed more energy, their BW at the end of lactation was unaffected. Mean litter size was not modified by maternal diet or resveratrol. At birth, male offspring from HFD and resveratrol (HFD + R) dams weighed less than those from LFD and resveratrol (LFD + R) dams. On PND21, pups of both sexes from HFD dams weighed more, had more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and had higher serum leptin levels than those from LFD dams. Resveratrol reduced BW, leptin, VAT, and SCAT, with females being more affected, but increased glycemia. Neuropeptide levels were unaffected by resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation decreased BW and adipose tissue content in offspring of dams on an HFD but did not affect offspring from LFD-fed dams, suggesting that the potential protective effects of resveratrol during gestation/lactation are diet dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  17. Organizing effects of adverse early-life condition on body mass, compensatory growth and reproduction : experimental studies in rock pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Early-life food conditions can have profound impact on adult behavioural performance. In song birds, early-life food conditions affect adult physiology and cognitive performance such as song learning and spatial learning. However, effects on reproductive behaviour other than song, such as visual

  18. Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-19

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

  19. Hepatic gene expression involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in transition cows: effects of fat mobilization during early lactation in relation to milk performance and metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Hametner, C; Tuchscherer, A; Losand, B; Kanitz, E; Otten, W; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Becker, F; Kanitz, W; Hammon, H M

    2013-09-01

    Insufficient feed intake during early lactation results in elevated body fat mobilization to meet energy demands for milk production. Hepatic energy metabolism is involved by increasing endogenous glucose production and hepatic glucose output for milk synthesis and by adaptation of postcalving fuel oxidation. Given that cows differ in their degree of fat mobilization around parturition, indicated by variable total liver fat concentration (LFC), the study investigated the influence of peripartum fat mobilization on hepatic gene expression involved in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and cholesterol synthesis, as well as transcriptional factors referring to energy metabolism. German Holstein cows were grouped according to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 after parturition as low [300 mg of total fat/g of DM; n=7), indicating fat mobilization during early lactation. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum and held under equal conditions. Liver biopsies were taken at d 56 and 15 before and d 1, 14, 28, and 49 after parturition to measure mRNA abundances of pyruvate carboxylase (PC); phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; glucose-6-phosphatase; propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase α; carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A (CPT1A); acyl-CoA synthetase, long chain 1 (ASCL1); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 and 2; sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1; and peroxisome proliferator-activated factor α. Total LFC postpartum differed greatly among cows, and the mRNA abundance of most enzymes and transcription factors changed with time during the experimental period. Abundance of PC mRNA increased at parturition to a greater extent in high- and medium-LFC groups than in the low-LFC group. Significant LFC × time interactions for ACSL1 and CPT1A during the experimental period indicated variable gene expression depending on LFC after parturition. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and

  20. Molecular insights into the mechanisms of liver-associated diseases in early-lactating dairy cows: hypothetical role of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringseis, R; Gessner, D K; Eder, K

    2015-08-01

    The transition period represents the most critical period in the productive life of high-yielding dairy cows due to both metabolic and inflammatory stimuli, which challenge the liver and predispose dairy cows to develop liver-associated diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis. Despite the fact that all high-yielding dairy cows are affected by marked metabolic stress due to a severe negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation, not all cows develop liver-associated diseases. Although the reason for this is largely unknown, this indicates that the capacity of the liver to cope with metabolic and inflammatory challenges varies between individual high-yielding dairy cows. Convincing evidence exists that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a key role in the development of fatty liver, and it has been recently shown that ER stress occurs in the liver of high-yielding dairy cows. This indicates that ER stress may be involved in the development of liver-associated diseases in dairy cows. The present review shows that the liver of dairy cows during early lactation is exposed to several metabolic and inflammatory challenges, such as non-esterified fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, reactive oxygen species and lipopolysaccharides, which are known inducers of ER stress. Thus, ER stress may represent a molecular basis for fatty liver development and account for the frequent occurrence of fatty liver and ketosis in high-yielding dairy cows. Interindividual differences between dairy cows in the activation of hepatic stress response pathways, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, which is activated during ER stress and reduces the sensitivity of tissues to oxidative and inflammatory damage, might provide an explanation at the molecular level for differences in the capacity to cope with pathological inflammatory challenges during early lactation and the susceptibility to develop liver-associated diseases between early-lactating dairy cows

  1. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy and early lactation on the n-3 fatty acid content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, J.; Jensen, Benny; Salvig, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    week 30 of gestation (FO-group) or to a control regimen (olive oil or no oil; controls). The FO-group was randomly subdivided into women stopping fish oil supplementation at delivery [FO(pregn)], and women continuing supplementation for an additional 30 d [FO(pregn/lact)]. Thirty-six women agreed......The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation, in the third trimester of pregnancy and early lactation period of healthy pregnant Danish women. Forty-four pregnant women were randomly allocated to fish oil supplementation (1.3 g EPA and 0.9 g DHA per day) from...

  2. Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding early start of breastfeeding among pregnant, lactating women and healthcare workers in El-Minia University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Salem A; Babrs, Gihan M; Sadek, Refaat R; Mostafa, Amna M

    2013-06-01

    Breastfeeding within the first hour of life is a potential mechanism for health promotion and is considered to be an indicator of excellence of breastfeeding. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding early breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of life in both the Pediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of Minia University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. A study was conducted on four groups of participants from both the Pediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of Minia University Hospital, each of them consisting of 30 individuals, using a questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding early breastfeeding initiation for each group. Sixty percent of women delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery and 16.7% of those delivered by cesarean section initiated breastfeeding within 30 minutes to 1 hour after birth. Forty percent of lactating women delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery, 83.3% of lactating women delivered by cesarean section, and 36.7% of healthcare workers used prelacteal feed instead of early breastfeeding initiation. The most important factors affecting the breastfeeding initiation were maternal illness followed by immediate skin-to-skin contact. Although the majority of women participating in this study exhibited knowledge about early breastfeeding initiation, actual application of this practice was clearly deficient. In order to improve the rates of breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of life we should enhance vaginal delivery and prenatal classes and implement Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative policies in both the Pediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of Minia University Hospital.

  3. Cohort study of early literacy and childbearing over the reproductive lifecourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jane W; Frasso, Rosemary; Shofer, Frances S; Bennett, Ian M

    2016-12-30

    Literacy is linked to a range of health outcomes, but its association with reproductive health in high-income countries is not well understood. We assessed the relationship between early-life literacy and childbearing across the reproductive lifecourse in the USA. A prospective cohort design was employed to assess early-life literacy and subsequent childbearing, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The US youth aged 14-22 years in 1979, including 6283 women, were surveyed annually through 1994 and biannually thereafter. Literacy was assessed in 1980 using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Reading Grade Level (RGL). Cumulative childbearing and grand multiparity (≥5 births) were assessed in 2010. Summary statistics, χ 2 , Kruskal-Wallis, test for trend and logistic regression, were used. Of 6283 women enrolled, 4025 (64%) had complete data and were included in the analyses. In 1980, these women were on average 18 years old and in 2010 they were 45. Median cumulative parity decreased for each RGL and ranged from 3.0 (12th grade) (p=0.001). Adjusting for race/ethnicity, poverty status, whether a woman had had a child in 1980, and age in 1980, odds of grand multiparity were 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.5) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.3), greater among women with income nation just as it has been shown to be in low-income nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  5. Vegetative and reproductive innovations of early land plants: implications for a unified phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaglia, K S; Duff RJT; Nickrent, D L; Garbary, D J

    2000-06-29

    As the oldest extant lineages of land plants, bryophytes provide a living laboratory in which to evaluate morphological adaptations associated with early land existence. In this paper we examine reproductive and structural innovations in the gametophyte and sporophyte generations of hornworts, liverworts, mosses and basal pteridophytes. Reproductive features relating to spermatogenesis and the architecture of motile male gametes are overviewed and evaluated from an evolutionary perspective. Phylogenetic analyses of a data set derived from spermatogenesis and one derived from comprehensive morphogenetic data are compared with a molecular analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA sequences. Although relatively small because of a reliance on water for sexual reproduction, gametophytes of bryophytes are the most elaborate of those produced by any land plant. Phenotypic variability in gametophytic habit ranges from leafy to thalloid forms with the greatest diversity exhibited by hepatics. Appendages, including leaves, slime papillae and hairs, predominate in liverworts and mosses, while hornwort gametophytes are strictly thalloid with no organized external structures. Internalization of reproductive and vegetative structures within mucilage-filled spaces is an adaptive strategy exhibited by hornworts. The formative stages of gametangial development are similar in the three bryophyte groups, with the exception that in mosses apical growth is intercalated into early organogenesis, a feature echoed in moss sporophyte ontogeny. A monosporangiate, unbranched sporophyte typifies bryophytes, but developmental and structural innovations suggest the three bryophyte groups diverged prior to elaboration of this generation. Sporophyte morphogenesis in hornworts involves non-synchronized sporogenesis and the continued elongation of the single sporangium, features unique among archegoniates. In hepatics, elongation of the sporophyte seta and archegoniophore is rapid

  6. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Karishma K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Goldenberg, Shira M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Results Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences—early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care—were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. PMID:25458416

  7. Behavioral and physiological flexibility are used by birds to manage energy and support investment in the early stages of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François VÉzina, Katrina G. SALVANTE

    2010-12-01

    females to defend minimal egg size and maintain reproductive success. More research involving a range of species in captive and free-living conditions is needed to determine how phenotypic flexibility during tissue remodeling and early reproductive investment translates to natural conditions and affects fitness [Current Zoology 56 (6: 767–792, 2010].

  8. Effects of lactation of ketogenesis from oleate or butyrate in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, E; Williamson, D H

    1977-01-01

    1. Rates of ketogenesis from endogenous butyrate or oleate were measured in isolated hepatocytes prepared from fed rats during different reproductive states [virgin, pregnant, early-lactating (2-4 days) and peak-lactating (10-17 days)]. In the peak-lactation group there was a decrease (25%) in the rate of ketogenesis from butyrate, but there were no differences in the rates between the other groups. Wth oleate, the rate of ketogenesis was increased in the pregnant and in the early-lactation groups compared with the virgin group, whereas the rate was 50% lower in the peak-lactation group. 2. Experiments with [1-(14)C]oleate indicated that these differences in rates of ketogenesis were not due to alterations in the rate of oleate utilization, but to changes in the amount of oleoyl-CoA converted into ketone bodies. 3. Although the addition of carnitine increased the rates of ketogenesis from oleate in all groups of rats, it did not abolish the differences between the groups. 4. Measurements of the accumulation of glucose and lactate showed that hepatocytes from rats at peak lactation had a higher rate of glycolytic flux than did hepatocytes from the other groups. After starvation, the rate of ketogenesis from oleate was still lower in the peak-lactation group compared with the control group. This suggests that the alteration in ketogenic capacity in the former group is not merely due to a higher glycolytic flux. 5. It is concluded that livers from rats at peak lactation have a lower capacity to produce ketone bodies from long-chain fatty acids which is due to an alteration in the partitioning of long-chain acyl-CoA esters between the pathways of triacylglycerol synthesis and beta-oxidation. The physiological relevance of this finding is discussed. PMID:883950

  9. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

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    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Ursids (bears in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1, days 7-20 (Phase 2, and beyond day 20 (Phase 3. While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth.

  10. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth – Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I. Kati; Watson, David G.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1–6 (Phase 1), days 7–20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth. PMID:26630345

  11. The impact of reproductive investment and early-life environmental conditions on senescence : Support for the disposable soma hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, M.; Richardson, D. S.; Burke, T.; Komdeur, J.

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of senescence. One of the leading hypotheses, the disposable soma hypothesis, predicts a trade-off, whereby early-life investment in reproduction leads to late-life declines in survival (survival senescence). Testing this hypothesis

  12. Monitoring blood glucose levels in female mink during the reproductive cycle: 2. Effects of short-term fish oil, chromium picolinate, and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation during late lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Amber M.J.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2007-01-01

    Mink nursing sickness is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia that is similar to the metabolic syndrome associated with type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus. This research studied the effects of short-term administration of antidiabetic supplements on the blood glucose concentration in female mink during late lactation. Female mink that had blood glucose levels acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg) for 1 wk starting at day 21 post partum. In the NG mink, most of the treatments did not significantly change the blood glucose concentration from day 28 to 42 post partum. However, treatment with ASA alone and treatment with the combination HerO-CrPic-ASA elevated the blood glucose levels when compared with those of the control group, which had received just the basal diet. In the HG mink, all treatment combinations except CrPic alone and ASA alone, reduced the blood glucose concentration. Thus, in lactating mink with hyperglycemia, the blood glucose concentration may be effectively lowered by dietary antidiabetic supplementation; however, because hyperglycemia also occurs before nursing, preventive measures are recommended throughout the year. PMID:17955898

  13. Measurements of body composition during late gestation and lactation in first and second parity sows and its relationship to piglet production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize variation of multiple body condition traits in a white crossbred composite population of first- and second-parity sows and determine if these traits relate to litter production and reproductive parameters. As expected, parity 2 dams were heavier (P < 0...

  14. An appraisal of early reproduction after cutting in northern Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; George Hart

    1961-01-01

    How shall I cut to get reproduction? What kind of reproduction will I get if I cut the way I am planning to? All foresters have asked themselves these questions. To help supply some answers to these questions for the northern Appalachian hardwood area, the authors have summarized and analyzed before- and after-cutting reproduction data collected over a period of 10...

  15. Relationships among early lactation milk fat depression, cattle productivity and fatty acid composition on intensive dairy farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Comino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted on three northern Italy Holstein dairy herds to evaluate the impact of milk fat depression (MFD, defined as milk fat lower than 3.2 on milk production and fatty acids (FA composition in order to investigate the practical consequences and the possible origin of this phenomenon. The diet composition and the individual milk production and composition, were monitored during the first six months of lactation. Two virtual groups were created in each farm on the basis of the milk fat levels observed during the first two months of lactation (higher or lower than 3.2. Individual milk samples were taken from 16 animals /group/farm for composition and fatty acid analysis. The diet of Farm A, characterized by the highest average prevalence of MFD (33.1%, showed the highest acidogenic attitude (high NFC, low NDF, low peNDF8. The milk fat level differed significantly per group over time in all farms. Cattle with MFD showed tendentially lower energy corrected milk output and greater concentrations of C12:0÷C15:0, C18:1trans10, total polyunsaturated, total odd chain (OCFA, total n-6 as well as OCFA/branched chain fatty acids, and C18:1trans10/C18:1trans11 ratios. Farm A milk fat showed higher values of C12:0, C13:0, C14:0 and C15:0. It appears that MFD cattle are characterized by lower mammary energy output and a milk FA profile similar to cattle fed acidogenic diets, thus suggesting an alteration in the rumen fermentation patterns, as occurs in acidotic cattle.

  16. Effect of changes in diet energy density on feed intake, milk yield and metabolic parameters in dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.I.; Friggens, N.C.; Larsen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how early lactating cows adjust their metabolism and production to acute, but moderate changes in the energy density of the diet. Sixty dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two change-over groups (HNH and NHN) and two control...... calving while cows assigned to HHH or NNN were fed the same TMR for all 9 weeks. Results from cows on treatment HNH were compared with group HHH while cows on treatment NHN were compared with group NNN. When the diet changed from N to H and H to N, cows increased and decreased their dry-matter intake (DMI......), respectively compared with control groups. Cows adjusted milk yield accordingly to changes in DMI, although not always significantly. Energy-corrected milk yield was not significantly affected by any of the changes in the energy density of the diet but generally showed same tendencies as milk yield. Non...

  17. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...

  18. A randomized controlled trial on the effect of incomplete milking during early lactation on ketonemia and body condition loss in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P-A; Krug, C; Chorfi, Y; Dubuc, J; Lacasse, P; Roy, J-P; Santschi, D E; Dufour, S

    2018-02-21

    Limiting milk production for a short period of time in early lactation could be a relevant strategy to prevent hyperketonemia (HYK). From December 2013 to March 2015, 838 multiparous Holstein cows from 13 herds were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of incomplete milking in early lactation on ketonemia and its effect on body condition score (BCS) loss. Cows were randomly assigned 4 wk before expected calving date to 1 of 2 treatment groups, (1) a conventional milking protocol (CON) for which cows were completely milked or (2) an incomplete milking protocol (INC) for which a maximum of 10 to 14 kg of milk/d were withdrawn during the first 5 d in milk (DIM). β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were measured from blood samples collected on each cow 3 times at weekly intervals. Hyperketonemia was defined as BHB ≥1.4 mmol/L. Body condition score variation in the postcalving period was calculated by subtracting BCS assessed at wk 7 from BCS assessed at first week after calving. Effect of treatment on ketonemia and prevalence of HYK were evaluated for 4 specific time periods: 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM. Effect of treatment on ketonemia was investigated using linear mixed models with natural logarithm of BHB measurements as outcome and treatment groups as fixed effect. Generalized linear mixed models with HYK as outcome, using logit link, and treatment groups as fixed effect were used to investigate effect of treatment on odds of HYK. A logistic regression model with BCS loss (effects was used to study effect of INC on odds of having BCS loss ≥0.75. A total of 813 lactations had complete data and were used for statistical analysis of ketonemia and HYK. A total of 709 lactations had complete data and were used for analysis of BCS loss. Geometric means of blood BHB concentrations during the 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM periods were, respectively, 0.72 (95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.80), 0.66 (0.60, 0

  19. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  20. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

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    Jun-Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. METHODS: Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus <35 were eligible for the meta-analysis. No statistical difference was found in risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77. CONCLUSIONS: ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  1. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun-Zhen; Pang, Li-Hong; Li, Min-Qing; Xu, Jing; Zhou, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77). ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  2. Variation in fat mobilization during early lactation differently affects feed intake, body condition, and lipid and glucose metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Hametner, C; Tuchscherer, A; Losand, B; Kanitz, E; Otten, W; Singh, S P; Bruckmaier, R M; Becker, F; Kanitz, W; Hammon, H M

    2013-01-01

    Fat mobilization to meet energy requirements during early lactation is inevitable because of insufficient feed intake, but differs greatly among high-yielding dairy cows. Therefore, we studied milk production, feed intake, and body condition as well as metabolic and endocrine changes in high-yielding dairy cows to identify variable strategies in metabolic and endocrine adaptation to overcome postpartum metabolic load attributable to milk production. Cows used in this study varied in fat mobilization around calving, as classified by mean total liver fat concentrations (LFC) postpartum. German Holstein cows (n=27) were studied from dry off until d 63 postpartum in their third lactation. All cows were fed the same total mixed rations ad libitum during the dry period and lactation. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones were measured in blood samples taken at d 56, 28, 15, and 5 before expected calving and at d 1 and once weekly up to d 63 postpartum. Liver biopsies were taken on d 56 and 15 before calving, and on d 1, 14, 28, and 49 postpartum to measure LFC and glycogen concentrations. Cows were grouped accordingly to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 in high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows. Mean LFC (±SEM) differed among groups and were 351±14, 250±10, and 159±9 mg/g of dry matter for high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows, respectively, whereas hepatic glycogen concentrations postpartum were the highest in low fat-mobilizing cows. Cows in the low group showed the highest dry matter intake and the least negative energy balance postpartum, but energy-corrected milk yield was similar among groups. The decrease in body weight postpartum was greatest in high fat-mobilizing cows, but the decrease in backfat thickness was greatest in medium fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were highest around calving in high fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma triglycerides were highest in the medium group and

  3. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A

    2015-01-01

    that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms.

  4. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS 4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as lactation approached, and saturated

  5. Early Fluid Resuscitation by Lactated Ringer's Solution Alleviate the Cardiac Apoptosis in Rats with Trauma-Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ho Lin

    Full Text Available Cardiac trauma has been recognized as a complication associated with blunt chest trauma involving coronary artery injury, myocardium contusion and myocardial rupture. Secondary cardiac injuries after trauma supposed to be a critical factor in trauma patients, but the mechanism is not fully explored. Overproduction of TNF-alpha had been reported in multiple trauma animals, this induces oxidative stress resulting in cardiac apoptosis. Apoptosis gradually increases after trauma and reaches to a maximum level in 12 h time. TNF-alpha increases the expression of NFkB, and induces the expression of caspase-3 and resulted in cell apoptosis. The effect can be attenuated by non-selective caspase inhibitor and IL10. Fas induced cardiac apoptosis and hypertrophy in ischemic heart disease. In this study, we demonstrated a trauma-hemorrhagic shock (THS model in rats and resuscitated rats by lactated Ringer's (L/R solution after shock in different hours (0 hour, 4 hours, 8 hours. NFkB gradually increased after the first 8 hours of shock, and can be reduced by fluid resuscitation. NFkB is known as a downstream pathway of Fas related apoptosis, we found Fas ligand, caspase-8 levels elevate after shock, and can be reduced by resuscitation. In addition, resuscitation can activate insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1/Akt pathway, at the same time. It can block mitochondrial damage by decrease the effect of tBid. In conclusion, THS can induce secondary cardiac injury. Fas showed to be an important element in caspase cascade induced myocardium apoptosis. By L/R fluid resuscitation, the suppression of caspase cascade and activation of IGF-I/Akt pathway showed antiapoptotic effects in traumatic heart of rats.

  6. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the suitability of field beans as a substitute for soybean meal in early-lactating dairy cow: production and metabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Laudadio, Vito

    2012-02-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in a completely randomized design to examine the effect of feeding field beans (FB, Vicia faba L. var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal (SBM) on lactation performance and metabolic response during the early lactation period. Cows were individually divided into two equal groups and fed for 16 weeks on one each of the two experimental diets. The controls were fed pelleted concentrate contained 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of SBM as the main protein source, whereas the experimental concentrate contained 345 g/kg DM of FB. Oat hay was offered ad libitum to cows and water was freely available. Blood samples were assayed for their content of: urea, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, calcium and phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Inclusion of FB had no detectable effects on DM intake (DMI), body weight (BW), or body condition score (BCS). Neither milk yield nor quality were influenced by dietary treatment, except for milk urea nitrogen (MU) that was reduced in cows fed the FB diet (P milk were not affected adversely by added dietary FB. Concentration of blood urea (BU) was lower in cows fed the FB diet than in those fed the control SBM diet (P cows fed traditional SBM-based diet, and the results may elicit great interest for countries where soybean utilization is adversely influenced by high supply costs. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  9. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VII. Embryonic development, early embryonic death, foetal losses and their relationship with serum progestagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were randomly allocated to 4 dietary groups and fed diets that differed in the total protein content and quality (essential amino-acids. Forty mares were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Eight mares were withdrawn from the investigation owing to injuries or gynaecological pathology. An overall conception rate of 94.6%and a foaling rate of 80%was achieved. Five of 14 (35.7 % mares (Group 1 fed a low-quality protein diet suffered from early embryonic loss before 90 days of pregnancy compared to 3 of 41 (7.3 % mares in the remaining groups that received the higher-quality protein in their diets. Serum progestagen concentrations of mares in Group 1 that suffered foetal loss were indicative of luteal function insufficiency during the 1st 40 days post-ovulation. Non-lactating mares in all 4 groups gained on average approximately 30 kg in mass during the 90 days before the breeding period. Lactating mares in Group 1 (low-quality protein lost on average 25 kg in mass during lactation, with no weight loss observed among the lactating mares in the other 3 groups. No difference in the diameter of the embryonic vesicle was found between dietary groups until Day 35 of pregnancy.

  10. The use of sensor data before parturition as an indicator of resilience of dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Reenen, van C.G.; Mourik, van S.

    2017-01-01

    The transition period is a critical phase in the life of dairy cows. Metabolic and
    infectious disorders occur mostly in the first weeks after calving. These disorders
    can be considered as critical transitions for which early-warning indicators might
    be available following the theory of

  11. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in mainly pasture-grazed dairy cows in New Zealand in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; McDougall, S; Young, L; Bryan, M A

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of primary subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-grazed dairy cows in three dairy-farming regions of New Zealand 7-12, and 35-40 days post-calving. A second aim was to investigate herd- and cow-level factors associated with the prevalence of SCK. A cross-sectional longitudinal prevalence survey was undertaken in 1,620 dairy cows from 57 herds. A random sample of cows without disease in the prior 30 days were enrolled at one farm visit within 5 days of calving, and blood samples were collected 7 and 28 days later (7-12 and 35-40 days post-calving) for measurement of beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHBA) concentrations using an electronic cow-side meter. SCK was defined as blood BHBA concentration ≥1.4 mmol/L. Mean cow-level prevalence of SCK varied with interval post-calving (16.8 and 3.2% at 7-12 days and 35-40 days post-calving, respectively) and age (13.0 and 13.1% of 2-year olds and ≥8-year olds, respectively, compared to 7.2% of 3-4-year-old cows). Mean herd-level prevalence of SCK was 14.3 (min 0, max 60.0)% and 2.6 (min 0, max 24.4)% at 7-12 days and 35-40 days post-calving, respectively, and was greater in Southland (13.3%) than Waikato and Canterbury herds (6.9 and 4.7%, respectively). This is the first population-based report of the prevalence of SCK in New Zealand dairy herds and demonstrates that age and interval post-calving are important risk factors determining prevalence; and that there is wide variation in prevalence between herds. Subclinical ketosis may be unrecognised but common in many New Zealand dairy cows in the first 2 weeks of lactation.

  12. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows after inducing ovulation using hCG in a five-day progesterone-based fixed-time AI protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; De Rensis, F; Casas, X; Caballero, F; Mur-Novales, R; López-Gatius, F

    2018-02-01

    This study compares the effects of inducing ovulation using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) at the end of a 5-day progesterone(P4)-based protocol for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in lactating dairy cows on ovarian dynamics and fertility. A P4 intravaginal device (PRID) was fitted for five days and GnRH administered upon PRID insertion and a double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F 2α upon PRID removal. Cows received either GnRH (GnRH group; n = 98), 1000 IU hCG (hCG-1 group; n = 97), or 3000 IU hCG (hCG-2 group; n = 104) 36 h after PRID removal and were inseminated 50-56 h after PRID removal. Based on Tukey-Kramer tests, cows in hCG-1 and hCG-2 showed a larger follicle diameter at AI than cows in GnRH (P HCG-2 treatment increased corpus luteum (CL) size on Day 7 post-AI compared with the GnRH and hCG-1 treatments (P hCG-1 or hCG-2 that did not become pregnant were more likely to return to estrus than cows in GnRH (P hCG-2 treatment showed a 1.9-fold cumulative pregnancy rate after two rounds of AI compared to cows receiving GnRH. Our results indicate that hCG treatment hCG treatment used to induce ovulation at the end of a short protocol for FTAI improves follicular/luteal dynamics compared to GnRH treatment. Of the two hCG treatments tested, better results were obtained with the 3000 IU dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (PPCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feeding interventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairy farms of Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John A; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Wichtel, Jeff; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    There is limited field-based research and recommendations on the effect of cattle feeding management practices on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) for the growing dairy industry in Kenya. This controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of feeding locally produced dairy meal (DM) on early lactation daily milk production (DMP) on Kenyan SDF, controlling for other factors associated with DMP. Privately owned, recently calved cows (n=111) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of feeding recommendations for DM (meeting predicted DM requirements by: (1) 100%; (2) 50%; or (3) feeding by the farmer's discretion). DM was provided for free to groups 1 and 2 to ensure they had sufficient DM to feed to the recommendations. Data collection on cow and farm characteristics occurred biweekly for a 60-day period post-calving starting in June 2013. A repeated measures multivariable linear regression model was used on the DMP outcome variable. With variability in DM consumption within feeding groups due to variability in DMP, actual DM fed was assessed as an independent variable rather than assigned feeding groups. DMP was positively associated with each kg/day of DM fed (0.53kg/day), cow weight (0.13kg/day), feeding DM in the month prior to calving (1.42kg/day), and feeding high protein forage (0.41kg/day), and was negatively associated with having mastitis (-0.30kg/day). In interaction terms, taller cows had higher DMP than shorter cows, whereas heifers (first parity cows) had similar DMP regardless of height. Also, thin cows (2+ parity with body condition scoremilk (1.0kg/day less) than cows with a better body condition score at calving,whereas thin heifers produced more milk (2.0kg/day more) than heifers in better body condition-this association is possibly due to a small unrepresentative sample size of heifers. In conclusion, feeding DM in the month prior to calving, improving body condition in cows prior to calving, and enhancing dietary DM and high protein forage were

  15. Corn grain-processing method interacts with calcium salts of palm fatty acids supplementation on milk production and energy balance of early-lactation cows grazing tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-07-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the associative effects of feeding Ca salts of palm fatty acids (FA) and corn grain-processing method on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early-lactation dairy cows grazing a tropical pasture. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum L. Cameroon) and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. Treatments were flint corn grain-processing method either as fine ground (FGC) or steam-flaked (SFC) associated with Ca salts of palm FA supplementation either not supplemented or supplemented (CSPO). From 17 to 40 wk postpartum (carryover period) all cows received a common diet fed as total mixed ration. During the treatment period, a tendency for an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method were observed for milk yield, milk fat yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM), as CSPO caused them to increased to a greater extent in the FGC diet compared with the SFC diet. Furthermore, a tendency for an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method was observed for body weight change, because CSPO increased body weight loss in the FGC diet but not in the SFC diet. The CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, ECM, and cumulative milk yield compared with not supplemented. Also, CSPO increased energy intake, milk energy output, and energy partitioning toward milk, whereas reduced energy was allocated to body reserves. The SFC increased milk yield, ECM, milk protein yield, milk casein yield, and cumulative milk yield, and decreased milk urea N compared with FGC. The SFC compared with FGC also increased body condition score and body weight change, and increased energy partitioning toward body reserves. During the carryover period, an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method was observed for milk yield, which occurred because

  16. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed....

  17. Comparing the impact of melatonin and captopril on early effects of radiation on the heart tissue by studying glutathione, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Tabatabaie, Farnaz; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Mirzaei, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of secondary malignancy while the patient is receiving radiotherapy for the management of primary cancer has been an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety. The aim of the study is to compare protective effects of melatonin and captopril on early effects of radiation on the heart tissue of rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used. The rats were divided into six groups and the rats were exposed to 8 Gy whole body dose from Cobalt-60 sources. Thirty minutes prior to irradiation, six animals received melatonin (100 mg/kg body weight), and six animals received captopril (50 mg/kg body weight). All groups were sacrificed 10 days post-irradiation, and hearts were collected. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate cellular oxidative stress-induced injury. The biochemical data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean, and the difference between the groups was analyzed using a two-way variance analysis. Treatment with captopril resulted in a significant increase in LDH and MDA, although the level of GSH was decreased (P < 0.01). MDA and LDH levels were decreased after melatonin treatment while GSH level was increased (P < 0.001). Melatonin has protective effects following radiation, while treatment with captopril post-irradiation seems to be radiosensitizing and does not have protective effects against radiation exposure. (author)

  18. 2,6-Diaminopimelic acid as a biological marker of rumen synthesis and fermentation capacities in the transition period and early lactation of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Maskaľová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different types of available nutrients of total mix rations on fermentation and synthesis capacities of the rumen in Holstein dairy cows divided into groups in the transition period (± 3 weeks after parturition and early lactation (60–80 days in milk. The diets were fed as a total mixed ration. Results obtained with feeding Diet C (high concentration of available nutrients to dairy cows confirmed a significant increase in 2,6-diaminopimelic acid from the initial mean 2.2 μg/ml at 21 days before calving to 6.2 μg/ml (P P P P P < 0.01. All indicators of rumen fermentation and synthesis determined in dairy cows with Diet B (low concentration of available nutrients of the total mix ration according to productive phases were not significant. High regression coefficients of examined indicators of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid to volatile fatty acid (r = 0.813, propionic acid (r = 0.780 and acetic acid (r = 0.635 indicate direct correlation between fermentation and synthesis activities of the rumen. Our results show that 2,6-diaminopimelic acid appears as a perspective marker for the monitoring and evaluation of the synthesis function of the rumen and production of bacterial biomass under breeding conditions.

