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Sample records for early lactate clearance

  1. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  2. Early lactate clearance for predicting active bleeding in critically ill patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding.

  3. Early lactate clearance in septic patients with elevated lactate levels admitted from the emergency department to intensive care: time to aim higher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Craig A; Griffith, David M; Gray, Alasdair J; Datta, Deepankar; Hay, Alasdair W

    2013-10-01

    Septic patients with hyperlactatemia have increased mortality rates, irrespective of hemodynamic and oxygen-derived variables. The aims of the study are the following: (1) to ascertain whether lactate clearance (LC) (percentage change in lactate over unit time) predicts mortality in septic patients admitted to intensive care directly from the emergency department and (2) to calculate the optimal "cut-off" value for mortality prediction. Three-year retrospective observational study of consecutive patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to intensive care from the emergency department of a tertiary UK hospital. We calculated 6-hour LC, performed receiver operating characteristic analyses to calculate optimal cut-off values for initial lactate and LC, dichotomized patients according to the LC cut-off, and calculated hazard ratios using a Cox proportional hazards model. One hundred six patients were identified; 78, after exclusions. Lactate clearance was independently associated with 30-day mortality (P<.04); optimal cut-off, 36%. Mortality rates were 61.1% and 10.7% for patients with 6-hour LC 36% or less and greater than 36%, respectively. Hazard ratio for death with LC 36% or less was 7.33 (95% confidence interval, 2.17-24.73; P<.001). Six-hour LC was independently associated with mortality, and the optimal cut-off value was 36%, significantly higher than previously reported. We would support further research investigating this higher LC as a distinct resuscitation end point in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic value of lactate clearance in severe community acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Kamel Abd Elaziz; Ahmed, Dief Abd Elgalil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Severe community acquired pneumonia (SCAP) occurs in approximately 18–36% of all CAP and the mortality rate could be as high as 67% in patients with SCAP. Several studies have described a correlation between baseline lactate concentration and mortality of ICU patients. Aim of the work: To follow lactate clearance after admission for 24 h which could be an indicator of outcome in severe community acquired pneumonia. Patients and methods: Forty-six consecutively admitted adu...

  5. Blood lactate clearance after maximal exercise depends on active recovery intensity.

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    Devlin, J; Paton, B; Poole, L; Sun, W; Ferguson, C; Wilson, J; Kemi, O J

    2014-06-01

    High-intensity exercise is time-limited by onset of fatigue, marked by accumulation of blood lactate. This is accentuated at maximal, all-out exercise that rapidly accumulates high blood lactate. The optimal active recovery intensity for clearing lactate after such maximal, all-out exercise remains unknown. Thus, we studied the intensity-dependence of lactate clearance during active recovery after maximal exercise. We constructed a standardized maximal, all-out treadmill exercise protocol that predictably lead to voluntary exhaustion and blood lactate concentration>10 mM. Next, subjects ran series of all-out bouts that increased blood lactate concentration to 11.5±0.2 mM, followed by recovery exercises ranging 0% (passive)-100% of the lactate threshold. Repeated measurements showed faster lactate clearance during active versus passive recovery (P40%>passive recovery, Pexercise clears accumulated blood lactate faster than passive recovery in an intensity-dependent manner, with maximum clearance occurring at active recovery of 80% of lactate threshold.

  6. Reduced gluconeogenesis and lactate clearance in Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Signe M B; Campos, André

    2010-01-01

    We studied systemic and brain glucose and lactate metabolism in Huntington's disease (HD) patients in response to ergometer cycling. Following termination of exercise, blood glucose increased abruptly in control subjects, but no peak was seen in any of the HD patients (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 0.0 ± 0.2mM, P...... HD mouse model R6/2 following a lactate challenge, combined with reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and increased pyruvate kinase activity in the mouse liver suggest a reduced capacity...... for gluconeogenesis in HD, possibly contributing to the clinical symptoms of HD. We propose that blood glucose concentration in the recovery from exercise can be applied as a liver function test in HD patients....

  7. Validation of lactate clearance at 6 h for mortality prediction in critically ill children

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar; Nirmal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: To validate the lactate clearance (LC) at 6 h for mortality prediction in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU)-admitted patients and its comparison with a pediatric index of mortality 2 (PIM 2) score. Design: A prospective, observational study in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Children

  8. Glymphatic clearance controls state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Lu, Minh Lon; Yang, Ezra

    2017-01-01

    Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lacta......-lymphatic clearance. This analysis provides fundamental new insight into brain energy metabolism by demonstrating that glucose that is not fully oxidized can be exported as lactate via glymphatic-lymphatic fluid transport.......Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lactate...... concentration. Suppression of glymphatic function via acetazolamide treatment, cisterna magna puncture, aquaporin 4 deletion, or changes in body position reduced the decline in brain lactate normally observed when awake mice transition into sleep or anesthesia. Concurrently, the same manipulations diminished...

  9. Glymphatic clearance controls state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Lu, Minh Lon; Yang, Ezra; Peng, Weiguo; Mestre, Humberto; Hitomi, Emi; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-06-01

    Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration. Suppression of glymphatic function via acetazolamide treatment, cisterna magna puncture, aquaporin 4 deletion, or changes in body position reduced the decline in brain lactate normally observed when awake mice transition into sleep or anesthesia. Concurrently, the same manipulations diminished accumulation of lactate in cervical, but not in inguinal lymph nodes when mice were anesthetized. Thus, our study suggests that brain lactate is an excellent biomarker of the sleep-wake cycle and increases further during sleep deprivation, because brain lactate is inversely correlated with glymphatic-lymphatic clearance. This analysis provides fundamental new insight into brain energy metabolism by demonstrating that glucose that is not fully oxidized can be exported as lactate via glymphatic-lymphatic fluid transport.

  10. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Ladha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0, postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1, and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively. The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial - lactate delayed]/lactate initial ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1-T6, T1-T12, T1-T18, and T1-T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P 10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance 10% after 6 h have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance.

  11. Lactate Clearance sebagai Prediktor Mortalitas pada Pasien Sepsis Berat dan Syok Septik di Intesive Care Unit Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung

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    Muhammad Budi Kurniawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mortality incidence predictor used for sepsis and shock septic in Intensive Care Unit (ICU were measured using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, which needs many complex examinations. The purpose of this study was to examine lactate clearance as an alternative mortality predictor. Decreased percentage of lactate clearance is related to poor perfusion in microcirculation which leads to the possibility that lactate clearance can be used to predict mortality incidence in severe sepsis and shock septic patients in the ICU of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. This was a prospective observational cohort study involving 51 patients who met sepsis and shock septic criteria during the period of September to November 2015. Lactate was examined continuously in all patients at first hour (H0 and H24 and then the lactate clearance value was measured using the following formula: lactate initial–lactate delayed/lactate initial x100%. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the low lactate clearance(40%. The Mann Whitney test was used for numeric data and exact Fisher test was used for categorical data. Results showed that the lactate clearance had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 88.4%, positive predictive value of 89.2%, negative predictive value of 100%, likelihood ratio positive of 86.6%, likelihood ratio negative of 0% and accuracy of 94.11%. Thus, lactate clearance can be used to predict mortality incidence in severe sepsis and shock septic patients.

  12. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...... to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production)....

  13. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog Exenatide Increases Blood Glucose Clearance, Lactate Clearance, and Heart Rate in Comatose Patients After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Sebastian; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Schmidt, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    the first 6 hours from study drug initiation: lactate level, blood glucose level, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and combined dosage of norepinephrine and dopamine. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The population consisted of 106 patients receiving either exenatide or placebo. During the first 6 hours...... from study drug initiation, the levels of blood glucose and lactate decreased 17% (95% CI, 8.9-25%; p = 0.0004) and 21% (95% CI, 6.0-33%; p = 0.02) faster in patients receiving exenatide versus placebo, respectively. Exenatide increased heart rate by approximately 10 beats per minute compared......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exenatide on blood glucose, lactate clearance, and hemodynamic variables in comatose, resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. DESIGN: Predefined post hoc analyzes from a double-blind, randomized clinical...

  14. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  15. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

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    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  16. Lactate Clearance and Vasopressor Seem to Be Predictors for Mortality in Severe Sepsis Patients with Lactic Acidosis Supplementing Sodium Bicarbonate: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Initial lactate level, lactate clearance, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin in critically ill patients with sepsis are associated with hospital mortality. However, no study has yet discovered which factor is most important for mortality in severe sepsis patients with lactic acidosis. We sought to clarify this issue in patients with lactic acidosis who were supplementing with sodium bicarbonate.Data were collected from a single center between May 2011 and April 2014. One hundred nine patients with severe sepsis and lactic acidosis who were supplementing with sodium bicarbonate were included.The 7-day mortality rate was 71.6%. The survivors had higher albumin levels and lower SOFA, APACHE II scores, vasopressor use, and follow-up lactate levels at an elapsed time after their initial lactate levels were checked. In particular, a decrement in lactate clearance of at least 10% for the first 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours of treatment was more dominant among survivors than non-survivors. Although the patients who were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics showed higher illness severity than those who received conventional antibiotics, there was no significant mortality difference. 6-hour, 24-hour, and 48-hour lactate clearance (HR: 4.000, 95% CI: 1.309-12.219, P = 0.015 and vasopressor use (HR: 4.156, 95% CI: 1.461-11.824, P = 0.008 were significantly associated with mortality after adjusting for confounding variables.Lactate clearance at a discrete time point seems to be a more reliable prognostic index than initial lactate value in severe sepsis patients with lactic acidosis who were supplementing with sodium bicarbonate. Careful consideration of vasopressor use and the initial application of broad-spectrum antibiotics within the first 48 hours may be helpful for improving survival, and further study is warranted.

  17. Elevated lactate as an early marker of brain injury in inflicted traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makoroff, Kathi L.; Cecil, Kim M.; Ball, William S.; Care, Marguerite

    2005-01-01

    Patients with inflicted traumatic brain injury and evidence of hypoxic-ischemic injury as indicated by elevated lactate on MRS tend to have worse early neurological status and early outcome scores. Lactate levels as sampled by MRS might predict early clinical outcome in inflicted traumatic brain injury. (orig.)

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease

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    Mohammad S Alzahri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among many complications of sickle cell disease, renal failure is the main contributor to early mortality. It is present in up to 21% of patients with sickle cell disease. Although screening for microalbuminuria and proteinuria is the current acceptable practice to detect and follow renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease, there is a crucial need for other, more sensitive biomarkers. This becomes especially true knowing that those biomarkers start to appear only after more than 60% of the kidney function is lost. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether lactate dehydrogenase (LDH correlates with other, direct and indirect bio-markers of renal insufficiency in patients with sickle cell disease and, therefore, could be used as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease. Fifty-five patients with an established diagnosis of sickle cell disease were recruited to in the study. Blood samples were taken and 24-h urine collection samples were collected. Using Statcrunch, a data analysis tool available on the web, we studied the correlation between LDH and other biomarkers of kidney function as well as the distribution and relationship between the variables. Regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between serum LDH and creatinine clearance, R (correlation coefficient = -0.44, P = 0.0008. This correlation was more significant at younger age. This study shows that in sickle cell patients LDH correlates with creatinine clearance and, therefore, LDH could serve as a biomarker to predict renal insufficiency in those patients.

  19. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne H.; El-Bordeny, Nasr E.; Ebeid, Hossam M.

    2017-01-01

    Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026), on primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffalo...

  20. Effects of niacin supplementation on the insulin resistance in Holstein cows during early lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Talija Hristovska; Marko R. Cincović; Branislava Belić; Dragica Stojanović; Milanka Jezdimirović; Radojica Đoković; Bojan Toholj

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance in early lactation includes low glucose concentration, low insulin release and responsiveness and high lipolysis. Niacin is important antilipolytic agent and leads to increase glucose and insulin concentration. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of niacin on the insulin resistance in cows during early lactation using the difference of value and regression analysis between blood non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose and insulin concentrations, r...

  1. Characterization of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase and Histidine-Rich Protein 2 Clearance Patterns via Rapid On-Bead Detection from a Single Dried Blood Spot

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    Markwalter, Christine F.; Gibson, Lauren E.; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Kimmel, Danielle W.; Mbambara, Saidon; Thuma, Philip E.; Wright, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. A rapid, on-bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) was adapted for use with dried blood spot (DBS) samples. This assay detected both biomarkers from a single DBS sample with only 45 minutes of total incubation time and detection limits of 600 ± 500 pM (pLDH) and 69 ± 30 pM (HRP2), corresponding to 150 and 24 parasites/μL, respectively. This sensitive and reproducible on-bead detection method was used to quantify pLDH and HRP2 in patient DBS samples from rural Zambia collected at multiple time points after treatment. Biomarker clearance patterns relative to parasite clearance were determined; pLDH clearance followed closely with parasite clearance, whereas most patients maintained detectable levels of HRP2 for 35–52 days after treatment. Furthermore, weak-to-moderate correlations between biomarker concentration and parasite densities were found for both biomarkers. This work demonstrates the utility of the developed assay for epidemiological study and surveillance of malaria. PMID:29557342

  2. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA:Historical perspectives of lactation biology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2017-12-01

    The latter half of the 20th century and the early portion of the 21st century will be recognized as the "Golden Age" of lactation biology. This period corresponded with the rise of systemic, metabolomic, molecular, and genomic biology. It includes the discovery of the structure of DNA and ends with the sequencing of the complete genomes of humans and all major domestic animal species including the dairy cow. This included the ability to identify polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sequence, which can be tied to specific differences in cellular, tissue, and animal performance. Before this period, classical work using endocrine ablation and replacement studies identified the mammary gland as an endocrine-dependent organ. In the early 1960s, the development of RIA and radioreceptor assays permitted the study of the relationship between endocrine patterns and mammary function. The ability to measure nucleic acid content of tissues opened the door to study of the factors regulating mammary growth. The development of high-speed centrifugation in the 1960s allowed separation of specific cell organelles and their membranes. The development of transmission and scanning electron microscopy permitted the study of the relationship between structure and function in the mammary secretory cell. The availability of radiolabeled metabolites provided the opportunity to investigate the metabolic pathways and their regulation. The development of concepts regarding the coordination of metabolism to support lactation integrated our understanding of nutrient partitioning and homeostasis. The ability to produce recombinant molecules and organisms permitted enhancement of lactation in farm animal species and the production of milk containing proteins of value to human medicine. These discoveries and others contributed to vastly increased dairy farm productivity in the United States and worldwide. This review will include the discussion of the centers of excellence and scientists who labored

  3. Clinical assessment of tumor clearance during radiotherapy as a prognostic factor of early glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, T.; Ikeda, H.; Teshima, T.; Murayama, S.

    1992-01-01

    From 1967 through 1985, 358 cases of early glottic carcinoma were treated with telecobalt therapy at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School. Among 278 cases treated with 2 Gy a day, the tumor response of 262 cases at 40, 50 and 60 Gy were evaluated by direct or indirect laryngoscope. The five-year local control rates of these evaluable cases of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma were 79% and 70%, respectively. The local control rates of T1 glottic carcinoma with tumor clearance and persistence at 40 Gy were 83% (119/143) and 64% (43/67), and those of T2 cases were 86% (18/21) and 58% (18/31), respectively. The local control rates of the cases with tumor clearance and persistence at 40 Gy were same between T1 and T2 cases. The tumor clearance rates of T1 cases were significantly higher than those of T2 cases (p [de

  4. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  5. Lactate as an early predictor of psychomotor development in neonates with asphyxia receiving therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, Renata; Salounova, Dana; Kantor, Lumir

    2017-12-04

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between persistently elevated lactate values in the arterial blood of newborns with grade II and III hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (treated with therapeutic hypothermia) and psychomotor development at 24 months. 51 neonates of gestational age from 36 to 41 weeks receiving therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy had arterial blood lactate levels regularly analysed. At 24 months the infants' psychomotor development was evaluated and they were divided into two groups - those where the outcome was favourable (i.e. normal psychomotor development) and adverse (severe motor or sensory impairment or death). The lactate dynamics over time were retrospectively evaluated from the data collected, with the normal upper limit set at 4 mmol/L. Of the 51 affected neonates, 7 died over the course of the study. 34 of the remaining 44 infants demonstrated normal psychomotor findings at 2 years old, with adverse findings in 10 cases. Although both groups experienced significant reductions in lactate over time, there were statistically significant differences between them regarding currently measured lactate levels. Absolute lactate values and their development over time can be a used as an auxiliary factor in making early estimates of the long-term outcome for newborns with neonatal asphyxia being treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  6. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of offering either a high- (H) or low- (L) energy-density diet in late gestation and early lactation on physiological parameters, body condition score (BCS) and milk production in early lactation. In all, 40 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly alloca...

  7. Metabolic changes in early lactation and impaired reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, R.; Wensing, T.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because

  8. Proteomics and the Characterization of Fatty Liver Metabolism in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-01-01

    The high-yielding dairy cow faces major adaptions during the transition period from late pregnancy to early lactation where physiological changes occur in support of the dramatically increase in milk yield. The coordinated physiological changes secure mobilization of nutrients and energy from the...

  9. the effect of level of feeding concentrates during early lactation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred Obese

    Effect of concentrate supplementation during early lactation on plasma IGF-I .... releasing device (CIDR®, Genetics Australia, Bacchus Marsh, Victoria) for eight days, with ... being administered at the time of device insertion (2 mg i.m.) and 24 h following ... insemination, pregnancy rates at three weeks and six weeks and the ...

  10. Lactate promotes specific differentiation in bovine granulosa cells depending on lactate uptake thus mimicking an early post-LH stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Baufeld

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LH-induced folliculo-luteal transformation is connected with alterations of the gene expression profile in cells of the granulosa layer. It has been described that hypoxic conditions occur during luteinization, thus favoring the formation of L-lactate within the follicle. Despite being a product of anaerobic respiration, L-lactate has been shown to act as a signaling molecule affecting gene expression in neuronal cells. During the present study, we tested the hypothesis that L-lactate may influence differentiation of follicular granulosa cells (GC. Methods In a bovine granulosa cell culture model effects of L- and D-lactate, of increased glucose concentrations and of the lactate transport inhibitor UK5099 were analyzed. Steroid hormone production was analyzed by RIA and the abundance of key transcripts was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results L-lactate decreased the production of estradiol and significantly affected selected genes of the folliculo-luteal transition as well as genes of the lactate metabolism. CYP19A1, FSHR, LHCGR were down-regulated, whereas RGS2, VNN2, PTX3, LDHA and lactate transporters were up-regulated. These effects could be partly or completely reversed by pre-treatment of the cells with UK5099. The non-metabolized enantiomer D-lactate had even more pronounced effects on gene expression, whereas increased glucose concentrations did not affect transcript abundance. Conclusions In summary, our data suggest that L-lactate specifically alters physiological and molecular characteristics of GC. These effects critically depend on L-lactate uptake, but are not triggered by increased energy supply. Further, we could show that L-lactate has a positive feedback on the lactate metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesize that L-lactate acts as a signaling molecule in bovine and possibly other monovular species supporting differentiation during the folliculo-luteal transformation.

  11. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues.......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during exercise is much debated. In the early days skeletal muscle was mainly seen as the site of lactate production during contraction and lactate production...... associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only played an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this led to a renewed interest, not the least from the Copenhagen School in the 1930s, in the metabolic role...

  12. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne H. Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026, on primiparous (PP and multiparous (MP Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffaloes were fed either a basal total mixed ration (TMR, control; 4 PP and 8 MP or the basal TMR plus 10 g Yea-Sacc1026 per buffalo cow per day (yeast; 4 PP and 8 MP. The feeds were given from 15 days prepartum to 180 days postpartum. Feed intake, body weight, and milk yields (MY were recorded, and milk and blood samples were collected for analyses. Feces were collected from days 45 to 47 during early lactation and from days 90 to 92 during mid-lactation to determine apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF. Energy corrected milk yield (ECM, feed conversion, and energy and nitrogen conversion efficiency were calculated. Yeast treated MP buffaloes consumed more DM (P ≤ 0.041 and CP than the untreated control group. Apparent digestibility of DM and OM were significantly greater at mid-lactation for treated versus control group (P = 0.001. Crude fiber digestibility was greater in MP than in PP buffaloes (P = 0.049, and yeast supplemented MP cows had a greater CF digestibility than control MP buffaloes at mid-lactation (P = 0.010. Total blood lipids decreased after yeast supplementation (P = 0.029. Milk yields, ECM, fat and protein yields increased for yeast treated MP buffaloes (P ≤ 0.039. The study concluded that the response to yeast supplementation in buffalo cows is parity dependent. Multiparous buffaloes respond to yeast supplementation with an increased DM intake and CF digestibility without significant weight gains, allowing a greater ECM yield with less fat mobilization. Supplementing buffaloes with yeast culture may increase milk production in early lactation and results in a

  13. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  14. Importance of Bacterial Replication and Alveolar Macrophage-Independent Clearance Mechanisms during Early Lung Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberlein, Emilie; Cohen, Jonathan M.; José, Ricardo; Hyams, Catherine J.; Callard, Robin; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Edwards, Lindsey A.; Marshall, Helina; van Rooijen, Nico; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of alveolar macrophages for host immunity during early Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection is well established, the contribution and relative importance of other innate immunity mechanisms and of bacterial factors are less clear. We have used a murine model of S. pneumoniae early lung infection with wild-type, unencapsulated, and para-amino benzoic acid auxotroph mutant TIGR4 strains to assess the effects of inoculum size, bacterial replication, capsule, and alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent clearance mechanisms on bacterial persistence within the lungs. Alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent (calculated indirectly) clearance half-lives and bacterial replication doubling times were estimated using a mathematical model. In this model, after infection with a high-dose inoculum of encapsulated S. pneumoniae, alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms were dominant, with a clearance half-life of 24 min compared to 135 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance. In addition, after a high-dose inoculum, successful lung infection required rapid bacterial replication, with an estimated S. pneumoniae doubling time of 16 min. The capsule had wide effects on early lung clearance mechanisms, with reduced half-lives of 14 min for alveolar macrophage-independent and 31 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance of unencapsulated bacteria. In contrast, with a lower-dose inoculum, the bacterial doubling time increased to 56 min and the S. pneumoniae alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance half-life improved to 42 min and was largely unaffected by the capsule. These data demonstrate the large effects of bacterial factors (inoculum size, the capsule, and rapid replication) and alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms during early lung infection with S. pneumoniae. PMID:25583525

  15. Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Fatty liver is a frequent subclinical health disorder in dairy cows that may lead to disorders related to the liver function. However, the effect of triglyceride (TG) accumulation on liver metabolic pathways is still unclear. The objective was, therefore, to characterize quantitative differences...... in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis...... and decreasedoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, liver gluconeogenesis is apparently not impaired by an increased liver TG content. Based on correlations between liver proteins and plasma components, we suggest that future studies investigate the sensitivity and specificity of plasma aspartate...

  16. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigat...

  17. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  18. Relationships between energy balance and health traits of dairy cattle in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, B L; Boettcher, P J; Dekkers, J C; Petitclerc, D; Schaeffer, L R

    2000-11-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate phenotypic relationships between energy balance in early lactation and health and reproduction in that lactation. Data were 26,701 daily records of dry matter intake and milk production, periodic measures of milk composition and body weight, and all health and reproductive information from 140 multiparous Holstein cows. Daily energy balance was calculated by multiplying feed intake by the concentration of energy of the ration and subtracting the amount of energy required for maintenance (based on parity and body weight) and for milk production (based on yield and concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose). Six measures of energy balance were defined: mean daily energy balance during the first 20, 50, and 100 d of lactation; minimum daily energy balance; days in negative energy balance; and total energy deficit. Measures of health were the numbers of occurrences of each of the following during lactation: all udder problems, mastitis, all locomotive problems, laminitis, digestive problems, and reproductive problems. Reproductive traits were the number of days to first observed estrus and number of inseminations. Several significant relationships between energy balance and health were observed. Increased digestive and locomotive problems were associated with longer and more extreme periods of negative energy balance.

  19. High serum lactate as an adjunct in the early prediction of anastomotic leak following oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, B; Ng, K T; Packer, S; Paterson-Brown, S; Couper, G W

    2017-10-01

    Anastomotic leak (AL) following oesophagectomy carries a high mortality and morbidity. Early detection and intervention is required for a successful outcome. We have examined the role of a high postoperative serum lactate in predicting which patients are at risk of developing an anastomotic leak(AL). All patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy over a 3-year period were identified from a prospectively collected database. Medical records were reviewed to identify the highest serum lactate recorded from blood gas analysis over each 24hr post-operative period. Patients who underwent transhiatal and left thoraco-abdominal oesophagectomies were excluded. Patients who developed a chyle leak were excluded. Of a total of 136 oesophagectomies included for analysis, 18 developed an AL (13.2%). Of these patients, 10 underwent thoracoscopic oesophageal mobilization with cervical anastomosis and the rest an Ivor Lewis procedure. Predictive factors for AL included neoadjuvant chemotherapy (15/18 83.3% vs 55/118 46.6% p = 0.0046) and number of positive lymph nodes (mean 4.2 vs control mean 2.3 p = 0.045). Overall net fluid balance was comparable between the 2 groups, although AL patients received slightly more fluid on Day 3. High lactate levels on days 1-3 were associated with an AL. Using a Day 2 lactate of 1.7 mmol/L, the sensitivity of predicting AL was 72% and specificity 88%. The mean lag time using existing diagnostic modalities was 7.9 days. A serum lactate of >1.7 mmol/l on day 2 should raise the possibility of a potential AL. Such patients should be selected for more intensive monitoring, optimization and selective gastroscopy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    was recorded weekly. In addition, weekly milk samples and blood samples on d 3 and 17 were collected. Furthermore, sows were enriched with D2O (deuterated water) on d 2 and 28 after parturition to calculate body pools of fat and protein. Sows’ feed intake and weight loss interacted with diet regime across wk......The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according...

  1. Effects of niacin supplementation on the insulin resistance in Holstein cows during early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talija Hristovska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in early lactation includes low glucose concentration, low insulin release and responsiveness and high lipolysis. Niacin is important antilipolytic agent and leads to increase glucose and insulin concentration. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of niacin on the insulin resistance in cows during early lactation using the difference of value and regression analysis between blood non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, glucose and insulin concentrations, revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and glucose-to-insulin ratio. Niacin supplementation led to a decrease of NEFA concentration and an increase of glucose and insulin concentrations during the first three weeks after calving. Cows in the niacin group which were more resistant to insulin showed higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid in comparison with more sensitive cows from the same group, but still lower than the control. The regression analyses suggest the following characteristics of cows supplemented with niacin in comparison with the control group: the insulin response to glucose was more intense; the antilipolytic effect of insulin was lower; insulin efficiency expressed as glucose-to-insulin ratio increase with a decrease in NEFA. The metabolic changes due to niacin supplementation showed a dual influence on the insulin resistance in dairy cows during early lactation: decreased NEFA concentrations led to a decrease in the insulin resistance (due to an increase in insulin efficiency and insulin sensitivity index, but increased concentrations of insulin and glucose possibly caused an increase in the insulin resistance in dairy cows (due to lower insulin sensitivity index and possibly lower antilipolytic effects of insulin.

  2. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  3. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  4. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  5. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  6. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  7. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  8. Improvement in Creatinine Clearance after Open Heart Surgery in Infants as an Early Indicator of Surgical Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Amit; Dagan, Ovadia

    2016-12-01

    Early surgical correction of congenital heart malformations in neonates and small infants may be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, especially in patients who require dialysis. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measurement of renal function which, in neonates and infants, is highly dependent on heart function. To determine whether measurements of creatinine clearance after open heart surgery in neonates and young infants can serve as an early indicator of surgical success or AKI. We conducted a prospective observational study in 19 neonates and small infants (body weight creatinine clearance and albumin excretion was performed before and during surgery and four times during 48 hours after surgery. Mean creatinine clearance was lowest during surgery (25.2 ± 4. ml/min/1.73 m2) and increased significantly in the first 16 hours post-surgery (45.7 ± 6.3 ml/min/1.73 m2). A similar pattern was noted for urine albumin which was highest during surgery (203 ± 31 µg/min) and lowest (93 ± 20 µg/min) 48 hours post-surgery. AKI occurred in four patients, and two patients even required dialysis. All six showed a decline in creatinine clearance and an increase in urine albumin between 8 and 16 hours post-surgery. In neonates and small infants undergoing open heart surgery, a significant improvement in creatinine clearance in the first 16 hours postoperatively is indicative of a good surgical outcome. This finding has important implications for the early evaluation and treatment of patients in the intensive care unit on the first day post-surgery.

  9. Effects of dietary energy source on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes three recent studies by the same authors with the objective to study the effect of dietary energy source on the energy balance (EB) and risk for metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation. The first study, a literature survey, illustrated that feeding

  10. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piepers, S.; Peeters, K.; Opsomer, G.; Barkema, H.W.; Frankena, K.; Vliegher, de S.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected

  11. Effect of physical effectiveness on digestibility of ration for cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, B; Grubic, G; Djordjevic, N; Bozickovic, A; Ivetic, A; Davidovic, V

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a diet particle size on nutrient digestibility in cows in early lactation. Treatments were diets with forage to concentrate ratio 43:57% in diet dry matter, with four different physically effective fibres (peNDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) and peNDF content of TMRs (total mixed ration) were determined using Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) with two (pef8.0 , peNDF8.0) or three (pef1.18, peNDF1.18) sieves. The reducing of cut length of forages and particle size of diets did not affect on dry matter intake, while decreased peNDF intake by 16.34 and 8.83%, for peNDF8.0 and peNDF1.18 respectively. Apparent total tract digestibility of the nutrients was measured using two indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA) and acid detergent insoluble lignin (ADL). Decreasing of forages cut length significantly increased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 48.39% to 53.84% and from 53.9% to 58.66%, of crude protein from 73.96% to 79.24% and from 71.56% to 77.90%, with contemporary decreasing of non-fibre carbohydrate from 90.89% to 84.81% and from 91.99% to 86.80%, with AIA or ADL as indicator respectively. Dietary value of net energy for lactation (NEL) and energy intake was not affected by the peNDF content of the diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  13. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  14. Identification of hepatic biomarkers for physiological imbalance of dairy cows in early and mid lactation using proteomic technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Bendixen, Emøke; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    2013-01-01

    the ration with 60% wheat straw. Liver biopsies were collected −1 and 3 d relative to restriction. Before restriction, an index for PI was calculated based on plasma nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose concentrations. Within E and M cows, a subsets of 6 cow was classified as having...... as potential hepatic biomarkers for PI for cows during early lactation and alcohol dehydrogenase-4 and methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase for cows in mid lactation. This preliminary study identified new biomarkers in liver for PI and provided a better understanding of the differences in coping...

  15. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  16. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early postpartum period subsequently conceived twin fetuses. It can be speculated that the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period partly contributes to the increased incidence of undesirable twin births in multiparous dairy cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Tipple

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene and RNA (16S rRNA quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53. The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84. From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56 after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  18. Renal radioisotope clearance in an unselected group of diabetics - a tool for the early recognition of diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doschek, D.; Wulf, R.; Krause, F.J.; Kreiskrankenhaus Albstadt

    1980-01-01

    Our study in unselected patients with diabetes was undertaken to determine the relation between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) according to the patient's age. The diagnostic work-up was done with patients in unselected disease states because a classification of all systemic manifestations of the diabetes was not possible. The lack of selection may therefore reduce the value of our statistical results. From age 55 onwards, there was a reduction in GFR and, to a lesser extent, in PRF esceeding that which was age-dependent. It is, therefore, recommended to check the clearance in all patients with diabetes older than 55 years. The clearance with radioisotopically labeled substances, being a very sensitive method for the evaluation of restricted renal function, may permit an early recognition of diabetic nephropathy. (orig.) [de

  19. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  20. Bovine serum prolactin, growth hormone, and triiodothyronine levels during late pregnancy and early lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johke, Tetsu; Hodate, Kouichi

    1977-01-01

    Changes of serum prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in Holstein dairy cows during late pregnancy and early lactation were determined by radioimmunoassays. The cows calved in September. Mean serum PRL ranged 9.9 ng/ml to 12.4 ng/ml during the 3rd to 7th day prepartum. It increased to a peak value of 87.3 ng/ml on the day of parturition from 57.5 ng/ml on the day before calving, and decreased to 13.9 ng/ml within 3 days postpartum. During the 2nd to 30th day prepartum, serum GH varied between 2.4 and 4.0 ng/ml and increased to 8.0 ng/ml on the day of calving. During a week postpartum, serum GH ranged from 5.2 to 8.2 ng/ml. Mean serum GH during a week postpartum was higher than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). Mean serum T3 level during 5 days prepartum varied 104.2 to 108.8 ng/dl and decreased to 93 ng/dl on the day of calving. During 5 days postpartum, mean T3 level varied 73.0 to 83.8 ng/dl. Contrary to GH, mean serum T3 level during 5 day postpartum was significantly lower than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). (auth.)

  1. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  2. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  3. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  4. Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on performance and blood profile in early and mid-lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Peters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE to dairy cows diets could be a strategy to improve fiber degradation in the rumen which is especially important for the early lactating cows characterized by a high milk energy output and an insufficient energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Roxazyme G2 Liquid, 3.8 and 3.9 mL/kg total mixed ration [TMR] DM supplemented to a TMR on production performance and blood parameters of dairy cows during early (trial 1 and mid-lactation (trail 2. In addition, rumination activity was measured in trial 2. The nutrient digestibility of the experimental TMR was obtained by using wethers. In the digestibility trial, EFE was supplemented at a rate of 4.4 mL/kg Roxazyme G2 Liquid TMR-DM. The TMR contained 60% forage and 40% concentrate (DM basis. Twenty eight 50 ± 16 days in milk (DIM and twenty six 136 ± 26 DIM Holstein cows were used in two 8-wk completely randomized trails, stratified by parity and milk yield level. One milliliter of the enzyme product contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (8,000 units endo-1,4-ß glucanase, 18,000 units endo-1,3(4-ß glucanase and 26,000 units 1,4-ß xylanase. No differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were observed (P > 0.05 between the control and the EFE supplemented TMR. Addition of EFE to the TMR fed to early (trial 1 and mid-lactation cows (trial 2 did not affect daily dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM, concentration of milk fat, protein, fat-protein-quotients, somatic cell score, energy balance, and gross feed efficiency of early and mid-lactation cows (P > 0.05. Mid-lactation cows (trial 2 fed with TMR enzyme showed a tendency of a slightly higher ECM yield (P = 0.09. The tested blood parameters were not affected by treatment in trials 1 and 2 (P > 0.05. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation did not alter

  5. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000550; Bannink, A.; Geurts, I. A L; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Gort, G.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate

  6. Influence of udder infection status on milk enzyme activities and somatic cell count throughout early lactation in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr, T; Aulrich, K; Barth, K

    2013-01-01

    At present the analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) used for the detection of intramammary infections (IMI) in bovine milk is also recommended for goat milk, but due to the various factors influencing SCC it allows only limited conclusions on the udder health of goats. The research on enzyme...... activity in milk appears to show promise in finding an approach with more suitable indicators of the early detection of IMI in goats. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of goat udder infection status on different milk enzyme activities and SCC throughout early lactation....... A total of 60 dairy goats were sampled at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks after kidding and the bacteriological status, milk SCC and the activity of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of udder halves were analysed. Infections with minor...

