WorldWideScience

Sample records for early labor apostel-i

  1. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market

  2. Roundtable discussion: Early labor: what's the problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Patricia; Nolan, Mary L.; Spiby, Helen; Green, Josephine; Gross, Mechthild M.; Cheyne, Helen; Hundley, Vanora; Rijnders, Marlies; de Jonge, Ank; Buitendijk, Simone

    2009-01-01

    PREFACE: In places where hospital birth is the norm, one of the major contemporary challenges to the organization of intrapartum care is posed by women who are not in established labor. In the United Kingdom, these women have been given a special name, "Category X," and they can account for a

  3. Roundtable discussion : Early labor : What's the problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.; Nolan, M.L.; Spiby, H.; Green, J.; Gross, M.M.; Cheyne, H.; Hundley, V.; Rijnders, M.; Jonge, A.de; Buitendijk, S.

    2009-01-01

    PREFACE: In places where hospital birth is the norm, one of the major contemporary challenges to the organization of intrapartum care is posed by women who are not in established labor. In the United Kingdom, these women have been given a special name, "Category X," and they can account for a

  4. Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…

  5. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  6. The early inception of labor market gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes gender differences in jobs while in school using school-class-based samples, a setting in which education differences, “glass ceilings”, and career interruptions due to parenthood are irrelevant. I find that in this early stage of life boys already earn substantially more than

  7. Epidural analgesia during labor: impact on delivery outcome, neonatal well-being, and early breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Di Gangi, Stefania; Saccardi, Carlo; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Paccagnella, Gianluca; Sansone, Laura; Barbara, Favaron; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2012-08-01

    The effect of epidural analgesia on labor and effective breastfeeding is still being debated. The aim of this study is to define its impact on the trend of labor, the newborns' well-being, and early breastfeeding. We considered first-term physiologic pregnant women who delivered by the vaginal route. We divided them into two groups: group A received epidural analgesia during labor, whereas group B received no analgesia. We recorded maternal age, gestational age, modality of delivery, length of labor, and length of active labor. All newborns received skin-to-skin contact; early breastfeeding was encouraged. We recorded data on birth weight and length, Apgar score at minutes 1 and 5, type of crying, neonatal reactivity, and time between birth and exposure to the breast. Statistical significance was considered for panalgesia, and 245 patients agreed to participate in our study. Only 128 patients met inclusion criteria. We randomized them in 64 women in group A and 64 women in group B. Data on maternal age, gestational age, type of delivery, neonatal birth weight and length, and Apgar score showed no significant differences. Total length of labor was 363.58±62.20 minutes in Group A versus 292.30±64.75 minutes in group B (pneonatal parameters we found a statistically significant difference only for length of first breastfeeding, with a mean duration of analgesia has little effect on trend of labor and duration of first breastfeed and none on neonatal outcome. A new protocol of epidural analgesia may solve these side effects.

  8. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2014-10-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today.

  9. Science as an Early Driver of Policy: Child Labor Reform in the Early Progressive Era, 1870–1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children’s biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children’s health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children’s environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  10. [Pregnancy and labor associated with encephalopathy in neonates during the early neonatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrablin, S; Drazancić, A; Letica, N; Tadić, V

    1992-01-01

    Pregnancy complications, drugs and surgical interventions during pregnancy, fetal growth, medications and interventions during labor, labor complications as well as fetal heart activity during labor in a group of 114 term infants without malformations, but with signs of central nervous system (CNS) damage throughout early neonatal period are compared with paired group of term healthy infants born in the same presentation and mode of delivery. Among prelabor factors only maternal hypertension (found in 16.7% of encephalopathy children versus 0.8% in a control group) was significantly correlated with CNS damage. Fetal growth retardation and long term ritodrine administration were found more frequent in encephalopathy than in healthy group of infants, although statistical significance between the groups could not be demonstrated. A prolonged second stage of labor, high oxytocin dosage, too frequent uterine contractions and vacuum extractions were found significantly correlated with neonatal encephalopathy. CTG pattern during labor was normal in only 28.9% of children, with encepalopathy prepathologic in 46.4% and pathologic in 24.7%. The respective percentages for healthy newborns were: 82.5%, 16.25% and 1.2%. All differences between the groups were statistically significant. Mean duration of prepathologic CTG score in the group of infants with encephalopathy (78.8 minutes) as well as of pathologic score (51.7 minutes) was significantly longer than in healthy infants (23.7 minutes prepathologic and 7 minutes pathologic).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Maternal hemodynamics early in labor: a possible link with obstetric risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensise, H; Tiralongo, G M; Pisani, I; Farsetti, D; Lo Presti, D; Gagliardi, G; Basile, M R; Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B