  19. Maternal hematological and virological characteristics during early feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection of cats as predictors of fetal infection and reproductive outcome at early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Crystal E; Lockett, Nikki N; Chemerys, Daniellé N; Clay, Brittany T; Scott, Veronica L; Willeford, Bridget; Brown, Timothy; Coats, Karen S

    2009-10-15

    The FIV-infected cat is a small animal model for HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) because the two lentiviruses are biologically related and produce similar clinical syndromes. Both viruses are vertically transmissible and may negatively impact reproductive outcome. Maternal hematological and virological parameters are predictors of MTCT in HIV-infected women. Our purpose was to determine whether similar maternal characteristics during early pregnancy in FIV-infected cats influence pregnancy outcome. We inoculated 10 cats with FIV-B-2542; 10 cats were uninoculated. We quantified longitudinal CD4:CD8 T cell ratios, proviral load, and plasma viremia, monitored longitudinal serostatus, and documented clinical and reproductive outcome during early pregnancy. Inoculated queens were seropositive and provirus positive by week 4 post-infection (p.i.). CD4:CD8 ratios were depressed in the infected group by month 3.5 p.i. Proviral load was variable in the animals throughout the course of infection; plasma viremia was below the level of detection in all animals. Reduced litter sizes and increased fetal demise occurred in infected queens. Viral RNA, but not proviral DNA, was detected in representative placentas (14 of 14; 100%) and fetuses (12 of 14; 86%) collected from infected queens. However, maternal virological and hematological characteristics did not correlate either positively or negatively with reproductive outcome.

  20. Yearling mink dams fed restricted in early lactation have less mammary gland tissue six weeks after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Pinkalski, Mariann Nakano

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment.......014). Likewise, the dam calls increased on the separation day, peaking on the first day after separation (D1). The proportion of dams with calls decreased with litter age at separation (P=0.024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after delivery...

  1. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... cows experienced a 7-wk prepartum dry period. Continuous milking during the prepartum period reduced milk production in the following early lactation period by >20%. The reduced milk production could not be readily ascribed to inefficiency of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient uptake...

  2. Reproduction and early-age survival of manatees at Blue Spring, Upper St. Johns River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Hartley, W.C.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We summarize reproduction of adults and survival of calves and subadult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) that were identified in winter at Blue Spring on the upper St. Johns River in Florida. Some records span more than 20 years, but most are from 15-year continuous annual observations during winter 1978-79 through winter 1992-93. Fifty-seven, first-year calves were identified; 55 litter sizes were one, and one consisted oftwins (1.79% of all births). Sex ratios of first-year calves did notsignificantly differfrom 1:1. Based on 21 of35 sighted females (15 individuals) that appeared pregnant and returned with calves during the subsequent winter, we estimated an early (neonatal to about 6 months) calf survival of 0.600. Based on estimations with a minimum-number-known-alive method, calf survival from the first to the second winter was at least 0.822, and subadult survival was 0.903 to the third, 0.958 to the fourth, 1.00 to the fifth, and 1.00 to the sixth winters. Seven females were observed from year of birth to their first winter with a nursing calf; the mean age at parturition to the first calf that survived to the next winter was 5.4 + 0.98 (SD) years. The estimated ages at first conception ranged from 3 to 6 years. The proportion of adult pregnant females was 0.410/year. Weaning was not observed in winter. Intervals between births averaged 2.60 + 0.81 years. The pooled proportion of adult females nursing first-winter calves was 0.303; the proportion of adult females nursing calves of any age was 0.407. These values do not significantly differ from those ofmanatees from the Crystal River or Atlantic Coast study areas. Anecdotal accounts are provided that suggested the existence of a pseudo estrus, an 11 to 13-month gestation, suppression of parturition in winter, and giving birth in quiet backwaters and canals. A female from Blue Spring produced at least seven calves during the 22 years since first observed and died giving birth at an estimated

  3. Reproductive effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on mouse sperm function and early embryonic development in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Acetamiprid (ACE and imidacloprid (IMI are two major members in the family of neonicotinoid pesticides, which are synthesized with a higher selectivity to insects. The present study determined and compared in vitro effects of ACE, IMI and nicotine on mammalian reproduction by using an integrated testing strategy for reproductive toxicology, which covered sperm quality, sperm penetration into oocytes and preimplantation embryonic development. Direct chemical exposure (500 µM or 5 mM on spermatozoa during capacitation was performed, and in vitro fertilization (IVF process, zygotes and 2-cell embryos were respectively incubated with chemical-supplemented medium until blastocyst formation to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals and monitor the stages mainly affected. Generally, treatment of 500 µM or 5 mM chemicals for 30 min did not change sperm motility and DNA integrity significantly but the fertilization ability in in vitro fertilization (IVF process, indicating that IVF process could detect and distinguish subtle effect of spermatozoa exposed to different chemicals. Culture experiment in the presence of chemicals in medium showed that fertilization process and zygotes are adversely affected by direct exposure of chemicals (PIMI>ACE, whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of neonicotinoid pesticides exposure on mammalian sperm fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, raising the concerns that neonicotinoid pesticides may pose reproductive risks on human reproductive health, especially in professional populations.

  4. Associations between the degree of early lactation inflammation and performance, metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Felippe, M J B; Overton, T R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine associations between the severity of systemic inflammation during the early postpartum period and performance, energy metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows. Cows were assigned to categorical quartiles (Q; Q1=0.18-0.59, Q2=0.60-1.14, Q3=1.15-2.05, and Q4=2.06-2.50 g of haptoglobin/L) based on the highest plasma haptoglobin (Hp) concentration measured during wk 1 postpartum. Although cows were assigned to different categories of inflammation during the postpartum period, we detected a quadratic relationship of inflammation on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW) such that cows in Q2 had lower prepartum DMI and cows in Q2 and Q3 had lower prepartum BW compared with cows in the other quartiles. We also detected a quadratic association of inflammation with postpartum DMI and BW such that cows in Q2 and Q3 also had generally lower postpartum DMI and BW compared with cows in Q1. There was a tendency for a Q × time interaction for milk yield and Q × time interactions for 3.5% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yields; quadratic relationships suggested decreased milk yield for Q2 and Q3 cows. We also found Q × parity and Q × time interactions for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, suggesting alterations with differing degrees of inflammation. There was also a Q × time interaction for plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration. In addition, alterations in liver triglyceride and glycogen contents for cows with inflammation as well as alterations in [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation in vitro were observed. Although we observed limited effects of inflammation on neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at d 7 postpartum, inflammation appeared to alter neutrophil and monocyte oxidative burst. Overall, cows with any degree of elevated haptoglobin in the first week after calving had alterations in both pre- and postpartum intake and postpartum metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American

  5. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  6. Can early ultrasonography explain the lower miscarriage rates in twin as compared to singleton pregnancies following assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póvoa, Ana; Matias, Alexandra; Xavier, Pedro; Blickstein, Isaac

    2017-06-20

    To compare first trimester 2D conventional and 3D power Doppler angiography measures in twins and singletons following assisted reproduction. We prospectively evaluated 50 singleton and 47 twin pregnancies that eventually ended in live births. Patients were recruited from a single assisted reproductive technology (ART) center with standard treatment protocols. Obstetric ultrasound was performed at 8-9 weeks +6 days. Intervillous flow, uteroplacental circulation and uterine artery pulsatility (PI) and resistance index (RI) using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound examination were evaluated. Using three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler angiography, placental volume and the 3D power Doppler indices from the intervillous and uteroplacental circulation were calculated. Demographic and cycle characteristics were similar in mothers of singletons and twins. Placental volume was significantly (1.6-fold) larger in twins. Vascular density and blood perfusion in the intervillous space were lower in twins. The comparison of the other parameters did not show significant differences between singletons and twins. The data confirm the larger placental volume in twins, denoting a probable higher production of placental hormones that would support an early twin pregnancy. The lower vascular density and blood perfusion in the intervillous space in twins may also confer a reproductive advantage to them.

  7. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  8. The effects of energy concentration in roughage and allowance of concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency of pluriparous dairy cows during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rolf; Schnabel, Karina; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Spiekers, Hubert; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different energy supplies from roughage and concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency during early lactation. For this purpose an experiment was conducted containing 64 pluriparous German Holstein cows from 3 weeks prepartum until 16 weeks postpartum. During dry period all cows received an equal dry cow ration. After calving, cows were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four groups, receiving either a moderate (MR, 6.0 MJ NE L ) or a high (HR, 6.4 MJ NE L ) energy concentration in roughage and furthermore moderate (MC, 150 g/kg energy-corrected milk (ECM)) or high amounts of concentrates (HC, 250 g/kg ECM) on dry matter (DM) basis, which were allocated from an automatic feeding system. Higher allocation of concentrates resulted in an increase of DM intake at expense of roughage intake. HC cows had a higher milk yield than MC cows, whereas ECM was higher in HR cows due to a decrease of milk fat yield in MR groups. Energy balance and body condition score were elevated in HC cows, but no differences occurred in development of subclinical ketosis. Furthermore, energy efficiency variables were lower in HC groups because the greater energy intake was not associated with a considerable elevation of milk yield. Consistency of faeces did not indicate digestive disorders in any of the treatment groups although the faecal manure score was significantly lower in HR groups. Our results underline the importance of a high energy uptake from roughage, which can contribute to an adequate performance and beneficial efficiency, especially at lower amounts of concentrates in ration. Feeding concentrates on an average amount of 9.4 kg/d compared to 6.4 kg/d on DM basis improved the energy balance in our trial, but without consequences for metabolic blood variables and general health of the cows.

  9. Bayesian evaluation of budgets for endemic disease control: An example using management changes to reduce milk somatic cell count early in the first lactation of Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S C; Mc Coy, F; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine budgets for specific management interventions to control heifer mastitis in Irish dairy herds as an example of evidence synthesis and 1-step Bayesian micro-simulation in a veterinary context. Budgets were determined for different decision makers based on their willingness to pay. Reducing the prevalence of heifers with a high milk somatic cell count (SCC) early in the first lactation could be achieved through herd level management interventions for pre- and peri-partum heifers, however the cost effectiveness of these interventions is unknown. A synthesis of multiple sources of evidence, accounting for variability and uncertainty in the available data is invaluable to inform decision makers around likely economic outcomes of investing in disease control measures. One analytical approach to this is Bayesian micro-simulation, where the trajectory of different individuals undergoing specific interventions is simulated. The classic micro-simulation framework was extended to encompass synthesis of evidence from 2 separate statistical models and previous research, with the outcome for an individual cow or herd assessed in terms of changes in lifetime milk yield, disposal risk, and likely financial returns conditional on the interventions being simultaneously applied. The 3 interventions tested were storage of bedding inside, decreasing transition yard stocking density, and spreading of bedding evenly in the calving area. Budgets for the interventions were determined based on the minimum expected return on investment, and the probability of the desired outcome. Budgets for interventions to control heifer mastitis were highly dependent on the decision maker's willingness to pay, and hence minimum expected return on investment. Understanding the requirements of decision makers and their rational spending limits would be useful for the development of specific interventions for particular farms to control heifer mastitis, and other

  10. Vitamin B-12 Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Lactation Increases Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Measures of Vitamin B-12 Status12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12–supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12–supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12–supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885

  11. Early lactation performance in primiparous and multiparous women in relation to different maternity home practices. A randomised trial in St. Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welles-Nyström Barbara

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are not many studies exploring parity differences in early lactation performance and the results obtained are fairly often contradictory. The present study investigated the effect of different maternity home practices in St. Petersburg, Russia, as well as of physiological breast engorgement and maternal mood, on milk production in primi- and multiparous women on day four. The amount of milk was studied in relation to the duration of "nearly exclusive" breastfeeding. Methods 176 mother-infant pairs were randomised into four groups according to an experimental two-factor design taking into account infant location and apparel. Data were recorded in the delivery ward at 25–120 minutes postpartum and later in the maternity ward. Group I infants (n = 37 were placed skin-to-skin in the delivery ward while Group II infants (n = 40 were dressed and placed in their mother's arms. Both groups later roomed-in in the maternity ward. These infants had the possibility of early suckling during two hours postpartum. Group III infants (n = 38 were kept in a cot in the delivery and maternity ward nurseries with no rooming-in. Group IV infants (n = 38 were kept in a cot in a delivery ward nursery and later roomed-in in the maternity ward. Equal numbers per group were either swaddled or clothed. Episodes of early suckling were noted. Number of breastfeeds, amount of milk ingested (recorded on day 4 postpartum and duration of "nearly exclusive" breastfeeding were recorded. Intensity of breast engorgement was recorded and a Visual Analogue Scale measured daily maternal feelings of being "low/blue". Results On day four, multiparas had lower milk production than primiparas when they were separated from their infants and breastfeeding according to the prescriptive schedule (7 times a day; Group III. In contrast, there was no difference in milk production between multi- and primiparous mothers in the groups rooming-in and feeding on demand

  12. Visualizing reproduction: a cultural history of early-modern and modern medical illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Written as a response to a conference exhibition of medical illustrations of reproduction, this article considers the gains of an interdisciplinary study of medical illustration to both historians and medics. The article insists that we should not only be attuned to the cultural work that such representations perform but also that such illustrations are the product of material medical practices and the often humane impulses that drive them.

  13. Hormonal Control of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    青野, 敏博; Toshihiro, AONO; 徳島大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tokushima, School of Medicine

    1990-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of normal lactation, especially the roles of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OXT) in the initiation of lactation, the lactation in the women complicated with endocrinological disorders, and medical therapies for stimulation and suppression of lactation. The level of serum PRL increases as pregnancy progresses, and reachs to a peak on the day of delivery. Despite high PRL level, milk secretion does not appear during pregnancy, because the sex steroid hormones suppress bi...

  14. Metabolic responses, performance, and reticuloruminal pH of early-lactating cows fed concentrates treated with lactic acid, with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khol-Parisini, A; Humer, E; Harder, H; Mickdam, E; Zebeli, Q

    2016-08-01

    Recent data indicate beneficial effects of treating grains with lactic acid (LA) in alleviating the need for inorganic phosphorus supplementation during ruminal fermentation in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding concentrates treated with LA with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation on feed intake, performance, blood variables, and reticuloruminal pH in dairy cows. A total of 16 early-lactating cows (12 Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss) were included in this study from d 1 until d 37 postpartum. Cows were fed 3 total mixed rations differing in supplementation of inorganic phosphorus and treatment of concentrates. The control (CON) and LA (+P) diets included a concentrate mixture containing 0.8% monocalcium phosphate, and the LA (-P) diet contained no inorganic phosphorus source. The concentrates of the LA (+P) and LA (-P) diets were treated with 5% LA for 24h before feeding, and the concentrate of the CON diet was not treated. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily, and milk composition and blood variables were determined on several occasions during the trial. Reticuloruminal pH was measured using indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous measurement during the experimental period. Data showed depressed dry matter intake in cows receiving LA-treated concentrates, but milk yield, body weight, and body weight changes remained similar among treatment groups. Cows receiving the LA-treated diets had lower concentrations of serum nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, and insulin, and they tended to have higher serum phosphorus levels. On the other hand, reticuloruminal pH was lower and duration of the pH being acids were lower in the LA (-P) group. Taken together, the 5% LA-treated diet without inorganic phosphorus supplementation did not exert any negative effects on performance. The observed beneficial effects on blood metabolites related to lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and liver variables, as well as

  15. Ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine alleviates inflammation and oxidative stress and improves neutrophil function during the periparturient period and early lactation in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistel, F; Arroyo, J M; Garces, C I M; Trevisi, E; Parys, C; Ballou, M A; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2018-01-01

    results indicate that ethyl-cellulose RPM supply to obtain a Lys-to-Met ratio of 2.8:1 in the metabolizable protein during the periparturient period and early lactation is an effective approach to help mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation as well as enhance liver and neutrophil function in dairy cows. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  16. Effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and cytological endometritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; McArt, J A A; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Nydam, D V; Valdez, F; Griswold, K E; Overton, T R

    2014-10-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=61) were used to determine the effects of chromium propionate (Cr-Pro) supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and the incidence of cytological endometritis (CE). After a 1-wk preliminary period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 63 d postpartum: (1) control (n=31) and (2) Cr-Pro (n=30) administered by daily topdress at a rate of 8 mg/d of Cr. A tendency was detected for increased dry matter intake (DMI) during the prepartum period for cows fed Cr-Pro. Moreover, cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids during the prepartum period. However, effects of Cr-Pro supplementation on postpartum DMI and milk yield were not significant. Cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have higher urea N concentrations in milk. An interaction of treatment and day existed during the postpartum period, such that cows fed Cr-Pro had lower plasma glucose concentrations within the first day postpartum compared with controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was not affected by treatment during the postpartum period. Blood neutrophil glycogen concentrations were not affected by treatment when sampled at either 7 d postpartum or on one day between 40 and 60 d (48 d ± 0.44 standard error) postpartum. Evaluation of endometrial cytology by low volume lavage at 7 d postpartum (first lavage) and on one day between 40 and 60 d (second lavage) postpartum revealed that cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have a higher percentage of neutrophils at first lavage and decreased incidence of CE as assessed at second lavage. In conclusion, supplementation with Cr-Pro resulted in trends for increased DMI and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acids prepartum. Postpartum production and energy metabolism were not affected by treatment; however, Cr-Pro supplementation tended to affect the postpartum influx of neutrophils into the uterus and

  17. SMAD Signaling Is Required for Structural Integrity of the Female Reproductive Tract and Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Amanda; Tripurani, Swamy K; Burton, Jason C; Clementi, Caterina; Larina, Irina; Pangas, Stephanie A

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy is a complex physiological process tightly controlled by the interplay among hormones, morphogens, transcription factors, and signaling pathways. Although recent studies using genetically engineered mouse models have revealed that ligands and receptors of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways are essential for multiple reproductive events during pregnancy, the functional role of SMAD transcription factors, which serve as the canonical signaling platform for the TGFbeta/BMP pathways, in the oviduct and uterus is undefined. Here, we used a mouse model containing triple conditional deletion of the BMP receptor signaling Smads (Smad1 and Smad5) and Smad4, the central mediator of both TGFbeta and BMP signaling, to investigate the role of the SMADs in reproductive tract structure and function in cells from the Amhr2 lineage. Unlike the respective single- or double-knockouts, female Smad1(flox/flox) Smad5(flox/flox) Smad4(flox/flox) Amhr2(cre/+)conditional knockout (i.e., Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO) mice are sterile. We discovered that Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO females have malformed oviducts that subsequently develop oviductal diverticuli. These oviducts showed dysregulation of multiple genes essential for oviduct and smooth muscle development. In addition, uteri from Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO females exhibit multiple defects in stroma, epithelium, and smooth muscle layers and fail to assemble a closed uterine lumen upon embryo implantation, with defective uterine decidualization that led to pregnancy loss at early to mid-gestation. Taken together, our study uncovers a new role for the SMAD transcription factors in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of oviduct and uterus, required for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues.......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during exercise is much debated. In the early days skeletal muscle was mainly seen as the site of lactate production during contraction and lactate production...... associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only played an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this led to a renewed interest, not the least from the Copenhagen School in the 1930s, in the metabolic role...

  19. The effect of supplemental concentrate fed during the dry period on morphological and functional aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle during the dry period and early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000550; Dijkstra, J; Klop, G; Schonewille, J T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Bannink, A

    Ten rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used to examine the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the dry period on rumen papillae morphology and fractional absorption rate (ka) of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during the dry period and subsequent lactation. Treatment consisted of

  20. The effect of supplemental concentrate fed during the dry period on morphological and functional aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle during the dry period and early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, Jan; Klop, G.; Schonewille, J.T.; Bannink, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ten rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used to examine the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the dry period on rumen papillae morphology and fractional absorption rate (ka) of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during the dry period and subsequent lactation. Treatment consisted of

  1. The association of early combined lactate and glucose levels with subsequent renal and liver dysfunction and hospital mortality in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge, Pedro Freire; Wieringa, Nienke; de Felice, Eva; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; lansink, Annemieke Oude; Nijsten, Maarten W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The development of renal and liver dysfunction may be accompanied by initially subtle derangements in the gluconeogenetic function. Discrepantly low glucose levels combined with high lactate levels might indicate an impaired Cori cycle. Our objective was to examine the relation between

  2. The impact of early life nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G; McGregor Argo, C; Jones, D; Grove-White, D

    2018-01-01

    Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100) were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3-4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR) ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age. Group R calves were initially housed in individual pens and received 2.5 litres of MR twice daily via a bucket until 21 days of age when they were group housed and fed 3 litres of MR twice daily via a group trough with weaning commencing at 56 days. From 12 weeks of age onwards, calves in both dietary groups were subject to common nutritional and husbandry protocols. All breeding of heifers was via artificial insemination with no hormonal intervention. Calves were weighed, body condition scored and morphometric measures recorded weekly up till 12 weeks of age then monthly until conception. Pre-weaning growth rates (kg/day) were significantly higher in Group A calves compared to Group R (0.89, 95% CI 0.86-0.93 vs 0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.6 kg/day P 0.050) in any of the mean values of measured reproductive parameters, multivariable Cox regression suggested that there was a weak trend (P = 0.072) for Group A animals to achieve first service earlier than their Group R counterparts (62.6 weeks versus 65.3 weeks). Irrespective of dietary group, the hazard for achievement of all measured reproductive parameters, apart from time to puberty, was 20-40% less for heifers borne from multiparous dams compared to heifers from primiparous dams.

  3. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  4. Short communication. Melatonin improves the reproductive performance of seasonal anoestrus goats exposed to buck effect during early post-partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zarazaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether any combination of buck effect and melatonin treatment could improve reproductive performance in Payoya female goats during early postpartum. Forty-four pregnant female goats were used. After birth in spring, they were distributed into two major groups: females submitted to the buck effect (BE, N=22 or not such effect (NBE, N=22. In turn, the BE animals were subdivided into: 1 no further treatment (CBE, N=11 and 2 implanted with melatonin (MELBE, N=11. And the NBE animals were subdivided into: 3 no further treatment (CNBE, N=12 and 4 implanted with melatonin (MELNBE, N=10. Melatonin was implanted 10 days after birth. Oestrus activity was tested daily using entire males from day of birth (D0 in the groups NBE and from D55 after birth in the BE groups. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed 10 days after the detection of oestrus and 45 days after mounting to determine pregnancy. Fecundity, fertility and productivity were higher in MELBE animals compared to CNBE animals (fecundity and fertility: 66.7% vs. 0.0%, and productivity: 0.73 vs. 0.00 kids/female for MELBE and CNBE respectively, p<0.05, and CBE animals (fecundity and fertility: 66.7% vs. 14.3%, and productivity: 0.73 vs. 0.09 kids/female for MELBE and CBE respectively; p<0.05. No significant differences were recorded between the subgroups of the NBE animals. The present results show that exogenous melatonin improves the reproductive performances of early post-partum Payoya does exposed to male effect during the seasonal anoestrus.

  5. Technical note: A comparison of reticular and ruminal pH monitored continuously with 2 measurement systems at different weeks of early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M; Münger, A; Dohme-Meier, F

    2016-03-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis is one of the most important digestive disorders in high-yielding dairy cows fed highly fermentable diets. Monitoring of forestomach pH has been suggested as a potentially valuable tool for diagnosing subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of the present study was to compare continuously recorded measurements of an indwelling telemetric pH sensor inserted orally in the reticulum with those obtained from a measurement system placed in the ventral sac of the rumen through a cannula. The experiment was conducted with 6 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows kept in a freestall barn. Equal numbers of cows were assigned to 2 treatment groups based on their previous lactation milk yield. Cows in treatment CON- were offered a diet consisting of only fresh herbage cut once daily, and cows in treatment CON+ got fresh herbage plus a concentrate supplement according to the individual milk yield of each cow to meet their predicted nutrient requirements. The experiment lasted from 2 wk before the predicted calving date until wk 8 of lactation. During the whole experiment, a pH value was recorded every 10 min in the reticulum using a wireless telemetry bolus including a pH sensor (eBolus, eCow Ltd., Exeter, Devon, UK), which had been applied orally using a balling gun. Simultaneously, in wk 2, before the estimated calving date and in wk 2, 4, 6, and 8 of lactation, the ruminal pH was measured every 30 s for 48 h with the LRCpH measurement system (Dascor Inc., Escondido, CA) placed in the ventral sac of the rumen through the cannula. The readings of the LRCpH measurement system were summarized as an average over 10 min for statistical analysis. The recorded pH values were on average 0.24 pH units higher in the reticulum than in the rumen. The reticular pH also showed less fluctuation (overall SD 0.19 pH units) than pH profiles recorded in the rumen (overall SD 0.51 pH units). Regardless of measurement system, pH was not influenced by treatment, but varied

  6. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  7. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D.A.; Janssen, S.J.; Edwards, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health. DESIGN: Publications related to the contribution of EDCs to disorders of the ovary (aneuploidy, polycystic ovary syndrome, and altered cyclicity), uterus (endometriosis, uterine fibroids, fetal growth restriction......, and pregnancy loss), breast (breast cancer, reduced duration of lactation), and pubertal timing were identified, reviewed, and summarized at a workshop. CONCLUSION(S): The data reviewed illustrate that EDCs contribute to numerous human female reproductive disorders and emphasize the sensitivity of early life...

  8. Integrating TeamSTEPPS®into ambulatory reproductive health care: Early successes and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Maureen E; Dodge, Laura E; Intondi, Evelyn; Ozcelik, Guzey; Plitt, Ken; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-04-01

    Most medical teamwork improvement interventions have occurred in hospitals, and more efforts are needed to integrate them into ambulatory care settings. In 2014, Affiliates Risk Management Services, Inc. (ARMS), the risk management services organization for a large network of reproductive health care organizations in the United States, launched a voluntary 5-year initiative to implement a medical teamwork system in this network using the TeamSTEPPS model. This article describes the ARMS initiative and progress made during the first 2 years, including lessons learned. The ARMS TeamSTEPPS program consists of the following components: preparation of participating organizations, TeamSTEPPS master training, implementation of teamwork improvement programs, and evaluation. We used self-administered questionnaires to assess satisfaction with the ARMS program and with the master training course. In the first 2 years, 20 organizations enrolled. Participants found the preparation phase valuable and were highly satisfied with the master training course. Although most attendees felt that the course imparted the knowledge and tools critical for TeamSTEPPS implementation, they identified time restraints and competing initiatives as potential barriers. The project team has learned valuable lessons about obtaining buy-in, consolidating the change teams, making the curriculum relevant, and evaluation. Ambulatory care settings require innovative approaches to integration of teamwork improvement systems. Evaluating and sharing lessons learned will help to hone best practices as we navigate this new frontier in the field of patient safety. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  9. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  10. Sexual reproduction in plagiogrammacean diatoms: First insights into the early pennates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kaczmarska

    Full Text Available The genera Plagiogramma and Dimeregramma are members of a small, but evolutionarily important group of diatoms, the "basal" araphids. They are sister to all other pennates, both araphid and raphid taxa. Thus, their phylogenetic position carries the potential for providing insights into the earliest pennates. We documented sexual reproduction, mating system and sex cell development in the first members of the "basal" araphid clade ever investigated. The mating system in all these species involved heterothally. It was, however, more complex in P. tsawwassen, where in addition to heterothallic clones, intraclonal and polysexual clones also exist. Auxospore development and wall structure was similar in all three species and demonstrated several characters also reported from "core" araphids. Of these, vigorous, pseudopodial motility of male secondary spermatocytes and gametes was most notable because it indicates that this character was likely present in the last common ancestor of all the pennates. Pseudopodial motility of the male sex cells might have afforded sufficient compensation and/or benefits to the emerging pennates for replacing flagellated sperm, present in centrics. The characters thus far uniquely present among our plagiogrammaceans but not reported from other pennates were: the "gametic" fusion between sex-compatible secondary spermatocytes, in some cases before completion of Meiosis II in males, transverse perizonial bands produced all together or in quick succession rather than being added to the auxospore apex one at a time, and expanding auxospores with 3-4 nuclei. An initial epivalve, similar in morphology to what in some diatoms had been interpreted as a "longitudinal" perizonium, may be more widespread among pennates than thus far appreciated. In addition, we discovered two species new to science (D. acutumontgo, P. tsawwassen, and refined delineation of P. staurophorum by including metric data from the original material.

  11. Sexual reproduction in plagiogrammacean diatoms: First insights into the early pennates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Irena; Gray, Benjamin S; Ehrman, James M; Thaler, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The genera Plagiogramma and Dimeregramma are members of a small, but evolutionarily important group of diatoms, the "basal" araphids. They are sister to all other pennates, both araphid and raphid taxa. Thus, their phylogenetic position carries the potential for providing insights into the earliest pennates. We documented sexual reproduction, mating system and sex cell development in the first members of the "basal" araphid clade ever investigated. The mating system in all these species involved heterothally. It was, however, more complex in P. tsawwassen, where in addition to heterothallic clones, intraclonal and polysexual clones also exist. Auxospore development and wall structure was similar in all three species and demonstrated several characters also reported from "core" araphids. Of these, vigorous, pseudopodial motility of male secondary spermatocytes and gametes was most notable because it indicates that this character was likely present in the last common ancestor of all the pennates. Pseudopodial motility of the male sex cells might have afforded sufficient compensation and/or benefits to the emerging pennates for replacing flagellated sperm, present in centrics. The characters thus far uniquely present among our plagiogrammaceans but not reported from other pennates were: the "gametic" fusion between sex-compatible secondary spermatocytes, in some cases before completion of Meiosis II in males, transverse perizonial bands produced all together or in quick succession rather than being added to the auxospore apex one at a time, and expanding auxospores with 3-4 nuclei. An initial epivalve, similar in morphology to what in some diatoms had been interpreted as a "longitudinal" perizonium, may be more widespread among pennates than thus far appreciated. In addition, we discovered two species new to science (D. acutumontgo, P. tsawwassen), and refined delineation of P. staurophorum by including metric data from the original material.