  7. Sulfur Hexafluoride 20% versus Lactated Ringer′s solution for Prevention of Early Postoperative Vitreous Hemorrhage after Diabetic Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Farrahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the hemostatic effect of sulfur hexafluoride 20% (SF6 20% with lactated Ringer′s solution for prevention of early postoperative vitreous hemorrhage following diabetic vitrectomy. Methods: In a prospective randomized clinical trial, 50 eyes undergoing diabetic vitrectomy were divided into two groups. At the conclusion of surgery, in one group the vitreous cavity was filled with SF6 20% while in the other group lactated Ringer′s solution was retained in the vitreous cavity. The two groups were compared for the rate of early postoperative vitreous hemorrhage. Results: The incidence of vitreous hemorrhage was lower in the SF6 group than the Ringer′s group 4 days (20% vs 68%, P=0.001, 7 days (24% vs 60%, P=0.01 and 4 weeks (16% vs 40%, P=0.059 after vitrectomy. Conclusion: In comparison with lactated Ringer′s solution, SF6 20% had a significant hemostatic effect especially in the early postoperative period after diabetic vitrectomy and reduced the incidence of vitreous hemorrhage.

  8. Early experience with repeated determinations of 131-I-hipuran clearance-equivalent during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, R; Stoll, W; Arndt, J

    1981-07-01

    Serial observations of ureteric and renal function during pregnancy were carried out by using isotope clearances; renal scintigraphy was performed for the first examination and isotope nephrography subsequently. The results of both types of examination are tabulated. It is shown that these procedures provide the necessary information on renal and ureteric function, given the indications which we have listed. The information concerns both kidneys or can be confined to a single kidney.

  9. Effects of different levels of physically effective fibers in diets for cows in early lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Grubic, G.; Djordjevic, N.; Glamocie, D.; Bozieckovic, A.; Ivetic, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of a total mixed ration (TMR) particle size on digestibility and production performances of the high-yielding cows in early lactation. The treatments were TMRs with forage-toconcentrate ratio 43:57 in diet dry matter, with four different mean particle lengths and physically effective fiber (PENDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Determined values of PEF (physical effectiveness factor) and PENDF (through original and modified Penn State Particle Separator, PSPS) were considerably higher for forages and TMRs using the modified PSPS. The cut length of forage and particle size of TMRs did not affect dry matter intake. However reduced forage cut length significantly increased the apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (from 53.9 to 58.66%), and crude protein (from 71.56 to 77.90%), with the decrease in the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility (from 91.99 to 86.80%). The increase in the milk yield (35.62 vs. 38.36 kg), and decrease in the milk fat (3.50 vs. 3.10%) and protein content (3.11 vs. 2.99%) were observed with the reduction of particle size in forages. There was no effect on milk fat daily yield, but the increase of the milk protein yield (1.08 vs. 1.15 kg) was determined with the reduced forage cut lengths. The milk fat to protein ratio had tendency to decrease with the reduced forage cut length. Decrease in forage particle size improved feed conversion ratio for milk production, improved digestibility and the milk yield, whereas milk protein content was reduced. (Author) 25 refs.

  10. Energy partitioning in dairy cows : effects of lipogenic and glucogenic diets on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: dairy cows; dietary energy source; glucogenic nutrients; lipogenic nutrients; negative energy balance; metabolic disorders; reproduction, immune system Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation which results from high energy requirements for milk production

  11. Prepartum teat apex colonization with Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers is associated with low somatic cell count in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, S; Laevens, H; Devriese, L A; Opsomer, G; Leroy, J L M; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A

    2003-04-02

    A high number of dairy heifers freshen with udder health problems. The prevalence of teat apex colonization (TAC) with Staphylococcus chromogenes, one of the most widespread coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in milk samples from freshly calved dairy heifers, was measured cross-sectionally in non-lactating heifers on eight commercial dairy farms in Belgium. The influence of age on this prevalence, and the association between teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes prepartum and quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) in early lactation were studied. In total, 492 teat apices were sampled from 123 heifers. The age of the heifers varied from 8 to 34 months. Overall, 20% of the heifers had at least one teat apex colonized with S. chromogenes. Of all teats sampled, 10% were colonized with S. chromogenes. The chance of having at least one teat apex colonized with S. chromogenes increased with age of the heifer. The presence of prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes was not associated with intramammary infection (IMI) early postpartum with the same bacterium. On the contrary, teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes prepartum appeared to protect quarters in the first few days of lactation from having somatic cell count >or=200000cells/ml milk, commonly accepted as the threshold for intramammary infection.

  12. Nutritional strategies to combat physiological imbalance of dairy cows during early lactation: The effect of changes in dietary protein to starch-ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Friggens, Nic; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2010-01-01

    Thirty Danish Holstein cows were used to determine how cows in early lactation adapt to changes in protein to starch supply in order to manipulate metabolism to combat physiological imbalance. During weeks 4 through 6 of lactation, 10 cows were fed either a high protein to starch ratio (high) diet...... for the low, control and high diets, respectively. Besides milk urea nitrogen, no other production or metabolic parameters were affected by treatment. In conclusion, manipulation of dietary protein to starch is not a potential strategy to combat physiological imbalance during early lactation...

  13. Supplementation with partially hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, G F; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2002-03-01

    the digestion of pasture fiber. The addition of energy in the form of partially hydrogenated fat to early lactation dairy cows fed primarily on pasture increased the yield of fat-corrected milk and milk fat content when it represented about 11% of the total metabolizable energy requirement of cows, without affecting milk protein content. The partial hydrogenation of a byproduct of the oil industry apparently prevented detrimental effects of fat supplementation on ruminal digestion.

  14. The effect of reducing alfalfa haylage particle size on cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononoff, P J; Heinrichs, A J

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effects of reducing forage particle size on cows in early lactation based on measurements of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS). Eight cannulated, multiparous cows averaging 19 +/- 4 d in milk and 642 +/- 45 kg BW were assigned to one of two 4 x 4 Latin Squares. During each of the 23-d periods, animals were offered one of four diets, which were chemically identical but included alfalfa haylage of different particle size; short (SH), mostly short (MSH), mostly long (MLG), and long (LG). Physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was determined by measuring the amount of neutral detergent fiber retained on a 1.18 mm screen and was similar across diets (25.7, 26.2, 26.4, 26.7%) but the amount of particles >19.0 mm significantly decreased with decreasing particle size. Reducing haylage particle size increased dry matter intake linearly (23.3, 22.0, 20.9, 20.8 kg for SH, MSH, MLG, LG, respectively). Milk production and percentage fat did not differ across treatments averaging 35.5 +/- 0.68 kg milk and 3.32 +/- 0.67% fat, while a quadratic effect was observed for percent milk protein, with lowest values being observed for LG. A quadratic effect was observed for mean rumen pH (6.04, 6.15, 6.13, 6.09), while A:P ratio decreased linearly (2.75, 2.86, 2.88, 2.92) with decreasing particle size. Total time ruminating increased quadratically (467, 498, 486, 468 min/d), while time eating decreased linearly (262, 253, 298, 287 min/d) with decreasing particle size. Both eating and ruminating per unit of neutral detergent fiber intake decreased with reducing particle size (35.8, 36.7, 44.9, 45.6 min/kg; 19.9, 23.6, 23.5, 23.5 min/kg). Although chewing activity was closely related to forage particle size, effects on rumen pH were small, indicating factors other than particle size are critical in regulating pH when ration neutral detergent fiber met recommended levels. Feeding alfalfa haylage based rations of reduced

  15. Partial replacement of corn grain by hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado, E E; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2004-05-01

    degradation was not affected. The partial replacement of corn grain with fat improved the productive performance of early-lactation cows grazing spring pastures. No negative effects of supplemental fat on ruminal fiber digestion were detected.

  16. Changes in glomerular filtration rate, lithium clearance and plasma protein clearances in the early phase after unilateral nephrectomy in living healthy renal transplant donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, S; Kamper, A; Skaarup, P

    1988-01-01

    1. Glomerular and tubular function was studied before and 2 months after unilateral nephrectomy in 14 healthy kidney donors by measurement of the clearances of 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetra-acetate, lithium, beta 2-microglobulin, albumin and immunoglobulin G. 2. The glomerular filtration rat...

  17. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  18. Changes in myocardial lactate, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate ratio during cardiopulmonary bypass for elective adult cardiac surgery: Early indicator of morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial lactate assays have been established as a standard method to compare various myocardial protection strategies. This study was designed to test whether coronary sinus (CS lactates, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate (LP ratio correlates with myocardial dysfunction and predict postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CS blood sampling was done for estimation of myocardial lactate (ML, pyruvate (MP and lactate-pyruvate ratio (MLPR namely: pre-CPB (T 1 , after removal of aortic cross clamp (T 2 and 30 minutes post-CPB (T 3 . Results: Baseline myocardial LPR strongly correlated with Troponin-I at T1 (s: 0.6. Patients were sub grouped according to the median value of myocardial lactate (2.9 at baseline T1 into low myocardial lactate (LML group, mean (2.39±0.4 mmol/l, n=19 and a high myocardial lactate (HML group, mean (3.65±0.9 mmol/l, n=21. A significant increase in PL, ML, MLPR and TropI occurred in both groups as compared to baseline. Patients in HML group had significant longer period of ICU stay. Patients with higher inotrope score had significantly higher ML (T2, T3. ML with a baseline value of 2.9 mmol/l had 70.83% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity (ROC area: 0.7109 Std error: 0.09 while myocardial pyruvate with a baseline value of 0.07 mmol/l has 79.17% sensitivity and 68.75% specificity (ROC area: 0.7852, Std error: 0.0765 for predicting inotrope requirement after CPB. Conclusion: CS lactate, pyruvate and LP ratio correlate with myocardial function and can predict postoperative outcome.

  19. THE USE OF DIETARY FATS AND CONCENTRATES TO ALLEVIATE THE NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE IN CROSSBRED COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance (EB is defined as the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Fertility in the high-merit cow has been adversely associated with high milk production, low intake of energy and mobilisation of body reserves in early lactation, which combine in the term negative energy balance (NEB.  The timing of insemination usually coincides with peak milk yield, when dairy cows are often in NEB. Crossbred cows (Bos taurus x Bos indicus in the tropics have comparatively lower nutrient requirements and different partition of nutrients than high merit dairy cows. Thus, it would be expected that both the magnitude and length of negative energy balance were different in a crossbred cow. Because of marked differences compared with high-merit cows, crossbred cows in the tropics would be expected to show greater response to additional energy in early lactation improving their energy status and hence reproductive performance. Knowing the influence of nutrition on reproduction, many methods have been proposed for manipulating the diet to avoid or to alleviate negative energy balance. The use of fats is one alternative, which has been extensively studied in dairy and beef cows but with inconclusive results. Another alternative is to use starch-based concentrates, taking into account level of inclusion and quality and availability of pasture, in order to avoid substitution effects and to get maximum profits. Two experiments were carried out in Yucatan Mexico, in order to evaluate the use of bypass fats (calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids, CAFA or a starch-based concentrate to alleviate the NEB in grazing crossbred cows in early lactation. The NEB in early lactation was successfully avoided by the use of the starch-based concentrate but not by the use of bypass fats, this due to a reduction in the grass DM intake. It was concluded that crossbred cows in the tropics may experience a period of NEB postpartum, which can be avoided if

  20. Early changes in blood flow of the mouse skin after irradiation as measured by the 133Xe clearance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Irie, Goro

    1983-01-01

    The early effects of radiation on the local blood flow in the skin of mice were evaluated by measuring the local clearance rate of 133 Xe after its subcutaneous injection; this was done at four to five weeks after irradiation during the animals' normal resting conditions. The fractionation schedules employed were single fractions, two fractions in 15 days and four fractions in 15 days. The dose effect curves with these schedules showed a two-component pattern. There was a uniform reduction in flood flow after 10 to 30 Gy, and a steady increase in flood flow after doses more than 40 Gy. The blood flow after higher-fractionated doses was always lower than less-fractionated doses. It was considered that radiation doses causing higher severity of acute skin reactions might have predominated a degree of acute vasodilatation over fibrotic changes, thus resulting in increased blood flow. A steady increase in early blood flow was observed with increasing severity of acute skin reactions, but the early blood flow was not a good indicator for predicting late skin reactions, except for a severe leg deformity which was accompanied with a significant increase in early blood flow. (author)

  1. Identification of potential markers in blood for the development of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at parturition and during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben; Friggens, Nic

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood...... and used to determine incidence and severity of mastitis in early lactation. Cows were separated into 2 groups: 1) WK0, consisting of cows that developed clinical mastitis (CM), cows that developed subclinical mastitis (SM), or cows that were healthy (H) during the first 7 DIM; and 2) EL, consisting of CM......, SM, or H cows during wk 2 through 13 of lactation. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, season, and DIM) before statistical analysis. The time of mastitis (TOM) was recorded as the DIM in which the first rise in somatic cell count was observed and was recorded as TOM...

  2. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  3. Effect of supplementation with protein differ for rumen degradability on milk production and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat N. Pasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lactating Sahiwal cows (n=24 of approximately similar yield and lactation were selected and randomly divided into four groups of six cows in each. These groups were fed ad libitum four iso- energetic and iso- proteic diets with different rumen undegradable protein (RUP sources: diet A 30% RUP, diet B 40% RUP, diet C 50% RUP and diet D 60% RUP in a completely randomized design. Among nutrients intake, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake was significantly (P<0.01 different, while neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF intakes were similar across four diets. DM, CP and NDF digestibility were also different (P<0.05 except, NDF digestibility. Whole milk yield (kg/d and 4% fat corrected milk (FCM (kg/d, fat (g/d and protein (g/d was found maximum on diet B, followed by diet A. Not significant differences were found in fat, solid not fat (SNF, protein, lactose, salts and total solids percentage across all diet except SNF, lactose and salts percentages which were significantly lower (P<0.05 on diet D. Nitrogen intake, balance and utilization were statistically similar across all diets however, nitrogen excretion in milk (g/d and percentage of intake and urine (percentage of intake were significantly different across diets. Nitrogen intake and output varied (P<0.01 across all diets. Nitrogen balance and its utilization were maximum (P<0.001 on diet B, while other diets showed not significant differences among themselves. Based on presenting findings, it is concluded that feed intake, digestibility and production performance was maximum in early lactating Sahiwal cows when fed 40% rumen undegradable protein in total mixed ration based diet.

  4. EFFECTS OF RUMEN PROTECTED METHIONINE AND VITAMIN B12 ON RBC PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safarkhanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  5. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  7. Analysis of Milk Production Traits in Early Lactation Using a Reaction Norm Model with Unknown Covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad; Su, Guosheng; Madsen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The reaction norm model is becoming a popular approach to study genotype x environment interaction (GxE), especially when there is a continuum of environmental effects. These effects are typically unknown, and an approximation that is used in the literature is to replace them by the phenotypic...... means of each environment. It has been shown that this method results in poor inferences and that a more satisfactory alternative is to infer environmental effects jointly with the other parameters of the model. Such a reaction norm model with unknown covariates and heterogeneous residual variances...... across herds was fitted to milk, protein, and fat yield of first-lactation Danish Holstein cows to investigate the presence of GxE. Data included 188,502 first test-day records from 299 herds and 3,775 herd-years in a time period ranging from 1991 to 2003. Variance components and breeding values were...

  8. Effects of different dosages of propylene glycol in dry cows and cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Michaela; Peinhopf, Walter; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almut; Koeller, Gabor; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum). On each of these days 3 h after morning feeding propylene glycol was drenched in different dosages of 100, 300 or 500 ml once per day (cross over study). The different doses were applied in an alternating order (Latin square). Blood samples were taken before, every 30 min up to 4 h, after 6 and 12 h after PG application. Following parameters have been measured: insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, cholesterol, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) was calculated. It was found that glucose, insulin, NEFA, BHB, bilirubin and potassium concentrations were influenced differently by the three defined dosages of propylene glycol at four different sampling periods. Whereas RQUICKI, cholesterol, AST and GLDH did not differ between the sampling periods and treatments. The major results of the study are that the effect of PG is dose-dependent and that the effect of PG is depending on the time of application according to calving. It can be concluded that in fresh cows higher dosages are necessary to provoke similar effects in comparison to dry, close up and lactating cows. Although the study did not compare to topdressing of PG from the results it is reasonable to believe that bolus application of a specific PG volume is necessary to provoke the effect.

  9. ADCC-Mediated CD56DIM NK Cell Responses Are Associated with Early HBsAg Clearance in Acute HBV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Han; Cosgrove, Cormac; Berger, Christoph T; Cheney, Patrick C; Krykbaeva, Marina; Kim, Arthur Y; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia; Lauer, Georg M; Alter, Galit

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection. Because immunophenotypic and functional studies have implicated a role for Natural Killer (NK) cells in HBV clearance during acute infection, we hypothesized that a distinct NK-cell profile exists in acute HBV infection that could provide information for the mechanism of HBV clearance. Using multivariate flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of key activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells, and their ability to respond to classic target cell lines. Multivariate analysis revealed selective perturbation of the CD56 dim NK-cell subset during acute infection, displaying low levels of NKp46+, NKp30+, CD160+ and CD161+ cells. Intriguingly, the CD56 dim NK-cell profile predicted time to HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance from the blood, and distinct NK-cell profiles predicted early (NKp30, CD94, CD161) and late clearance (KIR3DL1, CD158a, perforin, NKp46). Finally, functional analysis demonstrated that early and late clearance tracked with elevated degranulation (CD107a) or IFNγ production, respectively, in response to ADCC-mediated activation. The cytolytic CD56 dim NK-cell subset is selectively activated in acute HBV infection and displays distinct phenotypic and functional profiles associated with efficient and early control of HBV, implicating antibody-mediated cytolytic NK-cell responses in the early control and functional cure of HBV infection.

  10. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rim; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Kleman, Jean-Philippe; Millet, Arnaud; Frachet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell. PMID:28878781

  11. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Osman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell.

  12. Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Blum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat-  ment with 8 blood collections within 24h of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and  2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline.  The rbST  injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA  were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun-  teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted  higher (P  blood urea level (P  ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of  glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other  metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations  were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent  to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily  feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of  lactation

  13. Responses of Early Lactating Ewes to Cold Stress Exposure Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure cold stress of ewes during post lambing period. The trial was undertaken at theExperimental Farm of Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara, duringFebruary 2012. Six secundiparous Turcana breed ewes were housed in two collective pens of 3.5 m x 2 m each, withdeep straw bedding, in shed where the average temperature was of -1.2°C. Cortisol levels from milk samples weredetermined as indicators of cold stress. Samples were collected at 14 hours after lambing, and at 7, 14 and 21 daysfollowing parturition. At 14 hours after lambing, mean cortisol levels were 7.78±0.47 μg/dl, and decreased asfollows: 5.08±0.72 μg/dl in the 7th of the trial, 2.75±0.50 μg/dl in day 14 and 1.61±0.43 μg/dl in day 21 of theobservations. Differences were significant between the 7 day sampling intervals (p≤0.01 during the first 14 daysafter lambing, while non-significant differences (p≥0.05 have been found between the 14 and 21 days samplings. Ithas been concluded that cortisol levels in milk samples could prove an indicator of sheep adrenal-cortex activity thatmay be applied to measure cold stress in lactating ewes.

  14. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  15. Effect of Glucogenic vs. Lipogenic Diets on Energy Balance, Blood Metabolites, and Reproduction in Primiparous and Multiparous Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Straalen, van W.M.; Jorritsma, R.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the availability of glucogenic nutrients relative to lipogenic nutrients has been hypothesized to decrease the production of milk fat, to improve the energy balance (EB), and to decrease the incidence and severity of metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation.

  16. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Gross, J.J.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and

  17. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Schonewille, J. T.; Bannink, A.

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (k aVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the

  18. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  19. Effect of changes in diet energy density on feed intake, milk yield and metabolic parameters in dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.I.; Friggens, N.C.; Larsen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how early lactating cows adjust their metabolism and production to acute, but moderate changes in the energy density of the diet. Sixty dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two change-over groups (HNH and NHN) and two contr...

  20. Upregulation of zinc absorption matches increases in physiological requirements for zinc in women consuming high-or-moderate-phytate diets during late pregnancy and early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To determine the roles of host and dietary factors in matching increases in physiological requirements for zinc (Zn) during late pregnancy and early lactation in women whose major dietary staple is maize with and without phytate reduction. Methods: Subjects were 22 indigenous Guatemalan ...

  1. Productive and metabolic response to two levels of corn silage supplementation in grazing dairy cows in early lactation during autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. silage (CS is a nutritious food that can be used as a supplement in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with two amounts of CS on milk production and composition, live weight and body condition, as well as on some blood indicators for energy and protein metabolism on dairy cows in early lactation and grazing low mass pasture during autumn. The study was carried out in 40 Holstein Friesian cows over 57 d. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production and days of lactation averaged 24.1 ± 2.8 kg d-1 and 62 ± 14 d, respectively. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of supplementation with CS; 4.5 and 9 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (treatments LCS and HCS, respectively. Additionally, all the cows received a pasture allowance of 21 and 3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 of concentrate. Milk composition was determined using infrared spectrophotometry, while blood indicators were obtained using an autoanalyzer. There were not differences between treatments regarding milk production or composition, total DM or energy intake. Herbage and protein intake was higher for LCS treatment (P < 0.001. Increasing supplementation decreased (P < 0.001 daily weight gain but did not affect body condition. Plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate were lower (P = 0.038 for the LCS treatment; while urea concentrations were higher (P = 0.003, with no differences for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations. Supplementation with 4.5 kg d-1 of CS was sufficient to meet the production requirements of the cows.

  2. Gfr estimation using 99mTc DTPA gates method for assessment of early diabetic nephropathy - a comparison with 24-hour creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, S.; Ali, M.K.; Khan, G.

    2014-01-01

    To correlate Gates glomerular filtration rate (GGFR) using technetium-99m diethylene triaminepentacetic acid (99mTc DTPA) with 24-hour creatinine clearance (CRCL) and to establish relationship with duration of diabetes in patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Study Design: A cross-sectional comparative study carried out in Nuclear Medical Centre from Aug 2009 to Jan 2010 at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients and Methods: A total of eighty three subjects were enrolled, who were divided into three groups; group 1 comprised 31 normotensive diabetics, group 2 had 37 hypertensive diabetics while group 3 had 15 normal subjects. The DTPA GFR and creatinine clearance in healthy subjects as well as diabetic patients were compared using the unpaired student's t-test. The linear association between GFR, creatinine clearance and disease duration was expressed by Pearson's correlation coefficient 'r' along with their significance levels. Results: Gates GFR showed hyperfiltration in normotensive diabetics (96.6 +- 3.3 ml/min/1.73 m/sub 2/), significantly (p<0.05) higher than controls (85.5 +- 5 ml/min/1.73 m/sub 2/), whereas hypertensive diabetics had a significantly lower (p<0.05) Gates GFR (76.8 +- 3.7) than that of controls. Significant degree of correlation existed between GGFR and CRCL in hypertensive diabetics (p<0.05, r=0.716) and controls (r=0.546). Gates GFR also showed good correlation with duration of diabetes in both diabetic groups as compared to that of CRCL. GGFR also correlated well with duration of hypertension 0.37 (0.31-0.43) as compared to CRCL 0.155 (0.15-0.16) in all groups. Conclusions: The 99mTc-DTPA clearance correlates significantly with 24-hour creatinine clearance as well as with disease duration and can provide a simple and convenient index of kidney function in patients of early diabetic nephropathy. (author)

  3. Crude glycerin decreases nonesterified fatty acid concentration in ewes during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizel, D M; Susin, I; Gentil, R S; Ferreira, E M; de Souza, R A; Freire, A P A; Pires, A V; Ferraz, M V C; Rodrigues, P H M; Eastridge, M L

    2017-02-01

    Crude glycerin is a gluconeogenic substrate in ruminants and may help to decrease the occurrence of pregnancy toxemia. The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing crude glycerin on DMI, milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolites in periparturient ewes and lamb performance. One hundred eighteen 90 (±1.1)-d pregnant Santa Inês ewes were used. After lambing, 32 ewes (62.8 ± 1.3 kg BW) were allotted in a randomized complete block design defined by prelambing diet, BW, BCS, lambing date, type of birth (single or twin), and sex of offspring. Diets were isonitrogenous (13.0 ± 0.3% CP, DM basis), composed of concentrate and raw sugarcane bagasse (70:30 ratio, DM basis), and fed ad libitum daily. Crude glycerin (83.6% glycerol) levels were 0 or 10% (DM basis), corresponding to the experimental diets G0 and G10, respectively. From 8 until 56 d of lactation, DMI was determined. In the same period, once a week at 1000 h, the ewes were separated from the lambs and mechanically milked after intravenous administration of 10 IU of synthetic oxytocin. Three hours after the first milking, ewes were milked again and milk yield and composition were determined. Glucose, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were determined at -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d relative to lambing and insulin was determined at -14, -7, 0, and 7 d. Crude glycerin did not affect DMI (2.2 kg/d for G0 vs. 2.2 kg/d for G10; = 0.93) or milk production (171 g/3 h for G0 vs. 164 g/3 h for G10; = 0.66). However, there was a decrease ( = 0.01) in milk fat percentage (8.1% for G0 vs. 7.0% for G10) for ewes fed glycerin. Ewes fed the G10 diet had decreased ( ewes fed the G10 diet (0.46 mmol/L for G0 vs. 0.61 mmol/L for G10). There was no effect of diets fed to ewes on lamb growth from birth to weaning. Crude glycerin improved energy balance of periparturient ewes, suggesting a reduced risk of developing clinical metabolic-related disorders. Crude glycerin can be

  4. Non-targeted plasma metabolome of early and late lactation gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late l...

  5. Projecting ADME Behavior and Drug-Drug Interactions in Early Discovery and Development: Application of the Extended Clearance Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kattan, Ayman F; Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefan J; Scott, Dennis O; Maurer, Tristan S; Bergman, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    To assess the utility of Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS) in understanding absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) attributes and enabling victim drug-drug interaction (DDI) predictions. A database of 368 drugs with relevant ADME parameters, main metabolizing enzymes, uptake transporters, efflux transporters, and highest change in exposure (%AUC) in presence of inhibitors was developed using published literature. Drugs were characterized according to ECCS using ionization, molecular weight and estimated permeability. Analyses suggested that ECCS class 1A drugs are well absorbed and systemic clearance is determined by metabolism mediated by CYP2C, esterases, and UGTs. For class 1B drugs, oral absorption is high and the predominant clearance mechanism is hepatic uptake mediated by OATP transporters. High permeability neutral/basic drugs (class 2) showed high oral absorption, with metabolism mediated generally by CYP3A, CYP2D6 and UGTs as the predominant clearance mechanism. Class 3A/4 drugs showed moderate absorption with dominant renal clearance involving OAT/OCT2 transporters. Class 3B drugs showed low to moderate absorption with hepatic uptake (OATPs) and/or renal clearance as primary clearance mechanisms. The highest DDI risk is typically seen with class 2/1B/3B compounds manifested by inhibition of either CYP metabolism or active hepatic uptake. Class 2 showed a wider range in AUC change likely due to a variety of enzymes involved. DDI risk for class 3A/4 is small and associated with inhibition of renal transporters. ECCS provides a framework to project ADME profiles and further enables prediction of victim DDI liabilities in drug discovery and development.

  6. Supplementation of monensin and Optimase to beef cows consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneen, S K; McGee, A L; Cole, J R; Jennings, J S; Stein, D R; Horn, G W; Lalman, D L

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of feeding monensin and/or slow release urea with a fibrolytic feed enzyme (Optimase; Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance, milk production, calf growth performance, and blood metabolites in beef cows. Spring-calving cows and heifers were used in a completely randomized design in Exp. 1 (N = 84; 534 ± 68 kg initial BW) and Exp. 2 (N = 107; 508 ± 72 kg initial BW). Exp. 1 supplements were formulated to meet cow protein requirements and fed daily and included 1) cottonseed meal with no monensin (control); or 2) monensin added to control to supply 200 mg per head per d (MON). In Exp. 2, experimental supplements included 1) cottonseed meal/wheat middlings (CS) fed at a rate to provide adequate DIP and CP according to , 2) the CS plus soybean hulls and 61 g per cow per d Optimase (OPT), 3) the CS plus monensin to supply 200 mg per cow per d (MON2), and 4) OPT plus MON2 (Combo). Cows were fed in last trimester through early lactation in Exp. 1 and during 2nd trimester in Exp. 2. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure in SAS with animal as the experimental unit. In Exp. 1, treatment did not affect cow BW or BCS change (P > 0.19). Calf birth BW was not affected by dam treatment (P = 0.24); however, calves from dams consuming MON weighed more (P Milk production did not significantly differ among treatments (P > 0.41). In Exp. 2, mean cow BW and BCS were similar (P > 0.35) among treatments on d 90. However, from d 0 to 54, cows assigned to the OPT supplement gained less BCS (P = 0.02) compared with cows assigned to the CS supplement. Cumulative BCS gain was greater (P calf performance during early lactation seems to be clearer. Replacing a portion of oilseed N in the supplement with Optimase may marginally reduce cow performance. Further research is needed to determine both the effects of monensin and the implications of combining monensin with Optimase on forage intake and cow performance at

  7. Short communication: Associations between blood glucose concentration, onset of hyperketonemia, and milk production in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, J; Borchardt, S; Heuwieser, W

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose concentration ≤2.2 mmol/L. Hyperketonemia was defined as a BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. The onset of HYK was described as early onset (first HYK event within the first 2 wk postpartum) and late onset (first HYK event in wk 3 to 6 postpartum). The effect of ketosis status on blood glucose within 42 DIM was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. No effect was observed of HYK on glucose concentration in primiparous cows. Multiparous cows with early-onset HYK had a lower glucose concentration (-0.21 mmol/L) compared with nonketotic cows. Overall, primiparous cows had a lower prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia than multiparous cows. Hypoglycemia in multiparous cows was associated with higher first test-day milk production and 100 DIM milk production. In conclusion, hypoglycemia mainly occurred in multiparous cows with early-onset HYK, whereas primiparous cows were at a lower risk for hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology...

  9. Heifers infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci in early lactation have fewer cases of clinical mastitis and higher milk production in their first lactation than noninfected heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A; De Vliegher, S

    2010-05-01

    Intramammary infections (IMI) in recently calved dairy heifers are more common than was formerly believed but their relevance for future performance has been studied only rarely. In the present study, the association between the IMI status of fresh heifers and their subsequent udder health, milk production, and culling in first lactation was explored. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM) and between 5 and 8 DIM from 191 dairy heifers in 20 dairy herds for bacteriological culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) analysis. Monthly milk recording data including composite milk SCC and test-day milk yield (MY) were obtained for the first 285 DIM or until culling. Farmer-recorded clinical mastitis cases were available. Data were analyzed using mixed models and survival analysis. Approximately 80% of the fresh heifers (79.8%) had at least one culture-positive quarter. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated pathogens (72%), followed by esculin-positive streptococci (4.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3.5%). Overall geometric mean SCC at quarter level decreased between the first and second samplings from 348,000 to 116,000 cells/mL. Heifers infected with CNS had an intermediate average test-day SCC (84,000 cells/mL) during the first 285 DIM compared with noninfected heifers (53,000 cells/mL) and heifers infected with major pathogens (195,000 cells/mL). Heifers infected with major pathogens had a much lower average daily MY (18.3kg) during first lactation compared with noninfected animals (21.3kg). That CNS-infected heifers out-produced their noninfected counterparts could be at least partially explained by their significantly lower incidence of clinical mastitis (incidence risk 3.6 vs. 21.0%) during first lactation compared with noninfected heifers. We conclude that although CNS cause the majority of IMI in heifers around calving, they should not be a reason for serious concern. Copyright 2010 American Dairy

  10. Screening of miRNA profiles and construction of regulation networks in early and late lactation of dairy goat mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhibin; Liu, Zhaohua; Chao, Tianle; Hou, Lei; Fan, Rui; He, Rongyan; Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-09-20

    In recent years, studies related to the expression profiles of miRNAs in the dairy goat mammary gland were performed, but regulatory mechanisms in the physiological environment and the dynamic homeostasis of mammary gland development and lactation are not clear. In the present study, sequencing data analysis of early and late lactation uncovered a total of 1,487 unique miRNAs, including 45 novel miRNA candidates and 1,442 known and conserved miRNAs, of which 758 miRNAs were co-expressed and 378 differentially expressed with P pathways. Additionally, 18 predicted target genes of 214 miRNAs were directly annotated in mammary gland development and used to construct regulatory networks based on GO annotation and the KEGG pathway. The expression levels of seven known miRNAs and three novel miRNAs were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that miRNAs might play important roles in early and late lactation during dairy goat mammary gland development, which will be helpful to obtain a better understanding of the genetic control of mammary gland lactation and development.

  11. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  12. Breast abscess, an early indicator for diabetes mellitus in non-lactating women: a retrospective study from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Basil George; Ravikanth, R

    2012-05-01

    Breast abscess is commonly seen in lactating and non-lactating women. Diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently predisposes to soft tissue infections and has many different presentations. But DM presenting in the form of breast abscess is yet to be studied, and we believe our study is the first to explore this connection. We collected 30 cases of breast abscess in women who presented to our hospital from May 2010 to June 2011 retrospectively. They were classified into lactating and non-lactating women, and their glycemic status was evaluated, together with length of hospital stay, management, recurrence, and follow-up status after 6 months. We found that of the 30 patients in our study, 20% had high blood sugar levels. And 37.5% of the non-lactating women were diagnosed newly with DM. This study shows that DM can present as breast abscess in non-lactating women. Therefore, non-lactating women with a breast abscess should be evaluated for DM.