    2018-04-01

    To determine if hemodynamic assessment in 'low-risk' pregnant women at term with an appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetus can improve the identification of patients who will suffer maternal or fetal/neonatal complications during labor. This was a prospective observational study of 77 women with low-risk term pregnancy and AGA fetus, in the early stages of labor. Hemodynamic indices were obtained using the UltraSonic Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM ® ) system. Patients were followed until the end of labor to identify fetal/neonatal and maternal outcomes, and those which developed complications of labor were compared with those delivering without complications. Eleven (14.3%) patients had a complication during labor: in seven there was fetal distress and in four there were maternal complications (postpartum hemorrhage and/or uterine atony). Patients who developed complications during labor had lower cardiac output (5.6 ± 1.0 vs 6.7 ± 1.3 L/min, P = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.5 ± 0.7 L/min/m 2 , P = 0.04), and higher total vascular resistance (1195.3 ± 205.3 vs 1017.8 ± 225.6 dynes × s/cm 5 , P = 0.017) early in labor, compared with those who did not develop complications. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis to determine cut-offs showed cardiac output ≤ 5.8 L/min (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 69.7%), cardiac index ≤ 2.9 L/min/m 2 (sensitivity, 63.6%; specificity, 76.9%) and total vascular resistance > 1069 dynes × s/cm 5 (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 63.6%) to best predict maternal or fetal/neonatal complications. The study of maternal cardiovascular adaptation at the end of pregnancy could help to identify low-risk patients who may develop complications during labor. In particular, low cardiac output and high total vascular resistance are apparently associated with higher risk of fetal distress or maternal complications. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley

  12. An early modern factory between state and market: labor and management at the Amsterdam naval shipyard (1660-1795)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandon, P.; de Jong, A.; Wubs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Naval shipyards were among the largest production facilities of the pre-industrial world. The Venetian Arsenal and the British Royal Dockyards therefore play a prominent role in the historiography of early modern labor relations. However, labor relations at the Dutch naval shipyards remain

  13. Hip Dislocation and Dystocia in Early Medieval Times: Possible Evidence of Labor Maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgosa, Assumpció; Carrascal, Susana; Piga, Giampaolo; Isidro, Albert

    2016-12-01

    In ancient times, maternal mortality would occur frequently, particularly during labor. Evidence of dystocia resulting in the death of a pregnant woman is very infrequent in paleopathologic literature, with only a few cases being demonstrated. In the early medieval site of Casserres, the skeleton of a young woman with a fetus in the pelvic region was found. Some abnormal findings of the maternal skeleton were evaluated, including a sacral anomaly, femoral head wound, the rare position of the lower left limb with the femoral head dislodged anteriorly and cephalad from the socket, and a fibular fracture. Examining the anomalies all together, a case of anterior hip dislocation related to a McRoberts-like maneuver performed during labor is a plausible explanation of the findings.