  12. Cisto ovariano em vacas de leite: incidência, resposta à aplicação de GnRH e desempenho reprodutivo Ovarian cysts in lactating dairy cows: incidence, response to GnRH, and reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de cistos ovarianos, a resposta ao tratamento com GnRH e os efeitos da ocorrência de cisto no desempenho reprodutivo e na taxa de descarte foram determinados em vacas lactantes da raça Holandesa. Vacas lactantes (n=333 foram avaliadas semanalmente por ultrassonografia a partir da quarta semana pós-parto, visando à detecção de corpos lúteos (CL e de folículos ovarianos maiores que 10mm. Na sétima semana pós-parto, as vacas foram classificadas: em ciclando (n=248; presença de CL em um dos exames ultrassonográficos; em anestro (n=54; ausência de CL e de folículos >25mm e com cisto (n=31; ausência de CL e presença de estruturas >25mm, quando foram distribuídas em: grupo-controle (n=16; sem tratamento e grupo-tratamento (n=15; vacas que receberam uma aplicação de GnRH. A taxa de cura foi de 60,0% no grupo das vacas tratadas e de 87,5% no grupo-controle. As vacas com cistos apresentaram maior intervalo parto-primeira inseminação artificial (PThe incidence of ovarian cysts, response to GnRH treatment, and effects on reproductive performance and culling rate of Holstein cows were determined. Ovaries of lactating cows (n=333, were weekly monitored by ultrasound, beginning at fourth week postpartum, to determine the presence of corpus luteum (CL and follicles greater than 10mm. In the seventh week the cows were classified as cycling (n=248; presence of corpus luteum (CL in one of the ultrasound evaluations; anovulatory (n=54; absence of CL and follicles less than 25mm, and cystic (n=31; absence of CL and presence of structures greater than 25mm. The cysts cows were distributed in two groups in the seventh week: control group (n=16; without treatment and treatment group (n=15; cows received one GnRH injection. The recovery rate was 60.0% in treated cows and 87.5% in control cows. The cystic cows had longer average interval from parturition to first AI (P<0.05; 91.4±8.3 vs. 77.8±2.5, higher number of services per

  13. The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Bailey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of warming and acidifying on oceans on the early development life history stages of invertebrates although difficult, is essential in order to anticipate the severity and consequences of future climate change. This review summarises the current literature and meta-analyses on the early life-history stages of invertebrates including fertilisation, larval development and the implications for dispersal and settlement of populations. Although fertilisation appears robust to near future predictions of ocean acidification, larval development is much more vulnerable and across invertebrate groups, evidence indicates that the impacts may be severe. This is especially for those many marine organisms which start to calcify in their larval and/or juvenile stages. Species-specificity and variability in responses and current gaps in the literature are highlighted, including the need for studies to investigate the total effects of climate change including the synergistic impact of temperature, and the need for long-term multigenerational experiments to determine whether vulnerable invertebrate species have the capacity to adapt to elevations in atmospheric CO2 over the next century.

  14. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation; Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  15. Effect of different feeding strategies on lactation performance of Holstein and Normande dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaby, L; Faverdin, P; Michel, G; Disenhaus, C; Peyraud, J L

    2009-06-01

    milk (Hh and Hb), had the lowest rate of success at first artificial inseminations (21.5%). The dual-purpose Normande cows had a pregnancy rate 10 points higher than Holstein cows. This comparison of strongly contrasting feeding strategies confirms the immediate reactivity of dairy cows (in terms of milk performance and body condition) to variations of nutritive intake throughout lactation, with a weak carryover effect from feeding levels early in lactation. In contrast, reproduction performance was less sensitive to variation in nutrient supply.

  16. Reproductive effects on skeletal health in Shuar women of Amazonian Ecuador: a life history perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon, Tara J; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological research suggest that bone mineral density (BMD) in women is shaped by various reproductive factors such as parity and lactation patterns. However, the extent of these effects on BMD remains unclear because of contradictory findings and a focus on industrialized populations. Because fertility patterns in these groups are vastly different than those of women from non-Western, subsistence populations, our current understanding of the reproductive effects on skeletal health is incomplete. Using a life history perspective, this study examines the relationship between reproductive factors and bone density among women from the Indigenous Shuar population, an Amazonian Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist group. This preliminary, cross-sectional study included 130 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (14-86 years old) from the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador. Anthropometrics were recorded, as was estimated BMD using a calcaneal ultrasonometer. A reproductive history questionnaire was administered that included questions regarding menarche, parity, lactation patterns, and menopause. Among postmenopausal women, early menarche and greater stature were significantly associated with higher bone density values. Among premenopausal women, few significant relationships between bone values and reproductive variables were documented; effects of lactation appeared to be transient and restored following weaning. Although preliminary and not based on longitudinal data, these findings suggest that the effects of reproduction are transient as the system of calcium homeostasis in premenopausal women efficiently restores the bone loss that results from metabolically active reproductive states. Further, this research suggests that the timing of early life history events may canalize bone density phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Flooding tolerance in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) at early vegetative and reproductive growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic flooding at any growth stage greatly affects growth and yield of crops. In order to develop flooding tolerant cotton cultivar and to identify the most sensitive growth stage to periodic flooding, a field experiment was conducted in which 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were subjected to two week flooding at seedling/early vegetative, flower and boll formation growth stages. Pre- and post-flooding soil analysis was also carried out. Nitrate-N was greatly reduced due to flooding applied at all growth stages, whereas NH4-N increased significantly. Similarly, Fe and Mn were also increased to many folds in flooded soils. Under hypoxic conditions, depletion of nitrates and toxic effects of accumulated NH4, Fe and Mn caused severe damages to cotton plants and even death of plants. Of the three growth stages, early vegetative growth stage is most sensitive to two week flooding. Flooding imposed at the flowering and boll formation growth stages caused a substantial amount of yield penalty. On the basis of survival percentage, the 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were categorized into tolerant (61%), moderately tolerant (31=60%) and sensitive (31%) to short term flooding. At the seedling or early vegetative growth stage, genotypes DPL-SR-2 followed by 124-F and MNH-427 were most tolerant to flooding, while AET-5, N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were ranked as sensitive to flooding stress. At the flowering stage, the genotype NIAB-92 followed by S-14 and MNH-427 were highly tolerant to flooding. At the boll formation stage, genotypes DPL-70010-N followed by GH-11-9-75 and B-2918-2 were highly tolerant waterlogging. More than 50% of the genotypes maintained the degree of flooding tolerance at three growth stages. However, on the basis of survival percentage at three growth stages, genotypes MNH-564, FH-114, MNH-786 and CIM-573 were included in the tolerant group and the genotypes N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were included in the sensitive group. These

  18. Metabolic programming during lactation stimulates renal Na+ transport in the adult offspring due to an early impact on local angiotensin II pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luzardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have correlated perinatal malnutrition with diseases in adulthood, giving support to the programming hypothesis. In this study, the effects of maternal undernutrition during lactation on renal Na(+-transporters and on the local angiotensin II (Ang II signaling cascade in rats were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female rats received a hypoproteic diet (8% protein throughout lactation. Control and programmed offspring consumed a diet containing 20% protein after weaning. Programming caused a decrease in the number of nephrons (35%, in the area of the Bowman's capsule (30% and the capillary tuft (30%, and increased collagen deposition in the cortex and medulla (by 175% and 700%, respectively. In programmed rats the expression of (Na(++K(+ATPase in proximal tubules increased by 40%, but its activity was doubled owing to a threefold increase in affinity for K(+. Programming doubled the ouabain-insensitive Na(+-ATPase activity with loss of its physiological response to Ang II, increased the expression of AT(1 and decreased the expression of AT(2 receptors, and caused a pronounced inhibition (90% of protein kinase C activity with decrease in the expression of the α (24% and ε (13% isoforms. Activity and expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase decreased in the same proportion as the AT(2 receptors (30%. In vivo studies at 60 days revealed an increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR (70%, increased Na(+ excretion (80% and intense proteinuria (increase of 400% in protein excretion. Programmed rats, which had normal arterial pressure at 60 days, became hypertensive by 150 days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Maternal protein restriction during lactation results in alterations in GFR, renal Na(+ handling and in components of the Ang II-linked regulatory pathway of renal Na(+ reabsorption. At the molecular level, they provide a framework for understanding how metabolic programming of renal mechanisms

  19. [Human milk - variations in lactose, potassium, sodium and total lipid concentrations and in fatty acids composition of lactating women in early puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, M; Dolar, J

    1976-01-01

    Some biochemical components were studied in the milk of 16 lactating women during the first six postpartum days. A gradual increase in the lactose and potassium concentration and a decrease in the sodium concentration were observed, as well as an increase in the total lipids concentration and a significant shifting in the fatty acids composition where the biosynthesis of the fatty acids with a lower number of C atoms (C 10:0, C12:0, C 14:0) at the expence of the fatty acids with higher C atoms number was intensified.

  20. From gestation to weaning: Combining robust design and multi-event models unveils cost of lactation in a large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Quentin; Toïgo, Carole; Appolinaire, Joël; Loison, Anne; Garel, Mathieu

    2017-10-01

    The cost of current reproduction on survival or future reproduction is one of the most studied trade-offs governing resource distribution between fitness components. Results have often been clouded, however, by the existence of individual heterogeneity, with high-quality individuals able to allocate energy to several functions simultaneously, at no apparent cost. Surprisingly, it has also rarely been assessed within a breeding season by breaking down the various reproductive efforts of females from gestation to weaning, even though resource availability and energy requirements vary greatly. We filled this gap by using an intensively monitored population of Pyrenean chamois and by expanding a new methodological approach integrating robust design in a multi-event framework. We distinguished females that gave birth or not, and among reproducing females whether they lost their kid or successfully raised it until weaning. We estimated spring and summer juvenile survival, investigated whether gestation, lactation or weaning incurred costs on the next reproductive occasion, and assessed how individual heterogeneity influenced the detection of such costs. Contrary to expectations if trade-offs occur, we found a positive relationship between gestation and adult survival suggesting that non-breeding females are in poor condition. Costs of reproduction were expressed through negative relationships between lactation and both subsequent breeding probability and spring juvenile survival. Such costs could be detected only once individual heterogeneity (assessed as two groups contrasting good vs. poor breeders) and time variations in juvenile survival were accounted for. Early lactation decreased the probability of future reproduction, providing quantitative evidence of the fitness cost of this period recognized as the most energetically demanding in female mammals and critical for neonatal survival. The new approach employed made it possible to estimate two components of kid

  1. Correlation between an early sexual debut, and reproductive health and behavioral factors: a multinational European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårdh, P A; Creatsas, G; Guaschino, S; Hellberg, D; Henry-Suchet, J

    2000-09-01

    To investigate whether women who made an early sexual debut differ from those with a later debut regarding genital signs and symptoms. The study included women who considered themselves gynecologically healthy and who attended 17 family planning centers in 13 European countries for contraceptive advice. There were 629 women who made their sexual debut at the age of 16 years or earlier (study population) and 927 women who had their first sexual intercourse at the age of 19 years or later (comparison group). Genital symptoms and signs, contraceptive use, smoking, and genital hygiene habits and previous genital infections were recorded on a structured patient record form. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis was made by means of a polymerase chain reaction on first-void urine. The study was made, on average, 7-10 years after the women's sexual debut. The mean age of first intercourse was 15.3 years for the study group versus 20.7 years for the control group (p hygiene. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.22). Age at first intercourse is not only a predictor of sexual risk behavior, but also a predictor, regarding both signs and symptoms, of future gynecological problems.

  2. Risk factors vary early preterm birth and perinatal complications after assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, G; Gazieva, I; Remizova, I; Ustyantseva, L; Lyapunov, V; Bychkova, S

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a study of markers of endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis regulation, as well as the identification of the main lymphocyte populations, activated CD3  +  CD95 + -cells and cytokine-producing CD4  +  IFN-γ + -, CD4  +  IL-4 +  -lymphocytes in the 1st trimester of gestation in women with ART-induced pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancy. We used the same indicators to assess the immune status of ELBW infants at birth and at the post-conceptual age of 38-40 weeks. It was determined that the risk factors of very early preterm delivery are: threatened miscarriage, chronic placental insufficiency, endothelial dysfunction, increased spontaneous production of intracellular cytokines. Adverse perinatal outcomes in ELBW infants from ART-induced pregnancy are associated with lower anthropometric measures, low Apgar scores high level of inflammatory infections (pneumonia), grade II intraventricular hemorrhage, movement disorders in the form of lower paraparesis. Immune status of those infants is characterized by the increase in the number of CD8 + - and CD3 - CD16  +  CD56 +  -lymphocytes, the expression level of Fas-receptor by T-cells, and the increased production of intracellular and serum IFNγ against the decrease in the number of CD4 + -cells, which indicates enhancing of cytotoxic effector potential and proinflammatory orientation of cell responses.

  3. TNFα altered inflammatory responses, impaired health and productivity, but did not affect glucose or lipid metabolism in early-lactation dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα, affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control, 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P0.10 was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P0.10 by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P0.10 by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P=0.18 by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P=0.08. Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows.

  4. Impact of early season apical meristem injury by gall inducing tipworm (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on reproductive and vegetative growth of cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S; Buonaccorsi, J P; Averill, A L

    2013-06-01

    Larvae of cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, disrupt early season growth of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) uprights or shoots by feeding on apical meristem tissue. A 2-yr field study was carried out at three different locations to determine the impact of tipworm feeding injury on the reproductive and vegetative growth of two cranberry cultivars ('Howes' and 'Stevens') in Massachusetts. In addition to tipworm-injured and intact control uprights, an artificial injury treatment simulating tipworm feeding was also included. Individual uprights of cranberry exhibited tolerance to natural (tipworm) and simulated apical meristem injury in the current growing season (fruit production) and results were corroborated by a greenhouse study. In the field study, weight of fruit was higher in tipworm-injured uprights as compared with intact control uprights at the sites with Howes. However, majority of injured uprights (tipworm and simulated) did not produce new growth from lateral buds (side-shoots) before the onset of dormancy. In the next growing season, fewer injured uprights resumed growth and produced flowers as compared with intact uprights at two of the three sites. We suggest that multiple-year studies focusing on whole plant response to tipworm herbivory will be required to determine the costs of chronic feeding injury over time.

  5. Metabolism of taurine during reproduction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, D J; Rana, S K; Emery, P W

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of excretion of taurine was measured in four omnivore and four vegan/vegetarian women during pregnancy and lactation, and was compared with the changes in urinary excretion of other amino acids, including the precursors of endogenous taurine, observed in ten pregnant omnivores. The loss of taurine in breast milk was also determined in fourteen omnivore and fourteen vegan mothers. In contrast to the rise in excretion of all amino acids during pregnancy, including methionine and cysteine, taurine excretion fell dramatically from week 9 of pregnancy in all subjects, and, in the vegan/vegetarian subjects, fell still further during lactation. Although the concentration of taurine in breast milk was lower in vegan subjects, the mean value fell within the range found in omnivore subjects. Our findings indicate that the suppression of urinary taurine excretion, both during pregnancy and lactation, is a physiological response to reproduction that satisfies the needs of the fetus and the suckling infant for this amino acid. The data also suggest that taurine is stored in the maternal tissues in early pregnancy for later transfer to the fetus.

  6. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, D. Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J.; Edwards, Thea M.; Heindel, Jerrold; Ho, Shuk-mei; Hunt, Patricia; Iguchi, Taisen; Juul, Anders; McLachlan, John A.; Schwartz, Jackie; Skakkebaek, Niels; Soto, Ana M.; Swan, Shanna; Walker, Cheryl; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Giudice, Linda C.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health. Design Publications related to the contribution of EDCs to disorders of the ovary (aneuploidy, polycystic ovary syndrome, and altered cyclicity), uterus (endometriosis, uterine fibroids, fetal growth restriction, and pregnancy loss), breast (breast cancer, reduced duration of lactation), and pubertal timing were identified, reviewed, and summarized at a workshop. Conclusion(s) The data reviewed illustrate that EDCs contribute to numerous human female reproductive disorders and emphasize the sensitivity of early life-stage exposures. Many research gaps are identified that limit full understanding of the contribution of EDCs to female reproductive problems. Moreover, there is an urgent need to reduce the incidence of these reproductive disorders, which can be addressed by correlative studies on early life exposure and adult reproductive dysfunction together with tools to assess the specific exposures and methods to block their effects. This review of the EDC literature as it relates to female health provides an important platform on which women’s health can be improved. PMID:18929049

  7. Effect of acarbose on milk yield and composition in early-lactation dairy cattle fed a ration to induce subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, C L; Thompson, A; Greenwood, K; Sherington, J; Bruce, C

    2009-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis reduces lactation performance in dairy cattle and most often occurs in animals fed a high concentrate:forage ration with large amounts of readily fermentable starch, which results in increased production of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid and a reduction in ruminal pH. Acarbose is commercially available (Glucobay, Bayer, Wuppertal, Germany) and indicated for the control of blood glucose in diabetic patients. In cattle, acarbose acts as an alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitor that slows the rate of degradation of starch to glucose, thereby reducing the rate of volatile fatty acid production and maintaining rumen pH at higher levels. The ability of acarbose to reverse the reduced feed intake and milk fat percentage and yield associated with a high concentrate:forage ration with a high risk of inducing subacute ruminal acidosis was evaluated in 2 experiments with lactating dairy cattle. In 2 preliminary experiments, the effects of a 70:30 concentrate:forage ration on ruminal pH and lactation were evaluated. Ruminal pH was monitored in 5 Holstein steers with ruminal cannulas every 10 min for 5 d. Ruminal pH was cattle were offered the 70:30 concentrate:forage ration with 0 or 0.75 g/d of acarbose added in a crossover design in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, acarbose increased dry matter feed intake (23.1 vs. 21.6 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (33.7 vs. 31.7 kg/d) because of an increase in percentage milk fat (3.33 vs. 3.04%) compared with control cows. In the second experiment, cows were fasted for 3 h before the morning feeding to induce consumption of a large meal to mimic conditions that might be associated with unplanned delayed feeding. In this experiment, acarbose also increased feed intake (22.5 vs. 21.8 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (36.9 vs. 33.9 kg/d) due to increased percentage milk fat (3.14 vs. 2.66%) compared with controls. Thus, acarbose reversed the decreased feed intake and low milk fat

  8. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  9. Nutritional sub-fertility in the dairy cow: towards improved reproductive management through a better biological understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Disenhaus, C; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    There has been a significant decline in the reproductive performance of dairy cattle in recent decades. Cows, take longer time to return to the oestrus after calving, have poorer conception rates, and show fewer signs of oestrus. Achieving good reproductive performance is an increasing challenge for the dairy producer. In this study we focus on understanding the overall biological phenomena associated with nutritional sub-fertility rather than the underlying multiplicity of physiological interactions (already described in a number of recent studies). These phenomena are important because they represent the natural adaptations of the animal for dealing with variations in the nutritional environment. They can also be used to monitor and modulate reproductive performance on-farm. There is an underlying trade-off between two aspects of reproduction: investment in the viability of the current calf and investment in future offspring. As the investment in, and viability of, the current calf is related to maternal milk production, we can expect that level of milk production per se has effects on subsequent reproductive performance (investment in future offspring). Lactating cows have a lower proportion of viable embryos, which are of poorer quality, than do non-lactating cows. The same applies to high- compared to medium-genetic merit cows. Another important biological property is the adaptive use of body reserves in support of reproduction. Orchestrated endocrine changes in pregnancy and lactation facilitate the deposition of body lipid during pregnancy and mobilisation in early lactation. When the cow fails to accumulate the reserves she needs to safeguard reproduction she delays committing to further reproductive investment. But how does the cow 'know' that she is failing in energy terms? We argue that the cow does this by 'monitoring' both the body fat mobilisation and body fatness. Excessive body fat mobilisation indicates that current conditions are worse than

  10. Seasonal foraging behavioural compensation in reproductive wapiti hinds (Cervus elaphus canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir; Hudson

    2000-03-22

    Captive wapiti hinds were observed during seven periods between June 1996 and November 1997. We investigated their activity and foraging behaviour on two pastures, heavily and lightly grazed, during four phases of the reproductive cycle (early gestation, late gestation, peak lactation, and late lactation). Within season, differences in forage availability between pastures had little apparent effect on wapiti feeding behaviour (p0.05). However, within each pasture, hinds tended to select locations of higher phytomass than the pasture average. Among seasons, effects of forage availability on feeding behaviour were pronounced. Hinds grazed longest in late lactation (12.8 h/day), when they spent 94% of their active time foraging, whereas during early gestation they foraged fewer hours (8.2 h/day) and less intensively (66% of active time). The longest foraging bouts also occurred in late lactation (100 min) and decreased linearly as the number of bouts per day increased (R(2)=0.88). The annual peak bite rate (BR) was in late lactation (62 bites/min), whereas the annual nadir occurred in early gestation (37 bites/min). Smallest bite sizes (BS) (mg) were recorded in late gestation (127 mg), and increased linearly with forage availability (R(2)=0.46), with largest BS occurring during peak lactation (280 mg). This study demonstrated how seasonal modifications in activity and foraging behaviour enabled gestating and lactating wapiti hinds to satisfy their changing nutritional requirements on seasonal pastures. Knowledge of behavioural compensation in response to nutritional demand and pasture conditions will be useful in designing supplementation program for farmed wapiti.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L.

    2006-01-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  12. Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis | Davey | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy-and lactation-associated osteoporosis is a rare syndrome of spontaneous fractures occurring in late pregnancy or lactation. Early diagnosis and management is essential, because of the severity of the morbidity associated with these fractures. Prior to therapy, other reversible causes of osteoporosis should be ...

  13. Importance of measuring lactate levels in children with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Nisha

    2017-10-10

    Sepsis is a major public health problem as well as one of the leading causes of preventable death in children because of failure to recognise the early signs and symptoms and to resuscitate rapidly. Blood lactate levels are used to assess the severity of sepsis and the effectiveness of resuscitation. Lactate levels are easily obtainable and should be checked in all patients admitted with suspected sepsis within six hours of presentation. The test should be repeated four and eight-hours post-diagnosis of sepsis. For the diagnosis of sepsis, patients' clinical symptoms, along with the combined analysis of partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide and lactate levels, should be used. A multitude of factors can cause elevated lactate levels and so clinicians should use elevated levels cautiously by considering all other aetiologies. This article, which focuses on practice in Australia but makes reference to the UK, discusses the importance of measuring lactate levels in sepsis, the pathophysiology of lactate production, causes of elevated lactate levels, lactate measurement, nursing management of patients with elevated lactate levels, limitations of using lactate as a biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and implications for practice. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  14. CSF LACTATE IN MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjampakuthikal Aboobekar Haris

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningitis is an infection within the subarachnoid space characterised by a CNS inflammatory reaction. It is a serious condition requiring immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to be started at the earliest to prevent mortality as well as irreversible neurological deficits. CSF lactate has been found useful in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in many studies in the western population, but studies in Indian population are limited. The aim of the study is to study whether CSF lactate can be used to distinguish bacterial from viral meningitis and to study the levels of CSF lactate in tuberculosis meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. In this study, 78 cases of meningitis were selected. Cases are patients with bacterial, viral or tuberculosis meningitis admitted to the hospital under the Department of Medicine and Neurology. Cases are grouped into bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis based on clinical picture, CSF analysis and imaging characteristics. CSF lactate estimation was done by dry chemistry method. Using appropriate statistical methods and SPSS software, CSF lactate levels were compared among these groups and analysed for any association with the final outcome. RESULTS The levels of CSF lactate in bacterial meningitis were higher than viral meningitis with a statistical significance of p 35 mg/dL for bacterial meningitis in this study was 95% and 100% respectively and the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96%. The mean CSF lactate values in bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis were 124.40 ± 35.85 mg/dL, 24.34 ± 6.05 mg/dL and 50.13 ± 9.89 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION CSF lactate level was significantly elevated in bacterial meningitis than tuberculosis or viral meningitis and can be used as a marker for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  15. Point-of-care lactate testing in emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Purg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is a product of anaerobic metabolism, which can be used to detect the critically ill. Rapid recognition, early appropriate treatment and control of treatment success are paramount in that population. Lactate levels need to be available as soon as possible if they are to be of assistance at the bedside. Point-of-care analyzers enable rapid determination of lactate. The role of point-of-care lactate analyzers in the treatment of the critically ill, different analysis techniques and limitations of point-of-care lactate analyzers are presented. The use of point-of-care lactate analyzers is demonstrated in two cases of patients with sepsis. The first patient is a 73-year-old female, where point-of-care lactate was determined immediately. Septic shock with multi-organ failure developed. She was successfully treated and discharged after 14 days to home care. The second patient is a 62-year old male, where elevated lactate was detected after three hours. The patient died after a total of 5 months of treatment in the intensive care unit. Lactate can be an important tool in early recognition and treatment of the critically ill.

  16. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting and delayed reproductive effects of developmental exposure to mixtures of environmental chemicals were investigated in female rats. Wistar rats were dosed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of endocrine disrupters, and effects in offspring were studied. The mixtures consisted...... or effects on ovary development may account for the observed effect. This study demonstrated that developmental exposure of rats to mixtures of endocrine disrupters can induce long-lasting adverse effects manifested as early reproductive senescence even though no effects on estrous cyclicity were observed....... Additionally, groups received mixtures including only the anti-androgens or estrogens at 200 or 450 times human intake. Female offspring exposed to the high dose mixture of all 13 chemicals showed earlier reproductive aging measured as early onset of irregular estrous cycle as compared to controls...

  17. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  18. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U- 14 C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production

  19. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingjie; Berglund, B.; Fikse, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    estimates for RFI between early and later lactation tended to be higher when using model [2] compared with model [1]. In conclusion, partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks differed across lactation when modeling RFI. Neglect of lactation stage when defining RFI could affect the assessment...

  20. The influence of lactation stage on the milk constituents of Sahelian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve lactating Sahelian goats aged between 2 and 3 years and averaging 25kg body weight were selected from the herd at the University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm, for a 19- week lactation study. The does were classified into early, mid, and late lactation stages and maintained daily on 1kg concentrate ...

  1. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Ethinyl Estradiol, but not Bisphenol A, Decreases Androgen-Dependent Reproductive Organ Weights and Epididymal Sperm Abundance in the Male Long Evans Hooded Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many chemicals released into the environment are capable of disrupting normal sex steroid balance, including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA). EE and BPA are reported to impair reproductive organ development in laboratory ani...

  2. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A.

    2015-01-01

    protein percentages. Conclusions The results suggested that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms. PMID:26422371

  3. The Impact of Intramammary Escherichia coli Challenge on Liver and Mammary Transcriptome and Cross-Talk in Dairy Cows during Early Lactation Using RNAseq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, K M; Sørensen, P; Bionaz, M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the biological response and the cross-talk between liver and mammary tissue after intramammary infection (IMI) with Escherichia coli (E. coli) using RNAseq technology. Sixteen cows were inoculated with live E. coli into one mammary quarter at ~4-6 weeks in lactation. For all cows, biopsies were performed at -144, 12 and 24 h relative to IMI in liver and at 24 h post-IMI in infected and non-infected (control) mammary quarters. For a subset of cows (n = 6), RNA was extracted from both liver and mammary tissue and sequenced using a 100 bp paired-end approach. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the Dynamic Impact Approach analysis of differentially expressed genes (overall effect False Discovery Rate≤0.05) indicated that IMI induced an overall activation of inflammation at 12 h post-IMI and a strong inhibition of metabolism, especially related to lipid, glucose, and xenobiotics at 24 h post-IMI in liver. The data indicated in mammary tissue an overall induction of inflammatory response with little effect on metabolism at 24 h post-IMI. We identified a large number of up-stream regulators potentially involved in the response to IMI in both tissues but a relatively small core network of transcription factors controlling the response to IMI for liver whereas a large network in mammary tissue. Transcriptomic results in liver and mammary tissue were supported by changes in inflammatory and metabolic mediators in blood and milk. The analysis of potential cross-talk between the two tissues during IMI uncovered a large communication from the mammary tissue to the liver to coordinate the inflammatory response but a relatively small communication from the liver to the mammary tissue. Our results indicate a strong induction of the inflammatory response in mammary tissue and impairment of liver metabolism 24h post-IMI partly driven by the signaling from infected mammary tissue.

  4. The Impact of Intramammary Escherichia coli Challenge on Liver and Mammary Transcriptome and Cross-Talk in Dairy Cows during Early Lactation Using RNAseq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Moyes

    Full Text Available Our objective was to identify the biological response and the cross-talk between liver and mammary tissue after intramammary infection (IMI with Escherichia coli (E. coli using RNAseq technology. Sixteen cows were inoculated with live E. coli into one mammary quarter at ~4-6 weeks in lactation. For all cows, biopsies were performed at -144, 12 and 24 h relative to IMI in liver and at 24 h post-IMI in infected and non-infected (control mammary quarters. For a subset of cows (n = 6, RNA was extracted from both liver and mammary tissue and sequenced using a 100 bp paired-end approach. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the Dynamic Impact Approach analysis of differentially expressed genes (overall effect False Discovery Rate≤0.05 indicated that IMI induced an overall activation of inflammation at 12 h post-IMI and a strong inhibition of metabolism, especially related to lipid, glucose, and xenobiotics at 24 h post-IMI in liver. The data indicated in mammary tissue an overall induction of inflammatory response with little effect on metabolism at 24 h post-IMI. We identified a large number of up-stream regulators potentially involved in the response to IMI in both tissues but a relatively small core network of transcription factors controlling the response to IMI for liver whereas a large network in mammary tissue. Transcriptomic results in liver and mammary tissue were supported by changes in inflammatory and metabolic mediators in blood and milk. The analysis of potential cross-talk between the two tissues during IMI uncovered a large communication from the mammary tissue to the liver to coordinate the inflammatory response but a relatively small communication from the liver to the mammary tissue. Our results indicate a strong induction of the inflammatory response in mammary tissue and impairment of liver metabolism 24h post-IMI partly driven by the signaling from infected mammary tissue.

  5. Effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites, and nutritional status of sows during transition on performance in the next lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Lauridsen, C; Sørensen, M T

    2012-01-01

    .1) on d 1 of lactation. The LWG in early lactation was inversely correlated with plasma lactate on d 108 (P ... on d 108 during the transition, and negatively correlated with intake of LCFA and ME intake on d 108 to 112 (P feeding and body condition of sows during the transition from gestation to lactation is important for neonatal piglet survival, lactation performance of sows...