  13. Changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during experimental Escherichia coli mastitis for primiparous Holstein dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe objective of this study was to characterize the changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during IMI challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli) for dairy cows during early lactation. Thirty, healthy primiparous Holstein cows were infused (h = 0) with ~20-40 cfu of live...... the effect of IMI challenge on metabolic responses of cows during early lactation.ResultsBy 12 h, E. coli was recovered from challenged quarters and shedding continued through 72 h. Rectal temperature peaked by 12 h post-challenge and returned to pre-challenge values by 36 h post-IMI challenge. Daily feed...... intake and milk yield decreased (P mastitis challenge. Plasma BHBA decreased (12 h; P

  14. Genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Kelton, D F; Schenkel, F S

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins. Health data recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yields were obtained from the routine milk recoding scheme. Ketosis and displaced abomasum were defined as binary traits (0 = healthy; 1 = sick) based on whether or not the cow had at least 1 case of the respective disease in the period from calving to 100 d after calving. Mean frequencies of ketosis and displaced abomasum were 4.1 and 2.7%, respectively. The following milk production traits were considered: milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), fat-to-protein (F:P) ratio, and F:P ratio >1.5. The trait F:P ratio >1.5 was scored as 1 or 0, based on whether or not the cow had an F:P ratio >1.5. For milk production traits, the first (5-30 d in milk) and the second (31-60 d in milk) test days were considered. Data were analyzed using bivariate linear animal models. Average heritabilities of 0.02 and 0.04 were obtained for ketosis and displaced abomasum, respectively. For milk production traits, the lowest heritabilities were obtained for F:P >1.5 (0.04 to 0.08), whereas the highest estimates were found for Prot% (0.27 to 0.38). Ketosis and displaced abomasum were genetically uncorrelated with milk yield in early lactation. Moderate favorable correlations were found between metabolic diseases and milk composition traits. Ketosis was significantly correlated with Fat% (0.33), F:P ratio (0.30), and F:P ratio >1.5 (0.35) at the first test day, whereas all genetic correlations with milk composition traits at the second test day were not significant and close to zero. Significant favorable genetic correlations were also found between displaced abomasum and F:P ratio (0.26), F:P ratio >1.5 (0.25) and Prot% (-0.19) at the first test

  15. Effect of yeast culture on milk production and metabolic and reproductive performance of early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmus Piret

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of supplementation with Saccaromyces cerevisiae (SC (Yea-Sacc® 1026 on milk production, metabolic parameters and the resumption of ovarian activity in early lactation dairy cows. Methods The experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 in a commercial tied-house farm with an average of 200 milking Estonian Holstein Friesian cows. The late pregnant multiparous cows (n = 46 were randomly divided into two groups; one group received 10 g yeast culture from two weeks before to 14 weeks after calving. The groups were fed a total mixed ration with silages and concentrates. Milk recording data and blood samples for plasma metabolites were taken. Resumption of luteal activity was determined using milk progesterone (P4 measurements. Uterine bacteriology and ovarian ultrasonography (US were performed and body condition scores (BCS and clinical disease occurrences were recorded. For analysis, the statistical software Stata 9.2 and R were used to compute Cox proportional hazard and linear mixed models. Results The average milk production per cow did not differ between the groups (32.7 ± 6.4 vs 30.7 ± 5.3 kg/day in the SC and control groups respectively, but the production of milk fat (P P 4 results, all cows in both groups ovulated during the experimental period. The resumption of ovarian activity (first ovulations and time required for elimination of bacteria from the uterus did not differ between the groups. Conclusion Supplementation with SC had an effect on milk protein and fat production, but did not influence the milk yield. No effects on PP metabolic status, bacterial elimination from the uterus nor the resumption of ovarian activity were found.

  16. Decision tree analysis of treatment strategies for mild and moderate cases of clinical mastitis occurring in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Sánchez, C; Cabrera, V E; Ruegg, P L

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a decision tree to evaluate the economic impact of different durations of intramammary treatment for the first case of mild or moderate clinical mastitis (CM) occurring in early lactation with various scenarios of pathogen distributions and use of on-farm culture. The tree included 2 decision and 3 probability events. The first decision evaluated use of on-farm culture (OFC; 2 programs using OFC and 1 not using OFC) and the second decision evaluated treatment strategies (no intramammary antimicrobials or antimicrobials administered for 2, 5, or 8 d). The tree included probabilities for the distribution of etiologies (gram-positive, gram-negative, or no growth), bacteriological cure, and recurrence. The economic consequences of mastitis included costs of diagnosis and initial treatment, additional treatments, labor, discarded milk, milk production losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis, culling, and transmission of infection to other cows (only for CM caused by Staphylococcus aureus). Pathogen-specific estimates for bacteriological cure and milk losses were used. The economically optimal path for several scenarios was determined by comparison of expected monetary values. For most scenarios, the optimal economic strategy was to treat CM caused by gram-positive pathogens for 2 d and to avoid antimicrobials for CM cases caused by gram-negative pathogens or when no pathogen was recovered. Use of extended intramammary antimicrobial therapy (5 or 8 d) resulted in the least expected monetary values. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Liver Remnant Using ICG Clearance Intraoperatively during Vascular Exclusion: Early Experience with the ALIIVE Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most significant risk following major hepatectomy is postoperative liver insufficiency. Current preoperative assessment of the future liver remnant relies upon assumptions which may not be valid in the setting of advanced resection strategies. This paper reports the feasibility of the ALIIVE technique which assesses the liver remnant with ICG clearance intraoperatively during vascular exclusion. Methods. 10 patients undergoing planned major liver resection (hemihepatectomy or greater were recruited. Routine preoperative assessment included CT and standardized volumetry. ICG clearance was measured noninvasively using a finger spectrophotometer at various time points including following parenchymal transection during inflow and outflow occlusion before vascular division, the ALIIVE step. Results. There were one case of mortality and three cases of posthepatectomy liver failure. The patient who died had the lowest ALIIVE ICG clearance (7.1%/min versus 14.4 ± 4.9. Routine preoperative CT and standardized volumetry did not predict outcome. Discussion/Conclusion. The novel ALIIVE technique is feasible and assesses actual future liver remnant function before the point of no return during major hepatectomy. This technique may be useful as a check step to offer a margin of safety to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and death. Further confirmatory studies are required to determine a safety cutoff level.

  18. Creatinine clearance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum creatinine clearance; Kidney function - creatinine clearance; Renal function - creatinine clearance ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ...

  19. Upregulation of Zinc Absorption Matches Increases in Physiologic Requirements for Zinc in Women Consuming High- or Moderate-Phytate Diets during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Mazariegos, Manolo; Westcott, Jamie; Solomons, Noel W; Raboy, Victor; Kemp, Jennifer F; Das, Abhik; Goco, Norman; Hartwell, Ty; Wright, Linda; Krebs, Nancy F

    2017-06-01

    Background: Estimated physiologic requirements (PRs) for zinc increase in late pregnancy and early lactation, but the effect on dietary zinc requirements is uncertain. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine changes in daily fractional absorbed zinc and total absorbed zinc (TAZ) from ad libitum diets of differing phytate contents in relation to physiologic zinc requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of zinc absorption at 8 (phase 1) and 34 (phase 2) wk of gestation and 2 (phase 3) and 6 (phase 4) mo of lactation. Participants were indigenous Guatemalan women of childbearing age whose major food staple was maize and who had been randomly assigned in a larger study to either of 2 ad libitum feeding groups: low-phytate maize (LP; 1.6 mg/g; n = 14) or control maize (C; 7.1 mg/g; n = 8). Total dietary zinc (milligrams per day, TDZ) and phytate (milligrams per day) were determined from duplicate diets and fractional absorption (FAZ) by dual isotope ratio technique (TAZ = TDZ × FAZ). All variables were examined longitudinally and by group and compared with PRs. TAZ values at later phases were compared with phase 1. Measured TAZ was compared with predicted TAZ for nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) women. Results: TAZ was greater in the LP group than in the C group at all phases. All variables increased from phase 1 to phases 2 and 3 and declined at phase 4. TAZ increased by 1.25 mg/d ( P = 0.045) in the C group and by 0.81 mg/d ( P = 0.058) in the LP group at phase 2. At phase 3, the increases were 2.66 mg/d ( P = 0.002) in the C group and 2.28 mg/d ( P = 0.0004) in the LP group, compared with a 1.37-mg/d increase in PR. Measured TAZ was greater than predicted values in phases 2-4. Conclusions: Upregulation of zinc absorption in late pregnancy and early lactation matches increases in PRs of pregnant and lactating women, regardless of dietary phytate, which has implications for dietary zinc requirements of

  20. Effects of butafosfan with or without cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of early lactating cows with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuber, U; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one dairy cows with subclinical ketosis were used to investigate the effects of butafosfan alone or in combination with cyanocobalamin on metabolism. Treatments included i.v. injection of 10 ml/100 kg of body weight with butafosfan (BUT) or combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan (BUTCO) at a similar concentration as in Catosal(®) . Control cows (CON) received a 0.9% saline solution. Cows were injected on days 1-3 at 22.3 ± 0.7 days post-partum. Milk production and composition were not affected by the treatments. In plasma, CON cows had a significantly higher plasma NEFA concentration (0.59 ± 0.03 mm) across the study period than BUTCO cows (p < 0.05; 0.42 ± 0.03 mm), whereas the plasma NEFA concentration of BUT was intermediate (0.52 ± 0.03 mm) but not significantly different from CON. Both BUTCO and BUT cows had lower (p < 0.05) plasma BHBA concentrations (1.02 ± 0.06 mm and 1.21 ± 0.06 mm, respectively) across the study period than CON (1.34 ± 0.06 mm). Plasma glucose was not different between treatments, but plasma glucagon concentrations were consistently high in BUT compared to BUTCO and CON. Lowest post-treatment glucagon levels were observed in BUTCO. Hepatic mRNA abundance of liver X receptor α, a nuclear receptor protein involved in lipid metabolism, was higher in BUTCO compared to BUT and CON (p < 0.05) on day 7. Furthermore, on day 7, the mRNA abundance of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 2 was higher in BUTCO compared to BUT and CON (p < 0.01). In conclusion, injections of combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan post-partum in early lactation ketotic dairy cows act on lipid metabolism with effects on plasma metabolites, most likely mediated via modified activity of key factors in the liver. Results indicate that the application of butafosfan only in combination with cyanocobalamin exhibits the expected positive effects on metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Resveratrol Intake During Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Early Metabolic Effects of Maternal Nutrition Differently in Male and Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Purificación; Díaz, Francisca; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Barrios, Vicente; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2018-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts antioxidant and antiobesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD; 10.2% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 61.6% kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight (BW) of dams was measured at treatment onset and weaning [postnatal day (PND) 21] and of pups at birth and PND21, at which time dams and pups were euthanized. Although HFD dams consumed more energy, their BW at the end of lactation was unaffected. Mean litter size was not modified by maternal diet or resveratrol. At birth, male offspring from HFD and resveratrol (HFD + R) dams weighed less than those from LFD and resveratrol (LFD + R) dams. On PND21, pups of both sexes from HFD dams weighed more, had more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and had higher serum leptin levels than those from LFD dams. Resveratrol reduced BW, leptin, VAT, and SCAT, with females being more affected, but increased glycemia. Neuropeptide levels were unaffected by resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation decreased BW and adipose tissue content in offspring of dams on an HFD but did not affect offspring from LFD-fed dams, suggesting that the potential protective effects of resveratrol during gestation/lactation are diet dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  2. Lactate Test

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    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... ency/article/000391.htm . (2002 January, Updated). Lactate (Liquid) Reagent Set. Pointe Scientific, Inc. [On-line Reagent ...

  3. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy and early lactation on the n-3 fatty acid content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, J.; Jensen, Benny; Salvig, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    week 30 of gestation (FO-group) or to a control regimen (olive oil or no oil; controls). The FO-group was randomly subdivided into women stopping fish oil supplementation at delivery [FO(pregn)], and women continuing supplementation for an additional 30 d [FO(pregn/lact)]. Thirty-six women agreed......The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation, in the third trimester of pregnancy and early lactation period of healthy pregnant Danish women. Forty-four pregnant women were randomly allocated to fish oil supplementation (1.3 g EPA and 0.9 g DHA per day) from...

  4. Molecular insights into the mechanisms of liver-associated diseases in early-lactating dairy cows: hypothetical role of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Ringseis, R; Gessner, D K; Eder, K

    2015-08-01

    The transition period represents the most critical period in the productive life of high-yielding dairy cows due to both metabolic and inflammatory stimuli, which challenge the liver and predispose dairy cows to develop liver-associated diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis. Despite the fact that all high-yielding dairy cows are affected by marked metabolic stress due to a severe negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation, not all cows develop liver-associated diseases. Although the reason for this is largely unknown, this indicates that the capacity of the liver to cope with metabolic and inflammatory challenges varies between individual high-yielding dairy cows. Convincing evidence exists that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a key role in the development of fatty liver, and it has been recently shown that ER stress occurs in the liver of high-yielding dairy cows. This indicates that ER stress may be involved in the development of liver-associated diseases in dairy cows. The present review shows that the liver of dairy cows during early lactation is exposed to several metabolic and inflammatory challenges, such as non-esterified fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, reactive oxygen species and lipopolysaccharides, which are known inducers of ER stress. Thus, ER stress may represent a molecular basis for fatty liver development and account for the frequent occurrence of fatty liver and ketosis in high-yielding dairy cows. Interindividual differences between dairy cows in the activation of hepatic stress response pathways, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, which is activated during ER stress and reduces the sensitivity of tissues to oxidative and inflammatory damage, might provide an explanation at the molecular level for differences in the capacity to cope with pathological inflammatory challenges during early lactation and the susceptibility to develop liver-associated diseases between early-lactating dairy cows

  5. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

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    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  6. Effect of peripartum dietary energy supplementation on thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-i and its binding proteins in early lactation dairy cows

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    Kirovski Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary energy supplementation on hormones that are considered to be the main signals of a shift in energy balance around parturition. Sixty dry cows, 15 days before calving, were chosen and divided into two eaqual groups: control and experimental (GLY. Both groups were fed a standard ration balanced in accordance to the stage of the productivereproductive cycle. Additionally, each cow in the GLY group was given glycerol based dietary energy supplementation (250 mL daily during the dry and 300 mL daily during the lactation period, which provided additional 9.30 MJ NEL during the dry and 13.95 MJ NEL during the early lactation period. Milk production was measured on days 30 and 60 of lactation and milk production was significantly higher in GLY compared to control group at day 60 of lactation (p<0.05. Service period and insemination index were used as reproductive outcome parameters. Average service period in the control group was significantly longer than in the GLY group (p<0.05. Average insemination index in the control group was not significantly different than the index obtained for the GLY group. Blood samples were taken before the begining of the experiment (15 days before parturition, and at days 7, 30 and 60 of lactation. Concentrations of thyroid hormones, IGF-I, relative abundance of IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4, concentrations of total protein and albumin in the blood were measured. Results showed that at days 7 and 30 after parturition, T4 concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.001, respectively in GLY than in the control group, while T3 concentrations were significantly higher in GLY group only at day 7 after parturition (p<0.001. IGF-I concentrations and IGFBP-3 abundance were significantly higher in the GLY compared to the control group in all three examined postpartum periods. IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 concentrations were higher in GLY compared to the control group in all

  7. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.

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    Sadri, H; Dänicke, S; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, J; Frank, J; Sauerwein, H

    2015-10-01

    The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n=11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n=10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of two different prepartum diets on some metabolic traits and productive response in multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation

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    Gianfranco Gabai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six multiparous Italian Holstein cows were used to compare two feeding strategies for the prepartum period. Cowswere allocated to two dietary treatments on the basis of their parity (3.1 ± 1.1 and mature equivalent production (11473± 1449 kg. From 20 ± 7 d precalving to the calving day, one group of 13 cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.0; mature equivalentproduction = 11473 ± 1606 kg was fed a Control diet made by mixing a 50:50 as fed combination of the far off dryration and the lactation diet fed postpartum. The remaining cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.1; mature equivalent production =11473 ± 1338 kg were fed a prepartum diet (Anionic obtained by supplementing the far off dry ration with energy andprotein sources plus calcium chloride. This diet had a lower dietary cation-anion difference than the Control diet (7.35 vs26.66 meq/100 g DM; Pfed the Anionic diet had the lowest DM intake during the prepartum (12.0 vs 13.4 kg/d; Pshowed a limited drop in plasma Ca reducing the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia in comparison with the Controlgroup (8 vs 62%; Pof hepatic function (aspartate-amino transferase, ϒ-glutamil transferase, creatin-kinase and bilirubine. After calving,all the cows were co-mingled and fed the same lactation ration and those that had received the Anionic diet duringthe prepartum showed a significant increase in milk yield with no changes in milk quality. Average production at the peakof lactation was 43.8 kg/d for Control cows while it raised up to 47.8 kg/d (Pduring the prepartum. This positive result was obtained with a lower loss in cows’ body condition score measured at 30and 60 days in milk and without any effect on the uterine involution process. The use of the Anionic diet has proven tobe an effective alternative to the common practice of feeding close-up diets made by a partial replacement of the far offdry ration with the diet fed to the lactating cows. This strategy should be particularly recommended for dairy

  11. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

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    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  12. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  13. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I Kati; Watson, David G; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1), days 7-20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth.

  14. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth – Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I. Kati; Watson, David G.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1–6 (Phase 1), days 7–20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth. PMID:26630345

  15. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Ursids (bears in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1, days 7-20 (Phase 2, and beyond day 20 (Phase 3. While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth.

  16. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...

  17. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  18. Metabolic and productive response to ruminal protein degradability in early lactation cows fed untreated or xylose-treated soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Amanlou, H; Nikkhah, A

    2009-12-01

    Effects of different dietary rumen undegradable (RUP) to degradable (RDP) protein ratios on ruminal nutrient degradation, feed intake, blood metabolites and milk production were determined in early lactation cows. Four multiparous (43 ± 5 days in milk) and four primiparous (40 ± 6 days in milk) tie-stall-housed Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-day periods. Each period had 14-day of adaptation and 7-day of sampling. Diets contained on a dry matter (DM) basis, 23.3% alfalfa hay, 20% corn silage and 56.7% concentrate. Cows were first offered alfalfa hay at 7:00, 15:00 and 23:00 hours, and 30 min after each alfalfa hay delivery were offered a mixture of corn silage and concentrate. Treatments were diets with RUP:RDP ratios of (i) 5.2:11.6 (control), (ii) 6.1:10.6, (iii) 7.1:9.5 and (iv) 8.1:8.5, on a dietary DM% basis. Different RUP:RDP ratios were obtained by partial and total replacement of untreated soybean meal (SBM) with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM). In situ study using three rumen-cannulated non-lactating cows showed that DM and crude protein (CP) of SBM had greater rapidly degradable fractions. The potentially degradable fractions were degraded more slowly in XSBM. Treatment cows produced greater milk, protein, lactose, solids-non-fat and total solids than control cows. Increasing RUP:RDP reduced blood urea linearly. Feed costs dropped at RUP:RDP ratios of 6.1:10.6 and 7.1:9.5, but not at 8.1:8.5, compared with the 5.2:11.6 ratio. Intake of DM and CP, rumen pH, blood glucose, albumin and total protein, faecal and urine pH, changes in body weight and body condition score, and milk lactose and solids-non-fat percentages did not differ among treatments. Results provide evidence that increasing dietary RUP:RDP ratio from 5.2:11.6 to 7.1:9.5 optimizes nitrogen metabolism and milk production and reduces feed costs in early lactation cows. Reduced blood urea suggests reprodutive benefits.

  19. A randomized controlled trial on the effect of incomplete milking during early lactation on ketonemia and body condition loss in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P-A; Krug, C; Chorfi, Y; Dubuc, J; Lacasse, P; Roy, J-P; Santschi, D E; Dufour, S

    2018-05-01

    Limiting milk production for a short period of time in early lactation could be a relevant strategy to prevent hyperketonemia (HYK). From December 2013 to March 2015, 838 multiparous Holstein cows from 13 herds were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of incomplete milking in early lactation on ketonemia and its effect on body condition score (BCS) loss. Cows were randomly assigned 4 wk before expected calving date to 1 of 2 treatment groups, (1) a conventional milking protocol (CON) for which cows were completely milked or (2) an incomplete milking protocol (INC) for which a maximum of 10 to 14 kg of milk/d were withdrawn during the first 5 d in milk (DIM). β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were measured from blood samples collected on each cow 3 times at weekly intervals. Hyperketonemia was defined as BHB ≥1.4 mmol/L. Body condition score variation in the postcalving period was calculated by subtracting BCS assessed at wk 7 from BCS assessed at first week after calving. Effect of treatment on ketonemia and prevalence of HYK were evaluated for 4 specific time periods: 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM. Effect of treatment on ketonemia was investigated using linear mixed models with natural logarithm of BHB measurements as outcome and treatment groups as fixed effect. Generalized linear mixed models with HYK as outcome, using logit link, and treatment groups as fixed effect were used to investigate effect of treatment on odds of HYK. A logistic regression model with BCS loss (effects was used to study effect of INC on odds of having BCS loss ≥0.75. A total of 813 lactations had complete data and were used for statistical analysis of ketonemia and HYK. A total of 709 lactations had complete data and were used for analysis of BCS loss. Geometric means of blood BHB concentrations during the 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM periods were, respectively, 0.72 (95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.80), 0.66 (0.60, 0

  20. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  1. Effects of nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and indices of intestinal growth and vascularity in primiparous ewes at parturition and during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and intestinal growth and vascularization in ewes at parturition and during early lactation. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were allocated to 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of tr...

  2. The effect of dry period length and postpartum level of concentrate on milk production, energy balance, and plasma metabolites of dairy cows across the dry period and in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) improves energy balance (EB) in early lactation because of a reduction in milk yield. Lower milk yield results in lower energy demands and requires less energy intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DP length and concentrate level

  3. Use of brain lactate levels to predict outcome after perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H; Toft, P.B.; Peitersen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of neurological disability, but early prediction of outcome can be difficult. We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and global cerebral blood flow measurements by xenon-133 clearance in 16 infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia...... neurological deficits and the rest seemed to be progressing normally at neurodevelopmental follow-up at 1 year of age. A significant correlation was found between initial brain lactate levels and severe outcome (p = 0.0003) just as between cerebral hyperperfusion (mean cerebral blood flow (CBF) 86 ml(100 g)-1...

  4. Human neutrophil clearance of bacterial pathogens triggers anti-microbial γδ T cell responses in early infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Davey

    2011-05-01

    early infection and suggest novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  5. Human Neutrophil Clearance of Bacterial Pathogens Triggers Anti-Microbial γδ T Cell Responses in Early Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth W.; Heuston, Sinéad; Brown, Amanda C.; Chess, James A.; Toleman, Mark A.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin; Parish, Tanya; Williams, John D.; Davies, Simon J.; Johnson, David W.; Topley, Nicholas; Moser, Bernhard; Eberl, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Human blood Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, monocytes and neutrophils share a responsiveness toward inflammatory chemokines and are rapidly recruited to sites of infection. Studying their interaction in vitro and relating these findings to in vivo observations in patients may therefore provide crucial insight into inflammatory events. Our present data demonstrate that Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells provide potent survival signals resulting in neutrophil activation and the release of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL8 (IL-8). In turn, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells readily respond to neutrophils harboring phagocytosed bacteria, as evidenced by expression of CD69, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This response is dependent on the ability of these bacteria to produce the microbial metabolite (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), requires cell-cell contact of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells with accessory monocytes through lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and results in a TNF-α dependent proliferation of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. The antibiotic fosmidomycin, which targets the HMB-PP biosynthesis pathway, not only has a direct antibacterial effect on most HMB-PP producing bacteria but also possesses rapid anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting γδ T cell responses in vitro. Patients with acute peritoneal-dialysis (PD)-associated bacterial peritonitis – characterized by an excessive influx of neutrophils and monocytes into the peritoneal cavity – show a selective activation of local Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells by HMB-PP producing but not by HMB-PP deficient bacterial pathogens. The γδ T cell-driven perpetuation of inflammatory responses during acute peritonitis is associated with elevated peritoneal levels of γδ T cells and TNF-α and detrimental clinical outcomes in infections caused by HMB-PP positive microorganisms. Taken together, our findings indicate a direct link between invading pathogens, neutrophils, monocytes and microbe-responsive γδ T cells in early

  6. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS 4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as lactation approached, and saturated

  7. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sami

    .The results suggested that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms.

  8. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A

    2015-01-01

    that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms.

  9. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of body condition at calving and supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on energy status and some reproductive parameters in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlIbrahim, R M; Crowe, M A; Duffy, P; O'Grady, L; Beltman, M E; Mulligan, F J

    2010-08-01

    Improving the energy status of dairy cows during the early post-partum (PP) period by adding a safe dietary supplement such as live yeast culture (YS) may have a positive effect on reproductive function. The objective was to examine potential benefits of YS supplementation on PP energy status and fertility indices of dairy cows managed to have low or high body condition score (BCS, 1-5 scale) at calving. Forty (10 primiparous and 30 multiparous) Holstein/Friesian dairy cows were blocked by yield, parity, BCS, and predicted calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly allocated to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments which were: BCS at calving (low or =3.75; n=20) and YS supplementation (2.5g/cow/day for pre-calving and 10g/cow/day for post-calving x 10(8) CFU of Saccharomyces cerevisiae/g) (supplemented or control; n=20). Daily milk yield was recorded and weekly milk composition, BCS and BW were assessed from calving to week 10 PP. Forage (100% grass silage pre-calving; 50% grass silage, 50% maize silage post-calving; ad libitum) intake was recorded individually. Concentrate (2kg of pre-calver nuts+/-YS for pre-calving and 8 kg of lactating nuts+/-YS for post-calving) feeding was controlled individually. Estimated energy balance PP was calculated on a weekly basis individually as the difference between the net energy (NE) intake and the sum of NE for maintenance and milk production. Insulin and IGF-I concentrations were determined on days 14 and 7 pre-calving and 1, 5, 15, 25 and 35 post-calving. Daily ovarian ultrasonography was performed from day 10 PP to monitor the size and development of the first dominant follicle (>10mm in diameter with absence of other large growing follicles), first ovulatory follicle and days to first ovulation PP. Pre-ovulatory peak of serum oestradiol concentration was determined during the 2 days before ovulation day. Cows with high BCS (over-conditioned) at calving ingested less NE, produced more milk NE output, and

  11. Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: II. Cow health and performance in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Godden, S; Rapnicki, P; Gorden, P; Timms, L; Aly, S S; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this randomized noninferiority clinical trial was to compare the effect of treatment with 3 different dry cow therapy formulations at dry-off on cow-level health and production parameters in the first 100 d in milk (DIM) in the subsequent lactation, including 305-d mature-equivalent (305 ME) milk production, linear score (LS), risk for the cow experiencing a clinical mastitis event, risk for culling or death, and risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM. A total of 1,091 cows from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were randomly assigned at dry-off to receive treatment with 1 of 3 commercial products: Quartermaster (QT; Zoetis Animal Health, Madison, NJ), Spectramast DC (SP; Zoetis Animal Health) or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St Joseph, MO). All clinical mastitis, pregnancy, culling, and death events occurring in the first 100 DIM were recorded by farm staff using an on-farm electronic record-keeping system. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records of milk production and milk component testing were retrieved electronically. Mixed linear regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on 305ME milk production and LS recorded on the last Dairy Herd Improvement Association test day before 100 DIM. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for experiencing a case of clinical mastitis, risk for leaving the herd, and risk for pregnancy between calving and 100 DIM. Results showed no effect of treatment on adjusted mean 305 ME milk production (QT=11,759 kg, SP=11,574 kg, and TM=11,761 kg) or adjusted mean LS (QT=1.8, SP=1.9, and TM=1.6) on the last test day before 100 DIM. Similarly, no effect of treatment was observed on risk for a clinical mastitis event (QT=14.8%, SP=12.7%, and TM=15.0%), risk for leaving the herd (QT=7.5%, SP=9.2%, and TM=10.3%), or risk for pregnancy (QT=31.5%, SP=26.1%, and TM=26

  12. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in mainly pasture-grazed dairy cows in New Zealand in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; McDougall, S; Young, L; Bryan, M A

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of primary subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-grazed dairy cows in three dairy-farming regions of New Zealand 7-12, and 35-40 days post-calving. A second aim was to investigate herd- and cow-level factors associated with the prevalence of SCK. A cross-sectional longitudinal prevalence survey was undertaken in 1,620 dairy cows from 57 herds. A random sample of cows without disease in the prior 30 days were enrolled at one farm visit within 5 days of calving, and blood samples were collected 7 and 28 days later (7-12 and 35-40 days post-calving) for measurement of beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHBA) concentrations using an electronic cow-side meter. SCK was defined as blood BHBA concentration ≥1.4 mmol/L. Mean cow-level prevalence of SCK varied with interval post-calving (16.8 and 3.2% at 7-12 days and 35-40 days post-calving, respectively) and age (13.0 and 13.1% of 2-year olds and ≥8-year olds, respectively, compared to 7.2% of 3-4-year-old cows). Mean herd-level prevalence of SCK was 14.3 (min 0, max 60.0)% and 2.6 (min 0, max 24.4)% at 7-12 days and 35-40 days post-calving, respectively, and was greater in Southland (13.3%) than Waikato and Canterbury herds (6.9 and 4.7%, respectively). This is the first population-based report of the prevalence of SCK in New Zealand dairy herds and demonstrates that age and interval post-calving are important risk factors determining prevalence; and that there is wide variation in prevalence between herds. Subclinical ketosis may be unrecognised but common in many New Zealand dairy cows in the first 2 weeks of lactation.

  13. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  14. Beta-Defensin 2 and 3 Promote Bacterial Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Inhibiting Macrophage Autophagy through Downregulation of Early Growth Response Gene-1 and c-FOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beta-defensins 2 and 3 (BD2 and BD3 are inducible peptides present at the sites of infection, and they are well characterized for their antimicrobial activities and immune-regulatory functions. However, no study has thoroughly investigated their immunomodulatory effects on macrophage-mediated immune responses against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA. Here, we use THP-1 and RAW264.7 cell lines and demonstrate that BD2 and BD3 suppressed macrophage autophagy but enhanced the engulfment of PA and Zymosan bioparticles as well as the formation of phagolysosomes, using immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. Plate count assay showed that macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and intracellular killing of PA were promoted by BD2 and BD3. Furthermore, microarray and real-time PCR showed that the expression of two genes, early growth response gene-1 (EGR1 and c-FOS, was attenuated by BD2 and BD3. Western blot revealed that BD2 and BD3 inhibited the expression and nuclear translocation of EGR1 and c-FOS. Knockdown of EGR1 and c-FOS by siRNA transfection suppressed macrophage autophagy before and after PA infection; while overexpression of these two transcription factors enhanced autophagy but reversed the role of BD2 and BD3 on macrophage-mediated PA eradication. Together, these results demonstrate a novel immune defense activity of BD2 and BD3, which promotes clearance of PA by inhibiting macrophage autophagy through downregulation of EGR1 and c-FOS.

  15. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation--effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, K L; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed. No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between the PG group and the CON group. Cows supplemented with GLY had a higher milk yield (kg of milk and kg of energy-corrected milk) during the first 90 DIM. Cows in the PG group tended to yield more milk during the same period. No differences in the occurrence of diseases were seen between the groups. In conclusion, supplementation with GLY in early lactation did increase milk yield without a subsequent decrease of metabolic status, and supplementation with PG tended to do the same

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast ... Facebook Twitter ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage ... LEGACY GIFT Sponsor a Participant CF Climb CF Cycle for Life Great Strides Xtreme Hike Participate In ...

  2. Characterization of plasma metabolites at late gestation and lactation in early parity sows on production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation is a very energy demanding period for sows. The current study provides a better understanding of the biochemical response of first- (n = 246) or second-parity (n = 127) sows during late gestation through lactation and assesses relationships with piglet production and dam reproductive perfo...

  3. Proteomics and metabolomics characterizing the pathophysiology of adaptive reactions to the metabolic challenges during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Lecchi, Cristina; Urh, Christiane; Sauerwein, Helga

    2018-04-30

    The transition from late pregnancy to early lactation is a critical period in a dairy cow's life due to the rapidly increasing drain of nutrients from the maternal organism towards the foetus and into colostrum and milk. In order to cope with the challenges of parturition and lactation, comprehensive adaptive reactions comprising the endocrine and the immune system need to be accomplished. There is high variation in this coping ability and both metabolic and infectious diseases, summarized as "production diseases", such as hypocalcaemia (milk fever), fatty liver syndrome, laminitis and ketosis, may occur and impact welfare, productive lifespan and economic outcomes. Proteomics and metabolomics have emerged as valuable techniques to characterize proteins and metabolite assets from tissue and biological fluids, such as milk, blood and urine. In this review we provide an overview on metabolic status and physiological changes during the transition period and the related production diseases in dairy cows, and summarize the state of art on proteomics and metabolomics of biological fluids and tissues involved in metabolic stress during the peripartum period. We also provide a current and prospective view of the application of the recent achievements generated by omics for biomarker discovery and their potential in diagnosis. For high-yielding dairy cows there are several "occupational diseases" that occur mainly during the metabolic challenges related to the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Such diseases and their sequelae form a major concern for dairy production, and often lead to early culling of animals. Beside the economical perspective, metabolic stress may severely influence animal welfare. There is a multitude of studies about the metabolic backgrounds of such so called production diseases like ketosis, fatty liver, or hypocalcaemia, although the investigations aiming to assess the complexity of the pathophysiological reactions are largely focused on gene

  4. Breast cancer during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Mubarek, Mohammed A.; Al-Tufaif, Ahmed A.

    2004-01-01

    declared disease free 30 months later. The third case was a 32-year-old Saudi female who has been lactating for 5 months presented with a month history of a right breast lump. There was no history of nipple discharge or past history of any benign breast diseases. There was no family history of breast carcinoma. Clinically, there was an irregular right breast mass (5x3 cm) in the upper inner quadrant with palpable right axillary lymph nodes. She underwent right simple mastectomy and axillary clearance. Histology showed grade II infiltrating ductal carcinoma with 15/18 lymph nodes were positive. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was given but was lost to follow up 6 months after surgery. Chest wall radiation for cancers detected in the second or third trimester is delayed until after delivery to avoid fetal growth retardation and still births.3,4 The risk of abortion and fetal malformations is highest during embryogenesis in the first trimester and varies with the choice of chemotherapeutic agents. Recent evidence suggests that the risk of fetal malformations associated with administration of chemotherapeutic agents after the first trimester is not greater than the background control.6 The decision on postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation therapy in all the cases was made easy by the fact that CS was performed at the time of mastectomy in case one who gave birth to a healthy baby and that cases 2 and 3 were postpartum and were only lactating. Termination of pregnancy is considered in females presenting early in pregnancy with advanced or metastatic cancer necessitating chemotherapy and radiation

  5. Comparing the impact of melatonin and captopril on early effects of radiation on the heart tissue by studying glutathione, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Tabatabaie, Farnaz; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Mirzaei, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of secondary malignancy while the patient is receiving radiotherapy for the management of primary cancer has been an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety. The aim of the study is to compare protective effects of melatonin and captopril on early effects of radiation on the heart tissue of rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used. The rats were divided into six groups and the rats were exposed to 8 Gy whole body dose from Cobalt-60 sources. Thirty minutes prior to irradiation, six animals received melatonin (100 mg/kg body weight), and six animals received captopril (50 mg/kg body weight). All groups were sacrificed 10 days post-irradiation, and hearts were collected. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate cellular oxidative stress-induced injury. The biochemical data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean, and the difference between the groups was analyzed using a two-way variance analysis. Treatment with captopril resulted in a significant increase in LDH and MDA, although the level of GSH was decreased (P < 0.01). MDA and LDH levels were decreased after melatonin treatment while GSH level was increased (P < 0.001). Melatonin has protective effects following radiation, while treatment with captopril post-irradiation seems to be radiosensitizing and does not have protective effects against radiation exposure. (author)

  6. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  7. Yearling mink dams fed restricted in early lactation have less mammary gland tissue six weeks after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Pinkalski, Mariann Nakano

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... around the time of separation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of separating the dam from the litter, using brown first-parity dams (N=374) randomly assigned within each date of delivery to two treatment groups: The dam was taken away from the litter either at day 49 ±1 (7w, N=185) or at day 56 ±1...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment...