  6. Lactation in Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    Preservation and promotion of breastfeeding in Islamic countries could be increased by stressing the religious importance of this practice as prescribed in Islamic religious teachings. The child's right to be breastfed is affirmed by the Quaran, the source of Islamic law and morality. Quranic verse 2:233 recommends a 2 year period of lactation. According to Islam a nursing mother is entitled to receive compensation from the father for nursing the child. The father, though, has the option to engage a paid or unpaid wet-nurse for the child, in which case the mother looses her right to be paid for nursing even is she volunteered to breastfeed. The mother's right to nurse a child without compensation is prior to a father's right to engage a wet-nurse. In another Islamic source the moral importance of breastfeeding is stressed. The mother receives the reward of a good deed for every single drop she gives her child. Islamic precepts on lactation influenced Arabian medicine. Avicenna's view that children should be breastfed for 2 years was approvingly quoted by European physicians in the 17th century. Major Arabian medical texts contain chapters on lactation, on tests for quality of breast milk, and on diets and drugs for improving lactation. Research at Al-Azhar University is directed toward finding a contraceptive that will not inhabit lactation and will not affect the quality of breast milk.

  7. The indirect association of lactation with subsequent perimenopausal body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rush, D.; Lumey, L. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Myers, B.

    1996-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the relationship of prior breastfeeding to perimenopausal body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). While most long-term studies of women's body weight after reproductive experience have found a negative relationship between lactation and body weight, most short-term studies found either

  8. Concurrent pregnancy and lactation in wild giraffes ( Giraffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactation boosts reproductive costs by depleting maternal condition and delaying subsequent conception. However, some evidence suggests that giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) have evolved a mechanism to minimise the time allocated to suckling-induced suppression of ovulation. Here, we show for the first time that wild ...

  9. From 'public service' to artificial insemination: animal breeding science and reproductive research in early twentieth-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) was the first conceptive technology to be widely used in agriculture. Whereas at the beginning of the twentieth century all cows in England and Wales were mated to bulls, by the end of the 1950s 60% conceived through artificial insemination. By then a national network of 'cattle breeding centres' brought AI within the reach of every farmer. In this paper I explore how artificial insemination, which had few supporters in the 1920s and 1930s, was transformed into an 'indispensable' method for reproducing cattle. I discuss the factors that made organised AI possible (but still negotiable and controversial), including changes in cultures of cattle breeding, novel State involvement in bovine reproduction, the rise of new 'animal breeding research' centres at Cambridge, Edinburgh and Reading universities, war preparations and central planning by the Milk Marketing Board (from 1933). I go on to show that the unprecedented focus on bovine reproduction set in motion by the AI centres effectively generated new networks of reproductive research, through these the 'biopower' of the farm was incorporated into the clinic. The example of AI shows that by combining the history of reproductive technology in agriculture and medicine we can give a richer account of modern reproduction.

  10. Performance of automated activity monitoring systems used in combination with timed artificial insemination compared to timed artificial insemination only in early lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Cerri, R L A; Jones-Bitton, A; LeBlanc, S J

    2018-01-01

    Identifying cows in estrus remains a challenge on dairy cattle farms, and tools and technologies have been developed and used to complement or replace visual detection of estrus. Automated activity monitoring (AAM) systems and timed artificial insemination (TAI) are technologies available to dairy farmers, but many factors can influence their relative performance. The objective of the present study was to compare reproductive performance of cows managed with an AAM system combined with TAI, or with a TAI program (Double Ovsynch) for insemination before 88 DIM. From April 2014 to April 2015, 998 cows from 2 herds were randomly assigned either to be inseminated at 85 ± 3 DIM exclusively using the Double Ovsynch protocol for TAI, or to be inseminated based on estrus detection by AAM without hormonal intervention between 50 and 75 DIM; if no alarm was detected by 75 DIM, cows were inseminated following the single Ovsynch protocol (AAM + Ovsynch). The herds used different AAM systems. Parity, hyperketonemia at wk 1 and 2 postpartum (PP), purulent vaginal discharge at wk 5 PP, body condition score at wk 7 PP, and anovulation to wk 9 PP were recorded. These health indicators did not significantly differ between treatments, but did between herds. The effect of treatment on pregnancy at first insemination and by 88 DIM were assessed using logistic regression models. Time to pregnancy was assessed using survival analysis. Results are reported from intention-to-treat analyses. Treatment did not affect pregnancy at first insemination or pregnancy by 88 DIM, but we found significant interactions between treatment and herd for both outcomes. In herd 2, marginal mean pregnancy at first AI was greater with Double Ovsynch (38%) than AAM + Ovsynch (31%), but no difference was observed in herd 1 (Double Ovsynch = 31%; AAM + Ovsynch = 34%). By 88 DIM, a smaller proportion of cows in herd 1 were pregnant in Double Ovsynch (31%) than AAM + Ovsynch (49%), but there was no difference in

  11. Windows of Susceptibility and Consequences of Early Life Exposures to 17β-estradiol on Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Reproductive Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Pow, Crystal S D; Tilahun, Kedamawit; Creech, Kari; Law, J Mac; Cope, W Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J; Rice, James A; Aday, D Derek; Kullman, Seth W

    2017-05-02

    Estrogens and estrogen mimics are commonly found in surface waters and are associated with deleterious effects in fish populations. Impaired fertility and fecundity in fish following chronic exposures to estrogens and estrogen mimics during critical windows in development are well documented. However, information regarding differential reproductive effects of exposure within defined developmental stages remains sparse. In this study, reproductive capacity was assessed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) after exposure to two concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2β; 2 ng/L and 50 ng/L) during four distinct stages of development: gonad development, gonad differentiation, development of secondary sex characteristics (SSC) and gametogenesis. Exposure to E2β did not adversely impact survival, hatch success, growth, or genotypic ratios. In contrast, exposure to 50 ng/L E2β during SSC development altered phenotypic ratios and SSC. Exposure to both E2β treatments reduced reproductive capacity (fertility, fecundity) by 7.3-57.4% in adult medaka breeding pairs, with hindrance of SSC development resulting in the largest disruption in breeding capacity (51.6-57.4% decrease) in the high concentration. This study documents differential effects among four critical stages of development and provides insight into factors (window of exposure, exposure concentration and duration of exposure period) contributing to reproductive disruption in fish.

  12. Effective lactation yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving

  13. Drugs in Lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty. One of his first tasks as Dean was the identification and dismissal of those members of staff considered undesirable by the Nazi regime; according to Erost,! ... reviewed publication gives tips on how to pick the right drug for a lactating mother. It is produced in an easy-to- use, flip-open format, with each page printed ...

  14. Experimental Comparison of the Reproductive Outcomes and Early Development of the Offspring of Rats Given Five Common Types of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague–Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

  15. Experimental comparison of the reproductive outcomes and early development of the offspring of rats given five common types of drinking water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available Tap water (unfiltered, filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague-Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA; the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy.

  16. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received suppl...... interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed....

  17. Monotreme Lactation Protein Is Highly Expressed in Monotreme Milk and Provides Antimicrobial Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R.; Nicol, Stewart C.; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Sharp, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female’s abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  18. Hypergravity disruption of homeorhetic adaptations to lactation in rat dams include changes in circadian clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Casey

    2012-04-01

    Altered gravity load induced by spaceflight (microgravity and centrifugation (hypergravity is associated with changes in circadian, metabolic, and reproductive systems. Exposure to 2-g hypergravity (HG during pregnancy and lactation decreased rate of mammary metabolic activity and increased pup mortality. We hypothesize HG disrupted maternal homeorhetic responses to pregnancy and lactation are due to changes in maternal metabolism, hormone concentrations, and maternal behavior related to gravity induced alterations in circadian clocks. Effect of HG exposure on mammary, liver and adipose tissue metabolism, plasma hormones and maternal behavior were analyzed in rat dams from mid-pregnancy (Gestational day [G]11 through early lactation (Postnatal day [P]3; comparisons were made across five time-points: G20, G21, P0 (labor and delivery, P1 and P3. Blood, mammary, liver, and adipose tissue were collected for analyzing plasma hormones, glucose oxidation to CO2 and incorporation into lipids, or gene expression. Maternal behavioral phenotyping was conducted using time-lapse videographic analyses. Dam and fetal-pup body mass were significantly reduced in HG in all age groups. HG did not affect labor and delivery; however, HG pups experienced a greater rate of mortality. PRL, corticosterone, and insulin levels and receptor genes were altered by HG. Mammary, liver and adipose tissue metabolism and expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism were altered by HG exposure. Exposure to HG significantly changed expression of core clock genes in mammary and liver and circadian rhythms of maternal behavior. Gravity load alterations in dam's circadian system may have impacted homeorhetic adaptations needed for a successful lactation.

  19. The high cost of motherhood: End-lactation syndrome in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) on the central California, USA, coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Sarah S; Miller, Melissa A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Staedler, Michelle M.; Batac, Francesca I.; Dodd, Erin M.; Henkel, Laird A.

    2016-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have exceptionally high energetic requirements, which nearly double during lactation and pup care. Thus, females are extremely vulnerable to caloric insufficiency. Despite a number of compensatory strategies, the metabolic challenge of reproduction culminates in numerous maternal deaths annually. Massive depletion of energy reserves results in a case presentation that we define as end-lactation syndrome (ELS), characterized by moderate to severe emaciation not attributable to a concurrent, independent disease process in females dying during late pup care or postweaning. We compiled detailed data for 108 adult female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) examined postmortem that stranded in California, US, 2005–12, and assessed pathology, reproductive status, and the location and timing of stranding. We introduce simple, grossly apparent, standardized physical criteria to assess reproductive stage for female sea otters. We also describe ELS, examine associated risk factors, and highlight female life history strategies that likely optimize reproduction and survival. Our data suggest that females can reset both the timing and energetic demands of reproduction through fetal loss, pup abandonment, or early weaning as part of specific physiologic checkpoints during each reproductive cycle. Females appear to preload nutritionally during delayed implantation and gestation to increase fitness and reproductive success. We found that ELS was a major cause of death, affecting 56% of enrolled adult females. Peak ELS prevalence occurred in late spring, possibly reflecting the population trend toward fall/winter pupping. Increasing age and number of pregnancies were associated with a higher risk of ELS. Although the proportion of ELS females was highest in areas with dense sea otter populations, cases were recovered throughout the range, suggesting that death from ELS is associated with, but not solely caused by, population resource limitation.

  20. Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Ming; Farajzadeh, Matthew; Pan, Chenyuan; Wayne, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental, endocrine-disrupting chemical, and bisphenol S (BPS) has been considered a safer alternative for BPA-free products. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development and to explore potential mechanisms of action associated with estrogen receptor (ER), thyroid hormone receptor (THR), and enzyme aromatase (AROM) pathways. Environmentally relevant, low levels of BPA exposure during development led to advanced hatching time, increased numbers of GnRH3 neurons in both terminal nerve and hypothalamus, increased expression of reproduction-related genes (kiss1, kiss1r, gnrh3, lhβ, fshβ, and erα), and a marker for synaptic transmission (sv2). Low levels of BPS exposure led to similar effects: increased numbers of hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons and increased expression of kiss1, gnrh3, and erα. Antagonists of ER, THRs, and AROM blocked many of the effects of BPA and BPS on reproduction-related gene expression, providing evidence that those three pathways mediate the actions of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system. This study demonstrates that alternatives to BPA used in the manufacture of BPA-free products are not necessarily safer. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe the impact of low-level BPA and BPS exposure on the Kiss/Kiss receptor system during development. It is also the first report of multiple cellular pathways (ERα, THRs, and AROM) mediating the effects of BPA and BPS during embryonic development in any species.

  1. Arterial versus venous lactate: a measure of sepsis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Sahan Asela; Gibbons, Berwyck; Gour, Anami; Sedgwick, Philip

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the agreement between arterial and venous blood lactate and pH levels in children with sepsis. This retrospective, three-year study involved 60 PICU patients, with data collected from electronic or paper patient records. The inclusion criteria comprised of children (≤17 years old) with sepsis and those who had a venous blood gas taken first with an arterial blood gas taken after within one hour. The lactate and pH values measured through each method were analysed. There is close agreement between venous and arterial lactate up to 2 mmol/L. As this value increases, this agreement becomes poor. The limits of agreement (LOA) are too large (±1.90 mmol/L) to allow venous and arterial lactate to be used interchangeably. The mean difference and LOA between both methods would be much smaller if derived using lactate values under 2.0 mmol/L. There is close agreement between arterial and venous pH (MD = -0.056, LOA ± 0.121). However, due to extreme variations in pH readings during sepsis, pH alone is an inadequate marker. A venous lactate ≤2 mmol/L can be used as a surrogate for arterial lactate during early management of sepsis in children. However, if the value exceeds 2 mmol/L, an arterial sample must confirm the venous result. What is known: • In children with septic shock, a blood gas is an important test to show the presence of acidosis and high lactic acid. Hyperlactataemia on admission is an early predictor of outcome and is associated with a greater mortality risk. • An arterial sample is the standard for lactate measurement, however getting a sample may be challenging in the emergency department or a general paediatric ward. Venous samples are quicker and easier to obtain. Adult studies generally advise caution in replacing venous lactate values for the arterial standard, whilst paediatric studies are limited in this area. What is new: • This is the first study assessing the agreement between arterial and peripheral venous

  2. Food intake and nutrition during pregnancy, lactation and weaning in the dam and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    In mammalian species, the connection between reproduction and nutrition is undeniable and illustrated by numerous publications: its role concerning regulation of hormonal secretions, fertility, pregnancy outcome, lactation and neonatal development indeed retains the attention of the scientific community. The interest on the influence of nutrition in dog and cat reproductive physiology is growing. Awareness on the key aspects of feeding during critical periods like pregnancy, lactation and weaning is essential to optimize the reproductive performances in these species. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The effect of reproductive performance on the dairy cattle herd value assessed by integrating a daily dynamic programming model with a daily Markov chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, A S; Cabrera, V E

    2012-10-01

    for lowest milk yield to the second ranked for highest milk yield. Within a reproductive program, RPO changed based on the stage of lactation at pregnancy. Cows getting pregnant in the early stage of a lactation had higher RPO compared with getting pregnant later in the lactation. However, the RPO at calving was similar for early and late lactation pregnancies. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  5. Early fetal reduction to twin versus prophylactic cervical cerclage for triplet pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Abdelhafez

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Early transvaginal reduction of triplets to twins leads to improved obstetric outcomes as it decreases prematurity and its related neonatal morbidities and mortality without increase in the miscarriage rate. Early fetal reduction seems to be better than continuation of triplet pregnancies with prophylactic placement of cervical cerclage.

  6. The socio-political context of migration and reproductive health disparities: The case of early sexual initiation among Mexican-origin immigrant young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate

    2017-05-01

    Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes. I integrate data from qualitative interviews with 21 first and second generation Mexican-origin women in 2013-2014 with data from discrete time hazard models with 798 Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Qualitative results demonstrate that gender inequality and sexual expectations in Mexican-origin immigrant households are associated with structural factors. Gender inequality occurs more often in households with family instability, greater poverty, and among parents who migrated independently. Qualitative data also demonstrate that parental gendered expectations are sometimes at odds to what parents are actually doing in the household. Finally, contrary to assumptions that a patriarchal "traditional Latino culture" protects against early sexual initiation, qualitative and multivariate quantitative data suggest that household gender inequality increases risk of early sexual initiation. These findings challenge the utility of a culturalist approach that views culture as determining health behavior among immigrants and demonstrate the need to incorporate an intersectional framework that includes structural factors. This approach may reduce stereotypes and identify meaningful interventions to reduce reproductive health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproductive and lifestyle factors associated with early menopause in Mexican women Factores reproductivos y de estilos de vida asociados con menopausia temprana en mujeres mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Ortega-Ceballos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between certain reproductive and lifestyle factors and the occurrence of early natural menopause. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case/control study was conducted on a basal population of 2 510 women participating in the "Mexican Institute of Social Security health workers cohort study". Cases were defined as those women for whom natural menopause presented by age 47. Information was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The risk of early menopause is associated with short menstrual cycles [15 cigarettes/day, OR=2.7 (IC 95% 1.00-7.30], and birth cohorts [>1950, OR=4.09 (IC 95% 2.62-6.39]. COCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that both reproductive and lifestyle factors are significant elements in the occurrence of early menopause in Mexican women.OBJETIVO : Evaluar la relación entre factores reproductivos, estilo de vida y la ocurrencia de menopausia natural temprana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS : Un estudio de casos y controles fue conducido en una población basal de 2 510 mujeres participantes en la "Cohorte de trabajadores IMSS". Los casos fueron definidos como aquellas mujeres que presentaron la menopausia natural a los 47 años o menos. La información fue colectada a través de cuestionarios autoapicables. RESULTADOS: El riesgo de menopausia temprana está asociado con ciclos menstruales cortos [15 cigarros/día, RM=2.7 (IC 95% 1.00-7.30], y cohorte de nacimiento [>1950, RM=4.09 (IC 95% 2.62-6.39]. CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos sugieren que tanto factores reproductivos como de estilo de vida son elementos significantes en la ocurrencia de la menopausia a edad temprana en mujeres mexicanas.

  8. Consecutive daily measurements of luminal concentrations of lactate in the rectum in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Michael; Wiis, Jørgen; Waldau, Tina

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study we found no difference in the concentrations of luminal lactate in the rectum between nonsurvivors and survivors in early septic shock (......In a recent study we found no difference in the concentrations of luminal lactate in the rectum between nonsurvivors and survivors in early septic shock (...

  9. No change in energy efficiency in lactation: Insights from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Richard L; Williams, Heather S; Dufour, Darna L

    2017-11-01

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of reproduction for human females, but it is still unclear how women in different environments are able to meet this additional energy demand. Previous studies have investigated whether changes in metabolism could have an energy-sparing effect in lactation, with conflicting results. Here, we asked whether increased energy efficiency in physical activity serves as an energy-sparing mechanism in lactation. We used a longitudinal design with a control group. Participants were 33 well-nourished, exclusively breastfeeding women and 29 non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL) controls aged 32 ± 4 years. Lactating women were measured at peak- and post-lactation. NPNL controls completed a baseline measurement and a follow-up visit. Energy efficiency in physical activity was assessed using a graded submaximal exercise test and calculated as delta efficiency (change in work accomplished over change in energy expended) and gross efficiency (work accomplished over energy expended). There was no significant change in either delta efficiency or gross efficiency from peak to post lactation in lactating women, and no significant difference in delta efficiency between lactating women and NPNL controls at any time period. However, lactating women showed greater between-visit variation in delta efficiency than the NPNL controls. Additionally, 79% of lactating participants lost weight between visits (mean weight loss -3.6 ± 2.3kg), consistent with a mobilization of body tissues to support lactation. We found no support for the idea that lactating women undergo an increase in energy efficiency to support the energy costs of lactation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Condição corporal e desempenho produtivo de cabras Alpinas no início de lactação Body condition and productive performance of Alpine goat in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires Barbosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da condição corporal ao parto sobre os parâmetros produtivos de cabras Alpinas no início da lactação. Sessenta e oito cabras foram distribuídas em três grupos, de acordo com o escore de condição corporal (baixo, entre 1,00 e 2,75; intermediário, entre 2,75 e 3,50; e alto, entre 3,50 e 5,00 e avaliadas do parto até a oitava semana de lactação. Realizaram-se o controle diário do consumo alimentar e da produção leiteira e avaliações semanais de peso corporal, escore da condição corporal e composição do leite. Os animais com escore corporal alto apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro e proteína bruta em comparação àqueles com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. O período médio de recuperação do consumo de matéria seca dos animais das três condições corporais foi de 16 dias (2,3 semanas do pós-parto, com estabilização até o final do experimento. Na sexta semana de lactação, o peso corporal dos animais com escore corporal baixo se igualou ao daqueles com escore corporal intermediário. Não houve efeito da condição corporal ao parto nas variações de ECC e da produção leiteira ao longo do período. O teor de gordura do leite dos animais com escore corporal alto foi menor nas duas primeiras semanas pós-parto em comparação ao dos animais com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. Elevada condição corporal ao parto influencia negativamente o consumo voluntário de cabras leiteiras no início da lactação, mas quando se utiliza dieta de alta qualidade e com altos níveis de energia, a influência da condição corporal ao parto inexiste para variações de peso, de escore da condição corporal e produção leiteira dos animais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition at birth on Alpine goat productive parameters in early lactation. Sixty-eight females were assigned to three groups according to

  11. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainza-Cortés Felipe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient

  12. The effect of a parenteral ivermectin/closantel injection on the growth and reproductive development of early immature Fasciola hepatica in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; Cromie, L; Taylor, S M; Couper, A

    2006-11-30

    Sixteen calves approximately 6 months old were each infected with 500 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Thirty-two days later they were weighed and divided into two groups, and on day 35 all calves in one of the groups were injected subcutaneously with an ivermectin/closantel combination. Both groups were sacrificed between days 70 and 72 to enable counting and examination of the flukes recovered from the bile ducts. Eggs released by the flukes were collected for incubation, hatching and estimation of egg viability. Flukes were counted, flat-fixed in 70% ethanol, stained with catechol and carmine and measured. The reproductive organs, namely testis, vitelline glands, ovary and uterus, were examined and scored on a 0-3 scale according to their state of development. This was visually assessed on the basis of size, distribution and staining density of their constituent tissues and the abundance of eggs in the uterus. A representative sample of flukes from each animal was fixed in formalin for histological sectioning to enable more detailed examination of the reproductive structures. Treatment of the immature flukes reduced the population in cattle by 42.6% as compared with the controls and as a result of the stunting effect due to the presence of closantel during early development the size of treated flukes was reduced by 43.9%. A bimodal pattern of size and reproductive score was also observed in flukes from treated cattle, suggesting that the stunting effect on individual flukes differed depending on whether or not they had gained access to the bile ducts or were still migrating in the hepatic parenchymal tissue at the time of drug exposure with the effect being greater once the fluke had gained access to the bile ducts. The mean reproductive score for untreated flukes was 8.76 and for treated flukes 5.64, a 35.6% reduction. This difference was highly significant (p<0.001). Egg shedding from treated flukes was significantly less than that from controls (p<0

  13. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves Neves

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. METHODS: We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. RESULTS: Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain were increased in women with morbid obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  14. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Amanda Gonçalves; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Godoy-Miranda, Ana Carolina; Oshika, Flávio Hideki; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  15. Early stress, parental motivation, and reproductive decision-making: applications of life history theory to parental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Ellis, Bruce J

    2017-06-01

    This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. We employ psychosocial acceleration theory to reinterpret the effects of variation in parental investment and involvement on child development, arguing that these effects have been structured by natural selection to match the developing child to current and expected future environments. Over time, an individual's development, physiology, and behavior are organized in a coordinated manner (as instantiated in 'life history strategies') that facilitates survival and reproductive success under different conditions. We review evidence to suggest that parental behavior (1) is strategic and contingent on environmental opportunities and constraints and (2) influences child life history strategies across behavioral, cognitive, and physiological domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Parameters for Dry Matter Intake at Different Lactation Stages among Primiparous Holstein, Jersey and Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingjie; Løvendahl, Peter; Fikse, W F

    This study evaluated the genetic variation in Dry Matter Intake (DMI) at 6 lactation stages over the first 24 lactation weeks in a population including Holstein, Jersey and Red cows. In total, 830 primiparous cows from Sweden and Denmark were included. Genetic parameters were estimated based...... on a linear mixed model. Heritability for DMI ranged between 0.16 and 0.35 across lactation stages. The lowest repeatability and heritability were found during the first 4 weeks of lactation, indicating large residual variance and low response to selection for DMI from early lactation. Genetic correlations...... between DMI across lactation stages ranged from 0.46 to 0.99. The weakest genetic correlation occurred between early and mid lactation, indicating a different genetic basis for DMI along lactation. A potential difference in genetic variation was found between Jersey and the other two breeds, requiring...

  17. Effects of spray-dried Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A (Zequanox®) on reproduction and early development of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The biopesticide, Zequanox®, is registered for dreissenid mussel control in open water systems. Previous toxicity trials with nontarget organisms, including young-of-the year of several fish species and invertebrates, demonstrated selectivity of Zequanox for dreissenids. However, data are lacking on its safety to reproductive and early life stages of fish. The present study evaluated the effects of Zequanox on spawning and early life stages of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, at the maximum approved concentration (100 mg Zequanox active ingredient /L) and exposure duration (8 h) for open water application. The results showed no significant effect of Zequanox on survival, condition, or cumulative egg deposition (21 d) in adult fathead minnow. Eggs (<24-h old) exposed to Zequanox developed to the eyed-stage at a similar rate to that of unexposed eggs. Additionally, Zequanox did not have a significant effect on survival and growth (90 d) of newly hatched fry (<24-h old). The results indicate that Zequanox treatment will not affect survival, spawning, and early life development of fathead minnows when applied at the recommended treatment regime.

  18. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  19. Reproductive hormone analyses and effects of adjuvant zoledronic acid in early breast cancer – An AZURE (BIG 01/04 sub-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Wilson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adjuvant bisphosphonates have been shown to improve disease outcomes in early breast cancer in women who are postmenopausal at the start of treatment. We explored the influence of pretreatment serum levels of reproductive hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis from a subset of patients included in the AZURE trial to investigate their impact on disease recurrence and whether reproductive hormone measurements are of value in selecting patients for treatment with adjuvant zoledronic acid.Patients and methods; The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, international phase III trial that randomised patients to standard adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy±intravenous zoledronic acid, 4 mg for 5 years. Serum from 865 patients taken at randomisation was stored at −80 °C prior to central batch analysis for inhibin A, oestradiol and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. We assessed the clinical value of pretreatment hormone levels for predicting invasive disease free survival (IDFS, skeletal recurrence and distant recurrence and response to treatment with zoledronic acid. Results: Oestradiol in the postmenopausal range (26 IU/l was associated with a longer time to bone as first recurrence (HR 0.66 95%CI: 0.41–1.04 p=0.072 compared to an FSH ≤26 IU/l. When all 3 hormone levels were within the assay specified postmenopausal range, a trend to improved IDFS was seen with addition of zoledronic acid in biochemically postmenopausal women only (postmenopausal HR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.54–1.22, non-postmenopausal HR=0.99; 95%CI: 0.69–1.39 with risk reductions that mirrored the results of the main AZURE study, although the interaction between menopausal status and treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.47. Conclusion: Oestradiol and FSH may influence the pattern of disease recurrence with postmenopausal levels possibly creating a less conducive environment for the

  20. Perinatal exposure to genistein alters reproductive development and aggressive behavior in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Cernetich, Amy; Gearhart, John P; Klein, Sabra L

    2005-02-15

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals adversely affects reproductive development and behavior in males. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to genistein, an isoflavone found in soy, during early periods of sex differentiation alters reproductive development and behavior in male mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet supplemented with 0, 5 or 300 mg/kg of genistein throughout gestation and lactation. Anogenital distance (AGD) and body mass of male offspring was measured weekly from postnatal days 2-21, timing of preputial separation was assessed at puberty, and in adulthood, reproductive organ masses, sperm and testosterone production, and reproductive and aggressive behaviors were assessed. Exposure to genistein resulted in smaller AGD are reduced body mass, with the low-dose diet exerting a greater effect. Timing of preputial separation, adult reproductive behavior, sperm concentrations and testosterone production were not influenced by genistein treatment at either dose. Aggressive behaviors were decreased, whereas defensive behaviors were increased, in males that received the low-dose genistein diet. Exposure to genistein during critical periods of sex differentiation results in concurrent and persistent demasculinization in male mice. Phenotypic and behavioral abnormalities induced by genistein showed a non-monotonic response, where treatment with a low dose exerted a greater effect than treatment with a high dose of genistein. Given the popularity of soy infant formulas, the influence isoflavone exposure on reproductive and behavioral health in boys and men should be considered.

  1. Early effects of equine FSH (eFSH) treatment on hormonal and reproductive parameters in mares intended to carry their own pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Tal; Gray, Allister; Hunter, Barbara; Card, Claire

    2009-10-01

    Superovulatory treatment may potentially increase the embryo recovery rate and the per-cycle pregnancy rate in normal or subfertile mares that are managed properly. However, some studies suggest a possible negative effect of superovulatory treatment on ovarian follicular maturation and embryo viability. Objectives of the present study were to investigate the early effects of eFSH treatment in reproductively normal mares in terms of: folliculogenesis, pregnancy rate, early embryonic development, reproductive tract parameters (tone and edema), and serum estradiol-17beta and progesterone concentrations. Reproductively sound mares (n=26) were evaluated daily by transrectal palpation and ultrasonography. Five days after spontaneous ovulation, mares were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. In the eFSH group, mares (n=16 estrous cycles) were administered eFSH twice daily; beginning when a follicle > or =20mm was detected, and continuing until at least one follicle reached a diameter of > or =35 mm. PGF2alpha was administered 2 days following initiation of eFSH therapy, and hCG was administered approximately 36h after cessation of eFSH therapy. In the control group, mares (n=26 estrous cycles) were administered PGF2alpha 7 days after spontaneous ovulation, and hCG when a follicle > or =35 mm was detected. All mares were bred with fresh semen, monitored for ovulation (Day 0), and evaluated for pregnancy on Days 11-16. Serum estradiol-17beta and progesterone concentrations were analyzed using radioimmunoassay on the Day of hCG administration, and Days 8, 11 and 16. Mares treated with eFSH had more follicles > or =30 mm at the time of hCG administration (2.6+/-0.4 compared with 1.1+/-0.1; Ppregnancy rates were not significantly different between groups (50%; 8/16 compared with 62%; 16/26). Mean overall daily growth rate of embryonic vesicles from Day 11 to 16 was not statistically different between the two groups (3.3+/-0.3 compared with 3.7+/-0.1 mm/day) (P=0

  2. The Development of Reproductive Strategy in Females: Early Maternal Harshness [right arrow] Earlier Menarche [right arrow] Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization--that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)--the authors…

  3. Effects of nutrition on the fertility of lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, R M; Celi, P; Scott, W; Breinhild, K; Santos, J E P; Lean, I J

    2018-03-28

    This meta-analysis of 39 experiments containing 118 treatments explored the effects of diet interventions in early lactation on the proportion of dairy cows pregnant to artificial insemination (AI; pregnancy to AI) and on calving to pregnancy interval. It also identified factors that may explain variation in these responses. The objectives were to identify effects of diet on reproduction, rather than differences between specific dietary interventions. The examination of calving to pregnancy interval used the more traditional method of analyzing differences between a treatment and the reference treatment used for comparison within a given experiment. The systematic review identified fewer experiments (n = 39) than had been expected. Four different multivariable models including the random effect of experiment were used to examine the effects of CPM-Dairy (version 3.08) estimated diet and production variables on proportion pregnant to AI. These models examined (1) output of products, (2) balance or duodenal availability of nutrients, (3) intake of nutrients, or (4) percentage of nutrients in the diet. The multivariable models identified positive associations between estimated increased fatty acid intake [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.0003 ± 0.0001g/d; ±standard error], starch intake (IRR = 1.061 ± 0.029 kg/d), metabolizable energy balance (IRR = 1.004 ± 0.002 MJ/d), and duodenal C14:0 (IRR = 1.008 ± 0.004 g/d) availability with the proportion of cows pregnant to AI, whereas rapidly fermentable sugar intake (IRR = 0.813 ± 0.054 kg/d), percentage of sugar in the diet (IRR = 0.960 ± 0.015%), and milk protein yield (IRR 0.922 ± 0.022 g/100 g per day) were associated with a reduced proportion of cows pregnant to AI. There was no multivariable model developed to assess variables associated with calving to pregnancy interval but, univariably, increased metabolizable energy balance was associated with a shorter calving to pregnancy interval whereas increased milk

  4. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-08-01

    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  6. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated...

  7. Pinaceae-like reproductive morphology in Schizolepidopsis canicularis sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Andrew B; Glasspool, Ian; Herendeen, Patrick S; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Knopf, Patrick; Takahashi, Masamichi; Crane, Peter R

    2013-12-01

    Seed cone scales assigned to the genus Schizolepidopsis are widespread in Late Triassic to Cretaceous Eurasian deposits. They have been linked to the conifer family Pinaceae based on associated vegetative remains, but their exact affinities are uncertain. Recently discovered material from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia reveals important new information concerning Schizolepidopsis cone scales and seeds, and provides support for a relationship between the genus and extant Pinaceae. Specimens were collected from Early Cretaceous (probable Aptian-Albian) lignite deposits in central Mongolia. Lignite samples were disaggregated, cleaned in hydrofluoric acid, and washed in water. Specimens were selected for further study using light and electron microscopy. Schizolepidopsis canicularis seed cones consist of loosely arranged, bilobed ovulate scales subtended by a small bract. A single inverted seed with an elongate micropyle is borne on each lobe of the ovulate scale. Each seed has a wing formed by the separation of the adaxial surface of the ovulate scale. Schizolepidopsis canicularis produced winged seeds that formed in a manner that is unique to Pinaceae among extant conifers. We do not definitively place this species in Pinaceae pending more complete information concerning its pollen cones and vegetative remains. Nevertheless, this material suggests that Schizolepidopsis may be important for understanding the early evolution of Pinaceae, and may potentially help reconcile the appearance of the family in the fossil record with results based on phylogenetic analyses of molecular data.

  8. Early Estimation of the Reproduction Number in the Presence of Imported Cases: Pandemic Influenza H1N1-2009 in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael George; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We analyse data from the early epidemic of H1N1-2009 in New Zealand, and estimate the reproduction number . We employ a renewal process which accounts for imported cases, illustrate some technical pitfalls, and propose a novel estimation method to address these pitfalls. Explicitly accounting for the infection-age distribution of imported cases and for the delay in transmission dynamics due to international travel, was estimated to be (95% confidence interval: ). Hence we show that a previous study, which did not account for these factors, overestimated . Our approach also permitted us to examine the infection-age at which secondary transmission occurs as a function of calendar time, demonstrating the downward bias during the beginning of the epidemic. These technical issues may compromise the usefulness of a well-known estimator of - the inverse of the moment-generating function of the generation time given the intrinsic growth rate. Explicit modelling of the infection-age distribution among imported cases and the examination of the time dependency of the generation time play key roles in avoiding a biased estimate of , especially when one only has data covering a short time interval during the early growth phase of the epidemic. PMID:21637342

  9. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this condition: lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency (sometimes called glycogen storage disease XI) and lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency. People with ... Resources Genetic Testing (2 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Glycogen storage disease XI Genetic Testing Registry: Lactate dehydrogenase B deficiency ...

  10. Azathioprine treatment during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.A.; Dahlerup, J.F.; Nielsen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thiopurines are widely used to maintain remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment during pregnancy is generally recommended to improve the chance of a normal birth outcome, but advice concerning breastfeeding is conflicting. Aim To estimate the exposure of breastfed infants...... to 6-mercaptopurine, as a metabolite of azathioprine, from maternal milk. METHODS: Eight lactating women with inflammatory bowel disease receiving maintenance therapy with azathioprine 75-200 mg daily were studied. Milk and plasma samples were obtained 30 and 60 min after drug administration and hourly...... for the following 5 h. RESULTS: The variation in the bioavailability of the drug was reflected in a wide range of peak plasma values of 6-mercaptopurine within the first 3 h. A similar curve, but with an hour's delay and at significantly lower concentrations varying from 2-50 microg/L, was seen in maternal milk...

  11. Bisphenol S Alters the Lactating Mammary Gland and Nursing Behaviors in Mice Exposed During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Charlotte D; Catanese, Mary C; Bansal, Ruby; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-10-01

    High doses of estrogenic pharmaceuticals were once prescribed to women to halt lactation. Yet, the effects of low-level xenoestrogens on lactation remain poorly studied. We investigated the effects of bisphenol S (BPS), an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, on the lactating mammary gland; the arcuate nucleus, a region of the hypothalamus important for neuroendocrine control of lactational behaviors; and nursing behavior in CD-1 mice. Female mice were exposed to vehicle, 2 or 200 µg BPS/kg/d from pregnancy day 9 until lactational day (LD) 20, and tissues were collected on LD21. Tissues were also collected from a second group at LD2. BPS exposure significantly reduced the fraction of the mammary gland comprised of lobules, the milk-producing units, on LD21, but not LD2. BPS also altered expression of Esr1 and ERα in the mammary gland at LD21, consistent with early involution. In the arcuate nucleus, no changes were observed in expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, a marker of prolactin signaling, or ERα, suggesting that BPS may act directly on the mammary gland. However, observations of nursing behavior collected during the lactational period revealed stage-specific effects on both pup and maternal nursing behaviors; BPS-treated dams spent significantly more time nursing later in the lactational period, and BPS-treated pups were less likely to initiate nursing. Pup growth and development were also stunted. These data indicate that low doses of BPS can alter lactational behaviors and the maternal mammary gland. Together, they support the hypothesis that pregnancy and lactation are sensitive to low-dose xenoestrogen exposures. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. Reproductive hormone analyses and effects of adjuvant zoledronic acid in early breast cancer - An AZURE (BIG 01/04) sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Caroline; Hinsley, Samantha; Marshall, Helen; Cameron, David; Bell, Richard; Dodwell, David; Coleman, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Adjuvant bisphosphonates have been shown to improve disease outcomes in early breast cancer in women who are postmenopausal at the start of treatment. We explored the influence of pretreatment serum levels of reproductive hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis from a subset of patients included in the AZURE trial to investigate their impact on disease recurrence and whether reproductive hormone measurements are of value in selecting patients for treatment with adjuvant zoledronic acid.Patients and methods; The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, international phase III trial that randomised patients to standard adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy)±intravenous zoledronic acid, 4 mg for 5 years. Serum from 865 patients taken at randomisation was stored at -80 °C prior to central batch analysis for inhibin A, oestradiol and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). We assessed the clinical value of pretreatment hormone levels for predicting invasive disease free survival (IDFS), skeletal recurrence and distant recurrence and response to treatment with zoledronic acid. Oestradiol in the postmenopausal range (26 IU/l) was associated with a longer time to bone as first recurrence (HR 0.66 95%CI: 0.41-1.04 p=0.072) compared to an FSH ≤26 IU/l. When all 3 hormone levels were within the assay specified postmenopausal range, a trend to improved IDFS was seen with addition of zoledronic acid in biochemically postmenopausal women only (postmenopausal HR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.54-1.22, non-postmenopausal HR=0.99; 95%CI: 0.69-1.39) with risk reductions that mirrored the results of the main AZURE study, although the interaction between menopausal status and treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.47). Oestradiol and FSH may influence the pattern of disease recurrence with postmenopausal levels possibly creating a less conducive environment for the formation of bone metastases, therefore disseminated tumour cells could seek

  13. Reproductive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include: Radiation Metals such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the ...

  14. Pengaruh Penggunaan High Quality Feed Supplement terhadap Konsumsi dan Kecernaan Nutrien Sapi Perah Awal Laktasi (The Effect of High Quality Feed Supplement Addition on the Nutrient Consumption and Digestibility of Early Lactating Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyani Astuti

    2012-02-01

    (73.11%, and K (70.69% on BETN. The conclusion was that the addition of HQFS of first lactation dairy cow would increase nutrient consumption and crude protein and nitrogen-free extract digestibility. (Key words: High quality feed supplement, Dairy cow, Consumption, Digestibility

  15. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...... and lactate production associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later, it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only plays an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this in turn has led to a renewed interest in the metabolic fate of lactate in skeletal muscle...... and also in other tissues. Studies using lactate isotopes have shown that skeletal muscle extracts lactate from the circulation despite a substantial net lactate release, and that skeletal muscle has a large capacity for lactate oxidation; these processes being enhanced with exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase...

  16. Influence of udder stimulation, stage of lactation and parity on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of udder stimulation, stage of lactation and parity on milk yield in West African Dwarf goats. ... Left teat of the does produced significantly (P<0.05) more milk than the right teat. Therefore, it is recommended that goats udder in higher parity be stimulated prior to milking at early stage of lactation for higher milk ...

  17. Effect of dry period length on milk yield over multiple lactations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) can improve the energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation through a decrease in milk yield after calving. Little is known about the effect of a short or no DP on milk yield over multiple lactations. Our objectives were (1) to assess the effect of DP

  18. Haematological and blood biochemical profile in lactating buffaloes in and around Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Hagawane

    Full Text Available Forty buffaloes in early, mid and late lactation with a drop in a milk production were screened for haematological and blood biochemical profile. In early stage of lactation haemoglobin concentration showed lowered trend as compared to recorded means in other groups of lactating buffaloes.  The mean value of TLC in dry pregnant group of buffaloes was 10.05± 0.89 X 103 /cmm showed slightly higher trend than the normal healthy control group. The blood glucose was significantly higher in dry buffaloes (52.72±4.22 mg/dl than the early and late lactating buffaloes (48.23±3.44 mg/dl. During early stage of lactation the serum total protein values (8.36±0.47 g/dl was slightly elevated than the normal healthy control (8.00±0.57 g/dl. The urea nitrogen values differ significantly (P<0.05 amongst different groups of lactating buffaloes. The descending trend in the serum cholesterol concentration in dry pregnant buffaloes compared to lactating buffaloes was observed. There was drop in calcium level during early stage of lactation (8.19±0.83 mg/dl than the normal healthy buffaloes (11.21±0.19 mg/dl. As the stage of lactation progresses the serum calcium level increased. Serum magnesium concentration in various groups of buffaloes did not differ significantly. Early lactation showed highest susceptibility for ketosis and hypocalcaemia. The metabolic disorder associated with hypophosphatemia was significantly high in dry (advance pregnant buffaloes. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 467-469

  19. A gene family derived from transposable elements during early angiosperm evolution has reproductive fitness benefits in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Forczek, Ewa; Hoen, Douglas R; Juretic, Nikoleta; Bureau, Thomas E

    2012-09-01

    The benefits of ever-growing numbers of sequenced eukaryotic genomes will not be fully realized until we learn to decipher vast stretches of noncoding DNA, largely composed of transposable elements. Transposable elements persist through self-replication, but some genes once encoded by transposable elements have, through a process called molecular domestication, evolved new functions that increase fitness. Although they have conferred numerous adaptations, the number of such domesticated transposable element genes remains unknown, so their evolutionary and functional impact cannot be fully assessed. Systematic searches that exploit genomic signatures of natural selection have been employed to identify potential domesticated genes, but their predictions have yet to be experimentally verified. To this end, we investigated a family of domesticated genes called MUSTANG (MUG), identified in a previous bioinformatic search of plant genomes. We show that MUG genes are functional. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MUG genes yield phenotypes with severely reduced plant fitness through decreased plant size, delayed flowering, abnormal development of floral organs, and markedly reduced fertility. MUG genes are present in all flowering plants, but not in any non-flowering plant lineages, such as gymnosperms, suggesting that the molecular domestication of MUG may have been an integral part of early angiosperm evolution. This study shows that systematic searches can be successful at identifying functional genetic elements in noncoding regions and demonstrates how to combine systematic searches with reverse genetics in a fruitful way to decipher eukaryotic genomes.

  20. A gene family derived from transposable elements during early angiosperm evolution has reproductive fitness benefits in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoé Joly-Lopez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of ever-growing numbers of sequenced eukaryotic genomes will not be fully realized until we learn to decipher vast stretches of noncoding DNA, largely composed of transposable elements. Transposable elements persist through self-replication, but some genes once encoded by transposable elements have, through a process called molecular domestication, evolved new functions that increase fitness. Although they have conferred numerous adaptations, the number of such domesticated transposable element genes remains unknown, so their evolutionary and functional impact cannot be fully assessed. Systematic searches that exploit genomic signatures of natural selection have been employed to identify potential domesticated genes, but their predictions have yet to be experimentally verified. To this end, we investigated a family of domesticated genes called MUSTANG (MUG, identified in a previous bioinformatic search of plant genomes. We show that MUG genes are functional. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MUG genes yield phenotypes with severely reduced plant fitness through decreased plant size, delayed flowering, abnormal development of floral organs, and markedly reduced fertility. MUG genes are present in all flowering plants, but not in any non-flowering plant lineages, such as gymnosperms, suggesting that the molecular domestication of MUG may have been an integral part of early angiosperm evolution. This study shows that systematic searches can be successful at identifying functional genetic elements in noncoding regions and demonstrates how to combine systematic searches with reverse genetics in a fruitful way to decipher eukaryotic genomes.

  1. Constraints to improving reproductive efficiency of ruminant livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvanendran, V.

    1989-01-01

    Reproductive performance in ruminants is closely linked to efficiency of production measured either directly as the number of surplus animals available for sale, or indirectly as amount of produce harvested per animal. In developing countries, the major limiting factors to reproductive rate are biological, of which the most important is nutrition. Undernutrition has detrimental effects on age at first calving owing to delay in attaining the target weight at puberty. Reconception is also adversely affected in animals that suffer high loss of weight after parturition owing to undernutrition in early lactation. Genetic variation in mature body weight among breeds is important. Under conditions of feed stress in cattle, there is a negative relationship between mature weight and fertility owing to the high maintenance requirements of larger animals. The most important socioeconomic factor contributing to reproductive inefficiency is the fostering of large herds containing disproportionate sex groups, thus reducing feed availability. In small ruminants, although multiple births increase reproductive rate, the high mortality associated with twinning makes it undesirable in some situations. Opportunities for increasing reproductive rate in these species seem to be greater through decreasing parturition interval than through increasing litter size. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  2. A review of the use of progestogen-only minipills for contraception during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1991-01-01

    Progestogen-only minipills and other systems for releasing low doses of progestogens alone are widely used for contraception in breast-feeding women around the world. There is good evidence to confirm their acceptability and their lack of effect on milk production, neonatal growth and early development. In contrast, combined oral contraceptives frequently decrease milk production, and may produce minor changes in milk composition. However, even combined oral contraceptives do not appear to produce adverse effects on neonatal well-being and development, although minor reductions in initial growth rate may sometimes occur. Progestogen-only methods may also produce subtle changes in milk composition, although less than combined oral contraceptives. Steroids are transferred from plasma into milk in small quantities, but the amounts are usually very low or insufficient to allow detection in the infants using present-day assays. There has been theoretical concern that these tiny amounts of steroids might affect neonatal reproductive development, but this appears to be unwarranted. Progestogen-only methods are being widely used for post-partum contraception, and they appear to have particular advantages in this situation. They also have few disadvantages; a theoretical concern about a possible effect on later reproductive or sexual development has no evidence to support it. The present licensing situation in Australia, which lists lactation as a relative contraindication to progestogen-only contraceptive use, causes real concern to potential users and appears to lead to frequent errors in compliance.

  3. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  4. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How many human embryos die between fertilisation and birth under natural conditions? It is widely accepted that natural human embryo mortality is high, particularly during the first weeks after fertilisation, with total prenatal losses of 70% and higher frequently claimed. However, the first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period, and establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging. Calculations are additionally hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are used to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no practical quantitative value; (ii life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data concluded that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, natural human embryo mortality is lower than often claimed and widely accepted. Estimates for total prenatal mortality of 70% or higher are exaggerated and not supported by the available data.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous sulfate with ammonium lactate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 4th ed...

  6. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  7. Assessing Aflatoxin M1 levels among lactating mothers' in Damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a biomarker of aflatoxin B1 exposure in breast milk, a possible risk factor for infant early exposure to Aflatoxin. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic metabolite from Aspergillus fungus ingested from diet. One hundred (100) lactating mothers were sampled in General Sani Abacha Specialist Hospital ...

  8. Blood lactate level and meconium aspiration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabayir, Nalan; Demirel, Ali; Bayramoglu, Elvan

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 5% of infants born with a meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) develop meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Early recognition of infants at highest risk for the development of MAS and the prediction of disease severity are important for optimizing the clinical strategies for prevention and treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors for MAS and to investigate the effect of blood lactate level on the development of MAS. Between January 2011 and January 2012, data were recorded with regard to gender, mode of delivery, gestational week, birth weight, 5-min Apgar score, and need for resuscitation of the meconium-stained depressed infants who underwent tracheal aspiration. Moreover, the number of cases developing MAS, blood pH value, and lactate level in capillary blood gases obtained during the first hour after delivery, duration of oxygen supplementation, the number of cases receiving mechanical ventilation and surfactant therapy, duration of hospital stay, and outcomes of the infants were recorded. The number of live births during the study period was 17,202, and of them, 1,341 (7.8%) infants were born through MSAF. Of 195 infants who were meconium-stained depressed, 90 were girls and 105 were boys. Their mean gestational week was 39.37 ± 0.89 weeks and mean birth weight was 3,426 ± 634 g. Eighty-four of them were born through cesarean section (C/S), and 111 were born via normal spontaneous labor. For 40 infants, Apgar score at fifth minute was less than 6. In total, resuscitation was performed on 43 (22.9%) infants. Of the infants, 141 did not develop MAS and 54 developed MAS. While there were no significant differences between infants with and without MAS with regard to gender, delivery route, gestational week, and birth weight, a significant difference was observed regarding the Apgar score (p = 0.0001). The blood pH value in capillary blood gas analysis was less than 7.25 in 18 (28.5%) cases with MAS and four (3

  9. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...... to some, lactate is a preferred fuel for brain metabolism. Immediately after brain activation, the rate of glycolysis exceeds oxidation, leading to net production of lactate. At physical rest, there is a net efflux of lactate from the brain into the blood stream. But when blood lactate levels rise......, such as in physical exercise, there is net influx of lactate from blood to brain, where the lactate is used for energy production and myelin formation. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81 aka hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1) on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, and regulates the levels of c...

  10. The effect of breed type and lactation status on reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    These results were better than the lambing rates previously observed in Awassi ewes. (Abdullah et al., 2002; Husein & Kridli; 2002) while being comparable to other studies that utilized similar synchronisation protocols followed by natural mating (Carlson et al., 1989; Zaim et al., 1996). Table 2 The effect of milking status on ...

  11. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced...... of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two...... by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from diet shift until 36 weeks after calving, indicating a carry-over effect of the early lactation HD diet to late lactation metabolism....

  12. Pengimbuhan Vitamin-E dalam Ransum Kaya Asam Lemak Tidak Jenuh Terhadap Profil Darah Induk Domba Laktasi§ (VITAMIN-E SUPPLEMENTATION ON RICH POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACID RATION TO BLOOD PROFILE OF LACTATION EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilla Mareistia Fassah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oil is a source of rich poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA mainly Linoleic acid. PUFA on theewes ration was very useful due to its function as the precursors of prostaglandin. It plays an importantrole in the health and reproduction regulation. Early lactation was the critical period where the bodymetabolism is on an increasing stage. However, high level of PUFA on ewe’s lactation ration was also verysusceptible to induce lipid peroxidation which can cause health problems in the affected animals. Thesupplementation of vitamin E as antioxidant is needed to prevent the PUFA from oxidation damage. Theaim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in the rich PUFA diet on theblood profile of lactating ewes. Fifteen ewes on lactation period were used in completely randomizednested design. The level of vitamin E supplementation was 30 IU, 60 IU and 90 IU then the blood profileevaluation was carried out on 28 and 56 days of lactation. The measured variables were haemoglobin,packed cell volume (PCV, erythrocytes, leukocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The number of erythrocytesof ewes was 5.53-9.85 x 106/mm3, the MCV value was 32.19-46.20 fl and the MCH value was 10.91-17.27pg on day-28. The results showed that Vitamin E supplementation has significant effect on the number oferythrocytes (p<0,05, and the high significant effect on MCV as well as MCH values(P<0.01 of lactationewes blood. The Vitamin E supplementation until 90 IU was able to maintain the ewe’s blood profile onthe lactation periods.

  13. Accuracy of Handheld Point-of-Care Fingertip Lactate Measurement in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaieski, David G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early recognition of elevated lactate levels in sepsis may hasten the detection of those patients eligible for aggressive resuscitation. Point-of-care (POC testing is now increasingly available for use in the emergency department (ED. We examined the accuracy and time-saving effect of a handheld POC device for the measurement of fingertip and whole blood lactate as compared with reference laboratory testing in critically ill ED patients.Methods: A convenience sample of adult ED patients receiving serum lactate testing was prospectively enrolled at an urban, tertiary care US hospital. Consenting patients underwent fingertip POC lactate measurement with a portable device and simultaneous whole blood sampling for analysis by both the POC device and standard laboratory analyzer (‘‘reference method’’. Lactate measurements were compared by intraclass correlation (ICC and Bland and Altman plots. Differences in time to test result were compared by paired t test.Results: Twenty-four patients, 19 (79% with sepsis and 21 (88% with lactate levels below 4 mmol/L, were included from April 2005 to May 2005. Fingertip POC and whole blood POC lactate measurements each correlated tightly with the reference method (ICC ¼ 0.90 and ICC ¼ 0.92, respectively. Mean time between obtaining fingertip lactate samples and whole blood reference lactate samples was 8 6 13 minutes. Mean time between obtaining POC and reference laboratory lactate results was 65 minutes (95% confidence interval, 30–103.Conclusion: Fingertip POC lactate measurement is an accurate method to determine lactate levels in infected ED patients with normal or modestly elevated lactate values and significantly decreases time to test results. These findings should be verified in a larger, more critically ill, ED population. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(1:58-62.

  14. The demands of lactation promote differential regulation of lipid stores in fasting elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Fasting animals must ration stored reserves appropriately for metabolic demands. Animals that experience fasting concomitant with other metabolically demanding activities are presented with conflicting demands of energy conservation and expenditure. Our objective was to understand how fasting northern elephant seals regulate the mobilization of lipid reserves and subsequently milk lipid content during lactation. We sampled 36 females early and 39 at the end of lactation. To determine the separate influences of lactation from fasting, we also sampled fasting but non-lactating females early and late (8 and 6 seals, respectively) in their molting fasting period. Mass and adiposity were measured, as well as circulating non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triacylglycerol (TAG), cortisol, insulin and growth hormone levels. Milk was collected from lactating females. Milk lipid content increased from 31% in early to 51% in late lactation. In lactating females plasma NEFA was positively related to cortisol and negatively related to insulin, but in molting seals, only variation in cortisol was related to NEFA. Milk lipid content varied with mass, adiposity, NEFA, TAG, cortisol and insulin. Surprisingly, growth hormone concentration was not related to lipid metabolites or milk lipid. Suppression of insulin release appears to be the differential regulator of lipolysis in lactating versus molting seals, facilitating mobilization of stored lipids and maintenance of high NEFA concentrations for milk synthesis. Milk lipid was strongly impacted by the supply of substrate to the mammary gland, indicating regulation at the level of mobilization of lipid reserves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2005-03-01

    The emergency clinician is frequently called on to manage problems relating to the female reproductive tract. Because owners sel-dom have the medical knowledge needed to differentiate normal from abnormal reproductive behaviors, they frequently look to the emergency veterinarian for guidance and information during and after parturition. For this reason, it is essential that the veterinarian have a good understanding of the normal reproductive cycle as well as the common emergencies that may occur. This article reviews the events surrounding normal parturition in the dog and cat and the reproductive emergencies seen most commonly in practice.

  16. Nutritional and lactational effects on follicular development in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, H

    2009-01-01

    In sows, follicular development is inhibited during lactation, and weaning the piglets allows recruitment and selection of follicles that will undergo preovulatory maturation and ovulate. Lactation inhibits GnRH secretion, and in turn LH secretion, through neuroendocrine stimuli induced by suckling. Pituitary response to GnRH and the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit to oestradiol positive feedback are also reduced. The impact of lactation on the reproductive axis is further complicated by the physiological and metabolic adaptations that are developed for milk production and that depend on nutrient intake, nutrient needs and body reserves. A strongly catabolic state during lactation amplifies the inhibition of LH secretion, thereby inducing a delay of oestrus and ovulation after weaning. Nevertheless, post-weaning ovulation is less delayed nowadays than in the 1970's or 80's. Nutritional deficiency has also deleterious effects on embryo survival, which are likely related to alterations in follicular growth and maturation. The physiological mechanisms by which information on the metabolic changes is transmitted to the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis are not fully understood in the sow. Glucose, insulin and leptin are the most likely signals informing the hypothalamus of the metabolic state, yet their roles have not been definitely established. At the ovarian level, folliculogenesis is likely to be altered by the reduction in insulin and IGF-I concentrations induced by nutritional deficiency. More knowledge is needed at the intrafollicular level to better understand nutritional effects on follicular development, and also on occyte quality and embryo development.

  17. Quantitative studies of skeletal muscle lactate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliassotti, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In Situ, single-pass perfusions were employed on three isolated rabbit skeletal muscle preparations of differing fiber type and oxidative capacity to investigate the influence of fiber type and oxidative capacity per se on net carbon, 14 C-lactate, and 3 H-glucose fluxes. Preparations were exposed to six lactate concentrations ranging from 1-11mM. At basal lactate concentrations all preparations displayed net lactate release, 14 C-lactate removal and 14 CO 2 release, all were linearly correlated with lactate concentration. By 4mM all preparations switched to net lactate uptake and 14 C-lactate removal always exceeded net lactate uptake. To quantify the fate of net carbon, 14 C-lactate, and 3 H-glucose removal preparations were perfused at either basal or elevated lactate. Under basal conditions net carbon influx from glucose and glycogen was removed primarily via net lactate release in the glycolytic and mixed preparations and oxidation and net lactate release in the oxidative preparation. At elevated lactate, net carbon influx from lactate, pyruvate and glucose was removed primarily by net glycogen synthesis in the glycolytic preparation and both alanine release and oxidation in the mixed and oxidative preparations

  18. "When You're a Baby You Don't Have Puberty": Understanding of Puberty and Human Reproduction in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hightower, Brianna; Sroka, Iris; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Basic knowledge of human reproduction can help youth prepare for puberty and make later classes focused on advanced reproductive health topics manageable. With the intention of potentially informing the creation of learning materials, we conducted a needs assessment among children ages 7 to 12 in our suburban Chicago community to ascertain their…

  19. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that a 3-week oral lactate supplementation affects postexercise blood lactate disappearance in untrained male subjects. Fifteen men were randomly assigned to either a lactate supplementation (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) treatment. During the treatment period...... they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake...

  20. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  1. Analysis of raw goat milk microbiota: impact of stage of lactation and lysozyme on microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Elizabeth A; Kalanetra, Karen M; Mills, David A; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-01

    To protect infants from infection, human milk contains high levels of the enzyme lysozyme, unlike the milk of dairy animals. We have genetically engineered goats to express human lysozyme (hLZ milk) in their milk at 68% the amount found in human milk to help extend this protection. This study looked at the effect of hLZ on bacteria in raw milk over time. As the microbial diversity of goats' milk has yet to be investigated in depth using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, we applied NGS and clone library sequencing (CLS) to determine the microbiota of raw goat milk (WT milk) and hLZ milk at early, mid and late lactation. Overall, in WT milk, the bacterial populations in milk at early and mid lactation were similar to each other with a shift occurring at late lactation. Both methods found Proteobacteria as the dominant bacteria at early and mid lactation, while Actinobacteria surged at late lactation. These changes were related to decreases in Pseudomonas and increases in Micrococcus. The bacterial populations in hLZ milk were similar to WT milk at early and mid lactation with the only significant differences occurring at late lactation with the elevation of Bacillaceae, Alicyclobacillaceae, Clostridiaceae and Halomonadaceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consequences of supplying methyl donors during pregnancy on the methylome of the offspring from lactating and non-lactating dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bach

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of methyl donor supplementation of pregnant animals in the presence or absence of a concomitant lactation on the methylome of the offspring. Twenty Holstein cows, 10 nulliparous (non-lactating while pregnant and 10 multiparous (lactating while pregnant were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to an i.m. weekly injections of a placebo (CTRL or a solution containing methyl donors (MET. After calving, 5 calves randomly selected from each treatment (two born to non-lactating and three to lactating dams were blood-sampled to determine their full methylome. There were more than 2,000 CpG differentially methylated between calves born to CTRL and those born to MET, and also between calves born to lactating and non-lactating dams. Most of the differences affected genes involved in immune function, cell growth regulation and differentiation, kinase activity, and ion channeling. We conclude that the coexistence of pregnancy and lactation affects the methylome of the offspring, and that supplementation of methyl donors early in gestation has also consequences on the methylome.

  3. Maternal folate status and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, D L; Green, T; Picciano, M F

    1997-07-01

    Folate plays an essential role in DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. For this reason, the physiological need for this vitamin is increased during periods of rapid anabolic activity such as pregnancy and lactation. Although the importance of folate and the consequences of suboptimal folate status during pregnancy, especially during the periconceptional period, are well appreciated, little is known about the value of folate during lactation. The limited number of studies available on folate intake during lactation suggest that many women do not consume an adequate amount of folate and that recommended target intakes may be too low. Although inadequate maternal folate intake does not affect milk folate concentration unless maternal deficiency is severe, potential consequences of suboptimal folate nutrition to both the mother and her future offspring should also be considered.

  4. Estimating the Lactation Curve on a.m./p.m. Milkings in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was conducted in order to assess the effect of a.m./p.m. milkings on the shape of the lactation curve during a normal lactation. Data from a.m. and p.m. milkings from 86 Romanian Spotted cows were used. Cows calved during January, February and March 2011 and concluded their lactations by the end of February 2012. Results showed that there was a difference between morning and evening milkings regarding the shape of the lactation curve. The shape of the lactation curve for morning milking was more resembling to the shape of the lactation curve for total daily milk. Modelling the lactation curve with gamma incomplete function led to a milk production estimate very close to the real production, although the model overestimated the yield in early lactation and underestimated it in middle lactation. If alternative milkings are going to use for milk yield estimation it is preferable to measure the evening milking at the beginning.