  8. Lung mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, J.; Lange, P.; Nyboe, J.; Groth, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mucociliary clearance and mucociliary clearance reserve capacity as determined by β 2 -adrenergic agonist-induced increase in mucociliary clearance. We studied 62 healthy females (n=33) and males (n=29). Their ages ranged evenly between 18 and 84 years. Fifty-three of the subjects were life-long non-smokers, while nine were ex-smokers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that mucociliary clearance was significantly faster when the radioaerosol was deposited in the central airways than when it was deposited in the peripheral airways, and faster in life-long non-smokers than in ex-smokers. There was no influence of age, and no convincing association with sex. The variation was less within than between subjects. Mean mucociliary clearance reserve capacity was 21.3% (SD: 10.0%, P 2 agonist-induced increase in lung mucociliary clearance was significantly larger (P<0.05) than the stimulation which has previously been reported in patients with asthma, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio of the mucociliary clearance reserve capacity in relation to measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance indicates that measurement of mucociliary clearance reserve capacity may be a more efficient means of distinguishing between ''normal'' and ''abnormal'' mucociliary clearance than single measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance. (orig.)

  9. Glucose metabolism in lactating reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R G; Luick, J R

    1976-01-01

    Changes in glucose synthesis during the lactation cycle were estimated in pen-fed and grazing reindeer. The pool size, space, transfer rate, and irreversible loss of glucose were determined using simultaneous injections of (2-/sup 3/H)glucose and primed infusions of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose in reindeer lactating for 1-2, 4-5, 8-9, and 12-16 weeks. Glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were higher during early to midlactation than at other times of the year; maximum estimates were at 8-9 week postpartum (July), and a decline was noted at 12-16 weeks (August). During the first 1-2 weeks in pen-fed and 4-5 weeks in grazing reindeer, glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were almost twice the values reported for reindeer at maintenance. No difference in the irreversible loss of glucose was noted between lactating and non-lactating reindeer at 18-20 weeks postpartum (September), and there is evidence that this may occur as early as 12-16 weeks postpartum. No significant trend was noted in the glucose space throughout lactation; however, a significant increase in plasma glucose concentration and pool size was noted when glucose synthesis was highest (8-9 weeks postpartum). Glucose turnover time was consistently faster (78-88 min) in lactating than in non-lactating reindeer (107-140 min). Reindeer used a smaller proportion of plasma glucose-C for lactose synthesis than did other domestic species. This probably results from the low lactose content of reindeer milk and the relatively low rate of milk secretion. (auth)

  10. Associations between the degree of early lactation inflammation and performance, metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Felippe, M J B; Overton, T R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine associations between the severity of systemic inflammation during the early postpartum period and performance, energy metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows. Cows were assigned to categorical quartiles (Q; Q1=0.18-0.59, Q2=0.60-1.14, Q3=1.15-2.05, and Q4=2.06-2.50 g of haptoglobin/L) based on the highest plasma haptoglobin (Hp) concentration measured during wk 1 postpartum. Although cows were assigned to different categories of inflammation during the postpartum period, we detected a quadratic relationship of inflammation on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW) such that cows in Q2 had lower prepartum DMI and cows in Q2 and Q3 had lower prepartum BW compared with cows in the other quartiles. We also detected a quadratic association of inflammation with postpartum DMI and BW such that cows in Q2 and Q3 also had generally lower postpartum DMI and BW compared with cows in Q1. There was a tendency for a Q × time interaction for milk yield and Q × time interactions for 3.5% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yields; quadratic relationships suggested decreased milk yield for Q2 and Q3 cows. We also found Q × parity and Q × time interactions for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, suggesting alterations with differing degrees of inflammation. There was also a Q × time interaction for plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration. In addition, alterations in liver triglyceride and glycogen contents for cows with inflammation as well as alterations in [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation in vitro were observed. Although we observed limited effects of inflammation on neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at d 7 postpartum, inflammation appeared to alter neutrophil and monocyte oxidative burst. Overall, cows with any degree of elevated haptoglobin in the first week after calving had alterations in both pre- and postpartum intake and postpartum metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American

  11. Effect of bicarbonate and lactate buffer on glucose and lactate metabolism during hemodiafiltration in patients with multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Marc-Daniel; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Tappy, Luc; Berger, Mette M; Schaller, Marie-Denise; Cayeux, Marie-Christine; Martinez, Alexandre; Chioléro, René-Louis

    2004-06-01

    To compare the effects of sodium bicarbonate and lactate for continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in critically ill patients. Prospective crossed-over controlled trial in the surgical and medical ICUs of a university hospital. Eight patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) requiring CVVHDF. Each patient received the two buffers in a randomized sequence over two consecutive days. The following variables were determined: acid-base parameters, lactate production and utilization ((13)C lactate infusion), glucose turnover (6,6(2)H(2)-glucose), gas exchange (indirect calorimetry). No side effect was observed during lactate administration. Baseline arterial acid-base variables were equal with the two buffers. Arterial lactate (2.9 versus 1.5 mmol/l), glycemia (+18%) and glucose turnover (+23%) were higher in the lactate period. Bicarbonate and glucose losses in CVVHDF were substantial, but not lactate elimination. Infusing (13)C lactate increased plasma lactate levels equally with the two buffers. Lactate clearance (7.8+/-0.8 vs 7.5+/-0.8 ml/kg per min in the bicarbonate and lactate periods) and endogenous production rates (14.0+/-2.6 vs 13.6+/-2.6 mmol/kg per min) were similar. (13)C lactate was used as a metabolic substrate, as shown by (13)CO(2) excretion. Glycemia and metabolic rate increased significantly and similarly during the two periods during lactate infusion. Lactate was rapidly cleared from the blood of critically ill patients without acute liver failure requiring CVVHDF, being transformed into glucose or oxidized. Lactate did not exert undesirable effects, except moderate hyperglycemia, and achieved comparable effects on acid-base balance to bicarbonate.

  12. The effect of different treatments for early-lactation hyperketonemia on blood β-hydroxybutyrate, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Behling-Kelly, E; McArt, J A A

    2017-08-01

    Despite increased efforts in preventing the occurrence of metabolic disorders in transition cows, hyperketonemia remains a frequent early-lactation metabolic disease affecting an average of 40% of cows in herds in the United States. Despite the demonstrated economic effect of this disorder, controlled clinical trials comparing different treatment strategies in affected cows are lacking. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of treatment with intravenous glucose, oral propylene glycol, or a combination of both on the reduction in blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations of early-lactation hyperketonemic dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows between 3 to 9 d in milk were screened for hyperketonemia using a handheld meter 3 times per week, and enrolled at whole blood BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L to 1 of 4 treatment groups: (1) 500 mL of a 50% dextrose solution i.v. once daily for 3 d (GLU, n = 9), (2) 300 mL of propylene glycol as a drench once daily for 3 d (PG, n = 9), (3) a combination treatment of a 500 mL of 50% dextrose solution i.v. and 300 mL of propylene glycol orally once daily for 3 d (GLU+PG, n = 8), or (4) an untreated control group (CTRL, n = 8). Blood samples were collected immediately before as well as at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after administration of the first treatment through a jugular catheter and 3 times per week thereafter from coccygeal vessels. Concentrations of BHB were measured in whole blood, and plasma samples were analyzed for glucose, fatty acid (NEFA), insulin, glucagon, and electrolyte concentrations. The EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples were assessed for red blood cell indices, and smears were made for evaluation of red blood cell morphology. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated measures analysis. Overall least squares means (95% CI) of whole blood BHB concentrations between 1 h and d 11 relative to first treatment were 1.11 (0.95 to 1.30), 1.26 (1.07 to 1.47), 0.96 (0.81 to 1.13), and 1

  13. Bayesian evaluation of budgets for endemic disease control: An example using management changes to reduce milk somatic cell count early in the first lactation of Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S C; Mc Coy, F; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine budgets for specific management interventions to control heifer mastitis in Irish dairy herds as an example of evidence synthesis and 1-step Bayesian micro-simulation in a veterinary context. Budgets were determined for different decision makers based on their willingness to pay. Reducing the prevalence of heifers with a high milk somatic cell count (SCC) early in the first lactation could be achieved through herd level management interventions for pre- and peri-partum heifers, however the cost effectiveness of these interventions is unknown. A synthesis of multiple sources of evidence, accounting for variability and uncertainty in the available data is invaluable to inform decision makers around likely economic outcomes of investing in disease control measures. One analytical approach to this is Bayesian micro-simulation, where the trajectory of different individuals undergoing specific interventions is simulated. The classic micro-simulation framework was extended to encompass synthesis of evidence from 2 separate statistical models and previous research, with the outcome for an individual cow or herd assessed in terms of changes in lifetime milk yield, disposal risk, and likely financial returns conditional on the interventions being simultaneously applied. The 3 interventions tested were storage of bedding inside, decreasing transition yard stocking density, and spreading of bedding evenly in the calving area. Budgets for the interventions were determined based on the minimum expected return on investment, and the probability of the desired outcome. Budgets for interventions to control heifer mastitis were highly dependent on the decision maker's willingness to pay, and hence minimum expected return on investment. Understanding the requirements of decision makers and their rational spending limits would be useful for the development of specific interventions for particular farms to control heifer mastitis, and other

  14. Gene expression of tumour necrosis factor and insulin signalling-related factors in subcutaneous adipose tissue during the dry period and in early lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Rahmani, H R; Ghorbani, G R; Morel, I; van Dorland, H A

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression of adipose factors, which may be part of the mechanisms that underlie insulin sensitivity, were studied in dairy cows around parturition. Subcutaneous fat biopsies and blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows in week 8 antepartum (a.p.), on day 1 postpartum (p.p.) and in week 5 p.p. In the adipose tissue samples, mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), insulin-independent glucose transporter (GLUT1), insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4), insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (p85) and catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin. Plasma parameters followed a pattern typically observed in dairy cows. Gene expression changes were observed, but there were no changes in TNFα concentrations, which may indicate its local involvement in catabolic adaptation of adipose tissue. Changes in GLUT4 and GLUT1 mRNA abundance may reflect their involvement in reduced insulin sensitivity and in sparing glucose for milk synthesis in early lactation. Unchanged gene expression of IRS1, IRS2 and p85 over time may imply a lack of their involvement in terms of insulin sensitivity dynamics. Alternatively, it may indicate that post-transcriptional modifications of these factors came into play and may have concealed an involvement. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862.

  16. The effects of energy concentration in roughage and allowance of concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency of pluriparous dairy cows during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rolf; Schnabel, Karina; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Spiekers, Hubert; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different energy supplies from roughage and concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency during early lactation. For this purpose an experiment was conducted containing 64 pluriparous German Holstein cows from 3 weeks prepartum until 16 weeks postpartum. During dry period all cows received an equal dry cow ration. After calving, cows were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four groups, receiving either a moderate (MR, 6.0 MJ NE L ) or a high (HR, 6.4 MJ NE L ) energy concentration in roughage and furthermore moderate (MC, 150 g/kg energy-corrected milk (ECM)) or high amounts of concentrates (HC, 250 g/kg ECM) on dry matter (DM) basis, which were allocated from an automatic feeding system. Higher allocation of concentrates resulted in an increase of DM intake at expense of roughage intake. HC cows had a higher milk yield than MC cows, whereas ECM was higher in HR cows due to a decrease of milk fat yield in MR groups. Energy balance and body condition score were elevated in HC cows, but no differences occurred in development of subclinical ketosis. Furthermore, energy efficiency variables were lower in HC groups because the greater energy intake was not associated with a considerable elevation of milk yield. Consistency of faeces did not indicate digestive disorders in any of the treatment groups although the faecal manure score was significantly lower in HR groups. Our results underline the importance of a high energy uptake from roughage, which can contribute to an adequate performance and beneficial efficiency, especially at lower amounts of concentrates in ration. Feeding concentrates on an average amount of 9.4 kg/d compared to 6.4 kg/d on DM basis improved the energy balance in our trial, but without consequences for metabolic blood variables and general health of the cows.

  17. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  18. Whole extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes during early lactation: effect on the fatty acid composition of milk and cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Secchiari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In a long term supplementation trial (10 weeks, the effects of the inclusion of whole extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes on milk and cheese fatty acid composition were evaluated. Two groups of 24 Sarda ewes in early lactation were randomly assigned to control concentrate (800 g/d concentrate, C or whole extruded linseed concentrate (L, 700 g/d, with 30% of extruded linseed, Omega-Lin®. Results showed that, after 2 weeks on the L diet, the milk content of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, including rumenic acid (RA, vaccenic acid (VA and alfa-linolenic acid (ALA increased sharply compared to C group, reaching the highest levels after 7-8 weeks (3.06, 7.31 and 2.31 g/100 g milk fat for RA, VA and ALA, respectively. During the last 2 weeks of the experimental period, when pasture was included in the diet of both groups, the content of the above fatty acids slightly decreased in milk from L group, whereas in milk from C group increased. Nevertheless, the average content of these fatty acids in milk from L group remained significantly higher than that of milk from C group. Compared with the control, the L diet resulted in a significant reduction (-17% in the concentration of saturated fatty acid in milk. The fatty acid content of the cheese obtained from milk of the two groups reflected the milk fatty acid composition. The inclusion of extruded linseed in the diet of dairy ewes improved the nutraceutical properties of milk and cheese, but further researches are needed in order to better understand the relationship between basal diet and lipid supplementation in dairy ewes.

  19. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  20. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  1. A Successful Induction of Lactation in Surrogate Pregnancy with Metoclopramide and Review of Lactation Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Elahe Mirzaaga; Arezoo Arabipoor; Mitra Frotan; Marzieh Shiva

    2010-01-01

    In surrogate pregnancies genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding with their infants,either prenatally (in utero) or during the immediate postnatal period. Procedures commonlyused to induce lactation include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods, often incombination. Studies reporting induced lactation are sparse, due to the rarity of augmentedlactation. Here we report a case of lactation induction following a surrogate pregnancy. Othermethods that can be used to au...

  2. Lactate shuttles in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G A

    2002-04-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously under fully aerobic conditions. "Cell-cell" and "intracellular lactate shuttle" concepts describe the roles of lactate in the delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates, as well as in cell signalling. Examples of cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, between working skeletal muscle and heart, and between tissues of net lactate release and gluconeogenesis. Lactate exchange between astrocytes and neurons that is linked to glutamatergic signalling in the brain is an example of a lactate shuttle supporting cell-cell signalling. Lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate-lactate exchange in peroxisomes are examples of intracellular lactate shuttles. Lactate exchange between sites of production and removal is facilitated by monocarboxylate transport proteins, of which there are several isoforms, and, probably, also by scaffolding proteins. The mitochondrial lactate-pyruvate transporter appears to work in conjunction with mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase, which permits lactate to be oxidized within actively respiring cells. Hence mitochondria function to establish the concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities (e.g. cardiocytes) to take up and oxidize lactate. Arteriovenous difference measurements on working cardiac and skeletal muscle beds as well as NMR spectral analyses of these tissues show that lactate is formed and oxidized within the cells of formation in vivo. Glycolysis and lactate oxidation within cells permits high flux rates and the maintenance of redox balance in the cytosol and mitochondria. Other examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake and oxidation in sperm mitochondria and the facilitation of beta-oxidation in peroxisomes by pyruvate-lactate

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center Study Services Working With the TDN Tools and Resources ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Consortia CF Biomarker Consortium CFTR 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ...

  6. Security Clearance Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  9. A Successful Induction of Lactation in Surrogate Pregnancy with Metoclopramide and Review of Lactation Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Mirzaaga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In surrogate pregnancies genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding with their infants,either prenatally (in utero or during the immediate postnatal period. Procedures commonlyused to induce lactation include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods, often incombination. Studies reporting induced lactation are sparse, due to the rarity of augmentedlactation. Here we report a case of lactation induction following a surrogate pregnancy. Othermethods that can be used to augment lactation are described below. We used metoclopramide inthis case due to the success rates reported in previous studies and case reports. Additionally, itis a well tolerated and safe agent.

  10. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  11. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile and plasma lipid profile in early lactating dairy cows fed grape seed and grape marc meal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Denise K; Winkler, Anne; Koch, Christian; Dusel, Georg; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2017-03-23

    transition period at 1 week postpartum indicates that polyphenol-rich feed components are able to inhibit ER stress-induced UPR and inflammatory processes, both of which are considered to contribute to liver-associated diseases and to impair milk performance in dairy cows, in the liver of dairy cows during early lactation.

  12. Noninvasive determination of individual renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Brunois, J.P.; Ruiz, J.C.; Assailly, J.

    1980-01-01

    A noninvasive method for measurement of individual renal clearance is presented, based on analysis of the early rise of the kidneys' time-activity curves after injection of an appropriate tracer ( 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate for tubular function or 111 In DTPA for glomerular clearance). The analysis is based on the assumption that an insignificant amount of tracer leaves the kidney during the first few moments following injection. Therefore, the kidney activity during this period is directly proportional to the integral of the blood (heart) activity. After blood background subtraction, the linear correlation between the early part of the renogram and the corresponding blood integral activity curve allows calculation of an angular coefficient. The ratio of these coefficients calculated for each kidney is proportional to the ratio of the individual clearances. The latter are calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using a simplified method without urine collection. In control subjects with normal renal function individual renal clearances were not significantly different. In uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197 HgCl 2 quantitative renal fixation. A linear correlation was found (r = 0.95). The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation and allows sequential measurements. (orig.)

  13. Maternal protein restriction during lactation induces early and lasting plasma metabolomic and hepatic lipidomic signatures of the offspring in a rodent programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Agnoux, Aurore; El Ghaziri, Angélina; Moyon, Thomas; Pagniez, Anthony; David, Agnès; Simard, Gilles; Parnet, Patricia; Qannari, El Mostafa; Darmaun, Dominique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

    2018-05-01

    Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. However, the exact mechanisms underlying offspring metabolic adaptations are not yet fully understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the gestation or the lactation is the more vulnerable period to modify offspring metabolic flexibility. We investigated in a rodent model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) induced by maternal protein restriction (R) during gestation which time window of maternal undernutrition (gestation, lactation or gestation-lactation) has more impact on the male offspring metabolomics phenotype. Plasma metabolome and hepatic lipidome of offspring were characterized through suckling period and at adulthood using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate analysis of these fingerprints highlighted a persistent metabolomics signature in rats suckled by R dams, with a clear-cut discrimination from offspring fed by control (C) dams. Pups submitted to a nutritional switch at birth presented a metabolomics signature clearly distinct from that of pups nursed by dams maintained on a consistent perinatal diet. Control rats suckled by R dams presented transiently higher branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) oxidation during lactation besides increased fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation, associated with preserved insulin sensitivity and lesser fat accretion that persisted throughout their life. In contrast, IUGR rats displayed permanently impaired β-oxidation, associated to increased glucose or BCAA oxidation at adulthood, depending on the fact that pups experienced slow postnatal or catch-up growth, as suckled by R or C dams, respectively. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a significant contribution of the lactation period in metabolic programming. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism and hormonal regulation of lactation is explained and illustrated with a schematic representation. Circulating estrogen above a critical amount seems to be the inhibitory factor controlling lactation during pregnancy. Once delivery occurs, the level of estrogen falls, that of prolactin rises, and lactation begins. Nonsuckling can be used to inhibit lactation. Estrogens can also be used to inhibit lactation more quickly and with less pain. The reported association between estrogens and puerperal thromboembolism cannot be considered conclusive due to defects in the reporting studies. There is no reason not to use estrogens in lactation inhibition except for women over 35 who experienced a surgical delivery. Alternative therapy is available for these women. The recently-developed drug, brom-ergocryptine, may replace other methods of lactation inhibition.

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway ... on their own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

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    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments and Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

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    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments and Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer and ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

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    Full Text Available ... in CF Clinical Care Guidelines Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care Guidelines Chronic Medications to Maintain Lung ...

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    Full Text Available ... Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace Engagement DONATE YOUR PROPERTY eCards for a Cure About ... airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

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    Full Text Available ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center Study ...

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care ... attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another member of your CF care ...

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    Full Text Available ... people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

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    Full Text Available ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation Positive Expiratory Pressure Clinical Trials Clinical Trials ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

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  15. Early and late effects of fission-neutron or gamma irradiation on the clearance of bacteria from the lungs of B6CF1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.C.; Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    Enhanced susceptibility to experimental respiratory infection following chronic exposure to low-level gamma radiation has been reported, but no comparable information exists for neutron-irradiated animals. Such information is needed in view of the apparently greater additivity of repeated low fission-neutron doses. Consequently altered susceptibility to respiratory infection is being examined in the JANUS Neutron and Gamma-Ray Toxicity Program. Some B6CF 1 mice of various ages were challenged with Pasteurella pneumotropica either by intranasal instillation or by aerosol inhalation following single or fractionated doses of neutrons or 60 Co gamma radiation. Clearance of the bacteria from the lungs was assessed 4 days after challenge by a culture technique and by histological and immunofluorescence staining. From 5 to 21 days after a single dose of 288 neutron rads or 740 gamma rads, a ratio equal to the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell killing, there was little repair of the radiation-damaged clearance mechanism evident in neutron-irradiated mice; 85% were unable to clear the organism as long as 21 days after irradiation. Over the same period only 25% of gamma-irradiated mice failed to eliminate P. pneumotropica. Immunofluorescent-stained lung sections at all time intervals between 5 and 21 days were strikingly similar among neutron- and gamma-irradiated mice and unirradiated mice. Alveolar macrophages were swollen with fluorescent P. pneumotropica cells, and macrophages surrounding the bronchi and in the bronchial exudate were also intensely fluorescent. These data, coupled with the culture data, indicate that pulmonary macrophages in the irradiated host are capable of engulfing P. pneumotropica cells but that the ability to kill them is impaired

  16. Evaluation of an automated milk leukocyte differential test and the California Mastitis Test for detecting intramammary infection in early- and late-lactation quarters and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Royster, E; Timmerman, J; Rapnicki, P; Green, H

    2017-08-01

    Study objectives were to (1) describe the diagnostic test characteristics of an automated milk leukocyte differential (MLD) test and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) to identify intramammary infection (IMI) in early- (EL) and late-lactation (LL) quarters and cows when using 3 different approaches to define IMI from milk culture, and (2) describe the repeatability of MLD test results at both the quarter and cow level. Eighty-six EL and 90 LL Holstein cows were sampled from 3 Midwest herds. Quarter milk samples were collected for a cow-side CMT test, milk culture, and MLD testing. Quarter IMI status was defined by 3 methods: culture of a single milk sample, culture of duplicate samples with parallel interpretation, and culture of duplicate samples with serial interpretation. The MLD testing was completed in duplicate within 8 h of sample collection; MLD results (positive/negative) were reported at each possible threshold setting (1-18 for EL; 1-12 for LL) and CMT results (positive/negative) were reported at each possible cut-points (trace, ≥1, ≥2, or 3). We created 2 × 2 tables to compare MLD and CMT results to milk culture, at both the quarter and cow level, when using each of 3 different definitions of IMI as the referent test. Paired MLD test results were compared with evaluate repeatability. The MLD test showed excellent repeatability. The choice of definition of IMI from milk culture had minor effects on estimates of MLD and CMT test characteristics. For EL samples, when interpreting MLD and CMT results at the quarter level, and regardless of the referent test used, both tests had low sensitivity (MLD = 11.7-39.1%; CMT = 0-52.2%) but good to very good specificity (MLD = 82.1-95.2%; CMT = 68.1-100%), depending on the cut-point used. Sensitivity improved slightly if diagnosis was interpreted at the cow level (MLD = 25.6-56.4%; CMT = 0-72.2%), though specificity generally declined (MLD = 61.8-100%; CMT = 25.0-100%) depending on the cut-point used. For LL

  17. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  18. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maede Moosavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM, duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3 were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005. In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001. Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001. In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02 and winter (p = 0.03 in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities.

  19. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  20. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  1. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  2. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Miura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports NISA on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In reactor facilities, the bulk measurement technique or the statistical sampling measurement technique may be applied to large scale objects or concrete walls. In this study, the criteria of those techniques were examined. In uranium processing facilities, it is important to confirm surface state of the object in case of detecting alpha rays. The result of the examination about the influence of the surface rust in the uranium clearance measurement by the alpha ray measurement showed that the pollution was distributed in rust layer uniformly. This result will be reflected to the revision of the Ministerial Ordinance on Clearance in 2011FY. To develop a manual for unexpected incidents, the response procedure for an unexpected incident was prepared, including a response system. (author)

  3. The clinical utility of lung clearance index in early cystic fibrosis lung disease is not impacted by the number of multiple-breath washout trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Foong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The lung clearance index (LCI from the multiple-breath washout (MBW test is a promising surveillance tool for pre-school children with cystic fibrosis (CF. Current guidelines for MBW testing recommend that three acceptable trials are required. However, success rates to achieve these criteria are low in children aged <7 years and feasibility may improve with modified pre-school criteria that accepts tests with two acceptable trials. This study aimed to determine if relationships between LCI and clinical outcomes of CF lung disease differ when only two acceptable MBW trials are assessed. Healthy children and children with CF aged 3–6 years were recruited for MBW testing. Children with CF also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collection and a chest computed tomography scan. MBW feasibility increased from 46% to 75% when tests with two trials were deemed acceptable compared with tests where three acceptable trials were required. Relationships between MBW outcomes and markers of pulmonary inflammation, infection and structural lung disease were not different between tests with three acceptable trials compared with tests with two acceptable trials. This study indicates that pre-school MBW data from two acceptable trials may provide sufficient information on ventilation distribution if three acceptable trials are not possible.

  4. The clinical utility of lung clearance index in early cystic fibrosis lung disease is not impacted by the number of multiple-breath washout trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Rachel E.; Harper, Alana J.; King, Louise; Turkovic, Lidija; Davis, Miriam; Clem, Charles C.; Davis, Stephanie D.; Ranganathan, Sarath; Hall, Graham L.

    2018-01-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) from the multiple-breath washout (MBW) test is a promising surveillance tool for pre-school children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Current guidelines for MBW testing recommend that three acceptable trials are required. However, success rates to achieve these criteria are low in children aged tests with two acceptable trials. This study aimed to determine if relationships between LCI and clinical outcomes of CF lung disease differ when only two acceptable MBW trials are assessed. Healthy children and children with CF aged 3–6 years were recruited for MBW testing. Children with CF also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collection and a chest computed tomography scan. MBW feasibility increased from 46% to 75% when tests with two trials were deemed acceptable compared with tests where three acceptable trials were required. Relationships between MBW outcomes and markers of pulmonary inflammation, infection and structural lung disease were not different between tests with three acceptable trials compared with tests with two acceptable trials. This study indicates that pre-school MBW data from two acceptable trials may provide sufficient information on ventilation distribution if three acceptable trials are not possible.

  5. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  6. TNFα altered inflammatory responses, impaired health and productivity, but did not affect glucose or lipid metabolism in early-lactation dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα, affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control, 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P0.10 was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P0.10 by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P0.10 by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P=0.18 by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P=0.08. Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows.

  7. Effects of antibiotic dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant on milk somatic cell counts and clinical and subclinical mastitis in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Hodge, A; Lean, I J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an internal teat sealant (TS; Teatseal; Zoetis Australia, Silverwater, NSW, Australia), when used in combination with antibiotic dry-cow therapy (ADCT) administered at dry-off, on milk individual somatic cell count (ISCC), milk production and components, and the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows up to 60 d after calving, when compared with ADCT only. Multiparous Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein cross cows (n=2,200) from 8 farms in southern and eastern Australia were randomly assigned to treatment of all 4 quarters with ADCT alone or with ADCT plus TS (ADCT + TS) at dry-off in this randomized, multisite clinical trial. Individual milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and ISCC were measured at intervals of 14±3 d after calving for the first 60 d of lactation. The first measurement occurred between 10 and 24 d after calving. Clinical mastitis and health events were recorded from dry-off to 60 d of lactation. Milk samples were collected from first cases of clinical mastitis and subjected to bacteriology. Treatment and the interaction of treatment by time did not affect milk yield, ISCC weighted by milk yield, or fat and protein percentages. Treatment with ADCT + TS decreased geometric mean ISCC compared with treatment with ADCT alone over the first 60 d of lactation. Geometric mean ISCC (×10(3) cells/mL) was 32.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8 to 38.3] and 43.5 (95% CI: 36.2 to 52.1) for ADCT + TS and ADCT alone, respectively. The odds of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis (ISCC ≥250,000 cells/mL) were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.6) with ADCT alone in the first 60 d of lactation compared with ADCT + TS. Use of ADCT + TS reduced the estimated incidence of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis on all 8 farms, compared with use of ADCT alone. Only 4 cows that calved 40 to 100 d after dry-off had a first case of clinical mastitis in the dry period. Five percent of

  8. Responses of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous insulin tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was investigated. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a pasture-based system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. Four 5-wk experimental periods commenced at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 d in milk (DIM). Cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of grain (control; CON) or 6 kg DM of grain (GRN). Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for CON and GRN, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. An ITT using 0.12 IU of insulin/kg of body weight (BW) was conducted on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk solids yield, and BW than cows in the CON treatment. Within treatment, individual cow responses to the ITT were highly variable. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations declined at all stages of lactation. The clearance rate of plasma glucose was slower before 300 DIM than after 300 DIM, which indicates greater inhibition of hepatic glucose synthesis and uptake of glucose by insulin-dependent tissues later in the lactation. The clearance rate, area under the curve, and recovery of plasma NEFA were greatest at 100 DIM, indicating greater responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in early lactation, but also greater lipolytic responsiveness. The variation in response to the ITT was mostly a result of DIM rather than diet. However, the plasma NEFA response showed interactions between diet and DIM, indicating that energy intake

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. ... Instagram Email Find a Clinical Trial Help us blaze ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage ...

  11. Study on clearance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports Nuclear Regulatory Agency on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In uranium processing facilities, simulation sources emitting alpha-rays is used in a validity confirmation examination of the measuring equipment. In this study, these sources were examined by measuring alpha and beta spectra to evaluate the applicability and problem of these sources. In addition, the measuring method detecting gamma-rays was examined. This method can be applied to complicated objects. As a part to develop a manual for unexpected incidents in clearance system, a quick method for measurement of Strontium 90 was examined. In addition, the measuring methods for the judgment of the influence of fallout and for NR (Non-Radioactive) confirmation were examined. (author)

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cystic fibrosis. CF CARE CENTER finder We provide funding for and accredit more than 120 care centers ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist ...

  14. TNFα Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P0.10) was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (Pinsulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P = 0.18) by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P = 0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24260367

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L.

    2006-01-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  16. Isotope determinations of renal clearance equivalent with physiological clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junges, R.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of renal clearance in nuclear medicine describes the tubular secretion and glomerular filtration of a substance being removed from the blood plasma. The concept of clearance as used physiologically is rather wider and includes consideration of the outflow of the substances remained back in the kidneys. The present paper discusses clearance measurements as seen from a thermodynamic point of view, in which isotope clearances become equivalent with the physiological concept of clearance. In addition, it is possible to quantify each single step of the excretory function of each kidney separately. (orig.) [de

  17. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception

  18. Lactational Infertility- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Prema

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies undertaken by the National Institute of Nutrition during the last 10 years indicate that prolonged breast-feeding is still the rule among rural and urban low income group population in Hyderabad. Lactation induced hyperprolactinaemia prolongs postpartum amenorrhea and inter pregnancy interval by about 6 months. Duration of lactational amenorrhea infants results in a fall of plasma prolactin levels and rapid return of menstruation and fertility. Lactational amenorrhea lasts longer in undernourished women with low body weight and low fat fold rural women, duration of lactational amenorrhea is longer as compared to urban women. This might be partly attributable to the delay in introduction of supplements to the rural infants and partly to the lower body weight and fat fold thickness of rural women.

  19. Importance of measuring lactate levels in children with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Nisha

    2017-10-10

    Sepsis is a major public health problem as well as one of the leading causes of preventable death in children because of failure to recognise the early signs and symptoms and to resuscitate rapidly. Blood lactate levels are used to assess the severity of sepsis and the effectiveness of resuscitation. Lactate levels are easily obtainable and should be checked in all patients admitted with suspected sepsis within six hours of presentation. The test should be repeated four and eight-hours post-diagnosis of sepsis. For the diagnosis of sepsis, patients' clinical symptoms, along with the combined analysis of partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide and lactate levels, should be used. A multitude of factors can cause elevated lactate levels and so clinicians should use elevated levels cautiously by considering all other aetiologies. This article, which focuses on practice in Australia but makes reference to the UK, discusses the importance of measuring lactate levels in sepsis, the pathophysiology of lactate production, causes of elevated lactate levels, lactate measurement, nursing management of patients with elevated lactate levels, limitations of using lactate as a biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and implications for practice. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  20. CSF LACTATE IN MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjampakuthikal Aboobekar Haris

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningitis is an infection within the subarachnoid space characterised by a CNS inflammatory reaction. It is a serious condition requiring immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to be started at the earliest to prevent mortality as well as irreversible neurological deficits. CSF lactate has been found useful in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in many studies in the western population, but studies in Indian population are limited. The aim of the study is to study whether CSF lactate can be used to distinguish bacterial from viral meningitis and to study the levels of CSF lactate in tuberculosis meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. In this study, 78 cases of meningitis were selected. Cases are patients with bacterial, viral or tuberculosis meningitis admitted to the hospital under the Department of Medicine and Neurology. Cases are grouped into bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis based on clinical picture, CSF analysis and imaging characteristics. CSF lactate estimation was done by dry chemistry method. Using appropriate statistical methods and SPSS software, CSF lactate levels were compared among these groups and analysed for any association with the final outcome. RESULTS The levels of CSF lactate in bacterial meningitis were higher than viral meningitis with a statistical significance of p 35 mg/dL for bacterial meningitis in this study was 95% and 100% respectively and the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96%. The mean CSF lactate values in bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis were 124.40 ± 35.85 mg/dL, 24.34 ± 6.05 mg/dL and 50.13 ± 9.89 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION CSF lactate level was significantly elevated in bacterial meningitis than tuberculosis or viral meningitis and can be used as a marker for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  1. Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2014-07-18

    Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Clearance of labelled creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstadt, P.; Liverant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Creatinine, extensively used in clinical work to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) has caused controversy. Using simultaneously on dogs a gamma emitting agent measuring G.F.R., creatinine clearance proved to be higher. Aided by quantitative determinations and compartmental analysis fortunately the respective dilution spaces can be calculated. In the majority of these animals creatinine spaces are larger but in some equal to the ones of inulin

  3. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  4. The Technical and Financial Effects of Parenteral Supplementation with Selenium and Vitamin E during Late Pregnancy and the Early Lactation Period on the Productivity of Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bayril

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of parenteral selenium (Se and vitamin E supplementation on economic impact, milk yield, and some reproductive parameters in high-yield dairy cows in the dry period and in those at the beginning of lactation. At the beginning of the dry period, cows (n = 323 were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Treatment 1 (T1, Treatment 2 (T2, and Control (C. Cows in group T1 received this preparation 21 days before calving and on calving day, and cows in group T2 received it only on calving day. The cows in the control group did not receive this preparation. Supplementation with Se increased Se serum levels of cows treated at calving day (p<0.05. Differences in milk yield at all weeks and the electrical conductivity values at the 8th and 12th weeks were significant (p<0.05. Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E decreased the incidence of metritis, the number of services per conception and the service period, but had no effects on the incidence of retained fetal membrane. A partial budgeting analysis indicated that Se supplementation was economically profitable; cows in group T1 averaged 240.6$ per cow, those in group T2 averaged 224.6$ per cow. Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E has been found to increase serum Se levels, milk yield, and has positive effects on udder health by decreasing milk conductivity values and incidence of sub-clinical mastitis.

  5. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (Pprotein dams (1.31 vs 0.89, 0.85; confidence interval, 0.78-1.04). Similarly, maternal fructose (P=.09) and low-protein (Pprotein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  7. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U- 14 C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production

  8. Early clearance of peripheral blasts measured by flow cytometry during the first week of AML induction therapy as a new independent prognostic factor: a GOELAMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, F; Arnoulet, C; Maynadié, M; Lippert, E; Luquet, I; Pigneux, A; Vey, N; Casasnovas, O; Witz, F; Béné, M C

    2009-02-01

    An early appreciation of treatment efficacy could be very useful in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), and a prognostic value has been suggested for the morphological assessment of decrease in blasts during induction therapy. More sensitive, multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) can detect far lower blast counts, allowing for a precise and reliable calculation of blast cell decrease rate (BDR). Such a multiparametric FCM four-colours/single-tube protocol, combining CD11b, CD45-ECD and CD16-PC5, was applied to peripheral blood samples from 130 AML patients, collected daily during induction chemotherapy. Normalized blast cell percentages were used to calculate the relevant decrease slopes. Slope thresholds (-15), or the time required to reach 90% depletion of the peripheral blast load (5 days), was strongly associated with the achievement of complete remission (P<0.0001). Log-rank test and Cox model showed that they also carried high statistical significance (P<0.0001) for disease-free survival. The prognostic value of cytogenetic features, confirmed in this series, was refined by BDR, which allowed to discriminate between good- and poor-risk patients among those with intermediate or normal karyotypes. This simple FCM protocol allows for an accurate prognostic sequential approach adapted to the determination of decrease in peripheral blast cells during induction chemotherapy.

  9. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A.

    2015-01-01

    protein percentages. Conclusions The results suggested that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms. PMID:26422371

  10. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  11. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ.

  12. Lactate Parameters Predict Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Min, Yang Won; Bae, Joohwan; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2017-11-01

    The predictive role of lactate in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) has been suggested. This study evaluated several lactate parameters in terms of predicting outcomes of bleeding patients and sought to establish a new scoring model by combining lactate parameters and the AIMS65 score. A total of 114 patients with NVUGIB who underwent serum lactate level testing at least twice and endoscopic hemostasis within 24 hours after admission were retrospectively analyzed. The associations between five lactate parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated and the predictive power of lactate parameter combined AIMS65s (L-AIMS65s) and AIMS56 scoring was compared. The most common cause of bleeding was gastric ulcer (48.2%). Lactate clearance rate (LCR) was associated with 30-day rebleeding (odds ratio [OR], 0.931; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.872-0.994; P = 0.033). Initial lactate (OR, 1.313; 95% CI, 1.050-1.643; P = 0.017), maximal lactate (OR, 1.277; 95% CI, 1.037-1.573; P = 0.021), and average lactate (OR, 1.535; 95% CI, 1.137-2.072; P = 0.005) levels were associated with 30-day mortality. Initial lactate (OR, 1.213; 95% CI, 1.027-1.432; P = 0.023), maximal lactate (OR, 1.271; 95% CI, 1.074-1.504; P = 0.005), and average lactate (OR, 1.501; 95% CI, 1.150-1.959; P = 0.003) levels were associated with admission over 7 days. Although L-AIMS65s showed the highest area under the curve for prediction of each outcome, differences between L-AIMS65s and AIMS65 did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, lactate parameters have a prognostic role in patients with NVUGIB. However, they do not increase the predictive power of AIMS65 when combined. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  13. Opening up of plasmalemma type-1 VDAC to form apoptotic "find me signal" pathways is essential in early apoptosis - evidence from the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis resulting from failure of apoptotic cell clearance followed by sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnes, Friedrich P

    2014-04-01

    Cell membrane-standing type-1 VDAC is involved in cell volume regulation and thus apoptosis. The channel has been shown to figure as a pathway for osmolytes of varying classes, ATP included. An early event in apoptotic cell death is the release of "find me signals" by cells that enter the apoptotic process. ATP is one of those signals. Apoptotic cells this way attract phagocytes for an immunologically silent cell clearance. Thus, whenever apoptosis fails by a blockade of plasmalemma type-1 VDAC processes of sterile inflammation must be assumed for cell elimination. This is evident from a close look on the pathogenetic process of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, in normal airway epithelia two different anion channels cooperate to guarantee an appropriate volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) necessary for surface clearing: the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR) and the outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC) complex also called "alternate chloride channel" and under the control of the CFTR. There are arguments, that type-1 VDAC forms the channel part of the ORCC complex, and it has been shown that CFTR and type-1 VDAC co-localize in the apical membranes of human surface respiratory epithelium. In cystic fibrosis, the central cAMP-dependent regulation of ion and water transport via functional CFTR is lost. Here, CFTR molecules do not reach the apical membranes of airway epithelia anymore or work in an insufficient way, respectively. In addition, type-1 VDAC is no longer available to work as a "find me signal" pathway. In consequence, clearing away of apoptotic cells is blocked. There are experimental data on the channel characteristics of type-1 VDAC under the anion channel blocker DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyanato-stilbenedisulphonic acid) that argue in favor of this hypothesis. Together, type-1 VDAC should be kept as a "find me signal" pathway, which may give way to several classes of such signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  15. Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4ºC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity.

  16. Arterial versus venous lactate: a measure of sepsis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Sahan Asela; Gibbons, Berwyck; Gour, Anami; Sedgwick, Philip

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the agreement between arterial and venous blood lactate and pH levels in children with sepsis. This retrospective, three-year study involved 60 PICU patients, with data collected from electronic or paper patient records. The inclusion criteria comprised of children (≤17 years old) with sepsis and those who had a venous blood gas taken first with an arterial blood gas taken after within one hour. The lactate and pH values measured through each method were analysed. There is close agreement between venous and arterial lactate up to 2 mmol/L. As this value increases, this agreement becomes poor. The limits of agreement (LOA) are too large (±1.90 mmol/L) to allow venous and arterial lactate to be used interchangeably. The mean difference and LOA between both methods would be much smaller if derived using lactate values under 2.0 mmol/L. There is close agreement between arterial and venous pH (MD = -0.056, LOA ± 0.121). However, due to extreme variations in pH readings during sepsis, pH alone is an inadequate marker. A venous lactate ≤2 mmol/L can be used as a surrogate for arterial lactate during early management of sepsis in children. However, if the value exceeds 2 mmol/L, an arterial sample must confirm the venous result. What is known: • In children with septic shock, a blood gas is an important test to show the presence of acidosis and high lactic acid. Hyperlactataemia on admission is an early predictor of outcome and is associated with a greater mortality risk. • An arterial sample is the standard for lactate measurement, however getting a sample may be challenging in the emergency department or a general paediatric ward. Venous samples are quicker and easier to obtain. Adult studies generally advise caution in replacing venous lactate values for the arterial standard, whilst paediatric studies are limited in this area. What is new: • This is the first study assessing the agreement between arterial and peripheral venous

  17. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    -IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels......, indicating an intact glucose-alanine cycle, or [13C]bicarbonate, indicating normal flux through the Krebs cycle. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that diabetes-induced pseudohypoxia, as indicated by an increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, is significantly attenuated by antioxidant treatment......The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying...

  18. Condição corporal e desempenho produtivo de cabras Alpinas no início de lactação Body condition and productive performance of Alpine goat in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires Barbosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da condição corporal ao parto sobre os parâmetros produtivos de cabras Alpinas no início da lactação. Sessenta e oito cabras foram distribuídas em três grupos, de acordo com o escore de condição corporal (baixo, entre 1,00 e 2,75; intermediário, entre 2,75 e 3,50; e alto, entre 3,50 e 5,00 e avaliadas do parto até a oitava semana de lactação. Realizaram-se o controle diário do consumo alimentar e da produção leiteira e avaliações semanais de peso corporal, escore da condição corporal e composição do leite. Os animais com escore corporal alto apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro e proteína bruta em comparação àqueles com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. O período médio de recuperação do consumo de matéria seca dos animais das três condições corporais foi de 16 dias (2,3 semanas do pós-parto, com estabilização até o final do experimento. Na sexta semana de lactação, o peso corporal dos animais com escore corporal baixo se igualou ao daqueles com escore corporal intermediário. Não houve efeito da condição corporal ao parto nas variações de ECC e da produção leiteira ao longo do período. O teor de gordura do leite dos animais com escore corporal alto foi menor nas duas primeiras semanas pós-parto em comparação ao dos animais com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. Elevada condição corporal ao parto influencia negativamente o consumo voluntário de cabras leiteiras no início da lactação, mas quando se utiliza dieta de alta qualidade e com altos níveis de energia, a influência da condição corporal ao parto inexiste para variações de peso, de escore da condição corporal e produção leiteira dos animais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition at birth on Alpine goat productive parameters in early lactation. Sixty-eight females were assigned to three groups according to

  19. Lactation transcriptomics in the Australian marsupial, Macropus eugenii: transcript sequencing and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley Jane C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactation is an important aspect of mammalian biology and, amongst mammals, marsupials show one of the most complex lactation cycles. Marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii give birth to a relatively immature newborn and progressive changes in milk composition and milk production regulate early stage development of the young. Results In order to investigate gene expression in the marsupial mammary gland during lactation, a comprehensive set of cDNA libraries was derived from lactating tissues throughout the lactation cycle of the tammar wallaby. A total of 14,837 express sequence tags were produced by cDNA sequencing. Sequence analysis and sequence assembly were used to construct a comprehensive catalogue of mammary transcripts. Sequence data from pregnant and early or late lactating specific cDNA libraries and, data from early or late lactation massively parallel sequencing strategies were combined to analyse the variation of milk protein gene expression during the lactation cycle. Conclusion Results show a steady increase in expression of genes coding for secreted protein during the lactation cycle that is associated with high proportion of transcripts coding for milk proteins. In addition, genes involved in immune function, translation and energy or anabolic metabolism are expressed across the lactation cycle. A number of potential new milk proteins or mammary gland remodelling markers, including noncoding RNAs have been identified.

  20. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated...... and 25 stable CF patients via spectrophotometry and gaschromatography. Lung function was assessed via spirometry. Seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and three patients with acute lung inflammation served as control groups. Neutrophil and bacterial lactate production...

  1. Lactate in Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, R. [UNESP; Rodello, L. [UNESP; Abibe, R. B. [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the mo...

  2. Lactate in bitches with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Experience and lessons learnt from clearance in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Clearance is an important corner-stone of waste management in nuclear installations in Germany. It has been practised successfully for around two decades. The importance of clearance can also be judged from the fact that it has been included detailedly in the new German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Currently, there are 19 NPPs and a number of fuel cycle installations in operation in Germany. The main waste quantities, however, arise from the dismantling of NPPs and fuel cycle installations which are currently in decommissioning. As most of the decommissioning projects are targeted for early dismantling instead of safe enclosure, there is already considerable experience with the application of clearance procedures and verification of clearance levels. The German waste management strategy is governed by two options: Clearance of the material (after decontamination and release measurement). After clearance, the material is no longer regarded as radioactive in a legal sense. Final disposal of the material as radioactive waste in a deep geological repository (no near-surface disposal facilities exist or are planned in Germany). A deep geological repository is planned to be operable around 2030. Stefan Thierfeldt described German clearance requirements and lessons learned from their application to decommissioning of power reactors. The great majority of the waste was in fact recycled, although the costs were dominated by the small fraction that had to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Among the lessons learned from the German experience were some revealing insights into the public perception of both clearance and of recycling of material from decommissioning of a nuclear installation

  4. Safety assessment of lactate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or

  5. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  6. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.

  7. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  8. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  9. Azathioprine treatment during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.A.; Dahlerup, J.F.; Nielsen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thiopurines are widely used to maintain remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment during pregnancy is generally recommended to improve the chance of a normal birth outcome, but advice concerning breastfeeding is conflicting. Aim To estimate the exposure of breastfed infants...... to 6-mercaptopurine, as a metabolite of azathioprine, from maternal milk. METHODS: Eight lactating women with inflammatory bowel disease receiving maintenance therapy with azathioprine 75-200 mg daily were studied. Milk and plasma samples were obtained 30 and 60 min after drug administration and hourly...... for the following 5 h. RESULTS: The variation in the bioavailability of the drug was reflected in a wide range of peak plasma values of 6-mercaptopurine within the first 3 h. A similar curve, but with an hour's delay and at significantly lower concentrations varying from 2-50 microg/L, was seen in maternal milk...

  10. Bisphenol S Alters the Lactating Mammary Gland and Nursing Behaviors in Mice Exposed During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Charlotte D; Catanese, Mary C; Bansal, Ruby; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-10-01

    High doses of estrogenic pharmaceuticals were once prescribed to women to halt lactation. Yet, the effects of low-level xenoestrogens on lactation remain poorly studied. We investigated the effects of bisphenol S (BPS), an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, on the lactating mammary gland; the arcuate nucleus, a region of the hypothalamus important for neuroendocrine control of lactational behaviors; and nursing behavior in CD-1 mice. Female mice were exposed to vehicle, 2 or 200 µg BPS/kg/d from pregnancy day 9 until lactational day (LD) 20, and tissues were collected on LD21. Tissues were also collected from a second group at LD2. BPS exposure significantly reduced the fraction of the mammary gland comprised of lobules, the milk-producing units, on LD21, but not LD2. BPS also altered expression of Esr1 and ERα in the mammary gland at LD21, consistent with early involution. In the arcuate nucleus, no changes were observed in expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, a marker of prolactin signaling, or ERα, suggesting that BPS may act directly on the mammary gland. However, observations of nursing behavior collected during the lactational period revealed stage-specific effects on both pup and maternal nursing behaviors; BPS-treated dams spent significantly more time nursing later in the lactational period, and BPS-treated pups were less likely to initiate nursing. Pup growth and development were also stunted. These data indicate that low doses of BPS can alter lactational behaviors and the maternal mammary gland. Together, they support the hypothesis that pregnancy and lactation are sensitive to low-dose xenoestrogen exposures. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance and endogenous creatinine clearance in advanced renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, U.G.; Munck, O.; Czartoryski, A.; Stafanger, G.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance corrected for extrarenal elimination with 24 h endogenous creatinine clearance in patients with advanced renal failure showed that the corrected [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance was lower than creatinine clearance, and thus might be a better approximation to the glomerular filtration rate in uraemic patients. The corrections cannot be used on [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance values below the mean extrarenal clearance, averaging 3.7 ml/min. (Auth.)

  12. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  13. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  14. Endogenous Nutritive Support after Traumatic Brain Injury: Peripheral Lactate Production for Glucose Supply via Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Thomas C; Martin, Neil A; McArthur, David L; Hovda, David A; Vespa, Paul; Johnson, Matthew L; Horning, Michael A; Brooks, George A

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that nutritive needs of injured brains are supported by large and coordinated increases in lactate shuttling throughout the body. To that end, we used dual isotope tracer ([6,6-(2)H2]glucose, i.e., D2-glucose, and [3-(13)C]lactate) techniques involving central venous tracer infusion along with cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who had nonpenetrating head injuries (n=12, all male) were entered into the study after consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from healthy controls (n=6, including one female). As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) for glucose was suppressed after TBI. Near normal arterial glucose and lactate levels in patients studied 5.7±2.2 days (range of days 2-10) post-injury, however, belied a 71% increase in systemic lactate production, compared with control, that was largely cleared by greater (hepatic+renal) glucose production. After TBI, gluconeogenesis from lactate clearance accounted for 67.1% of glucose rate of appearance (Ra), which was compared with 15.2% in healthy controls. We conclude that elevations in blood glucose concentration after TBI result from a massive mobilization of lactate from corporeal glycogen reserves. This previously unrecognized mobilization of lactate subserves hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis. As such, a lactate shuttle mechanism indirectly makes substrate available for the body and its essential organs, including the brain, after trauma. In addition, when elevations in arterial lactate concentration occur after TBI, lactate shuttling may provide substrate directly to vital organs of the body, including the injured brain.

  15. Scan Manifestations and Blood Clearance Rates in Typhoid Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kim, Soon Hi

    1970-01-01

    Fourteen patients with typhoid fever studied by scanning and clearance-rate measurements of subcritical dose colloidal radiogold ( 198 Au). Mild to moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in 78.6 and 64.3 percent of patients, respectively; and splenic and spinal bone-marrow uptake was seen in 78.6 and 57.1 percent of cases, respectively. Typically, these scan changes occurred concomitantly (57.1%) and are considered to represent increased phagocytic activity of the RE cells which is characteristic of typhoid fever. The half clearance-time was significantly shortened during the first 10-day period of the illness indicating an increase in the hepatic blood in the early phase of typhoid infection. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and extrahepatic uptakes along with an accelerated (or less a normal) clearance time are characteristic of typhoid fever.

  16. Scan Manifestations and Blood Clearance Rates in Typhoid Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kim, Soon Hi [St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-09-15

    Fourteen patients with typhoid fever studied by scanning and clearance-rate measurements of subcritical dose colloidal radiogold ({sup 198}Au). Mild to moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in 78.6 and 64.3 percent of patients, respectively; and splenic and spinal bone-marrow uptake was seen in 78.6 and 57.1 percent of cases, respectively. Typically, these scan changes occurred concomitantly (57.1%) and are considered to represent increased phagocytic activity of the RE cells which is characteristic of typhoid fever. The half clearance-time was significantly shortened during the first 10-day period of the illness indicating an increase in the hepatic blood in the early phase of typhoid infection. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and extrahepatic uptakes along with an accelerated (or less a normal) clearance time are characteristic of typhoid fever.

  17. Influence of udder stimulation, stage of lactation and parity on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of udder stimulation, stage of lactation and parity on milk yield in West African Dwarf goats. ... Left teat of the does produced significantly (P<0.05) more milk than the right teat. Therefore, it is recommended that goats udder in higher parity be stimulated prior to milking at early stage of lactation for higher milk ...

  18. Haematological and blood biochemical profile in lactating buffaloes in and around Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Hagawane

    Full Text Available Forty buffaloes in early, mid and late lactation with a drop in a milk production were screened for haematological and blood biochemical profile. In early stage of lactation haemoglobin concentration showed lowered trend as compared to recorded means in other groups of lactating buffaloes.  The mean value of TLC in dry pregnant group of buffaloes was 10.05± 0.89 X 103 /cmm showed slightly higher trend than the normal healthy control group. The blood glucose was significantly higher in dry buffaloes (52.72±4.22 mg/dl than the early and late lactating buffaloes (48.23±3.44 mg/dl. During early stage of lactation the serum total protein values (8.36±0.47 g/dl was slightly elevated than the normal healthy control (8.00±0.57 g/dl. The urea nitrogen values differ significantly (P<0.05 amongst different groups of lactating buffaloes. The descending trend in the serum cholesterol concentration in dry pregnant buffaloes compared to lactating buffaloes was observed. There was drop in calcium level during early stage of lactation (8.19±0.83 mg/dl than the normal healthy buffaloes (11.21±0.19 mg/dl. As the stage of lactation progresses the serum calcium level increased. Serum magnesium concentration in various groups of buffaloes did not differ significantly. Early lactation showed highest susceptibility for ketosis and hypocalcaemia. The metabolic disorder associated with hypophosphatemia was significantly high in dry (advance pregnant buffaloes. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 467-469

  19. Relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nakai, K.; Itoh, C.; Horikiri, J.; Sera, K.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon levels in dialysis patients are markedly increasing. Using PIXE we determined the relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance in 30 samples. Urine silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.001). And also serum silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). (author)

  20. Comparison of the endogenous creatinine clearance, the creatinin clearance calculated without urine collection and the isotope clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohacsi, Gabor; Lang, Jenoe; Csernay, Laszlo; Sonkodi, Sandor; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported relating to the endogenous creatinine clearance, the Tc-99m-EDTA-complex clearance and the creatinine clearance estimated via a selected mathematical formula, with special regard to the problems of renal insufficiency and the nephrotic syndrome. The activity applied was in the range of 3.7-7.4 MBq. It was observed that measurement of the isotope clearance can also be applied to determine the endogeneous creatinine clearance in otherwise less suitable patients. A reliable result is obtained even if the renal function is restricted, but the accuracy of the method may be reduced in nephrotic syndrome cases. (author) 24 refs

  1. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  2. Accuracy of Handheld Point-of-Care Fingertip Lactate Measurement in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaieski, David G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early recognition of elevated lactate levels in sepsis may hasten the detection of those patients eligible for aggressive resuscitation. Point-of-care (POC testing is now increasingly available for use in the emergency department (ED. We examined the accuracy and time-saving effect of a handheld POC device for the measurement of fingertip and whole blood lactate as compared with reference laboratory testing in critically ill ED patients.Methods: A convenience sample of adult ED patients receiving serum lactate testing was prospectively enrolled at an urban, tertiary care US hospital. Consenting patients underwent fingertip POC lactate measurement with a portable device and simultaneous whole blood sampling for analysis by both the POC device and standard laboratory analyzer (‘‘reference method’’. Lactate measurements were compared by intraclass correlation (ICC and Bland and Altman plots. Differences in time to test result were compared by paired t test.Results: Twenty-four patients, 19 (79% with sepsis and 21 (88% with lactate levels below 4 mmol/L, were included from April 2005 to May 2005. Fingertip POC and whole blood POC lactate measurements each correlated tightly with the reference method (ICC ¼ 0.90 and ICC ¼ 0.92, respectively. Mean time between obtaining fingertip lactate samples and whole blood reference lactate samples was 8 6 13 minutes. Mean time between obtaining POC and reference laboratory lactate results was 65 minutes (95% confidence interval, 30–103.Conclusion: Fingertip POC lactate measurement is an accurate method to determine lactate levels in infected ED patients with normal or modestly elevated lactate values and significantly decreases time to test results. These findings should be verified in a larger, more critically ill, ED population. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(1:58-62.

  3. Desempenho de vacas Jersey suplementadas com diferentes fontes lipídicas na fase inicial da lactação Performance of early lactating Jersey cows supplemented with different lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laerte Nörnberg

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de três fontes lipídicas (6% de EE total em dietas com teores semelhantes de proteína, fibra e lipídios sobre o consumo voluntário, a produção de leite e a eficiência alimentar de vacas Jersey na fase inicial da lactação. Foram utilizadas oito vacas multíparas em estágio próximo ao pico de lactação, com 420 kg de PV e produção média de 20 kg de leite (corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, estabuladas em baias individuais. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4 com períodos de 28 dias, conforme descritos a seguir: CON - dieta controle, sem inclusão de lipídios; GPC - dieta com gordura protegida comercial (sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos de óleo de palma; FAIO - dieta com farelo de arroz integral e óleo de arroz; FAIS - dieta com farelo de arroz integral e sebo bovino. Utilizaram-se concentrados à base de grãos de milho moídos e farelo de soja e, como volumosos, silagem de milho e feno de alfafa (1:1, na MS. Os concentrados foram fornecidos três vezes ao dia, separadamente dos volumosos. Os volumosos foram fornecidos à vontade, procurando-se manter a proporção de 55% em relação ao concentrado. A interpretação estatística foi feita por meio de análise de variância dos valores médios de cada tratamento aplicando-se o teste F. Os resultados comprovaram que as fontes lipídicas estudadas não afetam o consumo voluntário de MS e proporcionam maior produção de leite, de modo que a fonte de sais cálcicos de ácidos graxos de óleo de palma promoveu, também, maior produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura e melhorou a eficiência alimentar.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of supplementing diets with similar protein, fiber and lipid contents with different lipid sources on dry matter intake, milk yield and feed efficiency of early lactating Jersey cows. Eight multiparous cows averaging

  4. Quantitative studies of skeletal muscle lactate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliassotti, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In Situ, single-pass perfusions were employed on three isolated rabbit skeletal muscle preparations of differing fiber type and oxidative capacity to investigate the influence of fiber type and oxidative capacity per se on net carbon, 14 C-lactate, and 3 H-glucose fluxes. Preparations were exposed to six lactate concentrations ranging from 1-11mM. At basal lactate concentrations all preparations displayed net lactate release, 14 C-lactate removal and 14 CO 2 release, all were linearly correlated with lactate concentration. By 4mM all preparations switched to net lactate uptake and 14 C-lactate removal always exceeded net lactate uptake. To quantify the fate of net carbon, 14 C-lactate, and 3 H-glucose removal preparations were perfused at either basal or elevated lactate. Under basal conditions net carbon influx from glucose and glycogen was removed primarily via net lactate release in the glycolytic and mixed preparations and oxidation and net lactate release in the oxidative preparation. At elevated lactate, net carbon influx from lactate, pyruvate and glucose was removed primarily by net glycogen synthesis in the glycolytic preparation and both alanine release and oxidation in the mixed and oxidative preparations

  5. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R

    2016-07-01

    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamadoد

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of masti...

  7. A Review of Worksite Lactation Accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Elizabeth Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine workplace lactation accommodations, and their association with breastfeeding duration, and identify strategies occupational health professionals can use to promote lactation improvements. This study included literature published from 1985 through 2015 and listed in PubMed and CINAHL. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), 11 articles were identified for review. Presence of a corporate lactation program, on-site child care, and return to work/telephone lactation consultation were consistently associated with breastfeeding at 6 months. Other breastfeeding accommodations (i.e., lactation spaces, lactation breaks, worksite lactation policies, and supervisor/coworker support) were not consistently associated with breastfeeding duration. Occupational health professionals can play key roles in improving the effectiveness of lactation accommodations. Assuring adequate implementation of accommodations, increasing communication and marketing of accommodations, and promoting supervisor and coworker support are areas that occupational health professionals should explore for improving lactation duration.

  8. Development of the clearance level verification evaluation system. 2. Construction of the clearance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Clearance is defined as the removal of radioactive materials or radioactive objects within authorized practices from any further regulatory control by the regulatory body. In Japan, clearance level and a procedure for its verification has been introduced under the Laws and Regulations, and solid clearance wastes inspected by the national authority can be handled and recycled as normal wastes. The most prevalent type of wastes have generated from the dismantling of nuclear facilities, so the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the Clearance Level Verification Evaluation System (CLEVES) as a convenient tool. The Clearance Data Management System (CDMS), which is a part of CLEVES, has been developed to support measurement, evaluation, making and recording documents with clearance level verification. In addition, validation of the evaluation result of the CDMS was carried out by inputting the data of actual clearance activities in the JAEA. Clearance level verification is easily applied by using the CDMS for the clearance activities. (author)

  9. Delayed clearance of triglyceride‐rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, R.; Lekahl, S.; Moen, O. S.; Florholmen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age‐ and sex‐matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA‐IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. PMID:26469529

  10. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Consequences of supplying methyl donors during pregnancy on the methylome of the offspring from lactating and non-lactating dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bach

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of methyl donor supplementation of pregnant animals in the presence or absence of a concomitant lactation on the methylome of the offspring. Twenty Holstein cows, 10 nulliparous (non-lactating while pregnant and 10 multiparous (lactating while pregnant were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to an i.m. weekly injections of a placebo (CTRL or a solution containing methyl donors (MET. After calving, 5 calves randomly selected from each treatment (two born to non-lactating and three to lactating dams were blood-sampled to determine their full methylome. There were more than 2,000 CpG differentially methylated between calves born to CTRL and those born to MET, and also between calves born to lactating and non-lactating dams. Most of the differences affected genes involved in immune function, cell growth regulation and differentiation, kinase activity, and ion channeling. We conclude that the coexistence of pregnancy and lactation affects the methylome of the offspring, and that supplementation of methyl donors early in gestation has also consequences on the methylome.

  12. Estimating the Lactation Curve on a.m./p.m. Milkings in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was conducted in order to assess the effect of a.m./p.m. milkings on the shape of the lactation curve during a normal lactation. Data from a.m. and p.m. milkings from 86 Romanian Spotted cows were used. Cows calved during January, February and March 2011 and concluded their lactations by the end of February 2012. Results showed that there was a difference between morning and evening milkings regarding the shape of the lactation curve. The shape of the lactation curve for morning milking was more resembling to the shape of the lactation curve for total daily milk. Modelling the lactation curve with gamma incomplete function led to a milk production estimate very close to the real production, although the model overestimated the yield in early lactation and underestimated it in middle lactation. If alternative milkings are going to use for milk yield estimation it is preferable to measure the evening milking at the beginning.

  13. Maternal lactation for preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, J

    2001-11-01

    In recent decades, neonatologists have made considerable progress in life support techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of respiratory disorders, which has led to a higher neonatal survival rate. Research into neonatal nutrition has also produced great benefits. It has been found that one of the key points regarding the improved survival rate of infants is the necessity for nutrition that is both adequate and as natural as possible. In this respect, it is necessary to achieve a better understanding of the process, protection, support and maintenance of maternal lactation in neonatal units. Humanization of perinatal attention during delivery, respect for the rights of parents and their children, protection of the mother and child bonding process, early skin contact with the mother and greater attention to individualized care are all key factors in the reinforcement of maternal lactation and are issues that must be addressed within the field of neonatology. Research activities need to concern themselves with: (1) acquiring greater knowledge concerning the common problems and difficulties that arise with mothers and their preterm babies; (2) training healthcare professionals in these aspects, for example in the extraction and storage of milk and in improving techniques of emotional and communicational skills; (3) by means of specific programmes such as the setting up of support groups, so that the effort made to encourage the initiation of breastfeeding is justified by its continuation for as long as possible. Thus, we hope to establish standards of care based on starting, encouraging and prolonging maternal lactation, in sufficient quantity and quality, always remembering that the fundamental goal of our research is the well-being of the child and its family.

  14. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa [UNESP; Ribeiro, Carla [UNESP; Botezelli, Jose Diego [UNESP; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina [UNESP; Mello, Maria Alice Rostom de [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.Methods: The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Bal...

  15. Failure of pulmonary clearance of Rhodococcus equi infection in CD4+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1993-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of Rhodococcus equi requires functional T lymphocytes. In this study, CD8+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice cleared virulent R. equi from the lungs while infection in CD4+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice persisted. Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells function early in pulmonary defense against R. equi, clearance is dependent on CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  16. Biochemical and Haematological Blood Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovidiu COROIAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health status of cows is evaluated and depending on haematological and biochemical profile of blood. Nutrition is the main technological factor that can produce profound changes in the metabolic profile in animals (Dhiman et al., 1991; Khaled et al., 1999; Ingvartsen, 2006. Blood parameters analyze can lead to identify if there are errors in nutrition of lactating cows (Payne et al., 1970. The aim of this study was the evaluation of metabolic and biochemical changes that occur during colostrum period and in terms of number of lactations in cows. The biological material was represented by a total of 60 heads of dairy cows from a family farm from Sălaj County, Romania. The cows are all from Holstein breed and presented no clinical signs of any specific pathology. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each cow and analyzed. 10 individuals from each of the six lactations have been randomly selected. Haematological and biochemical parameters showed variations depending on factors analyzed here. In lactation 1 Hb was 7.55±3.05 (g/dl, while in lactation 6 the value was 12.5±2.10 (g/dl. RBC ranged as follows: in lactation 1 - 28.50±2.05 and in lactation 6 - 30.02±2.05. Lymphocytes varied within very wide limits under the influence of lactation: in lactation 1 - 2.8±1.56 and in lactation 6 - 7.55±1.80. The number of lactations and lactation rank have influenced blood biochemical and hematological parameters in dairy cows. Biochemical parameters are influenced by post-partum day, showing the lowest values in the early days of colostral period and the highest in the last few days of the same period.

  17. Lactate: link between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, George A

    2007-01-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilised continuously under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges (i) between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed; (ii) between working skeletal muscle and heart; and (iii) between tissues of net lactate release and gluconeogenesis. Lactate shuttles exist in diverse tissues including in the brain, where a shuttle between astrocytes and neurons is linked to glutamatergic signalling. Because lactate, the product of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, is disposed of by oxidative metabolism, lactate shuttling unites the two major processes of cellular energy transduction. Lactate disposal is mainly through oxidation, especially during exercise when oxidation accounts for 70-75% of removal and gluconeogenesis the remainder. Lactate flux occurs down proton and concentration gradients that are established by the mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex. Marathon running is a power activity requiring high glycolytic and oxidative fluxes; such activities require lactate shuttling. Knowledge of the lactate shuttle is yet to be imparted to the sport.

  18. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli T; Ribeiro, Carla; Botezelli, José D; Ghezzi, Ana C; Mello, Maria Ar

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity. The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Balanced (LB): low-protein diet in utero and balanced diet after birth; Low protein/Fructose (LF): low protein diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth. Acute physical exercise reduced the muscle glycogen concentrations in all groups, although the LF group showed higher concentrations at rest. There was no difference among the groups in the glucose uptake and oxidation rates in the isolated soleus muscle neither at rest nor after acute exercise. However, glycogen synthesis was higher in the LF muscle than in the others at rest. Acute physical exercise increased glycogen synthesis in all groups, and the LF group showed the highest values. The fructose-rich diet administered in rats after fetal protein malnutrition alters muscle glycogen concentrations and glycogen synthesis in the rest and after acute exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

  19. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part. The Director, Washington Headquarters Services (WHS) will initiate the required investigation... clearance, as appropriate. The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Legislative Affairs) will be notified by WHS...

  20. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    AMP. The localization and function of HCAR1 and the three MCTs (MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4) expressed in brain constitute the focus of this review. They are possible targets for new therapeutic drugs and interventions. The author proposes that lactate actions in the brain through MCTs and the lactate receptor underlie part......Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...... to some, lactate is a preferred fuel for brain metabolism. Immediately after brain activation, the rate of glycolysis exceeds oxidation, leading to net production of lactate. At physical rest, there is a net efflux of lactate from the brain into the blood stream. But when blood lactate levels rise...

  1. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A growing number ...