  5. Maternal lactation for preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, J

    2001-11-01

    In recent decades, neonatologists have made considerable progress in life support techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of respiratory disorders, which has led to a higher neonatal survival rate. Research into neonatal nutrition has also produced great benefits. It has been found that one of the key points regarding the improved survival rate of infants is the necessity for nutrition that is both adequate and as natural as possible. In this respect, it is necessary to achieve a better understanding of the process, protection, support and maintenance of maternal lactation in neonatal units. Humanization of perinatal attention during delivery, respect for the rights of parents and their children, protection of the mother and child bonding process, early skin contact with the mother and greater attention to individualized care are all key factors in the reinforcement of maternal lactation and are issues that must be addressed within the field of neonatology. Research activities need to concern themselves with: (1) acquiring greater knowledge concerning the common problems and difficulties that arise with mothers and their preterm babies; (2) training healthcare professionals in these aspects, for example in the extraction and storage of milk and in improving techniques of emotional and communicational skills; (3) by means of specific programmes such as the setting up of support groups, so that the effort made to encourage the initiation of breastfeeding is justified by its continuation for as long as possible. Thus, we hope to establish standards of care based on starting, encouraging and prolonging maternal lactation, in sufficient quantity and quality, always remembering that the fundamental goal of our research is the well-being of the child and its family.

  6. Regulation of prolactin secretion during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J L; Lee, Y; Yang, S; Arbogast, L

    2001-01-01

    Prolactin plays major roles in maintaining the corpora lutea of pregnancy and in the synthesis of milk during lactation. The hypothalamic mechanisms involved in these functions have been investigated. Mating leads to a surge of prolactin and programs daily surges during early pregnancy. The expression of Fos-immunoreactivity shows that mating activates several hypothalamic nuclei, particularly the arcuate nucleus and medial preoptic area. In the arcuate nucleus, mating is associated with Fos expression in beta-endorphin neurons, and infusion of naloxone blocks both mating-induced and diurnal prolactin surges. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopamine neurons appear not to participate in surge generation. However, after day 10 of gestation the secretion of placental lactogens suppresses prolactin secretion via activation of dopamine neurons without involvement of beta-endorphin neurons. Intracerebroventricular implantation of placental lactogen-secreting cells will block pregnancy prolactin surges, increase Fos expression in dopamine neurons, and increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity. During lactation the mechanisms regulating dopamine and beta-endorphin neurons are further modified. In early lactation a prolactin-induced increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity leads to negative feedback, but this effect is lost by mid-lactation. Overriding this negative feedback is the inhibitory effect that suckling has on dopaminergic activity. This may involve beta-endorphin-mediated inhibition of dopamine neurons, as naloxone causes a marked increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity and suppression of circulating prolactin. However, removal of tonic dopamine inhibition is not sufficient to account for the high levels of prolactin attained during lactation, and additional releasing factors are probably involved. In situ hybrization histochemistry for the most recent candidate, prolactin-releasing peptide, suggests that this may involve brain stem neurons that co

  7. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa [UNESP; Ribeiro, Carla [UNESP; Botezelli, Jose Diego [UNESP; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina [UNESP; Mello, Maria Alice Rostom de [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.Methods: The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Bal...

  8. Biochemical and Haematological Blood Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovidiu COROIAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health status of cows is evaluated and depending on haematological and biochemical profile of blood. Nutrition is the main technological factor that can produce profound changes in the metabolic profile in animals (Dhiman et al., 1991; Khaled et al., 1999; Ingvartsen, 2006. Blood parameters analyze can lead to identify if there are errors in nutrition of lactating cows (Payne et al., 1970. The aim of this study was the evaluation of metabolic and biochemical changes that occur during colostrum period and in terms of number of lactations in cows. The biological material was represented by a total of 60 heads of dairy cows from a family farm from Sălaj County, Romania. The cows are all from Holstein breed and presented no clinical signs of any specific pathology. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each cow and analyzed. 10 individuals from each of the six lactations have been randomly selected. Haematological and biochemical parameters showed variations depending on factors analyzed here. In lactation 1 Hb was 7.55±3.05 (g/dl, while in lactation 6 the value was 12.5±2.10 (g/dl. RBC ranged as follows: in lactation 1 - 28.50±2.05 and in lactation 6 - 30.02±2.05. Lymphocytes varied within very wide limits under the influence of lactation: in lactation 1 - 2.8±1.56 and in lactation 6 - 7.55±1.80. The number of lactations and lactation rank have influenced blood biochemical and hematological parameters in dairy cows. Biochemical parameters are influenced by post-partum day, showing the lowest values in the early days of colostral period and the highest in the last few days of the same period.

  9. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habran, Sarah, E-mail: S.Habran@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Institut des Sciences de la vie, Universite catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E., E-mail: crocker@sonoma.edu [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Houser, Dorian S., E-mail: biomimetica@cox.net [BIOMIMETICA, Santee, CA 92071 (United States); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. > The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. > The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  10. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli T; Ribeiro, Carla; Botezelli, José D; Ghezzi, Ana C; Mello, Maria Ar

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity. The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Balanced (LB): low-protein diet in utero and balanced diet after birth; Low protein/Fructose (LF): low protein diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth. Acute physical exercise reduced the muscle glycogen concentrations in all groups, although the LF group showed higher concentrations at rest. There was no difference among the groups in the glucose uptake and oxidation rates in the isolated soleus muscle neither at rest nor after acute exercise. However, glycogen synthesis was higher in the LF muscle than in the others at rest. Acute physical exercise increased glycogen synthesis in all groups, and the LF group showed the highest values. The fructose-rich diet administered in rats after fetal protein malnutrition alters muscle glycogen concentrations and glycogen synthesis in the rest and after acute exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

  11. Menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may precede thyroid dysfunction or goitre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi J

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual and reproductive history of 178 women referred to the thyroid clinic was compared with 49 healthy controls. Cases were classified as euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid after clinical examination and after serum T3, T4, TSH measurements. Reproductive history was related chronologically to symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction. Only 31.8% of hypothyroid and 35.3% of hyperthyroid women had normal menstrual pattern in contrast with 56.3% of Euthyroid and 87.8% of healthy controls (p < 0.001. Reproductive failure (infertility, pregnancy wastage, failure of lactation occurred in 37.5% of hypothyroid and 36.5% of hyperthyroid cases against 16.3% of euthyroid and 16.7% of healthy controls (p < 0.05. Interestingly, in 45% of cases with menstrual abnormality, the anomaly was antecedent to other clinical features by a variable period of two months to ten years. Reproductive failure and lactation failure also preceded thyroid dysfunction or goitre. Reproductive dysfunction may therefore be considered as one of the presenting symptoms of thyroid disorders in women, keeping in mind both menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may also arise from other common or idiopathic origins. Especially in women with menstrual irregularities in the perimenopausal age if thyroid dysfunction is detected, pharmacotherapy may be a superior alternative to surgical interventions like hysterectomy.

  12. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A growing number of adoptive mothers are interested in breastfeeding their babies through induced lactation. Prescription Medications No ...

  13. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  14. Composition of milk obtained from unmassaged versus massaged breasts of lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mervat I; Kawashima, Takaaki; Nakamura, Sadako; Kobayashi, Michiko; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2004-05-01

    The Oketani method is a program of breast massage and clinical counseling developed by the midwife Satomi Oketani. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the method on the quality of breast milk by determining the chemical composition of the milk before and after massage. Milk samples were obtained immediately before and after massage from healthy, exclusively breast-feeding Japanese mothers at two different periods of lactation one 3 months after parturition. Lipids, whey protein, casein, lactose, ash, and total solids in milk were measured in milk samples. The gross energy content of milk was estimated. Breast massage significantly increased lipids in the late lactating period but not in the early lactating period. In the early lactating period casein was increased by breast massage but was not significantly affected in the late lactating period. Breast massage caused a significant increase in total solids from the first day to 11 months post partum. The gross energy in the late lactating period was significantly increased by breast massage but not in the early lactating period. Lactose was not significantly changed by breast massage. Breast massage improves the quality of human milk by significantly increasing total solids, lipids, and casein concentration and gross energy. The milk of mothers treated by Oketani breast massage may improve the growth and development of infants.

  15. Oxytocin for promoting successful lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, M J; Lang, S; Woolridge, M

    2000-01-01

    A rise in the concentration of oxytocin causes contraction of cells around the alveoli and milk ducts, in preparation for suckling. Lactation failure may result from insufficient oxytocin. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of using oral or nasal oxytocin on lactation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of variable doses of oxytocin and different methods of administration versus placebo in breastfeeding women using oxytocin to augment lactation. Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted by two reviewers. Four trials of 639 women were included. There was potential for significant bias in these trials. Restricted breastfeeding schedules may have contributed to inadequate production of milk by the participants. Sublingual and buccal preparations of oxytocin were associated with an increase in milk production. Oxytocin did not appear to increase the incidence of breast pain and 100 international units of oxytocin appeared to be slightly more beneficial than 10 international units. An appropriate dose of sublingual or buccal oxytocin may help augment lactation where necessary. However if women are encouraged and supported with unrestricted breastfeeding, the need for oxytocin would probably be diminished.

  16. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Sudha S.; Raju, K. V. V. N.; Nair, Haripreetha G.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion ...

  17. Blood lactate concentration in diabetic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Claus, Poliana; Gimenes, André M.; Castro, Jacqueline R.; Mantovani, Matheus M.; Kanayama, Khadine K.; Simões, Denise M.N.; Schwartz, Denise S.

    2017-01-01

    Human diabetic patients may have increased lactate levels compared to non-diabetics. Despite the use of lactate levels in critical care assessment, information is lacking for diabetic dogs. Therefore, this prospective cross-sectional clinical study aimed to determine lactate concentrations in 75 diabetic dogs [25 newly diagnosed non-ketotic diabetics, 25 under insulin treatment, and 25 in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)], compared to 25 non-diabetic dogs. Lactate levels (mmol/L) were not differen...

  18. Identification and functional characterization of a novel monotreme- specific antibacterial protein expressed during lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Bisana

    Full Text Available Monotremes are the only oviparous mammals and exhibit a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. They represent a component of synapsidal reproduction by laying shelled eggs which are incubated outside the mother's body. This is accompanied by a prototherian lactation process, marking them as representatives of early mammals. The only extant monotremes are the platypus, and the short- and long- beaked echidnas, and their distributions are limited to Australia and New Guinea. Apart for a short weaning period, milk is the sole source of nutrition and protection for the hatchlings which are altricial and immunologically naive. The duration of lactation in these mammals is prolonged relative to the gestational length and period of incubation of eggs. Much of the development of monotreme young occurs in the non-sterile ex-utero environment. Therefore the role of milk in the growth, development and disease protection of the young is of significant interest. By sequencing the cDNA of cells harvested from monotreme milk, we have identified a novel monotreme- specific transcript, and the corresponding gene was designated as the EchAMP. The expression profile of this gene in various tissues revealed that it is highly expressed in milk cells. The peptides corresponding to the EchAMP protein have been identified in a sample of echidna milk In silico analysis indicated putative antimicrobial potential for the cognate protein of EchAMP. This was further confirmed by in vitro assays using a host of bacteria. Interestingly, EchAMP did not display any activity against a commensal gut floral species. These results support the hypothesis of enhancement of survival of the young by antimicrobial bioactives of mammary gland origin and thus emphasize the protective, non- nutritional role of milk in mammals.

  19. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    and on the log of 305-d divided by day in lactation (linear and quadratic) were better than the Gamma function. A study of lactation curves in dairy cattle on farms in central Mexico showed that the Dijkstra function was superior to the Wood, Wilmink and Rook functions for describing the lactation curve (Val-. Arreola et al.

  20. Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Dawson, Ellen A; Dalsgaard, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference...... ischaemia, and renal lactate elimination is maintained. Thus, kidney lactate elimination is unlikely to contribute to the initial blood lactate accumulation during progressive exercise....

  1. Profile and genetic parameters of dairy cattle locomotion score and lameness across lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougioumtzis, A; Valergakis, G E; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Banos, G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the profile of locomotion score and lameness before the first calving and throughout the first (n=237) and second (n=66) lactation of 303 Holstein cows raised on a commercial farm. Weekly heritability estimates of locomotion score and lameness, and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with milk yield, body condition score, BW and reproduction traits were derived. Daughter future locomotion score and lameness predictions from their sires��� breeding values for conformation traits were also calculated. First-lactation cows were monitored weekly from 6 weeks before calving to the end of lactation. Second-lactation cows were monitored weekly throughout lactation. Cows were locomotion scored on a scale from one (sound) to five (severely lame); a score greater than or equal to two defined presence of lameness. Cows��� weekly body condition score and BW was also recorded. These records were matched to corresponding milk yield records, where the latter were 7-day averages on the week of inspection. The total number of repeated records amounted to 12 221. Data were also matched to the farm���s reproduction database, from which five traits were derived. Statistical analyses were based on uni- and bivariate random regression models. The profile analysis showed that locomotion and lameness problems in first lactation were fewer before and immediately after calving, and increased as lactation progressed. The profile of the two traits remained relatively constant across the second lactation. Highest heritability estimates were observed in the weeks before first calving (0.66 for locomotion score and 0.54 for lameness). Statistically significant genetic correlations were found for first lactation weekly locomotion score and lameness with body condition score, ranging from ���0.31 to ���0.65 and from ���0.44 to ���0.76, respectively, suggesting that cows genetically pre-disposed for high body condition score

  2. Mechanisms linking energy balance and reproduction: impact of prenatal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehart, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    The burgeoning field of metabolic reproduction regulation has been gaining momentum due to highly frequent discoveries of new neuroendocrine factors regulating both energy balance and reproduction. Universally throughout the animal kingdom, energy deficits inhibit the reproductive axis, which demonstrates that reproduction is acutely sensitive to fuel availability. Entrainment of reproductive efforts with energy availability is especially critical for females because they expend large amounts of energy on gestation and lactation. Research has identified an assortment of both central and peripheral factors involved in the metabolic regulation of reproduction. From an evolutionary perspective, these mechanisms likely evolved to optimize reproductive fitness in an environment with an unpredictable food supply and regular bouts of famine. To be effective, however, the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic regulation of reproduction must also retain developmental plasticity to allow organisms to adapt their reproductive strategies to their particular niche. In particular, the prenatal environment has emerged as a critical developmental window for programming the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic control of reproduction. This review will discuss the current knowledge about hormonal and molecular mechanisms that entrain reproduction with prevailing energy availability. In addition, it will provide an evolutionary, human life-history framework to assist in the interpretation of findings on gestational programming of the female reproductive function, with a focus on pubertal timing as an example. Future research should aim to shed light on mechanisms underlying the prenatal modulation of the adaptation to an environment with unstable resources in a way that optimizes reproductive fitness.

  3. Relationship between some indicators of reproductive history, body fatness and the menopausal transition in Hungarian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas; Bodzsar, Eva B

    2015-10-22

    This paper analyzed the relationship between some indicators of reproductive history and body fatness in relation to the timing of the menopause transition in Hungarian women using survival analysis after controlling for birth cohort. Data on menstruation and reproductive history were collected during the personal interviews in a sample of 1932 women (aged 35+ years). Menarcheal age, the length of menstrual cycles and menstrual bleedings, regularity of menstrual cycles, number of gestations, lactation, the ever use of contraceptives, menopausal status and age at menopause were used as indicators of reproductive history. The body fat fraction was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body fatness was also estimated by dividing women into obese and non-obese categories (considering body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio). Survival analyses were used to analyze the relationship between the indicators of reproductive history and body fatness during the menopausal transition. Only the menarcheal age among the investigated reproductive life characteristics showed secular changes in the studied decades in Hungary; the mean age at menarche decreased by approximately 2.5 months per decade from the 1920s until the 1970s. Ever use of hormonal contraceptives, a relatively long cycle length in the perimenopausal transition and higher parity were all related with lower risk of early menopause. Later menarcheal age, normal length of menstrual cycle or bleeding in the climacterium, irregular bleeding pattern and postmenopausal status were associated with a higher amount of body fatness, while never use of contraceptives, regular menstruation, postmenopausal status and relatively early menopause were associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity. This report confirms that age of menarche is not significantly predictive of age at menopause but prior use of oral contraceptives, longer mean cycle length and smaller number of gestations all are. In addition, age of

  4. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up...... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  5. Obesity impairs lactation performance in mice by inducing prolactin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Daniella C.; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M.; Freitas, Vanessa M.; Zampieri, Thais T.; Nagaishi, Vanessa S.; Magalhães, Magna; Cipolla-Neto, Jose; Cella, Nathalie; Donato Jr., Jose

    2016-01-01

    Obesity reduces breastfeeding success and lactation performance in women. However, the mechanisms involved are not entirely understood. In the present study, female C57BL/6 mice were chronically exposed to a high-fat diet to induce obesity and subsequently exhibited impaired offspring viability (only 15% survival rate), milk production (33% reduction), mammopoiesis (one-third of the glandular area compared to control animals) and postpartum maternal behaviors (higher latency to retrieving and grouping the pups). Reproductive experience attenuated these defects. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited high basal pSTAT5 levels in the mammary tissue and hypothalamus, and an acute prolactin stimulus was unable to further increase pSTAT5 levels above basal levels. In contrast, genetically obese leptin-deficient females showed normal prolactin responsiveness. Additionally, we identified the expression of leptin receptors specifically in basal/myoepithelial cells of the mouse mammary gland. Finally, high-fat diet females exhibited altered mRNA levels of ERBB4 and NRG1, suggesting that obesity may involve disturbances to mammary gland paracrine circuits that are critical in the control of luminal progenitor function and lactation. In summary, our findings indicate that high leptin levels are a possible cause of the peripheral and central prolactin resistance observed in obese mice which leads to impaired lactation performance. PMID:26926925

  6. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  7. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  8. Pregnancy and lactation alter biomarkers of biotin metabolism in women consuming a controlled diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-12-01

    Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 μg/d, whereas 35 μg/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 μg of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful indicators of biotin status during lactation. Overall, these data demonstrate significant alterations in markers of biotin metabolism during pregnancy and lactation and

  9. Pregnancy and Lactation Alter Biomarkers of Biotin Metabolism in Women Consuming a Controlled Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 μg/d, whereas 35 μg/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. Objective: The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. Methods: To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 μg of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Results: Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl–coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful indicators of biotin status during lactation. Conclusions: Overall, these data demonstrate significant alterations in markers of

  10. Are assisted reproduction technologies associated with categorical or dimensional aspects of psychopathology in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood? Results from a Danish prospective nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Juul Hansen, K.; Munk-Jørgensen, P.

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of children are conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), but little is known about the long-term risk in terms of mental health outcomes. All twin and singleton children conceived via ART and born in 1995 were sampled from the Danish in vitro fertilization...

  11. Windows of susceptibility and consequences of early life exposures to 17β–estradiol on medaka (Oryzias latipes) reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Pow, Crystal S. D.; Tilahun, Kedamawit; Creech, Kari; Law, J. Mac; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.; Rice, James A.; Aday, D. Derek; Kullman, Seth W.

    2017-01-01

    Estrogens and estrogen mimics are commonly found in surface waters and are associated with deleterious effects in fish populations. Impaired fertility and fecundity in fish following chronic exposures to estrogens and estrogen mimics during critical windows in development are well documented. However, information regarding differential reproductive effects of exposure within defined developmental stages remains sparse. In this study, reproductive capacity was assessed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) after exposure to two concentrations of 17β–estradiol (E2β; 2 ng/L and 50 ng/L) during four distinct stages of development: gonad development, gonad differentiation, development of secondary sex characteristics (SSC) and gametogenesis. Exposure to E2β did not adversely impact survival, hatch success, growth, or genotypic ratios. In contrast, exposure to 50 ng/L E2β during SSC development altered phenotypic ratios and SSC. Exposure to both E2β treatments reduced reproductive capacity (fertility, fecundity) by 7.3–57.4% in adult medaka breeding pairs, with hindrance of SSC development resulting in the largest disruption in breeding capacity (51.6–57.4% decrease) in the high concentration. This study documents differential effects among four critical stages of development and provides insight into factors (window of exposure, exposure concentration and duration of exposure period) contributing to reproductive disruption in fish.

  12. Long-term Effects Of Perinatal Androgenization On Reproductive Parameters Of Male Rat Offspring Androgenization And Male Rat Reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, M T; Perobelli, J E; Sanabria, M; Anselmo-Franci, J A; Kempinas, W De Grava

    2015-01-01

    It is known that during sex differentiation, fetal androgens are critical determinants of the male phenotype. Although testosterone is necessary for normal development of male sexual behavior, perinatal androgen treatment can result in disruption of normal male sexual reproduction. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered either corn oil (vehicle) or testosterone propionate at 0.2 mg/kg from gestational day 12 until the end of lactation and the reproductive function of male off spring was evalu...

  13. Trend of blood lactate level in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfantalab, Peyman; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin; Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Damaneh, Behrooz Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is common in the developing countries. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of acute AlP poisoning. Early diagnosis of poisoning and outcome predictors may facilitate treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to determine the trend of blood lactate level in acute AlP poisoning to evaluate its role as a prognostic factor. This was a prospective study on acute AlP intoxicated patients during one year. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory data on admission, and outcome were recorded in a self-made questionnaire. Blood lactate levels were analyzed every two hours for 24 hours. Thirty-nine (27 male, 12 female) patients were included in the study. The mortality rate was 38.5%. The mean blood pressure, pulse rate, blood pH and serum bicarbonate level were significantly different between the survivors and non-survivors groups. Blood lactate level was significantly higher in the non-survivors group during 8 to 16 hours post ingestion. Blood lactate level could be used as an index of severity of acute AlP poisoning.

  14. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (pregnancy loss (first trimester) were 0.36 and 0.19 times lower in treated than control animals, respectively. Plasma prolactin levels decreased significantly (p = 0.01) after melatonin treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    that it is possible to avoid poor body condition at weaning even with a lactation length of seven weeks or more. No main effect of backfat at weaning on reproduction performance was found, but the probability of a successful reproduction after weaning tended to decrease with decreasing backfat for first parity sows...

  16. Reproductive Failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for the establishment of a Reproductive Failure. Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital was considered long overdue, as it was felt that there were a number of high risk pregnancies continually being lost among the large volume of pregnant women attending the routine, busy and overcrowded antenatal clinics,. Various ...

  17. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  18. Reproductive disorders of crossbred dairy cows in the central highlands of Ethiopia and their effect on reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Y; Tenhagen, B A; Bekana, M; Kassa, T

    2005-07-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the proportion of reproductive disorders and to determine factors affecting reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows under four different production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The principal postpartum reproductive disorders were retained fetal membranes (14.7%) and uterine infection (15.5%). Anoestrus was the major postpartum reproductive problem in the mixed crop-livestock production system (38.6%) and was significantly associated with this production system. Apart from anoestrus, the occurrence of reproductive disorders was not significantly associated with a production system. Most of the reproductive disorders occurred as a complex rather than as a single abnormality. Two or more abnormal conditions were seen in 11.4% of the cases. Each reproductive trait measured was affected adversely by reproductive disorders. Cows with reproductive disorders in each production system, lactation group and suckling and non-suckling group had longer intervals from calving to first service and to conception (p 0.05). Cows with a good body condition score (> 3.5) at calving had shorter calving to first service and conception intervals than cows in poor condition (p < 0.001). The results showed that reproductive abnormalities, coupled with poor body condition, are important factors that contributed to reproductive inefficiency. An appropriate reproductive health management, a reliable artificial insemination service and supplementary feeding could be the management options to reduce or alleviate some of the problems.

  19. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  20. Productive and reproductive performance of Friesian cows at Kitulo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total lactation milk yield was significantly (P 0.05) effect on the average number of services per conception. It is concluded that reproductive and productive performance of Friesian dairy cows in the present study were low to moderate so it is ...

  1. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of clinical mastitis at the beginning of lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals, number of insemination per conception and conception rate at the first artificial insemination were ...

  2. Reproduction performance of Saanen goats raised under extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... (Haris and Frederick, 1996; Keskin et al., 2004; Özder,. 2006). Since their reproduction is high, they usually give birth to twins or triplets (Haris and Frederick, 1996;. Özder, 2006). Matured males weigh 70 kg, while females weigh 50 kg on average. Average milk production is 750 kg and lactation period is ...

  3. Reproductive biology in the era of genomics biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E

    2005-08-01

    Current and emerging technologies in reproductive biology, including assisted reproductive technologies and animal cloning, are discussed in the context of the impact of genomics era biology. The discussion focuses on the endocrinology associated with establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, fetal-placental development, lactation, and neonatal survival. Various aspects of uterine biology, including development during the neonatal period and function in adult females, are discussed with respect to reproductive efficiency. It is clear that combining strategies for use of conventional animal models for studying the reproductive system with new genomics technologies will provide exceptional opportunities in discovery research involving data integration and application of functional genomics to benefit animal agriculture and the biomedical community. New and emerging biotechnologies and comparative genomics approaches will greatly advance our understanding of genes that are critical to development of the reproductive system and to key events at each stage of the reproductive cycle of females and males.

  4. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Male Reproductive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Male Reproductive System What's in ... your son's reproductive health. About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  5. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Andrew J; Oikonomou, Georgios; Smith, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to investigate the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) on physical activity at estrus using a neck accelerometer device and on future reproductive performance. Two hundred three Holstein-Friesian cows were studied on 3dairy farms in Northwest England between September 2013 and March 2014. Seventeen percent (35 of 203) of the enrolled cows were affected with SCK between 7 and 21d in milk, defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9mmol/L. Time to event analyses and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of SCK on reproductive performance and activity at estrus. The SCK cows exhibited a lower peak activity (measured as the number of standard deviations above mean activity) and shorter duration in activity clusters associated with first estrus and first insemination postpartum, compared with non-SCK cows. Peak activity and cluster duration associated with the insemination that led to a pregnancy were not different between SCK and non-SCK cows. Calving to first estrus, calving to first insemination, and calving to pregnancy intervals were prolonged in SCK cows. First insemination was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval=1.6 to 15.0) less likely to be successful in SCK cows compared with non-SCK cows. Adjusted mean number of inseminations per pregnancy was 2.8 for SCK cows and 2.0 for non-SCK cows. The current study confirms the long-lasting effects of SCK on reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, it is indicated that physical activity around estrus is reduced by SCK in early lactation, but this negative effect appears to diminish as cows progress through lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  7. Lactation during hibernation in wild black bears: effects on plasma amino acids and nitrogen metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P A; Obbard, M E; Battersby, B J; Felskie, A K; LeBlanc, P J; Ballantyne, J S

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the seasonal and reproductive influences on individual plasma amino acid concentrations and nitrogen metabolites in a black bear population (Ontario, Canada). During hibernation, 11 of 23 plasma amino acids were significantly higher (13%-108%) in lactating than in nonlactating females, without an alteration in plasma total protein or total essential or nonessential amino acid levels. The greatest changes were observed in glutamine, arginine, and glycine levels. Plasma urea, urea/creatinine, and ammonia levels were significantly lower in hibernating compared with active female bears, but lactation had no effect on these parameters. Taken together these results show that lactation during hibernation is an additional metabolic challenge that results in increased mobilization of individual plasma amino acids and no accumulation of nitrogen end products, underlining the remarkable efficiency of amino acid and urea recycling in denning female black bears.

  8. BREAST INFECTIONS IN NON-LACTATING WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelHadi, Maha S.A; Bukharie, Huda A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. Materials and Methods: This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia betw...

  9. The reproductive genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Vendrell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of Genetics is closely related with the assisted reproduction technologies from its beginnings at early 1970s. Very high quantities of genetic tests have been developed for couples. These tests allow stablishing the genetic risk, the diagnosis or the reproductive prognosis depending on the couple. The tests are designed to women, men or preimplantation embryos generated by in-vitro fertilization techniques. This paper aims to review the different studies that are currently available to future parents. The establishment of infertility causes is crucial in order to indicate proper treatments. Furthermore, the estimation of genetic risk is decisive to avoid serious disorders in the offspring. In this context, the preconception genetic counselling is extremely important and should be available to patients.

  10. Cessation of reproduction-related spine elongation after multiple breeding cycles in female naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2009-01-01

    The breeding female or "queen" naked mole-rat has a uniquely elongated body morphology attributed to the lengthening of the lumbar vertebral column that occurs during pregnancy. It is unknown whether this vertebral growth is a continuous process, or associated only with early reproductive experience. We compared pregnancy-related bone elongation in nascent primiparous queens and established queens to determine if this vertebral expansion was a lifelong process in these females. We also investigated the impact of lactation on vertebral elongation in these mole-rats because it is known to be a time of significant bone loss in other mammals. Our data show that after eight or more pregnancies, established queens no longer experienced a net gain in lumbar spine length over the reproductive cycle, whereas the nascent breeders demonstrated significant spine lengthening over this time. Despite the lack of net spine lengthening in established breeders, our results indicated that these queens still experienced some pregnancy-specific vertebral elongation. In naked mole-rats, pregnancy-induced bone elongation may serve the dual purposes of first lengthening the spine, and then once optimal spine size is achieved, serving as a homeostatic mechanism that prepares the spine for the mineral demands of lactation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Relationships between reproduction and environment in the Hippopotamus Hippopotamus Amphibius in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L Smuts

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius reproduction in the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa, is described and compared with that of other populations in Africa and with captive reared specimens. Information collected during drought and pluvial periods indicates that adult hippo cows react to adverse environmental conditions (reduced shelter in pools, overcrowding and food scarcity by marked declines in conception rates (from 36,7 @ 5,6. Indirect evidence indicates that when environmental conditions are unfavourable calf survival is improved by extending the period of lactation and by calves suckling more than one cow. During favourable years some calves mature early (S S, 2 years, and 9 9 5 years but generally sexual maturity is attained at six and 9-10 years for males and females respectively. The calving interval, when environmental conditions are favourable, is about two years and reproductive senescence and sterility are insignificant factors. The population sex ratio is 1:1. Hippos appear to be typical K-selected species. Environmental constraints have caused them to adopt a low reproductive rate and high survival rate and consequently a close adjustment to the long-term carrying capacity of the environment.