  2. Composition of milk obtained from unmassaged versus massaged breasts of lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mervat I; Kawashima, Takaaki; Nakamura, Sadako; Kobayashi, Michiko; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2004-05-01

    The Oketani method is a program of breast massage and clinical counseling developed by the midwife Satomi Oketani. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the method on the quality of breast milk by determining the chemical composition of the milk before and after massage. Milk samples were obtained immediately before and after massage from healthy, exclusively breast-feeding Japanese mothers at two different periods of lactation one 3 months after parturition. Lipids, whey protein, casein, lactose, ash, and total solids in milk were measured in milk samples. The gross energy content of milk was estimated. Breast massage significantly increased lipids in the late lactating period but not in the early lactating period. In the early lactating period casein was increased by breast massage but was not significantly affected in the late lactating period. Breast massage caused a significant increase in total solids from the first day to 11 months post partum. The gross energy in the late lactating period was significantly increased by breast massage but not in the early lactating period. Lactose was not significantly changed by breast massage. Breast massage improves the quality of human milk by significantly increasing total solids, lipids, and casein concentration and gross energy. The milk of mothers treated by Oketani breast massage may improve the growth and development of infants.

  3. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  4. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...

  5. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up......)] from a resting value of 6 to exercise, cerebral activation associated with mental activity, or exposure to a stressful situation. The CMR decrease is prevented with combined beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that a 3-week oral lactate supplementation affects postexercise blood lactate disappearance in untrained male subjects. Fifteen men were randomly assigned to either a lactate supplementation (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) treatment. During the treatment period...... they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... values for placebo (PL) or lactate (L) treatment groups during different tests were as follows: Test 1 PL, 13.49 +/- 3.71; L, 13.70 +/- 1.90; Test 2 PL, 12.64 +/- 2.32; L, 12.00 +/- 2.23; Test 3 PL, 12.29 +/- 2.92; L, 11.35 +/- 1.38 and were reached 3 min postexercise. The decrease in blood lactate...

  8. Gene regulatory networks in lactation: identification of global principles using bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Katherine S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular events underlying mammary development during pregnancy, lactation, and involution are incompletely understood. Results Mammary gland microarray data, cellular localization data, protein-protein interactions, and literature-mined genes were integrated and analyzed using statistics, principal component analysis, gene ontology analysis, pathway analysis, and network analysis to identify global biological principles that govern molecular events during pregnancy, lactation, and involution. Conclusion Several key principles were derived: (1 nearly a third of the transcriptome fluctuates to build, run, and disassemble the lactation apparatus; (2 genes encoding the secretory machinery are transcribed prior to lactation; (3 the diversity of the endogenous portion of the milk proteome is derived from fewer than 100 transcripts; (4 while some genes are differentially transcribed near the onset of lactation, the lactation switch is primarily post-transcriptionally mediated; (5 the secretion of materials during lactation occurs not by up-regulation of novel genomic functions, but by widespread transcriptional suppression of functions such as protein degradation and cell-environment communication; (6 the involution switch is primarily transcriptionally mediated; and (7 during early involution, the transcriptional state is partially reverted to the pre-lactation state. A new hypothesis for secretory diminution is suggested – milk production gradually declines because the secretory machinery is not transcriptionally replenished. A comprehensive network of protein interactions during lactation is assembled and new regulatory gene targets are identified. Less than one fifth of the transcriptionally regulated nodes in this lactation network have been previously explored in the context of lactation. Implications for future research in mammary and cancer biology are discussed.

  9. 2015 Annual Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    only have delegated investigative authority over their civilian employee population and therefore, can only report the overall timeliness for that...completed or pending security clearance determinations for government employees and contractors during the preceding fiscal year that have taken longer...Clearance Determinations to Congress. The IAA directs this report to include the number of United States Government (USG) employees who held a

  10. Green technology; only Forest Clearance is needed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was land in Murmurwadi still under litigation made available? How was ...

  11. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  12. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Sweish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svvenersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2011-01-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation...... and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows...... and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated...

  13. Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Castro Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving and days in milk (DIM: early (1-90 DIM, middle (91-180 DIM, and end of lactation (over 181 DIM for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows.

  14. Atherogenicity index and health-related fatty acids in different stages of lactation from Friesian, Jersey and Friesian×Jersey cross cow milk under a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantapo, C T W; Muchenje, V; Hugo, A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of stage of lactation on the fatty acid profiles of milk from Friesian, Jersey and Friesian×Jersey cows. Linoleic acid in pastures was highest in the second phase which coincided with mid-lactation days (p<0.05). Highest milk moisture content and lowest fat free dry matter content was seen in early lactation (p<0.05). Higher fat content was observed in late lactation than early lactation. Highest butyric, caproic, linoleic, omega-6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed for milk from Friesian cows. Highest conjugated fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6, and omega-3 were observed in early lactation. Atherogenicity index and desaturase activity indices were highest in late lactation. In conclusion, stage of lactation and genotype affected milk health-related fatty acid profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages.

  16. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni Sayed H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1 clearance criteria, 2 process knowledge, and 3 measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  17. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  18. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  19. Induction of Lactation in the Biological Mother After Gestational Surrogacy of Twins: A Novel Approach and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Roya; Philip, Roy K

    One of the important challenges in surrogate pregnancies is the early bonding of genetic mother with her infant and the establishment of breastfeeding. A combination of pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods is often used for the induction of lactation. Reports of induced lactation in surrogacy are limited and scattered. In this report, we present a case of induced lactation and initiation of breastfeeding in preterm twins by the genetic mother, through her novel approach after a gestational surrogate pregnancy. Thematic approach of maternal account is summarized with context and rigor. We reviewed the reported literature of induced lactation in similar cases with an aim to address the various methods adopted.

  20. The economic benefit of treating subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, M; Goodger, W J; Weaver, L; Franti, C

    1987-12-15

    The economic benefits of treating lactating cows for Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis were studied at a large (689 milking cows) central California dairy. Postcure milk production of case cows (infected, treated, and cured) was compared with production of paired control cows (uninfected) and was matched for yield, days in milk, days in gestation, and parity. A simulation was used to plot expected lactation curves for mastitic cows (infected, not treated) with characteristics similar to those of each control cow, and these curves were compared with actual case-cow lactation curves. The difference in actual and expected production was used to calculate net economic benefits of treatment. Comparison of expected with actual production indicated a net benefit from treatment of $396/cow for cows treated in early lactation and $237 for cows treated in midlactation, but a net loss of $55 for cows treated in late lactation. Lactation number did not have a significant impact on economic benefits of treatment. In contrast to other studies indicating no economic benefit from treating mastitis during lactation, this study's positive results may have been attributable to the high cure rate (98%) and the subclinical form of mastitis being treated. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis treatment during early and midlactation would appear to be an economically justifiable option for dairy managers.

  1. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions...... were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10...

  2. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  3. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E 2 ) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E 2 , increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E 2 levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E 2 . This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance of estradiol in the

  4. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Sakhila K., E-mail: skbanu@cvm.tamu.edu; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2016-07-15

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E{sub 2}) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E{sub 2}, increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E{sub 2} levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E{sub 2}. This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance of

  5. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne

    2014-01-01

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 μmol·kg−1·min−1. This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  6. The work patterns of lactating women in Madura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, L J

    1993-08-01

    Little is known about the work patterns of mildly malnourished lactating women: are they modified to accommodate the demands of lactation? What factors influence their pattern of work during this period of nutritional stress? These questions were addressed using quantitative and qualitative data collected from 36 randomly selected women living in a poor community in Madura, Indonesia. Work patterns of the lactating women and their family members were documented for the first 12 months post-partum. Changes in work activity were analysed within four time periods corresponding to Madurese views on development during infancy: the vulnerable neonatal (birth-40 days), early (6-12 wk) and mid (13-31 wk) stages and the independent late (32-54 wk) stage. Quantitative data suggest that women did adjust work patterns to accommodate the demands of lactation and that these adjustments went beyond the neonatal stage. Mothers curtailed their participation in high- and low-energy income-generating activities, modified their conditions of work to promote maternal-infant proximity and conserved energy while performing specific activities. These patterns were most common through the mid infancy stage. Data are presented that describe how cultural values supporting maternal-infant proximity, intra- and inter-familial work exchanges, season and resources played a role in the type of accommodations mothers were able to make to breast-feed. These data suggest that even in relatively poor environments alterations in work patterns that may be favourable to lactation are possible, particularly when cultural concepts of infancy support such a trade-off.

  7. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  8. Low ground clearance vehicle detection and warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A Low Ground Clearance Vehicle Detection : System (LGCVDS) determines if a commercial : motor vehicle can successfully clear a highwayrail : grade crossing and notifies the driver when : his or her vehicle cannot safely traverse the : crossing. That ...

  9. Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal

  10. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any... calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  12. Histological features in the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanou, D C; Pourlis, A; Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Taitzoglou, I A; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the histology of the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation. Twelve lactating female dogs were operated 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, 70 and 84 days post-partum; four mammary glands of each animal were excised for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric examination. During early lactation and mid-lactation, all lobes and lobules within the same gland had similar features; alveoli were well developed and distended and had a spherical to slightly ovoid structure, with muscular fibres grasping them around; inflammatory cells were seen in the inter- and intra-alveolar space; mammary lobules were separated with a scant amount of connective tissue. In late lactation, connective tissue was abundant and dense, with large numbers of inflammatory cells; alveoli appeared to be irregularly shaped and collapsing, shrunken or fully collapsed. Number of alveoli per lobule and number of epithelial cells per alveolus, as well as diameter of alveoli and height of epithelial cells decreased as lactation progressed. The third mammary glands (from caudal to cranial) had a significantly smaller number of alveoli, but not of epithelial cells per alveolus, than each of the two mammary glands caudally to that. The results suggest that progressive involution of the normal mammary gland starts around the end of the 2nd month of lactation and continues until the end of the 3rd month. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsos, G.; Yahalom, J.

    1991-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman with early stage invasive breast cancer was treated with wide excision of the tumor, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast irradiation. Three years later, she gave birth to a normal baby. She attempted breast feeding and had full lactation from the untreated breast. The irradiated breast underwent only minor changes during pregnancy and postpartum but produced small amounts of colostrum and milk for 2 weeks postpartum. There are only a few reports of lactation after breast irradiation. These cases are reviewed, and possible factors affecting breast function after radiotherapy are discussed. Because of scant information available regarding its safety for the infant, nursing from the irradiated breast is not recommended

  14. Lung clearance of {sup 99m} Tc- DTPA in systemic lupus erythematous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcin, P.T.R; Barreto, S.S.M.; Xavier, R.M.; Brenol, J.C.T. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Medicina Interna; Cunha, R.D.; Marroni, B.J. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: rxavier@hcpa.ufrgs.br

    2002-06-01

    The early demonstration of lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is a difficult but important task. In the present study we attempted to identify abnormalities in pulmonary clearance of 99 mTc-DTPA in SLE, correlating their clearance data with clinical findings and disease activity. Forty-six consecutive SLE patients with and without active disease (LACC score) and 30 normal volunteers were studied. All subjects were submitted to pulmonary scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DTPA to evaluate the pulmonary clearance, and to a chest X-ray, and SLE patients were submitted to tests of disease activity, spirometry, arterial blood gases and tests to assess acute-phase proteins. Pulmonary clearance was faster in SLE patients with active disease when compared to normal controls [half-life of 67.04 min (51.52-82.55 min) in active SLE versus 85.87 min (78.85-92.87 min) in controls, P<0.05] and there was a higher frequency of abnormal clearance rates in patients with active disease (11 of 26 patients, 42.3%) when compared with SLE patients without disease activity (2 of 20 patients, 10%) (P = 0.04). A significant correlation was observed between the clearance rates and cough (P<0.05), but not between the clearance rates and dyspnoea symptoms or radiological findings, duration of SLE disease, antinuclear antibody titers and patterns, C-reactive protein or anti-double stranded DNA antibodies. We conclude that the pulmonary clearance of 99 m Tc-DTPA is increased in SLE patients with active disease. (author)

  15. Lung clearance of 99m Tc- DTPA in systemic lupus erythematous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalcin, P.T.R; Barreto, S.S.M.; Xavier, R.M.; Brenol, J.C.T.; Cunha, R.D.; Marroni, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The early demonstration of lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is a difficult but important task. In the present study we attempted to identify abnormalities in pulmonary clearance of 99 mTc-DTPA in SLE, correlating their clearance data with clinical findings and disease activity. Forty-six consecutive SLE patients with and without active disease (LACC score) and 30 normal volunteers were studied. All subjects were submitted to pulmonary scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DTPA to evaluate the pulmonary clearance, and to a chest X-ray, and SLE patients were submitted to tests of disease activity, spirometry, arterial blood gases and tests to assess acute-phase proteins. Pulmonary clearance was faster in SLE patients with active disease when compared to normal controls [half-life of 67.04 min (51.52-82.55 min) in active SLE versus 85.87 min (78.85-92.87 min) in controls, P<0.05] and there was a higher frequency of abnormal clearance rates in patients with active disease (11 of 26 patients, 42.3%) when compared with SLE patients without disease activity (2 of 20 patients, 10%) (P = 0.04). A significant correlation was observed between the clearance rates and cough (P<0.05), but not between the clearance rates and dyspnoea symptoms or radiological findings, duration of SLE disease, antinuclear antibody titers and patterns, C-reactive protein or anti-double stranded DNA antibodies. We conclude that the pulmonary clearance of 99 m Tc-DTPA is increased in SLE patients with active disease. (author)

  16. [Secondary osteoporosis UPDATE. Bone metabolic change and osteoporosis during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Takumi; Tamura, Ryo; Hata, Yuki; Nishijima, Shota; Tsuneki, Ikunosuke; Tamura, Masaki; Yanase, Toru

    2010-05-01

    Calcium transfer from the mother to the infant during pregnancy and lactation plays an extremely important role in the bone health of the mother and neonate. Calcium aids in bone health through all ages but is especially crucial during pregnancy and lactation. Changes in the structure and metabolism of bone during pregnancy and the early stage of postpartum are evaluated by investigating bone mineral density (BMD), bone histomorphometry and bone markers of human or animal models. The bone resorption increased at the end of pregnancy and lactation, and the bone formation increases and the bone structure is almost recovered after cessation of lactating in postpartum. Puerperal BMD remained static over the subsequent 5-10 years. If the women have a low BMD at this stage of their reproductive life, it tends not to improve over this time. Perhaps identification of this at-risk group may lead to effective interventions to reduce fracture risk in later life.

  17. Variation in udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats with no udder infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Ylva; Larsen, Torben; Nyman, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an important disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose mastitis in goats are available but have not all been investigated in healthy udders and at different stages of lactation....... The purpose of the study was to investigate the variation in some udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats without intramammary infection (IMI). The udder health indicators were: somatic cell counts (SCC) measured by DeLaval Cell Counter (DCC) and estimated by California Mastitis Test...... (CMT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, N-acetyl-β-d-glucoseaminidase (NAGase) activity and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Milk samples from twenty-four clinically healthy dairy goats were collected on two consecutive days in early, mid and late lactation. At milking, each goat's udder half...

  18. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...

  19. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; Sudholter, Ernst; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors

  20. Recent activities on clearance in IAEA and clearance automatic laser inspection system (CLALIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takatoshi; Sasaki, Michiya

    2005-01-01

    Exemption levels for bulk amounts of materials have been described in RS-G-1.7 published as a safety guide in IAEA on August 2004. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission adopted the RS-G-1.7 values as Japanese clearance levels after the careful review of dose assessment results. After completing revises of regulatory laws in relation to clearance level, solid wastes from decommissioning and operating nuclear power plants will be targets of clearance inspection. In CRIEPI, Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed, which can give high reliability and objectivity to the measurement data. The CLALIS is a new monitoring system coupling with 3D laser shape measurement, Monte-Carlo calculation and gamma measurement techniques, which can keep a high accuracy in the measurement data using an automatic correction technique for self-shielding effects of metal waste itself and is expected to apply as a practical use in actual clearance inspections. (author)

  1. Treatment of mastitis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyörälä, S

    2009-04-01

    Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.

  2. Treatment of mastitis during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyörälä S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.

  3. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari [Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, LUT School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Engeda, Abraham [Turbomachinery Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease.

  4. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari; Engeda, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease

  5. Valor do farelo de arroz integral como fonte de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey na fase inicial de lactação: digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes Value of rice bran as a fat source for Jersey cows in early lactation: apparent digestibility of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laerte Nörnberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas oito vacas Jersey, com peso médio de 420 kg, produção média de 20 kg de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, na fase inicial de lactação (próximas ao pico de lactação, estabuladas em baias individuais, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4. Objetivou-se avaliar a potencialidade do farelo de arroz integral como fonte de gordura, associado a óleo de arroz e a sebo bovino, em dietas isoprotéicas, isofibrosas e isolipídicas entre as fontes de gordura estudadas, por meio da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes. Os tratamentos foram: CON- concentrado sem adição de gordura; GP- concentrado com gordura protegida; FAIO- concentrado com farelo de arroz integral e óleo de arroz; FAIS- concentrado com farelo de arroz integral e sebo bovino. Os concentrados foram à base de grãos de milho moído e farelo de soja, e, como volumosos, foram empregados silagem de milho e feno de alfafa (1:1. O concentrado foi fornecido três vezes ao dia, separadamente dos volumosos. Os volumosos foram fornecidos à vontade, procurando-se manter a proporção de 55% em relação às misturas concentradas. A estimativa da excreção fecal foi obtida com emprego de óxido de cromo e a digestibilidade da gordura por diferença. A interpretação estatística foi feita pela análise de variância dos valores médios de cada tratamento pelo teste F. As fontes de gordura não afetaram a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e de carboidratos não-fibrosos. O farelo de arroz integral pode ser usado como fonte de gordura, totalizando 6% de gordura bruta na dieta de vacas leiteiras na fase inicial da lactação.Eight Jersey cows with an average live weight of 420 kg, yielding around 20 kg of 3.5% FCM in early lactation (around the peak of lactation were used in a trial whose objectives were to evaluate rice bran as fat source associated with oil or tallow in iso-proteic, iso

  6. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-09-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  7. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-08-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  8. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  9. Effects of high ambient temperature on urea-nitrogen recycling in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitsu, Taketo; Kamiya, Mitsuru; Kamiya, Yuko; Tanaka, Masahito; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2011-08-01

    Effects of exposure to hot environment on urea metabolism were studied in lactating Holstein cows. Four cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration and housed in a temperature-controlled chamber at constant moderate (18°C) or high (28°C) ambient temperatures in a cross-over design. Urea nitrogen (N) kinetics was measured by determining urea isotopomer in urine after single injection of [(15) N(2) ]urea into the jugular vein. Both dry matter intake and milk yield were decreased under high ambient temperature. Intakes of total N and digestible N were decreased under high ambient temperature but urinary urea-N excretion was increased. The ratio of urea-N production to digestible N was increased, whereas the proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be decreased under high ambient temperature. Neither return to the ornithine cycle, anabolic use nor fecal excretion of urea-N recycled to the gut was affected by ambient temperature. Under high ambient temperature, renal clearance of plasma urea was not affected but the gut clearance was decreased. Increase of urea-N production and reduction of gut urea-N entry, in relative terms, were associated with increased urinary urea-N excretion of lactating dairy cows in higher thermal environments. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print......]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  11. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed...... of AEDs in pregnancy and during lactation is important to enable optimal treatment. Gestation induced alterations in pharmacokinetics vary with the AED but also between patients and are difficult to predict. Therapeutic drug monitoring is, therefore, advisable during pregnancy and the use...... of the individual patient's optimal prepregnancy drug level is recommended as reference. Breastfeeding is in general safe but needs appropriate observation of the nursing infant....

  12. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken

    2016-01-01

    known as HCAR1, may contribute importantly to the control of retinal cell functions in health and disease. GPR81, a G-protein coupled receptor, is known to downregulate cAMP both in adipose and nervous tissue. The receptor also acts through other down-stream mechanisms to control functions......In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also...

  13. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies.

  14. Gordura protegida na dieta de vacas de alta produção a campo, em alfafa verde ou pré-secada, na fase inicial da lactação: parâmetros plasmáticos Protected fat to high producing dairy cows, under grazing, supplemented with fresh or haylage alfalfa, in early lactation: blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Fôlha Bermudes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Estação Experimental Agropecuária do Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuária (EEA-INTA, Rafaela da Argentina. Foram utilizadas 32 vacas da raça Holando-Argentina, de alta produção (média de 36 litros de leite por dia e na fase inicial da lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar os parâmetros plasmáticos (ácidos graxos, glicose, triglicerídeos e a enzima hepática gama-glutamiltransferase. Foram comparados dois níveis de gordura protegida (0 e 400 gramas e duas formas de oferecimento de alfafa (verde e pré-secada. Todos os animais foram submetidos a um período pré-experimental de 15 dias, quando receberam ou não suplementação de gordura. Após o parto os animais foram distribuídos em piquetes com alfafa verde ou alfafa pré-secada, constituindo quatro tratamentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso em fatorial 2x2, utilizando-se dias pós-parto e ordem de lactação como covariâncias. A interpretação estatística foi feita pela análise da variância e teste F e os resultados mostraram que não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos experimentais.This trial was run at Estación Experiment Agropecuária of INTA (EEA-INTA, Rafaela, Argentina. Thirty-two high producing Hostein-Argentina dairy cows were used in early lactation, aiming to evaluate blood parameters at two levels of protected fat (0 and 400 g/cow/day and two types of alfalfa (fresh or haylage. All cows were submitted to a pre-trial period of fifteen day in two groups: with and without fat supplementation. The animals, post-partum, were allocated to paddocks with green or pre-dried alfalfa, comprising, then, four experimental treatments. A completely randomized design with a 2x2 factorial, using days post-partum and lactation order as covariates, was used. The statistical analysis was performed by using the analysis of variance and F-test. There were no differences among experimental treatments.

  15. Harnessing Apoptotic Cell Clearance to Treat Autoimmune Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Saas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early-stage apoptotic cells possess immunomodulatory properties. Proper apoptotic cell clearance during homeostasis has been shown to limit subsequent immune responses. Based on these observations, early-stage apoptotic cell infusion has been used to prevent unwanted inflammatory responses in different experimental models of autoimmune diseases or transplantation. Moreover, this approach has been shown to be feasible without any toxicity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to prevent graft-versus-host disease. However, whether early-stage apoptotic cell infusion can be used to treat ongoing inflammatory disorders has not been reported extensively. Recently, we have provided evidence that early-stage apoptotic cell infusion is able to control, at least transiently, ongoing collagen-induced arthritis. This beneficial therapeutic effect is associated with the modulation of antigen-presenting cell functions mainly of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as the induction of collagen-specific regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg. Furthermore, the efficacy of this approach is not altered by the association with two standard treatments of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor (TNF inhibition. Here, in the light of these observations and recent data of the literature, we discuss the mechanisms of early-stage apoptotic cell infusion and how this therapeutic approach can be transposed to patients with RA.

  16. Workplace lactation support by New Jersey employers following US Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon K; Gaits, Susan I; Wunderlich, Shahla M

    2015-02-01

    Returning to an unsupportive work environment has been identified as a major reason for avoidance or early abandonment of breastfeeding among working mothers. This study aimed to examine the nature and extent of accommodations offered to breastfeeding employees among New Jersey employers since the US federal Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers law enactment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to measure current lactation support in the workplace in New Jersey. Using convenience sampling, the survey was sent to managerial personnel in hospitals and nonhospitals. The level of support was assessed on company policy, lactation room, and room amenity. A composite lactation amenity score was calculated based on responses about lactation room amenities. Respondents (N = 51) completed a 22-item online questionnaire during fall 2011. The support level was compared by type of organization: hospital (n = 37) versus nonhospital (n = 14). The amenity score of hospitals was significantly higher than nonhospitals (1.44 vs 0.45, P = .002). The mean amenity score (score = 0.95) for all employers was far below comprehensive (score = 3.0). Compared to nonhospitals, hospitals were more likely to offer lactation rooms (81% vs 36%, P = .003), have their own breastfeeding policy (35.1% vs 7.1%, P = .01), and provide additional breastfeeding support (eg, education classes, resources; P < .05). Employers, regardless of the type of organization, need to improve their current practices and create equity of lactation support in the workplace. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Pulque intake during pregnancy and lactation in rural Mexico: alcohol and child growth from 1 to 57 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrand, J R; Goodman, A H; Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    2004-12-01

    To examine maternal intake of a mildly alcoholic beverage (pulque) during pregnancy and lactation, and its potential effect on postpartum child growth and attained size. A prospective cohort study that followed mothers (during pregnancy and lactation) and their offspring (from birth to approximately 57 months of age). Six villages in rural, central Mexico. Subjects are 58 mother-child pairs. Pulque intake was measured as part of a dietary assessment that was conducted for 2days/month during pregnancy and early lactation. Most mothers consumed pulque during pregnancy (69.0%) and lactation (72.4%). Among pulque drinkers, the average ethanol intake was 125.1 g/week during pregnancy and 113.8 g/week during lactation. Greater pulque intake during lactation, independent of intake during pregnancy, was associated with slower weight and linear growth from 1 to 57 months, and smaller attained size at 57 months. Low-to-moderate pulque intake during pregnancy, in comparison to either nonconsumption or heavy intake, was also associated with greater stature at 57 months. Pulque intake during lactation may have adversely influenced postnatal growth in this population. Public health interventions are urgently needed in Mexico to reduce heavy intake of pulque by pregnant and lactating women, and to replace intake with foods that provide the vitamins and minerals present in the traditional alcoholic beverage.

  18. Effect of different dry period lengths on milk production and somatic cell count in subsequent lactation on commercial Dutch dairy herds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Shortening the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance in early lactation. It is well known that both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactations. In most of these studies milk production data were

  19. Public-private collaboration in clinical research during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood: joint position statement of the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Benninga, Marc A; Godfrey, Keith M; Hornnes, Peter J; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lentze, Michael J; Mader, Silke; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Oepkes, Dick; Oddy, Wendy H; Phillips, Alan; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania; Symonds, Michael E; Taminiau, Jan; Thapar, Nikhil; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-04-01

    This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breast-feeding women, and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop cosponsored by the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Clinical research collaborations between academic investigators and commercial enterprises are encouraged by universities, public funding agencies, and governmental organisations. One reason is a pressing need to obtain evidence on the effects, safety, and benefits of drugs and other commercial products and services. The credibility and value of results obtained through public-private research collaborations have, however, been questioned because many examples of inappropriate research practice have become known. Clinical research in pregnant and breast-feeding women, and in infants and children, raises sensitive scientific, ethical, and societal questions and requires the application of particularly high standards. Here we provide recommendations for the conduct of public-private research collaborations in these populations. In the interest of all stakeholders, these recommendations should contribute to more reliable, credible, and acceptable results of commercially sponsored trials and to reducing the existing credibility gap.

  20. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent ESWL. The indications for ESWL were determined by the ...

  1. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  2. Concentration of thyroid hormones and prolactin in dairy cattle serum and milk at three stages of lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasha, M.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Ellersieck, M.; Nixon, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen lactating Holstein cows were used with six each in early, mid, and late lactation. Blood samples were obtained on 7 successive d. Blood serum and milk were measured by radioimmunoassay for thyroxine, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine. Prolactin was also measured in serum by radioimmunoassay. Serum thyroxine increased as lactation progressed and milk production declined (50, 55, and 62 ng/ml). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine were unchanged throughout lactation. Prolactin in serum declined as lactation advanced linearly (14.4, 11.8, and 10.5 ng/ml). Concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in milk declined significantly between early and mid but not mid and late lactation. Reverse triiodothyronine in milk did not change over the lactation. Serum triiodothyronine contained 1200 to 1300 pg/ml, whereas that in milk was 200 to 300 pg/ml. Reverse triiodothyronine was over 300 pg/ml in serum and only 80 to 90 pg/ml in milk. Amounts of thyroxine and triiodothyronine available to offspring from milk were calculated to be minor sources (4 to 5%) of total requirements for maintenance of metabolic function

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  4. High-pressure phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Woo; Shin, Jungin; Shin, Moon Sam; Bae, Won; Kim, Hwayong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in scCO 2 was measured. ► Experimental data were correlated by the PR-EOS. ► The critical constants were estimated by the three group contribution methods. ► Acentric factor was estimated by the Lee–Kesler method. ► The Nannoolal–Rarey and Lee–Kesler method shows the best correlation results. - Abstract: Lactate esters synthesized with lactic acid and ester are used as solvents and reactants in various industries, including agricultural chemistry, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and fine chemicals. Among lactate esters, high purity propyl lactate and butyl lactate are used to produce fine chemicals and in the synthesis of chiral intermediates for use in pesticides and drugs. However, distillation for the removal of propyl lactate and butyl lactate alters or degenerates products due the high boiling points of these two lactate esters. This problem can be solved by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) at lower temperatures. SCFE process requires high-pressure phase behavior data on CO 2 and lactates for its design and operation. In this study, high-pressure phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in CO 2 was measured from (323.2 to 363.2) K using a variable-volume view cell apparatus. Experimental data were well correlated by the Peng–Robinson equation of state using the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. The critical constants were estimated by the Joback method, the Constantinou–Gani method, and the Nannoolal–Rarey method. Acentric factor was estimated by the Lee–Kesler method.

  5. Bioassay Guided Chromatographic Isolation Of Lactation Inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... The production of breast milk is controlled by an interplay of various hormones, with ... including estrogen, progesterone, insulin, growth hormone, cortisol ..... and Serum Prolactin on Cows Hormonally. Induced into Lactation.

  6. effect of hippocratea obtusifolia extracts on lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... milk is controlled by interplay of various hormones, with prolactin being the ... insulin, growth hormone, cortisol, thyroxine and human placental lactogen ..... prolactin on cows hormonally induced into lactation. J. Dairy sci.

  7. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  8. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES: Additional OMB Actions Are Needed to Improve the Security Clearance Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    Our independent analysis of timeliness data showed that industry personnel contracted to work for the federal government waited more than one year on average to receive top secret clearances, longer...

  10. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  11. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  12. A case series of pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis and a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukio; Kamimura, Mikio; Ikegami, Shota; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Komatsu, Masatoshi; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The syndrome of pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis is a rare disorder whose precise etiology and treatment are largely unknown. We herein report two such cases occurring in the early postpartum period that led to multiple fragility compression fractures. Combination therapy of vitamin D and vitamin K enabled a marked gradual increase in bone mineral density. PMID:26379439

  13. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  14. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor--using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Ingeborg Christina Rørbye; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory (...

  15. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a...

  16. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.55 Title clearance services. (a) Responsibilities of closing agents. Services to be provided to the agency and the borrower by a closing agent in connection with the transaction vary depending on whether a title insurance...

  17. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clearance of contractor... Clauses 2452.237-75 Clearance of contractor personnel. As prescribed in 2437.110(e), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts. Clearance of Contractor Personnel (OCT 1999) (a) General. This...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas (For...

  19. Prediction of body lipid change in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Ingvartsen, K L; Emmans, G C

    2004-04-01

    lipid change through lactation in a simple way that requires few parameters and inputs that can be derived in practice. It is expected that prediction of the cow's energy requirements can be substantially improved, particularly in early lactation, by incorporating a genetically driven body energy mobilization.

  20. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  1. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  2. Clearance Kinetics and Clearance Routes of Molecules From the Suprachoroidal Space After Microneedle Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Bryce; Wang, Ke; Ethier, C Ross; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    To determine clearance kinetics and routes of clearance of molecules from the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of live New Zealand White rabbits. Suprachoroidal space collapse rate and pressure changes after microneedle injection into SCS were determined. Fluorescent fundus images were acquired to determine clearance rates of molecules ranging in size from 332 Da to 2 MDa. Microneedle injections of fluorescein were performed, and samples were taken from various sites over time to determine amount of fluorescein exiting the eye. Clearance transport was modeled theoretically and compared with experimental data. After injection, pressures in SCS and vitreous humor spiked and returned to baseline within 20 minutes; there was no difference between these two pressures. Suprachoroidal space collapse occurred within 40 minutes. One hour after fluorescein injection, 46% of fluorescein was still present in the eye, 15% had transported across sclera, 6% had been cleared by choroidal vasculature, and 4% had exited via leakage pathways. Characteristic clearance time increased in proportion with molecular radius, but total clearance of 2 MDa FITC-dextran was significantly slower (21 days) than smaller molecules. These data generally agreed with predictions from a theoretical model of molecular transport. Guided by experimental data in the context of model predictions, molecular clearance from SCS occurred in three regimes: (1) on a time scale of approximately 10 minutes, fluid and molecules exited SCS by diffusion into sclera and choroid, and by pressure-driven reflux via transscleral leakage sites; (2) in approximately 1 hour, molecules cleared from choroid by blood flow; and (3) in 1 to 10 hours, molecules cleared from sclera by diffusion and convection.

  3. Supplementation of Mice with Specific Nondigestible Oligosaccharides during Pregnancy or Lactation Leads to Diminished Sensitization and Allergy in the Female Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, Astrid; Knippels, Leon M J; Garssen, Johan; van Esch, Betty C A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The maternal environment and early life exposure affect immune development in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether development of food allergy in offspring is affected by supplementing pregnant or lactating sensitized or nonsensitized mice with a mixture of nondigestible

  4. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author) [pt

  5. Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators 4 posed by Denton (1993). A number of investigators have used partial shrouds, or " winglet " designs to...SDBD actuator Plasma enhanced aerodynamics has been demonstrated in a range of applications involving sepa- ration control, lift enhancement, drag... aerodynamic benefits of a squealer tip geometry. Specifically, the squealer tip is known to reduce the discharge coefficient of the tip gap, thereby

  6. Clearance level and industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Toichi

    1999-01-01

    Defining the clearance level enables the radioactive waste with lower radioactivity than a certain level to be the general industrial waste and therefore consideration for public acceptance is essential. For this, it is necessary to understand laws concerning not only atomic power and radioactivity but also disposal and cleaning of general waste. It is also necessary that the waste below the clearance level should be as much as possible handled in the modern common concept of recycling of resources. In 1996, the weight of industrial waste was about 400 million tons, of which 40% was disposed by burning and dehydration, 39% was re-used and 21% was subjected to the final disposal like reclamation. Reduction, re-use and recycling of the generated waste are required for making the society with recycling of resources. Scrap concrete materials below the clearance level of 0.6 million tons are estimated to be generated by dismantling the light water reactor of 1 million kW output and profitable technology for recycling the scrap is under investigation. (K.H.)