  12. Histological features in the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanou, D C; Pourlis, A; Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Taitzoglou, I A; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the histology of the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation. Twelve lactating female dogs were operated 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, 70 and 84 days post-partum; four mammary glands of each animal were excised for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric examination. During early lactation and mid-lactation, all lobes and lobules within the same gland had similar features; alveoli were well developed and distended and had a spherical to slightly ovoid structure, with muscular fibres grasping them around; inflammatory cells were seen in the inter- and intra-alveolar space; mammary lobules were separated with a scant amount of connective tissue. In late lactation, connective tissue was abundant and dense, with large numbers of inflammatory cells; alveoli appeared to be irregularly shaped and collapsing, shrunken or fully collapsed. Number of alveoli per lobule and number of epithelial cells per alveolus, as well as diameter of alveoli and height of epithelial cells decreased as lactation progressed. The third mammary glands (from caudal to cranial) had a significantly smaller number of alveoli, but not of epithelial cells per alveolus, than each of the two mammary glands caudally to that. The results suggest that progressive involution of the normal mammary gland starts around the end of the 2nd month of lactation and continues until the end of the 3rd month. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Fecal steroid hormones reveal reproductive state in female blue whales sampled in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Molina, Marcia; Atkinson, Shannon; Mashburn, Kendall; Gendron, Diane; Brownell, Robert L

    2018-05-15

    Steroid hormone assessment using non-invasive sample collection techniques can reveal the reproductive status of aquatic mammals and the physiological mechanisms by which they respond to changes in their environment. A portion of the eastern North Pacific blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) population that seasonally visits the Gulf of California, Mexico has been monitored using photo-identified individuals for over 30 years. The whales use the area in winter-early spring for nursing their calves and feeding and it therefore is well suited for fecal sample collection. Using radioimmunoassays in 25 fecal samples collected between 2009 and 2012 to determine reproductive state and stress, we validated three steroid hormones (progesterone, corticosterone and cortisol) in adult female blue whales. Females that were categorized as pregnant had higher mean fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations (1292.6 ± 415.6 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (14.0 ± 3.7 ng·g -1 ; 23.0 ± 5.4 ng·g -1 , respectively). Females classified as pregnant also had higher concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (37.5 ± 9.9 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (17.4 ± 2.0 ng·g -1 ; 16.8 ± 2.8 ng·g -1 , respectively). In contrast, cortisol metabolite concentrations showed high variability between groups and no significant relationship to reproductive state. We successfully determined preliminary baseline parameters of key steroid hormones by reproductive state in adult female blue whales. The presence of pregnant or with luteal activity and known lactating females confirms that the Gulf of California is an important winter-spring area for the reproductive phase of these blue whales. The baseline corticosterone levels we are developing will be useful for assessing the impact of the increasing coastal development and whale-watching activities on the whales in the Gulf of California. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Lactate Sensors on Flexible Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactate detection by an in situ sensor is of great need in clinical medicine, food processing, and athletic performance monitoring. In this paper, a flexible, easy to fabricate, and low-cost biosensor base on lactate oxidase is presented. The fabrication processes, including metal deposition, sol-gel IrOx deposition, and drop-dry enzyme loading method, are described in detail. The loaded enzyme was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the sensors. Durability, sensibility, and selectivity of the biosensors were examined. The comparison for different electrode sizes and different sensing film materials was conducted. The sensor could last for four weeks with an average surface area normalized sensitivity of 950 nA/(cm2 mM and 9250 nA/(cm2 mM for Au-based electrodes, and IrOx-modified electrodes respectively, both with an electrode size of 100 × 50 μm. The self-referencing method to record noises simultaneously with the working electrode greatly improved sensor sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor showed little response to interference chemicals, such as glutamate and dopamine.

  15. Ramadan fasting, pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasting and malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with deleterious consequences such as hypoglycemia, ketonemia, impaired fetal IQ, low birth weight and even abortion. Comparison of pregnancy length and year duration shows that about 75% of pregnancies coincided with Ramadan. Also, fasting during Ramadan is not equivalent to hunger and malnutrition, however, knowledge of the effects of Ramadan fasting on pregnancy outcome is important. In this review, the results of all studies related to the possible effects of Ramadan fasting in pregnancy and lactation have been collected. Material and Methods: Keywords such as "Ramadan", "Ramadan Fasting", "Islamic Fasting", "Fasting in Ramadan "and Fasting with words Pregnancy, Birth Weight, Lactation, Preterm, Milk Composition, Breast Milk were searched in PubMed Database, SID (Scientific Information Database, and some regional journals and 40 related articles (descriptive cross - sectional, cohort, clinical trial and review articles from 1968 to 2010 were studied. Results: Based on available information, if the maternal nutrition during Ramadan is good, the normal process of pregnancy will be maintained and Ramadan fasting would not have deleterious effects on fetal physical and mental growth. Conclusion: Considering nutritional tips, nursing mothers could also fast during Ramadan.

  16. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  17. An overview of upcoming changes in pregnancy and lactation labeling information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Juan F; Smith, Lillian L; Dezan, Megan D

    2015-01-01

    Many medications can be used safely and effectively to provide health benefits for disease state management during pregnancy with minimal risk to the fetus or mother. Today nine out of ten women take at least one medication during pregnancy, and the number of women taking four or more medications has more than doubled over the past 30 years. However, the lack of safety data combined with the generalizations of the current risk category system (A, B, C, D, X) makes risk versus benefit assessment difficult. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to implement a new pregnancy and lactation labeling rule designed to improve risk versus benefit assessment of drugs used in pregnant and nursing mothers; this rule is set to take effect in June of 2015. This change is designed to provide clear and detailed information for both patients and healthcare providers pertaining to three main categories: pregnancy, lactation, and females and males of reproductive potential. The new labeling rule also removes the previous letter risk categorization system. The upcoming changes regarding pregnancy and lactation safety labeling are going to have a vast impact on drug safety interpretation and prescribing practices. While this rule will provide practitioners with more detailed information pertaining to pregnancy, lactation, and reproduction, it will also place more responsibility on the practitioners to ensure the safety of their patients. This review will summarize these changes and discuss their potential effect on clinical practice.

  18. An overview of upcoming changes in pregnancy and lactation labeling information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosley JF II

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many medications can be used safely and effectively to provide health benefits for disease state management during pregnancy with minimal risk to the fetus or mother. Today nine out of ten women take at least one medication during pregnancy, and the number of women taking four or more medications has more than doubled over the past 30 years. However, the lack of safety data combined with the generalizations of the current risk category system (A, B, C, D, X makes risk versus benefit assessment difficult. Discussion: In response to these concerns, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has decided to implement a new pregnancy and lactation labeling rule designed to improve risk versus benefit assessment of drugs used in pregnant and nursing mothers; this rule is set to take effect in June of 2015. This change is designed to provide clear and detailed information for both patients and healthcare providers pertaining to three main categories: pregnancy, lactation, and females and males of reproductive potential. The new labeling rule also removes the previous letter risk categorization system. Conclusion: The upcoming changes regarding pregnancy and lactation safety labeling are going to have a vast impact on drug safety interpretation and prescribing practices. While this rule will provide practitioners with more detailed information pertaining to pregnancy, lactation, and reproduction, it will also place more responsibility on the practitioners to ensure the safety of their patients. This review will summarize these changes and discuss their potential effect on clinical practice.

  19. EFFECT OF ADRENALECTOMY ON PROLACTIN SECRETION IN PRIMIPAROUS AND MULTIPAROUS LACTATING RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. C. Sanches

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The adenohypophysis produces among other hormones prolactin, which plays an important role in reproduction, especially on the mammary glands and lactation of mammals. Prolactin is tonically controlled by tufo-infundibular dopamine, but several studies indicate that prolactin secretion is altered by the action of glucocorticoids and, therefore, is related to stress. However, the exact contribution of corticosteroids in the control of prolactin secretion is poorly understood. On the other hand, it is also known that reproductive experience can modify prolactin secretion by adenohypophysis. Thus, the present study aims to study the hormonal relationships of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, in particular, the glucocorticoid relationship on prolactin secretion as a function of the reproductive experience in females during lactation. The results show that reproductive experience may be a factor modifying the sensitivity of the neuroendocrine response of prolactin secretion to glucocorticoids. However, more studies are needed to understand the possible mechanisms involved, as well as possible modifications in this response as a function of the reproductive status of the females.

  20. Peak energy turnover in lactating European hares: the role of fat reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Valencak, T. G.; Tataruch, F.; Ruf, T.

    2009-01-01

    European hares (Lepus europaeus) in central Europe have high energetic costs of reproduction, mainly due to precocial, rapidly growing young that rely largely on energy rich milk. Thus, hares in this climate build up large fat stores during winter which are then gradually depleted during the spring to autumn breeding season. We hypothesized that diminishing fat stores of females over the breeding season may affect resource allocation, peak energy assimilation during lactation, or the total in...

  1. Differences in the Oxylipid Profiles of Bovine Milk and Plasma at Different Stages of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Matthew J; Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Jones, A Daniel; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2017-06-21

    Mastitis is caused by a bacterial infection of the mammary gland, which reduces both milk quality and quantity produced for human consumption. The incidence and severity of bovine mastitis are greatest during the periparturient period that results from dysfunctional inflammatory responses and causes damage to milk synthesizing tissues. Oxylipids are potent fatty acid-derived mediators that control the onset and resolution of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate how oxylipid profiles change in bovine milk at different stages of the lactation cycle. Results showed significantly lower concentrations of both milk polyunsaturated fatty acid content and total oxylipid biosynthesis during early lactation when compared to mid- or late-lactation. The only oxylipid that was higher during early lactation was 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), which is often associated with inflammatory-based diseases. Milk oxylipid profiles during the different stages of lactation differed from plasma profiles. As such, plasma fatty acid and oxylipid concentrations are not a proxy for local changes in the mammary gland during the lactation cycle.

  2. Reproduction Symposium: developmental programming of reproductive and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, V; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2014-08-01

    Inappropriate programming of the reproductive system by developmental exposure to excess steroid hormones is of concern. Sheep are well suited for investigating developmental origin of reproductive and metabolic disorders. The developmental time line of female sheep (approximately 5 mo gestation and approximately 7 mo to puberty) is ideal for conducting sequential studies of the progression of metabolic and/or reproductive disruption from the developmental insult to manifestation of adult consequences. Major benefits of using sheep include knowledge of established critical periods to target adult defects, a rich understanding of reproductive neuroendocrine regulation, availability of noninvasive approaches to monitor follicular dynamics, established surgical approaches to obtain hypophyseal portal blood for measurement of hypothalamic hormones, and the ability to perform studies in natural setting thereby keeping behavioral interactions intact. Of importance is the ability to chronically instrument fetus and mother for determining early endocrine perturbations. Prenatal exposure of the female to excess testosterone (T) leads to an array of adult reproductive disorders that include LH excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction culminating in early reproductive failure. At the neuroendocrine level, all 3 feedback systems are compromised. At the pituitary level, gonadotrope (LH secretion) sensitivity to GnRH is increased. Multifollicular ovarian morphology stems from persistence of follicles as well as enhanced follicular recruitment. These defects culminate in progressive loss of cyclicity and reduced fecundity. Prenatal T excess also leads to fetal growth retardation, an early marker of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases, insulin resistance, hypertension, and behavioral deficits. Collectively, the reproductive and metabolic deficits of prenatal T-treated sheep provide proof of

  3. Random regression analysis of test-day milk yields in the first and second lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Herrera, L G; El Faro, L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Machado, C H C; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-12-09

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for test-day milk yields (TDMY) in the first and second lactations using random regression models (RRM) in order to contribute to the application of these models in genetic evaluation of milk yield in Gyr cattle. A total of 53,328 TDMY records from 7118 lactations of 5853 Gyr cows were analyzed. The model included the direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cows at calving were included as fixed effects. A random regression model fitting fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five classes of residual variance, was applied. In the first lactation, the heritabilities increased from early lactation (0.26) until TDMY3 (0.38), followed by a decrease until the end of lactation. In the second lactation, the estimates increased from the first (0.29) to the fifth test day (0.36), with a slight decrease thereafter, and again increased on the last two test days (0.34 and 0.41). There were positive and high genetic correlations estimated between first-lactation TDMY and the remaining TDMY of the two lactations. The moderate heritability estimates, as well as the high genetic correlations between half the first-lactation TDMY and all TDMY of the two lactations, suggest that the selection based only on first lactation TDMY is the best selection strategy to increase milk production across first and second lactations of Gyr cows.

  4. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction and lac...

  5. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01


    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.

    The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth

  6. Optimizing micronutrient intake of lactating women through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimizing micronutrient intake of lactating women through increased wild edible plant consumption in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. ... current micronutrient intake measured in a sample of lactating women and Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and the creation of composite nutrient profiles for groups of wild edible ...

  7. Maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation alters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased glucocorticoid levels may affect serum electrolyte levels and the architecture of the adrenal cortex. This study was designed to investigate the effects of maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation on serum electrolytes and structure of the adrenal gland. Methods: Twenty lactating dams were divided ...

  8. effect of hippocratea obtusifolia extracts on lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... EFFECT OF HIPPOCRATEA OBTUSIFOLIA EXTRACTS ON LACTATION. INDUCEMENT. 1*Datti, Y., 2Idris, M.M., ... mothers of preterm babies who at over 14 days from delivery and after full lactation support still ... steroids (progestrone and estrogen) as a short-term treatment followed by a wide variety of ...

  9. Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... Case Study: Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis. 149. 2012 Volume 17 No 3. JEMDSA. Introduction. Osteoporosis, a condition that is usually associated with ageing and which is found in postmenopausal women, can present during pregnancy and lactation. A syndrome of spontaneous ...

  10. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; Sudholter, Ernst; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors

  11. Delay of puberty and reproductive performance in male dogs following the implantation of 4.7 and 9.4 mg GnRH-agonist deslorelin at an early pre-pubertal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivaidyapong, S; Mehl, N S; Trigg, T E

    2012-12-01

    Stray dogs are a significant problem in large cities. Contraception is an important and useful solution to control the growing population of these dogs. Early-age neutering is an effective technique for canine population control; however, surgical neutering may not be possible in various situations. GnRH-agonist implantation has been successful for long-term reversible contraception in dogs. The efficacy of GnRH-agonist implantation on long-term suppression of reproductive performance was observed in male dogs. Eleven 4-month-old dogs were implanted with 4.7, 9.4 mg deslorelin or placebo. Sexual behaviour and testicular size were monitored every 2 months. Ejaculates were collected and evaluated at 8, 12, 15, 18, 24, 30, 32, 34 and 36 months of age. Dogs implanted with placebo were found to be healthy and in normal reproductive status. Most dogs (3/4) implanted with 4.7 mg deslorelin showed male sexual behaviour at age of 34 months old. From this group, two dogs had normal semen quality, while semen could not be collected from the other dog, and after castration, no sperm were obtained following epididymal flushing. One dog implanted 4.7 mg deslorelin and four dogs implanted with 9.4 mg deslorelin remained in the non-pubertal reproductive status at 30-34 months. The delay to puberty was longer in dogs implanted with higher dose of GnRH agonist. Implantation of pre-pubertal dogs with high doses of GnRH agonist will delay the onset of puberty and may be an effective strategy to reduce the number of unwanted breedings. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions...... were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10......%, arterial oxygen saturation 72±10%, mean±SD). Whole-body lactate turnover increased 3.5-fold and 9-fold at two workloads in normoxia and 18-fold during exercise in hypoxia. Although middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity increased during exercise in hypoxia, calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen...

  13. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  14. Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-A; Kim, Yun-Mi; Hyun, Pung-Mi; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2015-05-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV) is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration-especially via the nasal or rectal route-could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  15. Valor do farelo de arroz integral como fonte de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey na fase inicial de lactação: digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes Value of rice bran as a fat source for Jersey cows in early lactation: apparent digestibility of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laerte Nörnberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas oito vacas Jersey, com peso médio de 420 kg, produção média de 20 kg de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, na fase inicial de lactação (próximas ao pico de lactação, estabuladas em baias individuais, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4. Objetivou-se avaliar a potencialidade do farelo de arroz integral como fonte de gordura, associado a óleo de arroz e a sebo bovino, em dietas isoprotéicas, isofibrosas e isolipídicas entre as fontes de gordura estudadas, por meio da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes. Os tratamentos foram: CON- concentrado sem adição de gordura; GP- concentrado com gordura protegida; FAIO- concentrado com farelo de arroz integral e óleo de arroz; FAIS- concentrado com farelo de arroz integral e sebo bovino. Os concentrados foram à base de grãos de milho moído e farelo de soja, e, como volumosos, foram empregados silagem de milho e feno de alfafa (1:1. O concentrado foi fornecido três vezes ao dia, separadamente dos volumosos. Os volumosos foram fornecidos à vontade, procurando-se manter a proporção de 55% em relação às misturas concentradas. A estimativa da excreção fecal foi obtida com emprego de óxido de cromo e a digestibilidade da gordura por diferença. A interpretação estatística foi feita pela análise de variância dos valores médios de cada tratamento pelo teste F. As fontes de gordura não afetaram a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e de carboidratos não-fibrosos. O farelo de arroz integral pode ser usado como fonte de gordura, totalizando 6% de gordura bruta na dieta de vacas leiteiras na fase inicial da lactação.Eight Jersey cows with an average live weight of 420 kg, yielding around 20 kg of 3.5% FCM in early lactation (around the peak of lactation were used in a trial whose objectives were to evaluate rice bran as fat source associated with oil or tallow in iso-proteic, iso

  16. Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Dried Sardines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. AI-Abri

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To utilize locally available feed resources with livestock production in hot climates, dried sardines were incorporated into diets for lactating dairy cows. Fourteen Holstein and 13 Australian Milk Zebu multiparous cows were used in a 70-day continuous feeding experiment. lsonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing either soybean meal or dried sardines (supplied 40% of dietary crude protein were fed ad - libitum. Comparisons between diets were made during the 7-week experimental period. The experiment was conducted as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatment, with diet and breed as main factors. Ruminal pH, ammonia N, total and individual volatile fatty acids concentrations were not altered by the feeding of dried sardines. Intakes of dry matter, energy, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber were lower (P0.05 in Holstein cows fed dried sardines than those fed the control diet (16.2 vs 15.1 kg/d. Feeding of dried sardines did not affect milk composition and compositional yields. Milk production was higher (P<0.01 in Holstein than Australian Milk Zebu cows. Effect of diet and breed interaction on milk production was significant (P<0.01 . Potential of feeding marine proteins may be higher for higher milk producers (Holstein than lower producers (Australian Milk Zebu. Reproduction parameters, body condition scores, and heat-stress associated parameters were not affected by the feeding of dried sardines. This study suggests that dried sardines could be incorporated into diets of lactating dairy cows without affecting milk production.

  17. Reconsidering lactate as a sepsis risk biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Moran

    Full Text Available There has been renewed interest in lactate as a risk biomarker in sepsis and septic shock. However, the ability of the odds ratio (OR and change in the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC-ROC to assess biomarker added-value has been questioned.A sepsis cohort was identified from the ICU database of an Australian tertiary referral hospital using APACHE III diagnostic codes. Demographic information, APACHE III scores, 24-hour post-admission patient lactate levels, and hospital mortality were accessed.Hospital mortality was modelled using a base predictive logistic regression model and sequential addition of admission lactate, lactate clearance ([lactateadmission-lactatefinal]/lactateadmission, and area under the lactate-time curve (LTC. Added-value was assessed using lactate index OR; AUC-ROC difference (base-model versus lactate index addition; net (mortality reclassification index (NRI; range -2 to +2; and net benefit (NB, the number of true positives per patient adjusted for the number of false positives. The data set comprised 717 patients with mean(SD age and APACHE III score 61.1(16.5 years and 68.3(28.2 respectively; 59.2% were male. Admission lactate was 2.3(2.5 mmol/l; with lactate of ≥ 4 mmol/L (37% hospital mortality in 17% and patients with lactate < 4 mmol/L having 18% hospital mortality. The admission base-model had an AUC-ROC = 0.81 with admission lactate OR = 1.127 (95%CI: 1.038, 1.224, AUC-ROC difference of 0.0032 (-0.0037, 0.01615; P = 0.61, and NRI 0.240(0.030, 0.464. The over-time model had an AUC-ROC = 0.86 with (i clearance OR = 0.771, 95%CI: 0.578, 1.030; P = 0.08; AUC-ROC difference 0.001 (-0.003, 0.014; P = 0.78, and NRI 0.109(-0.193, 0.425 and (ii LTC OR = 0.997, 95%CI: 0.989, 1.005, P = 0.49; AUC-ROC difference 0.004 (-0.002, 0.004; P = 0.34, and NRI 0.111(-0.222, 0.403. NB was not incremented by any lactate index.Lactate added-value assessment is dependent upon the performance of the underlying

  18. The use of multilevel models to evaluate sources of variation in reproductive performance in dairy cattle in Reunion Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohoo, I.R.; Tillard, E.; Stryhn, H.

    2001-01-01

    Sources of variation in measures of reproductive performance in dairy cattle were evaluated using data collected from 3207 lactations in 1570 cows in 50 herds from five geographic regions of Reunion Island (located off the cast coast of Madagascar). Three continuously distributed reproductive...

  19. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) ART refers to treatments and procedures that ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  20. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  1. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  2. Estimation of the reproductive number and the serial interval in early phase of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Laura Forsberg; Wallinga, Jacco; Finelli, Lyn; Reed, Carrie; Riley, Steven; Lipsitch, Marc; Pagano, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    Background The United States was the second country to have a major outbreak of novel influenza A/H1N1 in what has become a new pandemic. Appropriate public health responses to this pandemic depend in part on early estimates of key epidemiological parameters of the virus in defined populations.

  3. Infant/child burials and social reproduction in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (c. 2100-800 BC) of Central Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossenberg, E.A.; Bacvarov, K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Special treatment of the remains of children is a well-known feature in Central Italy from the Neolithic onwards. Here I will focus on the evidence for the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in two adjacent Central Italian regions (Abruzzo and Lazio). It will be argued that mortuary practice

  4. Pros and cons of estimating the reproduction number from early epidemic growth rate of influenza A (H1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of the world, the exponential growth rate of infections during the initial epidemic phase has been used to make statistical inferences on the reproduction number, R, a summary measure of the transmission potential for the novel influenza A (H1N1 2009. The growth rate at the initial stage of the epidemic in Japan led to estimates for R in the range 2.0 to 2.6, capturing the intensity of the initial outbreak among school-age children in May 2009. Methods An updated estimate of R that takes into account the epidemic data from 29 May to 14 July is provided. An age-structured renewal process is employed to capture the age-dependent transmission dynamics, jointly estimating the reproduction number, the age-dependent susceptibility and the relative contribution of imported cases to secondary transmission. Pitfalls in estimating epidemic growth rates are identified and used for scrutinizing and re-assessing the results of our earlier estimate of R. Results Maximum likelihood estimates of R using the data from 29 May to 14 July ranged from 1.21 to 1.35. The next-generation matrix, based on our age-structured model, predicts that only 17.5% of the population will experience infection by the end of the first pandemic wave. Our earlier estimate of R did not fully capture the population-wide epidemic in quantifying the next-generation matrix from the estimated growth rate during the initial stage of the pandemic in Japan. Conclusions In order to quantify R from the growth rate of cases, it is essential that the selected model captures the underlying transmission dynamics embedded in the data. Exploring additional epidemiological information will be useful for assessing the temporal dynamics. Although the simple concept of R is more easily grasped by the general public than that of the next-generation matrix, the matrix incorporating detailed information (e.g., age-specificity is essential for reducing the levels of

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase assay for assessment of polycation cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2013-01-01

    Cellular toxicity and/or cell death entail complex mechanisms that require detailed evaluation for proper characterization. A detailed mechanistic assessment of cytotoxicity is essential for design and construction of more effective polycations for nucleic acid delivery. A single toxicity assay...... cannot stand alone in determining the type and extent of damage or cell death mechanism. In this chapter we describe a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for high-throughput screening that can be used as a starting point for further detailed cytotoxicity determination. LDH release is considered an early...

  6. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed...... of AEDs in pregnancy and during lactation is important to enable optimal treatment. Gestation induced alterations in pharmacokinetics vary with the AED but also between patients and are difficult to predict. Therapeutic drug monitoring is, therefore, advisable during pregnancy and the use...... of the individual patient's optimal prepregnancy drug level is recommended as reference. Breastfeeding is in general safe but needs appropriate observation of the nursing infant....

  7. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Workplace lactation support by New Jersey employers following US Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon K; Gaits, Susan I; Wunderlich, Shahla M

    2015-02-01

    Returning to an unsupportive work environment has been identified as a major reason for avoidance or early abandonment of breastfeeding among working mothers. This study aimed to examine the nature and extent of accommodations offered to breastfeeding employees among New Jersey employers since the US federal Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers law enactment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to measure current lactation support in the workplace in New Jersey. Using convenience sampling, the survey was sent to managerial personnel in hospitals and nonhospitals. The level of support was assessed on company policy, lactation room, and room amenity. A composite lactation amenity score was calculated based on responses about lactation room amenities. Respondents (N = 51) completed a 22-item online questionnaire during fall 2011. The support level was compared by type of organization: hospital (n = 37) versus nonhospital (n = 14). The amenity score of hospitals was significantly higher than nonhospitals (1.44 vs 0.45, P = .002). The mean amenity score (score = 0.95) for all employers was far below comprehensive (score = 3.0). Compared to nonhospitals, hospitals were more likely to offer lactation rooms (81% vs 36%, P = .003), have their own breastfeeding policy (35.1% vs 7.1%, P = .01), and provide additional breastfeeding support (eg, education classes, resources; P < .05). Employers, regardless of the type of organization, need to improve their current practices and create equity of lactation support in the workplace. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Effect of different dry period lengths on milk production and somatic cell count in subsequent lactation on commercial Dutch dairy herds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Shortening the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance in early lactation. It is well known that both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactations. In most of these studies milk production data were

  10. In vitro fertilization in Japan - early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world's first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe. In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine. IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient's uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART.

  11. Reproductive success, early life stage development, and survival of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) exposed to elevated selenium in an area of active coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Barri-Lynn; Andreller, Iisak; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2008-04-15

    The effects of accumulated Se on the reproductive success and larval development of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewis,) collected from a site of active coal mining in British Columbia were assessed. Eggs from 12 fish from an exposed site (Clode Pond) and 16 from a reference site (O'Rourke Lake) were field-collected and reared in the laboratory. Egg Se concentrations ranged from 12.3 to 16.7 and 11.8 to 140.0 microg/g dry weight (dw) from fish collected at the reference and exposed sites, respectively. Other studies, including those with this species, have not shown Se to affect egg viability; however, in the present study, eggs with Se concentrations > 86.3 microg/g dw were not successfully fertilized or were nonviable at fertilization, while eggs with concentrations > 46.8 and 20.6 microg/g dw. The present data, in conjunction with the data from several other studies in temperate fish, suggest that current Se thresholds are conservative for cold-water fish.

  12. AVERT2 (a very early rehabilitation trial, a very effective reproductive trigger): retrospective observational analysis of the number of babies born to trial staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Julie; Lindley, Richard I; Lalor, Erin; Ellery, Fiona; Chamberlain, Jan; Van Holsteyn, John; Collier, Janice M; Dewey, Helen M; Parsons, Brooke; Moodie, Marjory; Lennon, Sheila; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Thrift, Amanda G; Churilov, Leonid; Langhorne, Peter

    2015-12-11

    To report the number of participants needed to recruit per baby born to trial staff during AVERT, a large international trial on acute stroke, and to describe trial management consequences. Retrospective observational analysis. 56 acute stroke hospitals in eight countries. 1074 trial physiotherapists, nurses, and other clinicians. Number of babies born during trial recruitment per trial participant recruited. With 198 site recruitment years and 2104 patients recruited during AVERT, 120 babies were born to trial staff. Births led to an estimated 10% loss in time to achieve recruitment. Parental leave was linked to six trial site closures. The number of participants needed to recruit per baby born was 17.5 (95% confidence interval 14.7 to 21.0); additional trial costs associated with each birth were estimated at 5736 Australian dollars on average. The staff absences registered in AVERT owing to parental leave led to delayed trial recruitment and increased costs, and should be considered by trial investigators when planning research and estimating budgets. However, the celebration of new life became a highlight of the annual AVERT collaborators' meetings and helped maintain a cohesive collaborative group. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry no 12606000185561. Participation in a rehabilitation trial does not guarantee successful reproductive activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD or low fat (LFD diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-, and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women.

  14. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R; Bohrer, Justin C; Prichard, Allan S; Perez, Paola K; Streckenbach, Liana J; Olson, Jake M; Cook, Mark E; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women.

  15. Maternal Buprenorphine Maintenance and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M; Spencer, Nancy; McConnell, Krystle; Velez, Martha; Tuten, Michelle; Harrow, Cheryl A; Jones, Hendrée E; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Barnes, Allan J; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    In addition to the well-known benefits of human milk and breastfeeding for the mother and infant, breastfeeding may mitigate neonatal abstinence syndrome severity in prenatally opioid-exposed infants. However, lack of conclusive data regarding the extent of the presence of buprenorphine and active metabolites in human milk makes the recommendation of breastfeeding for buprenorphine-maintained women difficult for many providers. This study seeks to determine the concentrations of buprenorphine and its active metabolites (norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide) in human milk, maternal plasma, and infant plasma of buprenorphine-maintained women and their infants. Up to 10 buprenorphine-maintained women provided paired breast milk and plasma samples at 2, 3, 4, 14, and 30 days postdelivery, and 9 infants provided plasma samples on day 14 of life. All samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to determine concentrations of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide by a fully validated method. Concentrations of buprenorphine and metabolites are low in human milk and maternal plasma. Breastfed infant plasma concentrations of buprenorphine were low or undetectable and metabolite concentrations undetectable at 14 days of infant age. There were significant correlations between maternal buprenorphine dose and maternal plasma and human milk buprenorphine concentrations. These data find low concentrations of buprenorphine and metabolites in human milk and lend support to the recommendation for lactation among stable buprenorphine-maintained women. However, the correlation between maternal dose and maternal plasma and human milk buprenorphine concentrations bears further study.

  16. Ungulate reproductive parameters track satellite observations of plant phenology across latitude and climatological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, David; Sexton, Joseph O.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Bernales, Heather H.; Edwards, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climatically-driven plant phenology on mammalian reproduction is one key to predicting species-specific demographic responses to climate change. Large ungulates face their greatest energetic demands from the later stages of pregnancy through weaning, and so in seasonal environments parturition dates should match periods of high primary productivity. Interannual variation in weather influences the quality and timing of forage availability, which can influence neonatal survival. Here, we evaluated macro-scale patterns in reproductive performance of a widely distributed ungulate (mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) across contrasting climatological regimes using satellite-derived indices of primary productivity and plant phenology over eight degrees of latitude (890 km) in the American Southwest. The dataset comprised > 180,000 animal observations taken from 54 populations over eight years (2004–2011). Regionally, both the start and peak of growing season (“Start” and “Peak”, respectively) are negatively and significantly correlated with latitude, an unusual pattern stemming from a change in the dominance of spring snowmelt in the north to the influence of the North American Monsoon in the south. Corresponding to the timing and variation in both the Start and Peak, mule deer reproduction was latest, lowest, and most variable at lower latitudes where plant phenology is timed to the onset of monsoonal moisture. Parturition dates closely tracked the growing season across space, lagging behind the Start and preceding the Peak by 27 and 23 days, respectively. Mean juvenile production increased, and variation decreased, with increasing latitude. Temporally, juvenile production was best predicted by primary productivity during summer, which encompassed late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. Our findings offer a parsimonious explanation of two key reproductive parameters in ungulate demography, timing of parturition and mean annual production

  17. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  18. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Lactic acid accumulation is generally believed to be involved in muscle fatigue. However, one study reported that in rat soleus muscle (in vitro), with force depressed by high external K+ concentrations a subsequent incubation with lactic acid restores force and thereby protects against fatigue...... muscle. Three incubation solutions were used: 20 mm Na-lactate (which acidifies internal pH), 12 mm Na-lactate +8 mm lactic acid (which mimics the pH changes during muscle activity), and 20 mm lactic acid (which acidifies external pH more than internal pH). All three solutions improved force in K+-depressed...... development in repetitively stimulated muscle (Na-lactate had a negative effect). It is concluded that although lactate/lactic acid incubation regains force in K+-depressed resting muscle, a similar incubation has no or a negative effect on force development in active muscle. It is suggested...