  7. Modeling accumulations of particles in lung during chronic inhalation exposures that lead to impaired clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.K.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Snipes, M.B.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of insoluble particles of low toxicity that produce substantial lung burdens of particles, or inhalation of particles that are highly toxic to the lung, can impair clearance. This report describes model calculations of accumulations in lung of inhaled low-toxicity diesel exhaust soot and high-toxicity Ga2O3 particles. Lung burdens of diesel soot were measured periodically during a 24-mo exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust at soot concentrations of 0, 0.35, 3.5, and 7 mg m-3, 7 h d-1, 5 d wk-1. Lung burdens of Ga2O3 were measured for 1 y after a 4-wk exposure to 23 mg Ga2O3 m-3, 2 h d-1, 5 d wk-1. Lung burdens of Ga2O3 were measured for 1 y both studies using inhaled radiolabeled tracer particles. Simulation models fit the observed lung burdens of diesel soot in rats exposed to the 3.5- and 7-mg m-3 concentrations of soot only if it was assumed that clearance remained normal for several months, then virtually stopped. Impaired clearance from high-toxicity particles occurred early after accumulations of a low burden, but that from low-toxicity particles was evident only after months of exposure, when high burdens had accumulated in lung. The impairment in clearances of Ga2O3 particles and radiolabeled tracers was similar, but the impairment in clearance of diesel soot and radiolabeled tracers differed in magnitude. This might have been related to differences in particle size and composition between the tracers and diesel soot. Particle clearance impairment should be considered both in the design of chronic exposures of laboratory animals to inhaled particles and in extrapolating the results to people

  8. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  9. Flexible graphene bio-nanosensor for lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue

    2013-03-15

    The development of a flexible nanosensor for detecting lactate could expand opportunities for using graphene, both in fundamental studies for a variety of device platforms and in practical applications. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with ultrasensitive sensing capabilities. Lactic acid is important for clinical analysis, sports medicine, and the food industry. Recently, wearable and flexible bioelectronics on plastics have attracted great interest for healthcare, sports and defense applications due to their advantages of being light-weight, bendable, or stretchable. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the development of a flexible graphene-based bio-nanosensor to detect lactate. Our results show that flexible lactate biosensors can be fabricated on a variety of plastic substrates. The sensor can detect lactate sensitively from 0.08 μM to 20 μM with a fast steady-state measuring time of 2s. The sensor can also detect lactate under different mechanical bending conditions, the sensor response decreased as the bending angle and number of bending repetitions increased. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for fundamental studies of flexible graphene bioelectronics by using other bioreceptors, as well as a variety of wearable, implantable, real-time, or on-site applications in fields ranging from clinical analysis to defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Amouzegar, Atieh

    2011-06-01

    Poorly treated or untreated maternal overt hyperthyroidism may affect pregnancy outcome. Fetal and neonatal hypo- or hyper-thyroidism and neonatal central hypothyroidism may complicate health issues during intrauterine and neonatal periods. To review articles related to appropriate management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation. A literature review was performed using MEDLINE with the terms 'hyperthyroidism and pregnancy', 'antithyroid drugs and pregnancy', 'radioiodine and pregnancy', 'hyperthyroidism and lactation', and 'antithyroid drugs and lactation', both separately and in conjunction with the terms 'fetus' and 'maternal.' Antithyroid drugs are the main therapy for maternal hyperthyroidism. Both methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) may be used during pregnancy; however, PTU is preferred in the first trimester and should be replaced by MMI after this trimester. Choanal and esophageal atresia of fetus in MMI-treated and maternal hepatotoxicity in PTU-treated pregnancies are of utmost concern. Maintaining free thyroxine concentration in the upper one-third of each trimester-specific reference interval denotes success of therapy. MMI is the mainstay of the treatment of post partum hyperthyroidism, in particular during lactation. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation requires special considerations and should be carefully implemented to avoid any adverse effects on the mother, fetus, and neonate.

  11. Establishing exemption and clearance criteria by the regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.E.A.

    2012-04-01

    This Project work discusses the relationship between the concepts of exemption and clearance, and their practical use in the overall scheme of regulatory control of practices. It also discusses how exemptions and clearance is established and the scope of its applications for regulatory control. The concept of general clearance levels for any type of material and any possible pathway of disposal is also introduced in this work. Guidance of the Group of Experts establishing scenarios for general clearance, parameter values, and a nuclide-specific list of calculated clearance levels is also presented. Regulatory authorities are required to develop guidance on exemption and clearance levels to assist licensees and registrants to know which practices and sources within practices are exempted from regulatory control and those to be cleared from further controls. Exemption and clearance levels are tools for assisting the Regulatory Authority to optimize the use of resources. (author)

  12. Whole-cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor for monitoring mammalian cell cultures during biopharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Lisa; Ainsworth, Catherine; Goey, Cher Hui; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Freemont, Paul S; Polizzi, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    Many high-value added recombinant proteins, such as therapeutic glycoproteins, are produced using mammalian cell cultures. In order to optimize the productivity of these cultures it is important to monitor cellular metabolism, for example the utilization of nutrients and the accumulation of metabolic waste products. One metabolic waste product of interest is lactic acid (lactate), overaccumulation of which can decrease cellular growth and protein production. Current methods for the detection of lactate are limited in terms of cost, sensitivity, and robustness. Therefore, we developed a whole-cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor based on the lldPRD operon and successfully used it to monitor lactate concentration in mammalian cell cultures. Using real samples and analytical validation we demonstrate that our biosensor can be used for absolute quantification of metabolites in complex samples with high accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. Importantly, our whole-cell biosensor was able to detect lactate at concentrations more than two orders of magnitude lower than the industry standard method, making it useful for monitoring lactate concentrations in early phase culture. Given the importance of lactate in a variety of both industrial and clinical contexts we anticipate that our whole-cell biosensor can be used to address a range of interesting biological questions. It also serves as a blueprint for how to capitalize on the wealth of genetic operons for metabolite sensing available in nature for the development of other whole-cell biosensors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1290-1300. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lactate stimulates migration of human cancer cells: possible consequences for the development of metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, S.; Springborn, C.; Zilkens, S.; Groetzebach, B.; Mueller-Klieser, W.

    2003-01-01

    A high lactate production is a common feature of the majority of malignant tumors. In several independent series of clinical studies we could show that a high lactate content in primary human carcinomas was correlated with a higher incidence of metastases and a reduced patient survival, compared to tumors with a lower lactate content. Since one of the early events in metastasis is the active movement of cancer cells out of the primary tumor site, we have investigated the effect of exogenous lactate on the migratory activity of human cancer cells in vitro. - A 48 well micro chemotaxis chamber was used to quantify the migration of SQ20B and PCI13 cells which were derived from human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. The chamber consists of bottom and a top Lucite slide, separated by a gelatin covered polycarbonate membrane with pores of 8 μm, where cells eventually migrate through. - In summary, there was a time and concentration dependent unidirectional enhancement of cell migration. For example, cells were incubated in growth medium supplemented with 20 mM L-lactate. On the average, the rate of cell migration was significantly enhanced (p < 0.001) to 139 % for SQ20 and 136 % for PCI cells, compared to untreated control cells (100 %). No effects on cell migration were detected for culture media containing 20 mM D-lactate or 20 mM sodium chloride. These results suggest that an elevated lactate production may not only be an accompanying phenomenon of malignant transformation, but may also play an active part in tumor progression by enhancing cell migration and dissemination of potentially metastatic cells from primary lesions

  14. Do pregnancy, postpartum period and lactation predispose to recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Kęcik, Dariusz

    2015-02-23

    The aim of the study was a statistical analysis of the possible effects of pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation on increased risk for reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 661 patients referred with the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw and to the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw in the years 1994-2014. This group of inpatients consisted of 213 women of child-bearing age (18 to 40 years). Reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was observed in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years who were pregnant, in the postpartum period, or lactating. To compare the rate of the relapses in pregnant/lactating patients vs. non-pregnant/non-lactating patients, the Fisher exact test was used. Calculations were performed with WinPepi software (Abramson JH (2004) WINPEPI (PEPI-for-Windows) for epidemiologists. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 2005, 1: 6). A total of 28 reactivations of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed (16 episodes in pregnancy, 4 in the postpartum period, and 8 during lactation) in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years. In 3 women, multiple episodes were reported (in early pregnancy and the postpartum period in 2 women, and during 2 pregnancies and lactation in 1 woman). Statistical analysis showed that the risk of an episode of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is 7.4-fold higher in pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant/non-lactating women (p<0.0001). Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and should be followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant.

  15. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  16. Whole‐cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor for monitoring mammalian cell cultures during biopharmaceutical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Lisa; Ainsworth, Catherine; Goey, Cher Hui; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Freemont, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many high‐value added recombinant proteins, such as therapeutic glycoproteins, are produced using mammalian cell cultures. In order to optimize the productivity of these cultures it is important to monitor cellular metabolism, for example the utilization of nutrients and the accumulation of metabolic waste products. One metabolic waste product of interest is lactic acid (lactate), overaccumulation of which can decrease cellular growth and protein production. Current methods for the detection of lactate are limited in terms of cost, sensitivity, and robustness. Therefore, we developed a whole‐cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor based on the lldPRD operon and successfully used it to monitor lactate concentration in mammalian cell cultures. Using real samples and analytical validation we demonstrate that our biosensor can be used for absolute quantification of metabolites in complex samples with high accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. Importantly, our whole‐cell biosensor was able to detect lactate at concentrations more than two orders of magnitude lower than the industry standard method, making it useful for monitoring lactate concentrations in early phase culture. Given the importance of lactate in a variety of both industrial and clinical contexts we anticipate that our whole‐cell biosensor can be used to address a range of interesting biological questions. It also serves as a blueprint for how to capitalize on the wealth of genetic operons for metabolite sensing available in nature for the development of other whole‐cell biosensors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1290–1300. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28112405

  17. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  18. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    herds with Holstein cows, where daily RT was recorded by rumination sensors (Qwes HRTM). Cows were fed a partially mixed ration and concentrate at the milking robot. Concentrate was stepped up over the first 28 and 17 days in milk for primiparous and multiparous cows. Cows were assigned to either...

  19. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.

    2015-01-01

    an experimental group (EXP) or a control group (CON) immediately after calving. In addition, all cows in the EXP and CON were assigned to either a high, medial or low rumination group according to their individual RT. Cows in the EXP assigned to the high (EH), medial (EM) or low (EL) rumination group were stepped...... up to 6, 4 or 3 kg concentrate during the experimental period. Concentrate was stepped up to 4 kg during the experimental period for all cows in the CON, regardless of whether the cows were assigned to the high (CH), medial (CM) or low (CL) rumination group. In total, 40 and 41 primiparous cows...

  20. Dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Kulczycka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since wellbeing and health have become fashionable and widespread polypragmasia is popular, adverse drug reactions are a particularly important medical problem. Pregnant women as well as breast-feeding mothers need very particular care from the physician. Treatment during pregnancy or lactation is a more complicated issue not only because it concerns at least two persons, but also because of the many anatomical and functional differences between the adult and fetus or newborn organism. The safety aspects of dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation are presented. Both topical and systemic treatment, mainly for bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic dermatoses and acne, alopecia, psoriasis, and autoimmunological processes, are discussed. Moreover, the most recent methods of dermatological treatment are mentioned taking into consideration their safety during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, the traditional drug classification made by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as the most modern division, which is under construction, are presented.

  1. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to study the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in milk during lactation and its relationship with metabolic status of dairy cows, milk yield, milk composition, and cheesemaking properties. The study was performed in a tied stall barn and involved 20 lactations from 12 healthy multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows. During lactation starting at d 10, milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for composition, somatic cells count, titratable acidity, and milk coagulation properties. The GGT activity was measured in defatted samples. Blood samples were collected weekly to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The lactations of each cow were retrospectively categorized into 2 groups according to their milk GGT activity value through lactation. A median value of GGT activity in the milk of all lactations was calculated (3,045 U/L), and 10 lactations with lower GGT activity were classified as low while 10 lactations with greater GGT activity were classified as high. The average value of milk GGT activity during lactation was 3,863 and 3,024 U/L for high and low, respectively. The GGT activity decreased in early lactation and reached minimum values in the second month (3,289 and 2,355 U/L for high and low, respectively). Thereafter GGT activity increased progressively, reaching values in late lactation of 4,511 and 3,540 U/L in high and low, respectively. On average, milk yield was 40.81 and 42.76 kg/d in high and low, respectively, and a negative partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. A greater milk protein concentration was observed in high (3.39%) compared with low (3.18%), and a positive partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. Greater titratable acidity in high than that in low (3.75 vs. 3.45 degrees Soxhlet-Henkel/50 mL, respectively) was also observed. Plasma glucose was greater in

  2. Retention and clearance of C-11 palmitic acid in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Keen, R.; Vinten-Johansen, J.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Barrio, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Free fatty acids are the major energy source for cardiac muscle. Oxidation of fatty acid decreases or even ceases during ischemia. Its recovery after transient ischemia remains largely unexplored. Using intracoronary carbon-11 palmitic acid as a tracer of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in an open chest dog model, retention and clearance of tracer in myocardium were evaluated at control, during ischemia and after reperfusion following a 20 minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial C-11 time-activity curves were analyzed with biexponential curve-fitting routines yielding fractional distribution and clearance half-times of C-11 palmitic acid in myocardial tissue. In animals with permanent occlusion and intracoronary injection of C-11 palmitic acid distal to the occlusion site, the relative size and half-time of the early clearance curve component differed markedly from control values and did not change with ongoing ischemia. Conversely, in animals with only 20 minutes of coronary occlusion, the relative size of the early C-11 clearance phase was still significantly depressed at 20 and 90 minutes of reperfusion but returned to control level at 180 minutes. Tissue C-11 clearance half-times remained significantly prolonged throughout the reperfusion period. Regional function in reperfused myocardium monitored with ultrasonic crystals recovered slowly and was still less than control after 3 hours of reperfusion. The data indicate that after transient ischemia, myocardial fatty acid metabolism fails to recover immediately. Because the metabolic recovery occurs in parallel with recovery of regional function, C-11 palmitic acid in conjunction with positron tomography may be useful for studying regional fatty acid metabolism noninvasively after an ischemic injury, and may be helpful in identifying reversible tissue injury

  3. Galaktocele of Lactating Woman in Atypical Localisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlendova, G.; Bartalosova, M.; Ondrkalova, M.

    2011-01-01

    Galactocele is a benign breast lesion mostly occurring in pregnant and lactating women. Due to its variable ultrasound appearance it may be difficult to differentiate it from other lesions, either benign or malignant, such as fibroadenoma, lactating adenoma, abscess, phyllodes tumor, papilloma or breast cancer and in these cases fine needle aspiration should be performed. Biochemical analysis of the aspirate shows variable proportions of proteins, fat and lactose. In rare cases where galactocele has only solid appearance, a core-cut biopsy could also be performed to rule out breast cancer. The authors present a case of a 34-years old patient with this diagnosis. (author)

  4. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation reveals protein signatures for lactation persistency and milk yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh Janjanam

    Full Text Available Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling.

  5. Myocardial uptake and clearance of thallium-201 in normal subjects: comparison of dipyridamole-induced hyperemia with exercise stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.D.; Gill, J.B.; Finkelstein, D.M.; Strauss, H.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thallium-201 uptake and clearance after dipyridamole infusion may differ from that after exercise stress because the hemodynamic effects of these two interventions are different. In this study of normal volunteers, thallium kinetics after dipyridamole (n = 13) were determined from three serial image sets (early, intermediate and delayed) and from serial blood samples and compared with thallium kinetics after exercise (n = 15). Absolute myocardial thallium uptake was greater after dipyridamole compared with exercise (p less than 0.0001), although the relative myocardial distribution was similar. The myocardial clearance (%/h) of thallium was slower after dipyridamole than it was after exercise. Comparing dipyridamole and exercise, the differences in clearance were large from the early to the intermediate image (anterior, -11 +/- 17 versus 24 +/- 5, p = 0.0005; 50 degrees left anterior oblique, -7 +/- 11 versus 15 +/- 8, p = 0.004; 70 degrees left anterior oblique, 3 +/- 9 versus 21 +/- 6, p = 0.001). In contrast, the differences in clearance were small from the intermediate to the delayed image (anterior, 15 +/- 4 versus 20 +/- 2, p = 0.025; 50 degrees left anterior oblique, 15 +/- 4 versus 19 +/- 3, p = 0.13; 70 degrees left anterior oblique, 15 +/- 3 versus 18 +/- 2, p = 0.047). Thallium uptake and clearance in the liver, splanchnic region and spleen were greater after dipyridamole (p less than 0.001). Blood thallium levels were greater after dipyridamole (p less than 0.05) and cleared more slowly (p = 0.07). Thus, myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance after dipyridamole infusion differ from thallium kinetics after exercise. This difference is, in part, related to associated differences in extracardiac and blood kinetics. Diagnostic criteria for the detection of abnormal thallium-201 clearance must be specific for the type of intervention

  6. Clearance and release from control - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to give an overview of the clearance, or release from regulatory control, on an international scale, including some of those countries where clearance has become or is about to become vital for D and D. The emphasis lies on the impact of clearance, and in particular of differences between clearance levels of various countries, on D and D. Relevance of clearance for D and D of nuclear installations Clearance is an essential part of waste management (or more general, material management) in nuclear installations, and in particular during the decommissioning phase where waste streams continues to arise. Of course, the relevance of clearance in a particular country depends on a number of factors, like: availability of a final repository and its price; prevailing decommissioning strategy; number of nuclear installations reaching decommissioning phase. This small selection of reasons why clearance may be of varying importance for different countries may already suffice to illustrate why up to now clearance has been developed and implemented in quite different ways. If one thinks of additional reasons that may influence clearance, like politics, the public opinion, availability of funds etc., the situation becomes even more complex. It is, however safe to draw the conclusion that countries with a certain number of nuclear installations which have been or will soon be shut down or which are already in the decommissioning phase will need to implement provisions for clearance. This has indeed been the case with countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Sweden, and a number of others. It is not essential for clearance levels to be exactly equal between various countries. They may differ as long as the difference is not too large, e.g. the values fall into the same order of magnitude. This is the reason why for example Germany has no problems with clearance levels which differ from the EU recommendation RP 122 partially adopted in a number of EU countries

  7. Investigations of renal clearance in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1981-01-01

    Comparative investigations of PAH- and inulin-clearance and results of investigations with J-131-hippurate and Cr-51-EDTA, which were performed by a partly screened whole body counter including measurements of activity retention of blood samples, are showing good correlation. If the radio-isotope nephrography is worked out together with the decreased retention curve, separate results of the function of both kidneys can be given. Modifications which were tried to analyze a small part of the retention curve instead of the whole body are inaccurate, if they are below 300 ml/min. (orig.) [de

  8. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of neuronal signalling is the increased concentration of K(+) in the extracellular space. The K(+) concentration is restored to its original basal level primarily by uptake into nearby glial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which K(+) is transferred from the extracellular...... space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...

  9. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.; Niemeyer, M. I.; Machler, P.; Ruminot, I.; Lerchundi, R.; Wyss, M. T.; Stobart, J.; Fernandez-Moncada, I.; Valdebenito, R.; Garrido-Gerter, P.; Contreras-Baeza, Y.; Schneider, B. L.; Aebischer, P.; Lengacher, S.; San Martin, A.; Le Douce, J.; Bonvento, G.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Sepulveda, F. V.; Weber, B.; Barros, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  10. Application of isotopes to the study of lactate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of 14 C as tracer to measure lactate turnover and oxidation and its role in gluconeogenesis are discussed. Lactate is formed as well as utilized in many cells, and most of it in the body is present within cells so that interpretation of 14 C data from labelled lactate is more complex and more difficult than that of compounds present largely extracellularly, such as glucose. Apparent uptake of [ 14 C]lactate may occur in the absence of net lactate utilization, and 14 CO 2 production does not provide a measure of true lactate oxidation. In vivo sites of tracer administration and sampling of blood are of critical significance for evaluation of lactate turnover, lactate space, its incorporation into glucose, and oxidation

  11. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; Brander, Lukas; Jansen, Sebastiaan P. A.; Rommes, Johannes H.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients

  12. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased

  13. Impact of feeding reduced crude protein diets to lactating sows on nitrogen utilizatilon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Larsen, Uffe Krogh

    2015-01-01

    -fed; analyzed contents; HCP); 2) 15.7% CP (MHCP); 3) 14.3% CP (MLCP); 4) 13.2% CP (LCP); diet HCP was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced CP diets contained CAA to meet requirements of the limiting AA. Sow and piglet BW were measured on d 1, 3, 7, 14, 18, and 21...... of lactation. Nitrogen retention was measured on sows between d 3 and 7 (early) and d 14 and 18 (peak) of lactation. Milk true protein output was calculated from estimated milk yield and analyzed true protein concentration. Sow BW change (overall mean: -4.2 ± 3.37 kg over the 21-d lactation period) and average...... daily DM intake (overall mean: 4.05 ± 0.18 and 6.12 ± 0.20 kg/d, early and peak lactation, respectively) did not differ between diets. Nitrogen intake decreased as dietary CP concentration decreased (114.3, 106.0, 107.4, and 99.0 ± 5.29 g/d and 169.5, 168.3, 161.2, and 145.1 ± 5.29 g/d for HCP, MHCP...

  14. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19

  15. Osteoporosis presenting in pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2014-12-01

    To describe our current state of knowledge about the pathophysiology, incidence, and treatment of osteoporosis that presents during pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation. When vertebral fractures occur in pregnant or lactating women, it is usually unknown whether the skeleton was normal before pregnancy. Maternal adaptations increase bone resorption modestly during pregnancy but markedly during lactation. The net bone loss may occasionally precipitate fractures, especially in women who have underlying low bone mass or skeletal fragility prior to pregnancy. Bone mass and strength are normally restored postweaning. Transient osteoporosis of the hip is a sporadic disorder localized to one or both femoral heads; it is not due to generalized skeletal resorption. Anecdotal reports have used bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, or vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty to treat postpartum vertebral fractures, but it is unclear whether these therapies had any added benefit over the spontaneous skeletal recovery that normally occurs after weaning. These relatively rare fragility fractures result from multifactorial causes, including skeletal disorders that precede pregnancy, and structural and metabolic stresses that can compromise skeletal strength during pregnancy and lactation. Further study is needed to determine when pharmacological or surgical therapy is warranted instead of conservative or expectant management.

  16. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  17. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H; Feng, J J; Wu, G K; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  18. Evaluation of serum iohexol clearance for use in predicting carboplatin clearance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dennis B; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Prey, Joshua D; Dykes, Nathan L

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assay based on serum iohexol clearance can be used to predict carboplatin clearance in cats. 10 cats with tumors. GFR was measured concurrently by use of plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) to yield GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and serum clearance of iohexol to yield GFR(Iohexol). A single dose of carboplatin was administered IV as a bolus. Dose was calculated by use of a target value for the area under the plasma platinum concentration-versus-time curve (AUC(Target)) and estimation of platinum clearance (CL(PT)) derived from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x 2.6 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA) x body weight, where AUC(Target) is 2.75 min.mg.mL(-1). Plasma platinum concentrations were measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Values for GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were compared by use of least-squares regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Least-squares regression was used to determine whether CL(PT) could be predicted from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) or GFR(Iohexol) (or both). GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were strongly correlated (r = 0.90), but GFR(Iohexol) values were significantly larger by a factor of approximately 1.4. Platinum clearance had a significant linear relationship to GFR(99mTc-DTPA) (CL(PT) = 2.5 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA)) and to GFR(Iohexol) (CL(PT) = [1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4). In cats, serum iohexol clearance was an accurate predictor of CL(PT) and can be used to calculate the carboplatin dose as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x ([1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4) x body weight.

  19. Self-Powered Electrochemical Lactate Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baingane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and characterization of a self-powered electrochemical lactate biosensor for real-time monitoring of lactic acid. The bioanode and biocathode were modified with D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH and bilirubin oxidase (BOD, respectively, to facilitate the oxidation and reduction of lactic acid and molecular oxygen. The bioelectrodes were arranged in a parallel configuration to construct the biofuel cell. This biofuel cell’s current–voltage characteristic was analyzed in the presence of various lactic acid concentrations over a range of 1–25 mM. An open circuit voltage of 395.3 mV and a short circuit current density of 418.8 µA/cm² were obtained when operating in 25 mM lactic acid. Additionally, a 10 pF capacitor was integrated via a charge pump circuit to the biofuel cell to realize the self-powered lactate biosensor with a footprint of 1.4 cm × 2 cm. The charge pump enabled the boosting of the biofuel cell voltage in bursts of 1.2–1.8 V via the capacitor. By observing the burst frequency of a 10 pF capacitor, the exact concentration of lactic acid was deduced. As a self-powered lactate sensor, a linear dynamic range of 1–100 mM lactic acid was observed under physiologic conditions (37 °C, pH 7.4 and the sensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity of 125.88 Hz/mM-cm2. This electrochemical lactate biosensor has the potential to be used for the real-time monitoring of lactic acid level in biological fluids.

  20. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  1. Improved drainage with active chest tube clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiose, Akira; Takaseya, Tohru; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Arakawa, Yoko; Horai, Tetsuya; Boyle, Edward M; Gillinov, A Marc; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel chest drainage system. This system employs guide wire-based active chest tube clearance to improve drainage and maintain patency. A 32 Fr chest tube was inserted into pleural cavities of five pigs. On the left, a tube was connected to the chest canister, and on the right, the new system was inserted between the chest tube and chest canister. Acute bleeding was mimicked by periodic infusion of blood. The amount of blood drained from each chest cavity was recorded every 15 min for 2 h. After completion of the procedure, all residual blood and clots in each chest cavity were assessed. The new system remained widely patent, and the amount of drainage achieved with this system (670+/-105 ml) was significantly (P=0.01) higher than that with the standard tube (239+/-131 ml). The amount of retained pleural blood and clots with this system (150+/-107 ml) was significantly (P=0.04) lower than that with the standard tube (571+/-248 ml). In conclusion, a novel chest drainage system with active tube clearance significantly improved drainage without tube manipulations. 2010 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie A Brown

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and the proposed causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found exclusively in the mammalian oral cavity in the space between the gums and the teeth known as the gingival crevice. Many bacterial species reside in this environment where competition for carbon is high. A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a unique carbon resource partitioning system whereby the presence of L-lactate inhibits uptake of glucose, thus allowing preferential catabolism of L-lactate. Although the mechanism for this process is not fully elucidated, we previously demonstrated that high levels of intracellular pyruvate are critical for L-lactate preference. As the first step in L-lactate catabolism is conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, we proposed a model in which the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase, unlike homologous enzymes, is not feedback inhibited by pyruvate. This lack of feedback inhibition allows intracellular pyruvate to rise to levels sufficient to inhibit glucose uptake in other bacteria. In the present study, the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase was purified and shown to convert L-lactate, but not D-lactate, to pyruvate with a K(m of approximately 150 microM. Inhibition studies reveal that pyruvate is a poor inhibitor of L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, providing mechanistic insight into L-lactate preference in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  4. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance in Alzheimer Disease Measured with Dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint-Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Dynamic PET with 18 F-THK5117, a tracer for tau pathology, was used to estimate the ventricular CSF time-activity as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested 3 hypotheses: extracranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers, were examined with 18 F-THK5117. Ten subjects additionally underwent 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB) PET scanning, and 8 were 11 C-PiB-positive. Ventricular time-activity curves of 18 F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated time-activity curves from extracranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF-positive extracranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinate CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET-measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  7. Validation of Dose Calculation Codes for Clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.; Wirendal, B.; Bjerler, J.; Studsvik; Teunckens, L.

    2003-01-01

    Various international and national bodies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have put forward proposals or guidance documents to regulate the ''clearance'' from regulatory control of very low level radioactive material, in order to allow its recycling as a material management practice. All these proposals are based on predicted scenarios for subsequent utilization of the released materials. The calculation models used in these scenarios tend to utilize conservative data regarding exposure times and dose uptake as well as other assumptions as a safeguard against uncertainties. None of these models has ever been validated by comparison with the actual real life practice of recycling. An international project was organized in order to validate some of the assumptions made in these calculation models, and, thereby, better assess the radiological consequences of recycling on a practical large scale

  8. Changing Subjects: The Gallery at Cleveland House and the Highland Clearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nellis Richter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1812, a porter named William Cantrill published a small volume of etchings dedicated to his employer, the Marchioness of Stafford. Cantrill characterized his reproductions of a select group of small Netherlandish pictures from the art gallery at the Marchioness’s London residence, Cleveland House, as “first attempts from an untutored hand”, calling attention to his status as a servant and untrained artist. In this article, I examine this idiosyncratic volume in light of the reception of small subject pictures in the early nineteenth century, and also within the context of the Marchioness of Stafford’s involvement in the Highland Clearances. At a moment when the Marchioness and her husband were under scrutiny for the heavy-handed tactics used against their Scottish tenants, this book used the category of genre painting to smooth over the gaps between landowner and tenant that the Clearances had made evident.

  9. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle.

  10. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H

    2003-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... kinetics changed multiple times when exercise mode was changed. Whole body glucose and glycerol turnover was unchanged during the different skiing modes; however, limb net glucose uptake changed severalfold. In conclusion, the arterial lactate concentration can be maintained at a relatively low level...... despite high lactate R(a) during exercise with a large muscle mass because of the large capacity of active skeletal muscle to take up lactate, which is tightly correlated with lactate delivery. The limb lactate uptake during exercise is oxidized at rates far above resting oxygen consumption, implying...

  11. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle. PMID:26039160

  12. Chronic pain management in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, F; Valensise, H; Sacco, M; Allegri, M

    2014-02-01

    During pregnancy most of women will experience some kind of pain, either as a result of a pre-existing condition (low back pain, headache, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis) or as a direct consequence of pregnancy (weight gain, postural changes, pelvic floor dysfunction, hormonal factors). However, chronic pain management during pregnancy and lactation remains a challenge for clinicians and pregnant women are at risk of undertreatment for painful conditions, because of fear about use of drugs during pregnancy. Few analgesic drugs have been demonstrated to be absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but studies in pregnant women are not available for most of pain medications. The aim of this paper is to review the safety profile in pregnancy or lactation of the commonly prescribed pain medications and non-pharmacological treatments. In addition to the conventional classifications from the Food and Drug Administration and the American Academy of Paediatrics, authors analyzed the currently available clinical data from literature.

  13. Reevaluating Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease from the Perspective of the Astrocyte-Neuron Lactate Shuttle Model

    OpenAIRE

    Newington, Jordan T.; Harris, Richard A.; Cumming, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional view of central nervous system (CNS) metabolism is based on the assumption that glucose is the main fuel source for active neurons and is processed in an oxidative manner. However, since the early 1990s research has challenged the idea that the energy needs of nerve cells are met exclusively by glucose and oxidative metabolism. This alternative view of glucose utilization contends that astrocytes metabolize glucose to lactate, which is then released and taken up by nearby neu...

  14. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  15. Clearance of building structures for conventional non-nuclear reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, K.; Boehringer, S.

    1998-01-01

    At the example of a fuel assembly plant the strategy of control measurements on building surfaces, which shall be conventionally reused after their clearance, is regarded. Based on the given clearance levels the used measuring methods, especially with regard of possibly covered or intruded uranium contamination, are shown. The possibility of using the in-situ-γ-spectroscopy is discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Discrepancy between circadian rhythms of inulin and creatinine clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the disparity between circadian rhythmicity of inulin and creatinine clearance, we simultaneously measured inulin and creatinine clearances every 3 hours during 1 day in 14 normal subjects and in 8 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All patients and normal subjects had a circadian rhythm

  17. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  18. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... No. USCG-2013-0466] Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... clearance (air-draft) accidents. In its petition, which calls for vessel masters to be provided with... accidents that it says were avoidable and that resulted in damage to or destruction of waterway...

  19. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to taking...

  20. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office...

  1. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking the...

  2. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Séverine H.; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Lacroix, Marlène Z.; Puel, Sylvie; Viguié, Catherine; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min

  3. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  4. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation or...

  5. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  6. Weter consumption during pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Damián Ricardo; Beltrán Montoya Jorge; Espino y Sosa Salvador

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, water is retained partially owing to an increase in vasopressin production. Ingested water is used to produce amniotic fluid. Climate conditions and physical activity, gestational nausea and vomit, and a higher caloric intake, increases water needs; during lactation, more water is needed to produce milk. Dehydration during pregnancy is especially dangerous; it must be avoided. Physiological changes during pregnancy modify water metabolism: blood volume and glomerular filtrat...

  7. Cerebral Lactate Concentration in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: In Relation to Time, Characteristic of Injury, and Serum Lactate Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Wei Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCerebral lactate concentration can remain detectable in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE after hemodynamic stability. The temporal resolution of regional cerebral lactate concentration in relation to the severity or area of injury is unclear. Furthermore, the interplay between serum and cerebral lactate in neonatal HIE has not been well defined. The study aims to describe cerebral lactate concentration in neonatal HIE in relation to time, injury, and serum lactate.Design/methodsFifty-two newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI + MR spectroscopy were performed during and after TH at 54.6 ± 15.0 and 156 ± 57.6 h of life, respectively. Severity and predominant pattern of injury was scored radiographically. Single-voxel 1H MR spectra were acquired using short-echo (35 ms PRESS sequence localized to the basal ganglia (BG, thalamus (Thal, gray matter (GM, and white matter. Cerebral lactate concentration was quantified by LCModel software. Serum and cerebral lactate concentrations were plotted based on age at time of measurement. Multiple comparisons of regional cerebral lactate concentration based on severity and predominant pattern of injury were performed. Spearman’s Rho was computed to determine correlation between serum lactate and cerebral lactate concentration at the respective regions of interest.ResultsOverall, serum lactate concentration decreased over time. Cerebral lactate concentration remained low for less severe injury and decreased over time for more severe injury. Cerebral lactate remained detectable even after TH. During TH, there was a significant higher concentration of cerebral lactate at the areas of injury and also when injury was more severe. However, these differences were no longer observed after TH. There was a weak correlation between serum lactate and cerebral lactate concentration at the BG (rs

  8. The effects of first gestation and lactation on bone metabolism in dairy goats and milk sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Risteli, J; Wanner, M

    2006-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare mobilization rate of calcium (Ca) from bone in pregnant and lactating goats and sheep. Blood samples were collected from goats and sheep monthly during pregnancy and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) and monthly during lactation until 6 months after parturition. Total bone mineral content (BMC) and total bone mineral density (BMD) were quantified using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the same intervals as the blood was taken. Bone resorption was assessed by immunoassays quantitating two epitopes of the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, CTX). Bone formation was estimated by quantifying serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP). In addition, Ca and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-VITD) concentrations were determined in serum. Mean ICTP and CTX concentrations of both animal species increased the first week after parturition. By the second week pp, the concentrations of both markers had decreased toward early gestation levels. In contrast, mean OC concentrations continually decreased until the 1st week pp. By the 2nd week pp, the mean concentrations of OC started to increase again. Mean bAP activities decreased during gestation and reached a nadir in the first week pp in goats and 4 weeks pp in sheep. Afterwards, mean bAP activities increased again in goats and sheep. 1,25-VITD concentrations peaked the first week pp and returned to early gestation values thereafter. Total BMC and BMD decreased from the 4th month of pregnancy until the 1st week pp in both species. Afterwards, BMC increased throughout the first month pp in goats and the first 3 months pp in sheep. BMD levels of sheep and goats returned to prepartum levels during lactation. The resorptive phase of bone remodeling is accelerated at parturition and in early lactation and is uncoupled from the process of bone formation. This allows the animal to achieve Ca homeostasis at the expense of bone. Increased

  9. Weter consumption during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Damián Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, water is retained partially owing to an increase in vasopressin production. Ingested water is used to produce amniotic fluid. Climate conditions and physical activity, gestational nausea and vomit, and a higher caloric intake, increases water needs; during lactation, more water is needed to produce milk. Dehydration during pregnancy is especially dangerous; it must be avoided. Physiological changes during pregnancy modify water metabolism: blood volume and glomerular filtration rate increase; more water is lost trhough sweating and respiration. Placenta con- tains up to 500 mL of water, and there are between 500-1,200 mL of amniotic fluid. Different studies recommend a total water intake of 2,700-4,800 mL/day during pregnancy, of which 1,470-2,370 should be beverages and water. For the Mexican population, the recommendation is 3,000 mL/day. Based on energy intake and the rule of 1-1.5 mL of water per kcal, water intake must increase in at least 300 mL/day at the beginning of the third pregnancy trimester. During lactation the recommended intake is of 3-3.6 L/ day, depending on age. Obesity and overweight during pregnancy are a major health problem, to which sugary beverages contribute. Water must be considered the best choice for hydration during pregnancy and lactation.

  10. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants: a quality review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Douwe H; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvulsants against the guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA). Except for one study on lamotrigine and one case report on gabapentin, no study on anticonvulsants had both the absolute infant dose (AID) and milk to plasma ratio (M : P) correctly assessed. Only one study on carbamazepine, phenytoin and vigabatrin was found that correctly assessed the AID. The main cause for this low number is the lack of essential details in published studies, since 25 of 62 studies were case reports, letters or abstracts. Other major shortcomings were the lack of information on sampling methods, the number of samples in a particular dose interval as well as the low number of study participants. The quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk is low, except for lamotrigine, which makes it hard to draw conclusions about the safety of the use of anticonvulsants during the lactation period. Therefore, further research is needed. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. A novel continuous subcutaneous lactate monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, A; Messeri, D; Moscone, D; Ricci, F; Valgimigli, F

    2005-05-15

    A novel continuous lactate monitoring system has been developed modifying the GlucoDay portable medical device (A. Menarini Diagnostics), already present in the European market, and used to continuously measure glucose levels. Lactate oxidase based biosensors have been developed immobilising the enzyme on nylon net and placing it on a Pt electrode. The biosensor was connected to the portable device provided with a micro-pump and coupled to a microdialysis system. It is capable to record subcutaneous lactate every 3 min. In vitro analytical results confirmed that the sensors respond linearly in the interval of concentration between 0.1 and 10 mmol/L, covering the whole physiological range. During prolonged monitoring periods, the response of the biosensors remained stable, showing a limited drift of 8%, within 60 h. Stability tests are still on route. However, preliminary results have shown a shelf life of about 10 months. In vivo experiments performed on healthy rabbits have demonstrated the good accuracy and reproducibility of the system. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.9547 (N=80) was found, which represents a good correlation between the GlucoDay and the laboratory reference analyser. A 16 h in vivo monitoring on a healthy volunteer has been also performed.

  12. Lung clearance of 99mTc-DTPA aerosols in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial pneumopathy diffuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, Carmelindo; Mello, Rossana Corbo de; Fonseca, Lea M.B.; Maliska, Celsa M.; Wolosker, Sara; Albernaz, Marta S.; Marinho, J.C.A.; Lima, Jose E.T.; Jansen, Jose M.

    1996-01-01

    An increasement in pulmonary epithelial permeability occurs when the alveolar-capillary units are disrupted. This permeability increasement can be measured by the 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol washout from lungs. Twenty three patients (10 healthy normal controls, 6 with COPD, 5 with diffuse infiltrative lung disease (DILD) and 2 asyntomatic patients that underwent radioiodine therapy dose) in order to verify the lung clearance rate of 99m Tc-DTPA in our population. The mean and standard deviation of pulmonary clearance rate in the normal group was 0,722±0,098%min -1 . The COPD patients rate resembled to the normal group rate. Four in five DILD patients had increased pulmonary clearance rate. The 2 patients that underwent radioiodine therapeutic showed normal clearance values of 99m Tc-DTPA from lungs. Our preliminary observations suggest that 99 'm Tc-DTPA clearance can be used as valuable tool in assessing early stages of pulmonary disorders in systemic diseases that may affect the lung. We also suggest that COPD does not seem to raise the pulmonary epithelial permeability. (author)

  13. Estimation of 131I hippuran clearance during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, R.; Stoll, W.; Zenner, I.; Arndt, J.; Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena

    1979-01-01

    Changes in 131 I hippuran clearance were estimated by a non-catheter method, as well as total clearance and clearance of each kidney, in 43 women at various stages of pregnancy and in 13 non-pregnant women who were not using hormonal contraceptives. The results are demonstrated in graph form. The methods used are described in detail. The procedure for determining clearance in separate kidneys is indicated. It was found that clearance values increased up to the 35th and 26th weeks of pregnancy. The difference between the sides that were found corresponds with the previously known difference in the function of the right and left kidneys and ureters. (orig.) [de

  14. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  15. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  16. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Andrus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide (pAam. Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors.

  17. EVALUATION OF SERUM LACTATE LEVELS AS A PROGNOSTIC INDICATOR IN VARIOUS TYPES OF SHOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaraj Wali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sepsis is a lethal disease that has a complex pathophysiology including a dysregulated inflammatory response, endothelial injury, microvascular thrombosis, vasoplegia and myocardial depression leading to multiorgan failure. Prompt recognition of sepsis, early initiation of antibiotics, source control, optimal fluid and vasopressor therapy are of utmost importance. Early diagnosis of sepsis is very critical for the timely and efficient use of treatment modalities, however, there are no reliable, specific biomarkers that can guide the diagnosis of sepsis. Cardiopulmonary failure, sepsis, trauma, oncologic pathology and so can lead to lactic acidosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the serum lactic acid levels as a prognostic marker in various type of shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective clinical study with 50 patients studied for 1 year. To study the values of serum lactate levels in shock patients. Statistical analysis- Chi-square test 2. Student’s t-test (two tailed, independent. RESULTS Out of the 50 patients included in the study, the incidence of shock was found to be high in the 21-30 years age group, 13 (26%. This study of ours revealed the most common focus of sepsis as respiratory tract (60%, followed by urinary tract (25%, skin and soft tissue (15%. Out of the 18 patients who died, it was noted that mortality rates were highest 10 (55.5% in patients with initial (0 hours high positive serum lactate levels (>4 mmol/L. Out of the 32 patients who recovered, majority 21 (65.6% had low positive serum lactate levels (0-2.5 mmol/L on admission (0 hours. Serum lactate level is significantly reduced in recovered patients. CONCLUSION Approximately, 30% to 45% of patients with septic shock and 60% to 90% of patients with cardiogenic shock die within 1 month of presentation. Lactate was chosen because it is used as a prognostic marker of global hypoxia. Serial lactate values followed over a period of time can be used to

  18. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  19. The relationship between exsanguination blood lactate concentration and carcass quality in slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Correa, J A; Paradis, M A; Grandin, T; Anderson, D B

    2010-07-01

    A group of 128 cross-bred barrows were used to determine the relationship between exsanguination blood lactate concentration ([LAC]) and carcass quality following commercial marketing conditions. After 10h of feed withdrawal, pigs were loaded on a truck with a hydraulically lifted second deck and transported approximately 1h to the slaughter facility. Pigs were rested for 8h and stunned with carbon dioxide. Blood lactate concentration was measured on exsanguination blood. Fourteen pork quality measurements were obtained following normal post-mortem processing. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between [LAC] and the meat quality parameters. Exsanguination blood lactate concentration ranged from 4 to 19.7 mM. Higher lactate was associated with lower 60 min pH (P=0.0004) and higher drip loss (P=0.02). These results suggest that under low-stress loading and standard marketing conditions, exsanguination [LAC] is predictive of the rate of early post-mortem metabolism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of body condition score measured throughout lactation as an indicator of fertility in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, M P

    2004-08-01

    Body condition score (BCS) records of primiparous Holstein cows were analyzed both as a single measure per animal and as repeated measures per sire of cow. The former resulted in a single, average, genetic evaluation for each sire, and the latter resulted in separate genetic evaluations per day of lactation. Repeated measure analysis yielded genetic correlations of less than unity between days of lactation, suggesting that BCS may not be the same trait across lactation. Differences between daily genetic evaluations on d 10 or 30 and subsequent daily evaluations were used to assess BCS change at different stages of lactation. Genetic evaluations for BCS level or change were used to estimate genetic correlations between BCS measures and fertility traits in order to assess the capacity of BCS to predict fertility. Genetic correlation estimates with calving interval and non-return rate were consistently higher for daily BCS than single measure BCS evaluations, but results were not always statistically different. Genetic correlations between BCS change and fertility traits were not significantly different from zero. The product of the accuracy of BCS evaluations with their genetic correlation with the UK fertility index, comprising calving interval and non-return rate, was consistently higher for daily than for single BCS evaluations, by 28 to 53%. This product is associated with the conceptual correlated response in fertility from BCS selection and was highest for early (d 10 to 75) evaluations.

  1. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1997-07-01

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap. This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. Although radiologically justified, raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In

  2. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  3. MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE DURING LACTATION SUPPRESSES SUCKLING-INDUCED PROLACTIN RELEASE AND RESULTS IN PROSTATITIS IN THE ADULT OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of prolactin (PRL) to the neonatal brain is known to affect the development of the tuberoinfundibular (TIDA) neurons and, as a consequence, lead to alterations in subsequent PRL regulation. Without early lactational exposure to PRL (derived from the dam's milk), ...

  4. Progressive Impairment of Lactate-based Gluconeogenesis in the Huntington's Disease Mouse Model R6/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Hasholt, Lis; Nørremølle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    of impairment of lactate-based hepatic gluconeogenesis in the transgenic HD mouse model R6/2 and determine that the defect manifests very early and progresses in severity with disease development, indicating a potential to explore this defect in a biomarker context. Moreover, R6/2 animals displayed lower blood...

  5. Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3

  6. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. Copyright © 2014

  7. Evaluating tear clearance rate with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Mousavi, Maryam; Cervino Exposito, Alejandro; Bartuzel, Maciej M; Montes-Micó, Robert; Iskander, D Robert

    2018-02-01

    To assess the early-phase of tear clearance rate (TCR) with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine the association between TCR and other clinical measures of the tear film in a group of young subjects with different levels of tear film quality. TCR was classified as the percentage decrease of subject's inferior tear meniscus height 30s after instillation of 5μl 0.9% saline solution. Fifty subjects (32F and 18M) aged (mean±standard deviation) 25.5±4.3 years volunteered for the study. It consisted of a review of medical history, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear film osmolarity measurements, slit lamp examination and TCR estimation based on dynamic measurements of the lower tear meniscus with OCT. Estimates of TCR were contrasted against subject age and tear film measures commonly used for dry eye diagnosis, which includes OSDI score, fluorescein tear film break-up time (FBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), blinking frequency, tear film osmolarity and corneal staining. The group mean TCR was 29±13% and 36±19% respectively after 30 and 60s margin after saline solution instillation. Statistically significant correlations were found between TCR and FBUT (r 2 =0.319, placrimal functional unit. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Creatinine clearance during cimetidine administration for measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; de Waart, D. R.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    Creatinine clearance inaccurately estimates true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because of tubular secretion of creatinine. We studied the ability of oral cimetidine, a blocker of tubular creatinine secretion, to improve the accuracy of measuring creatinine clearance. Clearances of inulin and

  9. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-XXXX. Type of Review: Generic Clearance Request. Title: Generic Clearance for Research in Development... information collected through qualitative evaluation methods will inform the disclosure form's design and... Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development of...

  10. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  11. Microbial Community Dynamics of Lactate Enriched Hanford Groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, Jennifer J.; Drake, Meghan M.; Carroll, Susan L.; Yang, Zamin K.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brown, Stephen D.; Podar, Mircea; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy site at Hanford, WA, has been historically impacted by U and Cr from the nuclear weapons industry. In an attempt to stimulate microbial remediation of these metals, in-situ lactate enrichment experiments are ongoing. In order to bridge the gap from the laboratory to the field, we inoculated triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors with groundwater collected from well Hanford 100-H in order to obtain a stable, enriched community while selecting for metal-reducing bacteria. Each reactor was fed from a single carboy containing defined media with 30 mM lactate at a rate of 0.223 ml/min under continuous nitrogen flow at 9 ml/min. Cell counts, organic acids, gDNA (for qPCR and pyrosequencing) and gases were sampled during the experiment. Cell counts remained low (less than 1x107 cells/ml) during the first two weeks of the experiment, but by day 20, had reached a density greater than 1x108 cells/ml. Metabolite analysis showed a decrease in the lactate concentrations over time. Pyruvate concentrations ranged from 20-40 uM the first week of the experiment then was undetectable after day 10. Likewise, formate appeared in the reactors during the first week with concentrations of 1.48-1.65 mM at day 7 then the concentrations decreased to 0.69-0.95 on day 10 and were undetectable on day 15. Acetate was present in low amounts on day 3 (0.15-0.33 mM) and steadily increased to 3.35-5.22 mM over time. Similarly, carbon dioxide was present in low concentrations early on and increased to 0.28-0.35 mM as the experiment progressed. We also were able to detect low amounts of methane (10-20 uM) during the first week of the experiment, but by day 10 the methane was undetectable. From these results and pyrosequencing analysis, we conclude that a shift in the microbial community dynamics occurred over time to eventually form a stable and enriched microbial community. Comprehensive investigations such as these allow for the examination of not only which

  12. Computed exercise plasma lactate concentrations: A conversion formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bally

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Blood lactate measurements are common as a marker of skeletal muscle metabolism in sport medicine. Due to the close equilibrium between the extracellular and intramyocellular space, plasma lactate is a more accurate estimate of muscle lactate. However, whole blood-based lactate measurements are more convenient in field use. The purpose of this investigation was therefore (1 to establish a plasma-converting lactate formula for field use, and (2 to validate the computed plasma lactate levels by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Design and methods: A total of 91 venous samples were taken from 6 individuals with type 1 diabetes during resting and exercise conditions and assessed for whole blood and plasma lactate using the YSI 2300 analyzer. A linear model was applied to establish a formula for converting whole blood lactate to plasma lactate. The validity of computed plasma lactate values was assessed by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Results: Whole blood YSI lactate could be converted to plasma YSI values (slope 1.66, intercept 0.12 for samples with normal hematocrit. Computed plasma levels compared to values determined by the laboratory standard method using Passing-Bablok regression yielded a slope of 1.03 (95%CI:0.99:1.08 with an intercept of -0.11 (95%CI:-0.18:-0.06. Conclusions: Whole blood YSI lactate values can be reliably converted into plasma values which are in line with laboratory determined plasma measurements. Keywords: Lactate, Plasma vs whole-blood, Hematocrit, Enzyme electrodes, Sample treatment

  13. Nuclear regulation. NRC's security clearance program can be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; Bagnulo, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Because of the national security implications of its programs, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) investigates the background of its employees and consultants as well as others to ensure that they are reliable and trustworthy. If the investigation indicates that an employee will not endanger national security, NRC grants a security clearance that allows access to classified information, material, and facilities. NRC also requires periodic checks for some clearance holders to ensure their continued clearance eligibility. The Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, House Committee on Government Operations, asked GAO to review NRC's personnel security clearance program and assess the procedures that NRC uses to ensure that those who operate nuclear power plants do not pose a threat to the public. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires NRC to conduct background investigations of its employees and consultants as well as others who have access to classified information, material, or facilities. To do this, NRC established a personnel security clearance program. Under NRC policies, a security clearance is granted after the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation checks the background of those applying for an NRC clearance. NRC also periodically reassesses the integrity of those holding the highest level clearance. NRC employees, consultants, contractors, and licensees as well as other federal employees hold approximately 10,600 NRC clearances. NRC does not grant clearances to commercial nuclear utility employees unless they require access to classified information or special nuclear material. However, the utilities have voluntarily established screening programs to ensure that their employees do not pose a threat to nuclear plants. NRC faces a dilemma when it hires new employees. Although its policy calls for new hires to be cleared before they start work, the security clearance process takes so long

  14. Increased dependence of leucine in posttraumatic sepsis: leucine/tyrosine clearance ratio as an indicator of hepatic impairment in septic multiple organ failure syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiruti, M; Siegel, J H; Sganga, G; Coleman, B; Wiles, C E; Belzberg, H; Wedel, S; Placko, R

    1985-09-01

    The body clearance of 10 plasma amino acids (AA) was determined from the rate of compared muscle-released AA and AA administered by infusion of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) compared to their estimated extracellular (ECW) pool in patients with multiple trauma with (n = 10) or without (n = 16) sepsis at 8-hour intervals. In both nonseptic and septic trauma, increasing TPN increased the mean clearance rate of all infused AA. When the individual AA clearance rates were normalized by the total AA infusion rate, regression-covariance analysis revealed that patients with sepsis had relatively impaired clearances of alanine (p less than 0.01) and methionine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine p less than 0.05 for all). In contrast, the clearances of branched-chain AA (BCAA) valine and isoleucine were maintained, and the clearance of leucine was higher (p less than 0.05) in trauma patients with sepsis than in those without. At any AA infusion rate, compared with surviving patients with sepsis (p less than 0.05), patients who developed fatal multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) showed increased clearances of all BCAA with further impaired clearance of tyrosine. The clearance ratio of leucine/tyrosine was increased in MOFS at any AA infusion rate (p less than 0.0001), was an indicator of severity, and, if persistent, was a manifestation of a fatal outcome. Because tyrosine metabolism occurs almost entirely in the liver while leucine can be utilized by viscera and muscle, these data suggest early and progressive septic impairment of the pattern of hepatic uptake and oxidation of AA with a greater body dependence on BCAA, especially leucine, as septic MOFS develops.

  15. Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.H.; Baker, A.L.; Dhorajiwala, J.; Moossa, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [ 14 C]erythritol and [ 3 H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [ 14 C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [ 3 H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [ 3 H]inulin clearance. The increase in [ 14 C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [ 14 C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [ 14 C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

  16. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B; Jin, W; Han, L; He, Z

    2012-01-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  17. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Jin, W.; Han, L.; He, Z.

    2012-05-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  18. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees defines unique gene expression patterns associated with viral clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Nanda

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection leads to a high rate of chronicity. Mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence are still poorly understood. In this study, hepatic gene expression analysis was performed to identify any molecular signature associated with the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in chimpanzees. Acutely HCV-infected chimpanzees with self-limited infection or progression to chronicity were studied. Interferon stimulated genes were induced irrespective of the outcome of infection. Early induction of a set of genes associated with cell proliferation and immune activation was associated with subsequent viral clearance. Specifically, two of the genes: interleukin binding factor 3 (ILF3 and cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein (TIA1, associated with robust T-cell response, were highly induced early in chimpanzees with self-limited infection. Up-regulation of genes associated with CD8+ T cell response was evident only during the clearance phase of the acute self-limited infection. The induction of these genes may represent an initial response of cellular injury and proliferation that successfully translates to a "danger signal" leading to induction of adaptive immunity to control viral infection. This primary difference in hepatic gene expression between self-limited and chronic infections supports the concept that successful activation of HCV-specific T-cell response is critical in clearance of acute HCV infection.

  19. Oxytocin and prolactin suppress cortisol responses to acute stress in both lactating and non-lactating sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C J

    1997-08-01

    Cortisol response to stress appears to differ between lactating and non-lactating animals. Lactating (14 d post partum) and non-lactating sheep were fitted with probes so that drugs and hormones could be infused directly into the posterior pituitary and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The animals were also fitted with instruments to allow monitoring of heart rate, body temperature and blood cortisol levels. Their reactions to a source of acute stress (a barking dog) were then followed, with or without drug and hormone manipulation. Results in both lactating and non-lactating animals indicated shortcomings in the use of cortisol as a stress indicator. Infusing prolactin and oxytocin into either the posterior pituitary or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus suppressed cortisol responsiveness to stress in both lactating and non-lactating animals (the latter to a greater extent). In the absence of drugs, lactating animals had a slightly higher basal level of cortisol and a lower cortisol response to stress than their non-lactating counterparts. Despite suppression of cortisol responses, with or without drugs, other indicators of stress still changed with the presence of a barking dog, suggesting the complexity of control involved in stress responses.

  20. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  1. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; van Hall, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10...... matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial...... is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function....

  2. Lactate induces osteoblast differentiation by stabilization of HIF1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Wang, Miaomiao; Feng, Haihua; Peng, Ying; Sun, Jieyun; Qu, Xiuxia; Li, Chunping

    2017-09-05

    Aerobic glycolysis is involved in osteoblast differentiation induced by Wnt signaling or PTH treatment. However, it is still unclear whether lactate, the end product of aerobic glycolysis, plays any role in osteoblast differentiation. Herein we report that in cultures of osteoblast-lineage cells, lactate promoted alkaline phosphatase-positive cell formation, increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and induced the expression of osteocalcin. This osteoblast differentiation-inducing effect of lactate can be inhibited by blocking its entry into cells with MCT1 siRNA or inhibitors, and by interfering with its metabolism by using specific siRNAs for LDHB and PDH. Moreover, lactate stabilized HIF1α expression and inhibited HIF1α activity, with BAY87-2243 lowering the osteoblast differentiation-inducing effect of lactate. Thus, these findings reveal an unrecognized role for aerobic glycolysis in osteoblast differentiation via its end product, lactate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wind Power and Fault Clearance. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikesjoe, Johnny; Messing, Lars (Gothia Power (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    The increased penetration of wind power will increase the impact of wind power on the grid and thereby increase the importance of a clear guidance concerning the requirements on the protection system of the wind power units and the grid protection in connection to wind power units. The protection system should be able to satisfy the grid connection requirements, set by the TSO (Transmission System Operator) and the grid owners, as well as the general safety and security requirements, such as; personal safety, operational security and economic insurance, i.e. an insurance against economic losses. Vindforsk has appointed Gothia Power AB to perform a study concerning the fault clearance function in connection to wind power installations. The study is divided into two parts; Part 1: The first stage of the project handled the present praxis for the protection, including investigation of legal requirements, operational requirement and personal safety requirement applicable to wind power applications. Proposals for protection requirement for wind power units and the connecting grid are given. Basically 'normal' fault clearance requirements regarding speed, selectivity and redundancy can be used also in applications in connection to wind power. Part 2: The second part of the project results in a guideline for design of protection systems in connection to wind power. In this report mainly part 2 is covered. The main focus is given to clearance of faults in the grid connecting the wind power plants. Regarding internal faults and critical operation states within the wind power plant, a short discussion of feasible protection functions is given. Some critical fault cases in the grid have been identified and discussed: - Undetected islanding and failure of reclosing. There can be a risk of undetected island operation. In such cases it is recommended to use controlled autoreclosing in the vicinity of wind power generation. - Unwanted disconnection of a healthy feeder

  4. UGT polymorphisms and lamotrigine clearance during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenaite, Vaiva; Öhman, Inger; Ekström, Lena

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of maternal UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms and sex of foetus on gestation-induced changes in lamotrigine (LTG) clearance during pregnancy and post-partum (PP). METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms UGT1A4 142T > G, L48V (*3), UGT1A4 70C > A, P24T (*2......), and post-partum (PP) as well as the sex of the foetus. RESULTS: Reductions in the LTG concentration-to-dose ratio (C/D ratio) during pregnancy were seen in all genotype panels and varied between -53% and -74% in T3. Genetic polymorphism of UGT1A4 T142G (*3) and UGT2B7 C802T (*2) had the most pronounced.......015) as well as in T3 compared to the heterozygous carriers (802CT) (p = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that women who carried a female foetus had a significantly higher reductions in the LTG C/D ratio from T0 to the end of pregnancy than those with a male foetus (p = 0...

  5. Serum Procalcitonin and Peripheral Venous Lactate for Predicting Dengue Shock and/or Organ Failure: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipa Thanachartwet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are no biomarkers that can predict the incidence of dengue shock and/or organ failure, although the early identification of risk factors is important in determining appropriate management to reduce mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the factors associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure and to evaluate the prognostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT and peripheral venous lactate (PVL levels as biomarkers of dengue shock and/or organ failure.A prospective observational study was conducted among adults hospitalized for confirmed viral dengue infection at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Bangkok, Thailand between October 2013 and July 2015. Data, including baseline characteristics, clinical parameters, laboratory findings, serum PCT and PVL levels, management, and outcomes, were recorded on pre-defined case report forms. Of 160 patients with dengue, 128 (80.0% patients had dengue without shock or organ failure, whereas 32 (20.0% patients developed dengue with shock and/or organ failure. Using a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR]: 4.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60-14.45; p = 0.005 and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L (OR: 27.99, 95% CI: 8.47-92.53; p <0.001 were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. A combination of PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L provided good prognostic value for predicting dengue shock and/or organ failure, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.92, a sensitivity of 81.2% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8%, and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI: 76.9-90.2%. Dengue shock patients with non-clearance of PCT and PVL expired during hospitalization.PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. The combination of PCT and PVL levels could be used as prognostic biomarkers for the prediction of dengue shock and/or organ failure.

  6. Quantitative Impact of Plasma Clearance and Down-regulation on GLP-1 Receptor Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Thurber, Greg M

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative molecular imaging of beta cell mass (BCM) would enable early detection and treatment monitoring of type 1 diabetes. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor is an attractive target due to its beta cell specificity and cell surface location. We quantitatively investigated the impact of plasma clearance and receptor internalization on targeting efficiency in healthy B6 mice. Four exenatide-based probes were synthesized that varied in molecular weight, binding affinity, and plasma clearance. The GLP-1 receptor internalization rate and in vivo receptor expression were quantified. Receptor internalization (54,000 receptors/cell in vivo) decreased significantly within minutes, reducing the benefit of a slower-clearing agent. The multimers and albumin binding probes had higher kidney and liver uptake, respectively. Slow plasma clearance is beneficial for GLP-1 receptor peptide therapeutics. However, for exendin-based imaging of islets, down-regulation of the GLP-1 receptor and non-specific background uptake result in a higher target-to-background ratio for fast-clearing agents.

  7. Clearance from the anterior chamber of RBCs from human diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.A.; Hatchell, D.L.; Collier, B.D.; Knobel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Erythrocytes from diabetic patients manifest decreased deformability and increased adherence. These abnormal membrane properties may diminish the ability of erythrocytes (RBCs) from diabetics to undergo deformation in passage through the trabecular meshwork. Using sodium chromate Cr 51-labeled RBCs from type I diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy and normal control subjects, we studied RBC clearance from the rabbit anterior chamber. The mean time for 50% clearance (T50) of RBCs from diabetics (76 hours) was significantly longer than that for RBCs from normal subjects (19.5 hours). In this model, RBCs from diabetics have a slower clearance from the anterior chamber than do RBCs from normal subjects

  8. Loss of Panx1 Impairs Mammary Gland Development at Lactation: Implications for Breast Tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K G Stewart

    Full Text Available Pannexin1 (Panx1 subunits oligomerize to form large-pore channels between the intracellular and extracellular milieu that have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation and cell death mechanisms. These key cellular responses are ultimately necessary for normal tissue development and function but the role of Panx1 in development, differentiation and function in many tissues remains unexplored, including that of the breast. Panx1 was identified to be expressed in the mammary gland through western blot and immunofluorescent analysis and is dynamically upregulated during pregnancy and lactation. In order to evaluate the role of Panx1 in the context of mammary gland development and function, Panx1-/- mice were evaluated in comparison to wild-type mice in the mammary glands of virgin, lactating and involuting mice. Our results revealed that Panx1 ablation did not affect virgin or involuting mammary glands following histological and whole mount analysis. Panx1 was necessary for timely alveolar development during early lactation based on a decreased number of alveolar lumen following histological analysis and reduced proliferation following Ki67 immunofluorescent labelling. Importantly, the loss of Panx1 in lactating mammary glands did not overtly affect epithelial or secretory differentiation of the mammary gland suggesting that Panx1 is not critical in normal mammary gland function. In addition, PANX1 mRNA expression was correlated with negative clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer using in silico arrays. Together, our results suggest that Panx1 is necessary for timely alveolar development following the transition from pregnancy to lactation, which may have implications extending to patients with breast cancer.

  9. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Applicability of Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System to Clearance Measurement of Concrete Segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.; Ogino, H.; Hattori, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, large amounts of metal scrap and concrete segments require disposal when dismantling the nuclear reactor and surrounding facilities. When their activity level is negligible or sufficiently small, they can be regarded as general industrial waste. To distinguish between radioactive and nonradioactive materials, the clearance level for each radionuclide has been determined in units of activity concentration. These clearance levels are indicated in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.7. The Japanese regulatory authority decided in 2005 to adopt the values given in RS-G-1.7 as clearance levels in legislation. Recently, a Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed utilizing gamma-ray measurement, automatic laser shape measurement and Monte Carlo calculation. CLALIS comprises four laser scanners and eight large plastic scintillation detectors surrounded by a 5-cm-thick lead shield. Using three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, a measurement target, which is placed on the measuring tray, is represented as a dot image. The dot image is converted into voxels after noise removal, and is written in MCNP (A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System) input files. When the gamma-ray measurement is carried out, the MCNP calculations are also carried out to obtain the calibration factor and background (BG) correction factors. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of gamma-rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be taken into account to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for gamma-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between the count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To overcome this problem, the

  11. Lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P; Lewis, Cora E; Wei, Gina S; Whitmer, Rachel A; Quesenberry, Charles P; Sidney, Steve

    2007-03-01

    To examine the relationship between duration of lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors. This 3-year prospective study examined changes in metabolic risk factors among lactating women from preconception to postweaning and among nonlactating women from preconception to postdelivery, in comparison with nongravid women. Of 1,051 (490 black, 561 white) women who attended two consecutive study visits in years 7 (1992-1993) and 10 (1995-1996), 942 were nongravid and 109 had one interim birth. Of parous women, 48 (45%) did not lactate, and 61 (55%) lactated and weaned before year 10. The lactated and weaned women were subdivided by duration of lactation into less than 3 months and 3 months or more. Multiple linear regression models estimated mean 3-year changes in metabolic risk factors adjusted for age, race, parity, education, and behavioral covariates. Both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned gained more weight (+5.6, +4.4 kg) and waist girth (+5.3, +4.9 cm) than nongravid women over the 3-year interval; Pdecrements for both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned were 4.0 mg/dL greater than for nongravid women (Pdecrement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-1.3 mg/dL versus -7.3 mg/dL for less than 3 months; P<.01). Lactation may attenuate unfavorable metabolic risk factor changes that occur with pregnancy, with effects apparent after weaning. As a modifiable behavior, lactation may affect women's future risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. II.

  12. Brain lactate metabolism in humans with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Levine, Joshua M; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Carrera, Emmanuel; Daniel, Roy T; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; LeRoux, Peter D

    2012-05-01

    Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. Thirty-one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxic (PbtO(2) 119 μmol/L) versus nonhyperglycolytic. Median per patient samples with elevated CMD lactate was 54% (interquartile range, 11%-80%). Lactate elevations were more often attributable to cerebral hyperglycolysis (78%; interquartile range, 5%-98%) than brain hypoxia (11%; interquartile range, 4%-75%). Mortality was associated with increased percentage of samples with elevated lactate and brain hypoxia (28% [interquartile range 9%-95%] in nonsurvivors versus 9% [interquartile range 3%-17%] in survivors; P=0.02) and lower percentage of elevated lactate and cerebral hyperglycolysis (13% [interquartile range, 1%-87%] versus 88% [interquartile range, 27%-99%]; P=0.07). Cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate production predicted good 6-month outcome (odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale score, 0-3 1.49; CI, 1.08-2.05; P=0.016), whereas increased lactate with brain hypoxia was associated with a reduced likelihood of good outcome (OR, 0.78; CI, 0.59-1.03; P=0.08). Brain lactate is frequently elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, predominantly because of hyperglycolysis rather than hypoxia. A pattern of increased cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate was associated with good long-term recovery. Our data suggest that lactate may be used as an aerobic substrate by the injured human brain.

  13. Brain Lactate Metabolism in Humans With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Oddo M; Levine JM; Frangos S; Maloney-Wilensky E; Carrera E; Daniel RT; Levivier M; Magistretti PJ; LeRoux PD

    2012-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Thirty one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxi...

  14. Role of lactate in ischemic acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Y.; Naruse, S.; Vink, R.; Weiner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Brain ischemia produces cerebral acidosis that is associated with a rise in lactic acid levels. It is generally thought that the acidosis is due to lactic acid. To investigate this, rats were made hypoglycemic with insulin and the cerebral ischemia was produced. P-31 MR imaging and H-1 MR spectroscopy were used to measure pH and lactate. Hypoclygemia inhibited the rise in lactic acid levels but did not affect pH. Therefore, the fall in pH produced by cerebral ischemia cannot be due to lactic acidosis

  15. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume [1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area] approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine

  16. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hou, Lei

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in ...

  17. Lactate and lactate dehydrogenase in predicting the severity of transient tachypnea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkiraz, Servet; Gokmen, Zeynel; Boke, Saltuk Bugra; Kilicdag, Hasan; Ozel, Deniz; Sert, Ahmet

    2013-08-01

    Low Apgar score is strongly associated with the incidence of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) and other respiratory diseases of the newborn. We aimed to investigate the relationship between hypoxia determinants and the prolonged oxygen and respiratory support requirement even if the Apgar scores were normal. Retrospective case-controlled study. Infants born after 35 weeks of gestational age with clinical signs, chest X-ray findings and clinical course consistent with TTN were included. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the predictive values of determinants in predicting the risk for prolonged oxygen requirement and mechanical ventilatory support. We showed a positive correlation between the duration of oxygen with lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. LDH offered the best predictive value for prolonged oxygen requirement with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 88.9%. The predictive value of lactate exceeds the predictive value of LDH, aspartate aminotransferase, and percentage of normoblasts to predict the requirement of respiratory support with a PPV of 88.5%. Lactate and LDH might be useful for clinicians at first level hospitals for decision making to refer the TTN patient to the secondary or tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit before the clinical situation is worsened.

  18. Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Dawson, Ellen A; Dalsgaard, Mads

    2012-01-01

    (2) (CaO(2)-CvO(2)) and lactate concentration differences were 0.8 ± 0.2 and 0.02 ± 0.02 mmol x L(-1), respectively. During exercise, arterial lactate and CaO(2)-CvO(2) increased to 7.1 ± 1.1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), respectively (P renal blood flow...... with no significant change in the renal venous erythropoietin concentration (0.8 ± 1.4 U x L(-1)). The a-v lactate concentration difference increased to 0.5 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), indicating similar lactate elimination as at rest. In conclusion, a -70% reduction in renal blood flow does not provoke critical renal......Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference...

  19. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  20. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy and lactation cause a substantial increase in demand for calcium that is met by different maternal adaptations within each period. Intestinal calcium absorption more than doubles during pregnancy, whereas the maternal skeleton resorbs to provide most of the calcium content of breast milk during lactation. These maternal adaptations also affect the presentation, diagnosis, and management of disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. Although some women may experience fragility fractures as a consequence of pregnancy or lactation, for most women, parity and lactation do not affect the long-term risks of low bone density, osteoporosis, or fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.