  19. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken

    2016-01-01

    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also...... known as HCAR1, may contribute importantly to the control of retinal cell functions in health and disease. GPR81, a G-protein coupled receptor, is known to downregulate cAMP both in adipose and nervous tissue. The receptor also acts through other down-stream mechanisms to control functions...... reveal high GPR81 mRNA in retina and indicate GPR81 localization in Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, monocarboxylate transporters are expressed in retinal cells. We envision that lactate receptors and transporters could be useful future targets of novel therapeutic strategies to protect...

  20. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  1. Corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone preserves changes in maternal behavior and neuroendocrine responses during immunological challenge in lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Fabiana C; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Elias, Lucila L K; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Lactation is associated with profound behavioral and physiological adaptations in the mother that support reproductive success. These include neuroendocrine adaptation to stress that reduces anxiety-related behavior and emotional responsiveness. However, the way in which endogenous glucocorticoids secreted during immunological challenge influence the neuroendocrine system and behavior of lactating rats is not well understood. To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoids on the neuroendocrine response to suckling, maternal behavior and maternal anxiolysis, lactating female rats were treated with vehicle or metyrapone prior to the administration of a saline solution or a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) solution. LPS treatment reduced oxytocin and prolactin secretion during suckling and affected a variety of maternal behaviors, such as increasing the latency of retrieval a new nest, decreasing the number of pups gathered to the nest, increasing the latency of retrieving the first pup and decreasing the percentage of time spent in the arched-nursing position. In addition, the LPS treatment increased the baseline and avoidance latencies in an elevated T-maze. Pretreatment with metyrapone counteracted effects produced by LPS, including hormonal and behavioral responses in lactating rats. Taken together, our results indicate that stress induced by LPS treatment attenuates the neuroendocrine response to suckling, followed by disruption of maternal behavior and maternal anxiolysis in lactating female rats. These changes may be due to corticosterone release, as evidenced by the reversal of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses after immunological challenge in lactating rats that had been pretreated with metyrapone. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Experimental manipulation of female reproduction demonstrates its fitness costs in kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When resources are scarce, female mammals should face a trade-off between lactation and other life-history traits such as growth, survival and subsequent reproduction. Kangaroos are ideal to test predictions about reproductive costs because they may simultaneously lactate and carry a young, and have indeterminate growth and a long breeding season. An earlier study in three of our five study populations prevented female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from reproducing during one reproductive season by either inserting contraceptive implants or removing very small pouch young. We explored how individual and environmental variables affect the costs of reproduction over time, combining this experimental reduction of reproductive effort with multi-year monitoring of 270 marked females. Experimental manipulation should control for individual heterogeneity, revealing the costs of reproduction and their likely sources. We also examined the fitness consequences of reproductive effort and offspring sex among unmanipulated individuals to test whether sex allocation strategies affected trade-offs. Costs of reproduction included longer inter-birth intervals and lower probability of producing a young that survived to 7 months in the subsequent reproductive event. Weaning success, however, did not differ significantly between manipulated and control females. By reducing reproductive effort, manipulation appeared to increase individual condition and subsequent reproductive success. Effects of offspring sex upon subsequent reproductive success varied according to year and study population. Mothers of sons were generally more likely to have a young that survived to 7 months, compared to mothers of daughters. The fitness costs of reproduction arise from constraints in both acquisition and allocation of resources. To meet these costs, females delay subsequent parturition and may manipulate offspring sex. Reproductive tactics thus vary according to the amount of resource

  3. Intracellular Shuttle: The Lactate Aerobic Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is a highly dynamic metabolite that can be used as a fuel by several cells of the human body, particularly during physical exercise. Traditionally, it has been believed that the first step of lactate oxidation occurs in cytosol; however, this idea was recently challenged. A new hypothesis has been presented based on the fact that lactate-to-pyruvate conversion cannot occur in cytosol, because the LDH enzyme characteristics and cytosolic environment do not allow the reaction in this way. Instead, the Intracellular Lactate Shuttle hypothesis states that lactate first enters in mitochondria and only then is metabolized. In several tissues of the human body this idea is well accepted but is quite resistant in skeletal muscle. In this paper, we will present not only the studies which are protagonists in this discussion, but the potential mechanism by which this oxidation occurs and also a link between lactate and mitochondrial proliferation. This new perspective brings some implications and comes to change our understanding of the interaction between the energy systems, because the product of one serves as a substrate for the other.

  4. Blood lactate concentration in diabetic dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Poliana; Gimenes, André M.; Castro, Jacqueline R.; Mantovani, Matheus M.; Kanayama, Khadine K.; Simões, Denise M.N.; Schwartz, Denise S.

    2017-01-01

    Human diabetic patients may have increased lactate levels compared to non-diabetics. Despite the use of lactate levels in critical care assessment, information is lacking for diabetic dogs. Therefore, this prospective cross-sectional clinical study aimed to determine lactate concentrations in 75 diabetic dogs [25 newly diagnosed non-ketotic diabetics, 25 under insulin treatment, and 25 in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)], compared to 25 non-diabetic dogs. Lactate levels (mmol/L) were not different among groups (P = 0.20); median and 25th to 75th percentile were 2.23 and P25–75 = 1.46 to 2.83 for controls, 1.69 and P25–75 = 1.09 to 2.40 for newly diagnosed non-ketotic diabetics, 2.27 and P25–75 = 1.44 to 2.90 for dogs under insulin treatment for at least 30 days, and 2.40 and P25–75 = 1.58 to 3.01 for dogs in DKA. Longitudinal studies assessing both isomers (L- and D-lactate) are needed to better elucidate the role of lactate in the pathophysiology of diabetes acid-base status in dogs. PMID:28761186

  5. An ultrafiltration catheter for monitoring of venous lactate and glucose around myocardial ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, RG; Tio, RA; Venema, K; Korf, J; Hoekstra, A.

    Early detection of myocardial ischemia is of major importance in critical-care medicine. Changes of lactate or glucose levels in the cardial venous efflux may be useful parameters. We succeeded in integrating an ultrafiltration membrane in a cardiac catheter for continuous sampling. The

  6. There is general agreement that feedintake of the lactating animal is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed in- take over a 10 day period was measured at monthly intervals. The pasture was in a dormant stage until the first rain which occurred in January. 1972. The feed intake of the lactating cows of both breeds was significantly higher than that of the dry cows. A substantial consumption was found by calves at the early age ...

  7. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  8. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  9. EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DAIRY GOATS LACTATING NATURALLY OR BY HORMONAL INDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Teresa García-Balcázar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the oxidative stress (OS and its association with performance and serum cortisol in dairy goats under induced (IL and natural lactation (NL. Six goats programmed to be eliminated due to reproductive problems were IL as follows: a days 1-7, estradiol plus progesterone; b days 8-14, estradiol; c days 18-20, flumetasone; d every seven days bovine somatotropin; f on day 21 milking began. Cortisol, antioxidant capacity and Glutathione Peroxidase activity (GHS-Px were determined in serum. During the first two weeks in milk, NL goats had higher cortisol (P0.05. Milk yield/day between groups (NL=2.54+0.2; IL= 2.12+0.2kg and proportion of pregnant goats (NL=100%; IL=83.3% were similar (P>0.05. The treatment was effective as inductor of lactation; besides most of the IL animals became pregnant despite their previous reproductive problems, prolonging their productive life with a natural lactation plus the additional benefit of at least one more kid. Because the antioxidant capacity increased and cortisol decreased in IL goats, apparently their welfare was more adequate than in NL animals.

  10. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  11. Reproductive Medicine in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Norin

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of amphibians includes ovulation, spermiation, fertilization, oviposition, larval stage and development, and metamorphosis. A problem at any stage could lead to reproductive failure. To stimulate reproduction, environmental conditions must be arranged to simulate changes in natural habits. Reproductive life history is well documented in amphibians; a thorough knowledge of this subject will aid the practitioner in diagnosis and treatment. Technologies for artificial reproduction are developing rapidly, and some protocols may be transferable to privately kept or endangered species. Reproductive tract disorders are rarely described; no bacterial or viral diseases are known that specifically target the amphibian reproductive system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of dietary fat content on lactation energetics in the European hare (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackländer, Klaus; Tataruch, Frieda; Ruf, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    European hares selectively feed on plants with high fat and hence energy content. We hypothesized that these dietary requirements limit the ability of hares to adjust daily food intake during periods of high energy requirements, namely lactation. Our measurements in captive lactating females show that does kept on a low-fat diet increased food intake compared to does on a high-fat diet but assimilated significantly lower amounts of energy. Further, does fed a low-fat diet showed a prolonged rise of food intake during lactation, reduced milk energy content and lower milk mass production at large litter sizes. We hypothesize that impaired milk production under suboptimal fat supply is due to the inability of females to increase the capacity of nutrient-processing organs rapidly enough to meet the high energy demands of precocial juveniles with high metabolic costs. Thus, in hares, the production of precocial young may be viewed as a constraint, caused by their inability to dig thermally buffered burrows, rather than as an adaptive reproductive strategy. We suggest that the interaction of lactation energetics, dietary requirements, and reduced plant diversity in modern agricultural landscapes has facilitated the decline of hare populations across Europe over the last decades.

  13. Inner capillary diameter of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of female rat increases during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés-Sol Albertina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the endothelial cell (EC in blood flow regulation within the central nervous system has been little studied. Here, we explored EC participation in morphological changes of the anterior hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN microvasculature of female rats at two reproductive stages with different metabolic demand (virginity and lactation. We measured the inner capillary diameter (ICD of 800 capillaries from either the magnocellular or parvocellular regions. The space occupied by neural (somas, dendrites and axons and glial, but excluding vascular elements of the neurovascular compartment was also measured in 100-μm2 sample fields of both PVN subdivisions. Results The PVN of both groups of animals showed ICDs that ranged from 3 to 10 microns. The virgin group presented mostly capillaries with small ICD, whereas the lactating females exhibited a significant increment in the percentage of capillaries with larger ICD. The space occupied by the neural and glial elements of the neurovascular compartment did not show changes with lactation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that during lactation the microvasculature of the PVN of female rats undergoes dynamic, transitory changes in blood flow as represented by an increment in the ICD through a self-cytoplasmic volume modification reflected by EC changes. A model of this process is proposed.

  14. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Variation in Male Reproductive Longevity across Traditional Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicius, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation) and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause. PMID:25405763

  16. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vinicius

    Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.

  17. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  18. Antioxidant and androgenic effects of dietary ginger on reproductive function of male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Atheymen, Rim; Boujbiha, Mouhamed Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Makni Ayedi, Fatma; Zeghal, Khaled; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and androgenic properties of ginger roots on the reproductive function of male diabetic rats. Animals were divided into three groups; the control (Control), diabetic (Diab) and diabetic fed with dietary ginger for 30 d (Diab + Z). Thereafter, blood samples were collected and reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle) were removed for determination of sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate and lactate aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities. Dietary ginger decreased blood glucose and MDA level, increased reproductive organ weights and testosterone level, improved semen quantity and motility, and ameliorated the SOD, CAT and GPx activities as well as testis AST, ALT, LDH and ALP activities. Intake of ginger roots improves the antioxidant and androgenic reproductive function of male diabetic rats in addition to its antidiabetic property.

  19. Maternal vitamin A status and its importance in infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B A

    1994-02-01

    Early fetal vitamin A supplies must be regulated to avoid teratogenic consequences from too little or too much. Late in gestation, adequate maternal vitamin A status is important for newborn reserves and for sustaining adequate breast-milk concentrations. Vitamin A supplements are not needed for most pregnant women in Western countries who consume the recommended dietary allowance during their reproductive years. Increased consumption of vitamin A-rich foods can meet increased needs during lactation. Women in developing countries whose habitual intakes are near basal needs should receive an additional 100 micrograms retinol equivalents (RE) during pregnancy and 300 micrograms RE during lactation. Supplements not above 3000 micrograms RE (10,000 IU) daily are safe for fertile women where circumstances preclude obtaining the needed increment through diet. The first postpartum month is the only safe period during which to provide deficient lactating women with a single high-dose supplement to benefit the mother and breast-feeding infant for several months.

  20. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  1. Whole-cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor for monitoring mammalian cell cultures during biopharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Lisa; Ainsworth, Catherine; Goey, Cher Hui; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Freemont, Paul S; Polizzi, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    Many high-value added recombinant proteins, such as therapeutic glycoproteins, are produced using mammalian cell cultures. In order to optimize the productivity of these cultures it is important to monitor cellular metabolism, for example the utilization of nutrients and the accumulation of metabolic waste products. One metabolic waste product of interest is lactic acid (lactate), overaccumulation of which can decrease cellular growth and protein production. Current methods for the detection of lactate are limited in terms of cost, sensitivity, and robustness. Therefore, we developed a whole-cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor based on the lldPRD operon and successfully used it to monitor lactate concentration in mammalian cell cultures. Using real samples and analytical validation we demonstrate that our biosensor can be used for absolute quantification of metabolites in complex samples with high accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. Importantly, our whole-cell biosensor was able to detect lactate at concentrations more than two orders of magnitude lower than the industry standard method, making it useful for monitoring lactate concentrations in early phase culture. Given the importance of lactate in a variety of both industrial and clinical contexts we anticipate that our whole-cell biosensor can be used to address a range of interesting biological questions. It also serves as a blueprint for how to capitalize on the wealth of genetic operons for metabolite sensing available in nature for the development of other whole-cell biosensors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1290-1300. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A novel quantitative approach to women's reproductive strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritha H Milne

    Full Text Available The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented 'short-term mating strategy', 'early onset of sexual activity', 'reproductive output', 'timing of childbearing', 'breastfeeding', and 'child spacing'. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these strategic

  3. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H

    2003-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...... release by the arm of approximately 2.1 mmol/min, which was balanced by a similar net lactate uptake by the leg. Whole body and limb lactate oxidation during Continuous Arm + Leg was approximately 45% at rest and approximately 95% of disappearance rate and limb lactate uptake, respectively. Limb lactate...

  4. The Nuts and Bolts of Breastfeeding: Anatomy and Physiology of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Natasha K

    2017-12-01

    Breastmilk is the physiologic norm for infant nutrition. Despite recommendations from major health organizations, many women in the U.S. are not achieving this metric. Understanding breast anatomy and lactation physiology will allow physicians to gain knowledge of the processes, which control lactation enabling physicians to appropriately manage the breastfeeding dyad. The interplay of hormones involved in lactation and milk management affect milk initiation, as well as ongoing milk production (galactopoesis). The unique components of breastmilk that provide protection against infection and chronic diseases also change between and during feeds. Colostrum and the importance of early skin-to-skin after delivery will also be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Variation in udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats with no udder infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Ylva; Larsen, Torben; Nyman, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    (CMT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, N-acetyl-β-d-glucoseaminidase (NAGase) activity and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Milk samples from twenty-four clinically healthy dairy goats were collected on two consecutive days in early, mid and late lactation. At milking, each goat's udder half...... was given a CMT score before udder half milk samples were collected. The milk samples were then analyzed for SCC, LDH, NAGase and AP, and investigated for bacterial growth. Variation in udder health indicators between udder half within goat, samples between sampling days and samples between stages......Mastitis is an important disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose mastitis in goats are available but have not all been investigated in healthy udders and at different stages of lactation...

  6. Reproductive pattern of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, M; Suzuki, M; Ohtaishi, N

    2001-03-01

    Fecal progesterone assays were conducted in 3 captive female sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) segregated from males to characterize the species-specific reproductive pattern in their original distribution area in Sarawak, Malaysia. Peaks of fecal progesterone concentrations were observed once annually, and lactation was observed after increasing progesterone concentrations in all females without mating stimulus. These results suggest that sun bears in Sarawak, Malaysia, may have a seasonal reproductive pattern and ovulation was noted to occur spontaneously, followed by pseudopregnancy.

  7. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    herds with Holstein cows, where daily RT was recorded by rumination sensors (Qwes HRTM). Cows were fed a partially mixed ration and concentrate at the milking robot. Concentrate was stepped up over the first 28 and 17 days in milk for primiparous and multiparous cows. Cows were assigned to either...

  8. Non-native scientists, research dissemination and English neologisms: What happens in the early stages of reception and re-production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Linder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available That the English language is the prevailing language in international scientific discourse is an undeniable fact for research professionals who are non-native speakers of English (NNSE. An exploratory, survey-based study of scientists in the experimental disciplines of neuroscience and medicine seeks to reveal, on the one hand, the habits of scientists who in their research practice come across neologisms in English and need to use them in oral and written scientific discourse in their own languages, and, on the other hand, their attitudes towards these neologisms and towards English as the language of international science. We found that all scientists write and publish their research articles (RAs in English and most submit them unrevised by native speakers of English. When first encountering a neologism in English, scientists tend to pay close attention to these new concepts, ideas or terms and very early in the reception process attempt to coin acceptable, natural-sounding Spanish equivalents for use in the laboratory and in their Spanish texts. In conjunction with the naturalized Spanish term, they often use the English neologism verbatim in a coexistent bilingual form, but they avoid using only the English term and very literal translations. These behaviors show an ambivalent attitude towards English (the language of both new knowledge reception and dissemination of their RAs and Spanish (used for local professional purposes and for popularization: while accepting to write in their acquired non-native language, they simultaneously recognize that their native language needs to preserve its specificity as a language of science.

  9. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  10. Conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. Primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in dogs. After an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with [U-14C]glucose (16.9 muCi/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 ± 0.03 mM at basal to a peak of 1.04 ± 0.07 mM at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 ± 0.07 mM at 240 min. Arterial blood 14 Clactate peaked at 60 min and then decreased to ∼ 35% of the peak at 4 h. When arterial blood lactate peaked at 45 min, the proportion of arterial lactate that was derived from oral glucose was 34 ± 3%. The integrated area under the curve of lactate derived from exogenous glucose was 40 ± 2% of that of total lactate. The splanchnic bed released lactate and 14 Clactate during the initial 2 h after oral 14 Cglucose. Thus, the splanchnic bed apparently contributed to the conversion of exogenous glucose to lactate. In the matched experiments (protocol 2, n = 5), dogs were given the same amount of oral glucose but no 14 Cglucose, and [U-14C]lactate was infused into the right atrium to match the splanchnic 14 Clactate release from the first experiment. Despite a well-matched splanchnic 14 Clactate contribution, arterial concentrations of 14 Clactate were markedly lower in protocol 2 compared with protocol 1. The integrated area under the 14 Clactate profile in protocol 2 was only 11 ± 1% of that in protocol 1. These results indicate that the splanchnic bed is responsible for only 11% of arterial blood lactate that was derived from oral glucose. They concluded that (1) after oral glucose loading, a major portion of circulating lactate has its origin not in exogenous glucose but in endogenous sources, and (2) the splanchnic bed is not the major site of oral glucose conversion to lactate after glucose ingestion

  11. Dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Kulczycka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since wellbeing and health have become fashionable and widespread polypragmasia is popular, adverse drug reactions are a particularly important medical problem. Pregnant women as well as breast-feeding mothers need very particular care from the physician. Treatment during pregnancy or lactation is a more complicated issue not only because it concerns at least two persons, but also because of the many anatomical and functional differences between the adult and fetus or newborn organism. The safety aspects of dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation are presented. Both topical and systemic treatment, mainly for bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic dermatoses and acne, alopecia, psoriasis, and autoimmunological processes, are discussed. Moreover, the most recent methods of dermatological treatment are mentioned taking into consideration their safety during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, the traditional drug classification made by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as the most modern division, which is under construction, are presented.

  12. Relationships between V̇O2 and blood lactate responses after all-out running exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Turnes, Tiago; Pereira, Kayo Leonardo; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2015-03-01

    To verify the effects of training status and blood lactate concentration (BLC) responses on the early excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), 8 sprinters, 7 endurance runners, and 7 untrained subjects performed an incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake and a 1-min all-out test to determine BLC and oxygen uptake recovery curves. BLC kinetics was evaluated to assess the quantity of lactate accumulated during exercise (QlaA), lactate removal ability (k2), and quantity of lactate removed from 0 to 10 min postexercise (QlaR). Oxygen uptake off-kinetics was evaluated to assess the decay time constants (τ1 and τ2); moreover, EPOC was measured during the first 10 min after exercise. While sprinters had 98%-100% and 94%-100% likelihood of having the highest EPOC and decay time constants, endurance runners had 98%-100% and 95%-100% likelihood of having the lowest EPOC and decay time constants. EPOC was correlated with QlaA (r = 0.74) and QlaR (r = 0.61). τ1 and τ2 were correlated with maximal oxygen uptake (r > -0.57), k2 (r > -0.48), and QlaR relative to QlaA (r > -0.60). Our findings indicate that oxygen uptake recovery is associated with fast lactate removal and aerobic training. Furthermore, the metabolites derived from anaerobic energy production seem to induce a greater EPOC after all-out exercise.

  13. Macrocytosis is a predictor of resting lactate concentrations in persons on dideoxynucleoside therapy for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Wendy; Morgan, Erin; Rumman, Amir; Ford, Peter Michael

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity is an important toxicity of antiretroviral therapy and may manifest as elevated blood lactate. Macrocytosis has been hypothesized to act as a marker of mitochondrial toxicity in persons with HIV infection. As part of a larger study on markers of mitochondrial toxicity we evaluated the relationship between resting lactate and erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV). We studied the effect of micronutrient supplementation on lactate metabolism in three groups: those with HIV on and not on dideoxynucleoside-containing antiretroviral therapy and those without HIV. As part of the study we measured resting lactate and erythrocyte MCV after a 14-h fast. Erythrocyte MCV was significantly higher among the 11 participants on antiviral therapy (109.3 femtoliters (fl)) compared to five controls without HIV (89.3 fl) and four controls with HIV not on antiviral therapy (88.3 fl). In addition a strong predictive relationship was seen between MCV and resting lactate (R(2)=0.548, p<0.01). Macrocytosis may be a marker of treatment-related mitochondrial dysfunction in persons on treatment for HIV. Evaluating patients for early evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in resource-constrained settings could be facilitated by this marker. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ESTIMATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND VULNERABILITY OF ADOLESCENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Stanojević

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are reproductive potential of society. Protection of their reproductive health is one of the biggest challenges of modern society. Adolescent reproductive health is endangered by early sexual activities, inadequate protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. It is necessary to take measures which would protect and improve adolescent reproductive health.Adoption of knowledge about sexuality, physiology of reproduction, protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexual infections are prerequisites for formation of correct attitudes related to family planning and taking over responsibility for their own sexual behaviour.

  15. Variations in methane yield and microbial community profiles in the rumen of dairy cows as they pass through stages of first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tamsin; Bielak, Anita; Doyle, Evelyn; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-03-14

    Considerable interest exists both from an environmental and economic perspective in reducing methane emissions from agriculture. In ruminants, CH 4 is produced by a complex community of microorganisms that is established in early life but can be influenced by external factors such as feed. Although CH 4 emissions were thought to be constant once an animal reached maturity, recent studies have shown that CH 4 yield significantly increases from early to late lactation in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increases in CH 4 yield over the lactation cycle are related to changes in rumen microbial community structure. Nine cows were monitored throughout their first lactation cycle. Methane and dry matter intake were measured to calculate CH 4 per dry matter intake (CH 4 yield) and ruminal fluid was collected during early, mid, and late lactation. A significant difference in bacterial and archaeal community structure during early and late lactation was observed. Furthermore, when ruminal short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured, the ratio of acetate and butyrate to propionate was significantly higher in late lactation compared with early lactation. Propionate concentrations were higher in cows with low CH 4 yield during late lactation, but no differences were observed in bacterial or archaeal community structures. Prevotella dominated the rumen of cows followed by Succinclasticum; Treponema, Fibrobacter, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium were also in high abundance relative to other bacterial genera. In general, positive correlations were stronger between the most relatively abundant bacterial genera and acetate and butyrate concentrations in the cows with high CH 4 and weaker between these genera and propionate concentration. This study indicates that increased CH 4 yield in late lactation is reflected in significant changes in microbial community structure. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  16. Lactate and Lactate: Pyruvate Ratio in the Diagnosis and Outcomes of Pediatric Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Amy G; Sokol, Ronald J; Hardison, Regina M; Alonso, Estella M; Squires, Robert H; Narkewicz, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    To assess the accuracy of blood lactate and lactate: pyruvate molar ratio (L:P) as a screen for mitochondrial, respiratory chain, or fatty acid oxidation disorders in children with pediatric acute liver failure (PALF); to determine whether serum lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L or L:P  ≥ 25 correlated with biochemical variables of clinical severity; and to determine whether lactate or L:P is associated with clinical outcome at 21 days. Retrospective review of demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data for PALF study group participants who had lactate and pyruvate levels collected on the same day. Of 986 participants, 110 had lactate and pyruvate levels collected on the same day. Of the 110, the etiology of PALF was a mitochondrial disorder in 8 (7%), indeterminate in 65 (59%), and an alternative diagnosis in 37 (34%). Lactate, pyruvate, and L:P were similar among the 3 etiologic groups. There was no significant association between the initial lactate or L:P and biochemical variables of clinical severity or clinical outcome at 21 days. A serum lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L and/or elevated L:P was common in all causes of PALF, not limited to those with a mitochondrial etiology, and did not predict 21-day clinical outcome. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00986648. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of adding dicalcium phosphate on reproductive performance and some blood biochemical constituents of female growing lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty growing female lambs in average three months old were randomly assigned into three equal groups (ten per each). The animals of each groups were fed on concentrate feed mixture (CFM) contained 1, 2 and 3% dicalcium phosphate for groups G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Group 1 served as control and the experimental diets were given according to NRC (1985) allowance for growing lambs. Rice straw was offered to the three experimental groups ad libitum. Feed consumption was recorded once a week and feed conversion was calculated. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of the experimental period and afterwards at three weeks intervals. At the end of growth period, fertile rams were kept with the female lambs for natural breeding (about 45 days). After parturition, the lambs suckled milk of their mothers and were offered solid feed (creep feeding) since the 7th day after lambing. Blood samples were withdrawn each three weeks during growth, late pregnancy and lactation period. At the end of growing period (at age seven months), blood samples were collected each five days for 40 days. The present study showed that, during the growth period, G3 had the highest final body weight and average daily gain (ADG), while the lowest values were observed in G1. ADG was 160.1, 193.7 and 198.8 g/d, for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The calculated feed conversion values were significantly improved with groups G2 and G3 than that of G1. During pregnancy, changes of body weight for groups G2 and G3 were higher than G1. At early lactation period, body weights in all groups were decreased then were increased gradually to the end of the suckling period. At the end of lactation period, the animals of G2 and G3 gained more significant weight than Gl. The tested blood serum constituents were affected by changes in dicalcium phosphate levels in diet. During growing period, the results showed that significant increases were determined in total protein, globulin, AST, T3, urea and estradiol (E2 - 17

  18. Energy demands for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, Shawn R.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2014-01-01

    Decreases in sea ice have altered habitat use and activity patterns of female Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens and could affect their energetic demands, reproductive success, and population status. However, a lack of physiological data from walruses has hampered efforts to develop the bioenergetics models required for fully understanding potential population-level impacts. We analyzed long-term longitudinal data sets of caloric consumption and body mass from nine female Pacific walruses housed at six aquaria using a hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify relative energetic demands for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation. By examining body mass fluctuations in response to food consumption, the model explicitly uncoupled caloric demand from caloric intake. This is important for pinnipeds because they sequester and deplete large quantities of lipids throughout their lifetimes. Model outputs were scaled to account for activity levels typical of free-ranging Pacific walruses, averaging 83% of the time active in water and 17% of the time hauled-out resting. Estimated caloric requirements ranged from 26,900 kcal d−1 for 2-yr-olds to 93,370 kcal d−1 for simultaneously lactating and pregnant walruses. Daily consumption requirements were higher for pregnancy than lactation, reflecting energetic demands of increasing body size and lipid deposition during pregnancy. Although walruses forage during lactation, fat sequestered during pregnancy sustained 27% of caloric requirements during the first month of lactation, suggesting that walruses use a mixed strategy of capital and income breeding. Ultimately, this model will aid in our understanding of the energetic and population consequences of sea ice loss.

  19. Use of dietary supplements by pregnant and lactating women in North America1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, Mary Frances; McGuire, Michelle K

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient requirements increase during periods of growth and development such as pregnancy and lactation. In response, many clinicians recommend dietary supplements during these important periods of the life cycle. Although there exist some recommendations concerning the need for a limited number of nutrients in supplemental form (eg, iron, folic acid, and iodine), there is a relative paucity of data concerning the use of dietary supplements during pregnancy and lactation. Limited data suggest, however, that usage is dependent on demographic, sociologic, and economic factors. Thus, it is possible that the nation's most at-risk populations may be those who are least likely to comply with these recommendations. As researchers continue to study what is meant by “optimal nutrition” during pregnancy and lactation, it is likely that additional recommendations concerning dietary supplements will emerge. For example, it is possible that increased consumption of some of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy or lactation may impart a benefit to infant health. Understanding better the population dynamics related to supplement use during these periods will be critical in implementation of campaigns designed to encourage appropriate use—and discourage inappropriate use—of dietary supplements during these important phases of human reproduction. The purpose of this article is to briefly review what is known about the use of dietary supplements in North America and, more specifically, in pregnant and lactating women. In addition, information concerning barriers to supplement use is discussed as are current recommendations for dietary supplement consumption during these periods of the life cycle. PMID:19073789

  20. Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages.

  1. Effect van suiker plus lactose in biologisch zeugenvoer op de reproductie van zeugen en de variatie in geboortegewicht van biggen = Effects of sugar plus lactose in organic sow diets on reproductive performance and within liter birth weight variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of feeding sows lactose plus sugar during lactation and the weaning-to-estrus interval on subsequent reproductive performance and within-litter variation were investigated. The results of the trial are described in this report.

  2. Children's Concepts of Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)

  3. Reproductive Aging in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ... of the links in the navigation bar. FAQs Reproductive Health Topics News and Publications Resources About ASRM ...

  4. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Fertility and Sterility Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics Ethics Committee Opinions and Webinars Practice ... Donate copyright 1996 - 2018 ASRM, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All Rights Reserved. ASRM Non Discrimination Policy ...

  5. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Officers Mission Statement Fellowship The Role of Reproductive Surgeons Bylaws Membership Benefits FAQ Registry Discussion Directory Publications Fertility and Sterility Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics (JARG) Newsletters Participate Post a Message ...

  6. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  7. Perspective on calf and mammary gland development through changes in the bovine milk proteome over a complete lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2015-08-01

    Milk contains all the nutrients for the growth and development of the neonate. However, milk composition is not constant during lactation. To study