  14. The effect of routine early amniotomy on spontaneous labor: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson-Carroll, G; Fraser, W; Bréart, G; Krauss, I; Thornton, J

    1996-05-01

    To obtain estimates of the effects of amniotomy on the risk of cesarean delivery and on other indicators of maternal and neonatal morbidity (Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes, admission to neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]). Published studies were identified through manual and computerized searches using Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration Pregnancy and Childbirth Database. Our search identified ten trials, all published in peer-reviewed journals. Trials were assigned a methodological quality score based on a standardized rating system. Three trials were excluded from the analysis for methodological limitations. Data were abstracted by two trained reviewers. Typical odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Amniotomy was associated with a reduction in labor duration varying from 0.8-2.3 hours. There was a nonstatistically significant increase in the risk of cesarean delivery; OR 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-1.6. The risk of a 5-minute Apgar score less than 7 was reduced in association with early amniotomy (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Groups were similar with respect to other indicators of neonatal status (arterial cord pH, NICU admissions). Routine early amniotomy is associated with both benefits and risks. Benefits include a reduction in labor duration and a possible reduction in abnormal 5-minute Apgar scores. This meta-analysis provides no support for the hypothesis that routine early amniotomy reduces the risk of cesarean delivery. An association between early amniotomy and cesarean delivery for fetal distress was noted in one large trial, suggesting that amniotomy should be reserved for patients with abnormal labor progress.

  15. The impact of early retirement incentives on labor market participation: evidence from a parametric change in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, D.; Pertold, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2011), s. 467-483 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : early retirement * labor market participation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1226_kocourek.pdf

  16. Child Labor in the Early Sugar Beet Industry in the Great Plains, 1890-1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Barrett, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Children working in agriculture have always been a part of the rural culture and work ethos of the United States, especially on the Great Plains. Many teenagers still detassel corn or walk the beans in the summer months to earn spending money or money for college. But what about the children who work as migrant laborers in commercialized…

  17. Heterogeneous Impacts on Earnings from an Early Effort in Labor Market Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Labor market programs that are found to shorten unemployment duration might not be societal efficient if participants do not find suitable jobs in terms of stability, wages, occupation, etc. This paper investigates whether a program, that previously has been shown to lower unemployment duration...... of leisure time and human capital accumulation/removal of frictions, respectively. Second, we show that the positive effects are heterogenous across earnings distributions. Taxing leisure time primarily affects low earners while human capital accumulation and removing frictions tend to help high earners....

  18. Emancipating Labor Internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The secular trinity of c19th socialism was Labor-Internationalism-Emancipation. As early-industrial capitalism developed into a national-industrial-colonial capitalism, the internationalism of labor became literally international, and simultaneously lost its emancipatory aspiration and capacity (or vice versa). The dramatic – and labor-devastating – development of a globalised-networked-informatised capitalism is raising the necessity and possibility of a new kind of labor internationalis...

  19. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  20. Predicting early epidurals: association of maternal, labor, and neonatal characteristics with epidural analgesia initiation at a cervical dilation of 3 cm or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Albert R; Shan, William Li Pi; Hatzakorzian, Roupen

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies have associated early epidural analgesia with cesarean delivery, but prospective studies do not demonstrate a causal relationship. This suggests that there are other variables associated with early epidural analgesia that increase the risk of cesarean delivery. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics associated with early epidural analgesia initiation. Information about women delivering at 37 weeks or greater gestation with epidural analgesia, who were not scheduled for cesarean delivery, was extracted from the McGill Obstetric and Neonatal Database. Patients were grouped into those who received epidural analgesia at a cervical dilation of ≤3 cm and >3 cm. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the maternal, neonatal, and labor characteristics that increased the risk of inclusion in the early epidural group. Of the 13,119 patients analyzed, multivariable regression demonstrated odds ratios (OR) of 2.568, 5.915 and 10.410 for oxytocin augmentation, induction, and dinoprostone induction of labor (P analgesia (OR 0.780, P analgesia (P neonatal weight (OR 0.943, P analgesia. Labor augmentation and induction, nulliparity, rupture of membranes spontaneously and before labor starts, increasing maternal weight, and decreasing neonatal weight are associated with early epidural analgesia. Many of these variables are also associated with cesarean delivery.

  1. The Comparison of Perinatal Outcomes in Early Delivery Versus Postdate Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khooshideh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Prenatal mortality and morbidity increase after 40 weeks of gestation. The current study aimed at comparing maternal and neonatal outcomes between term and postterm pregnancies. Methods The current prospective cohort study was performed on 1180 singleton, cephalic fetus, and uncomplicated pregnancy cases admitted for labor. Pregnant mothers were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 included 750 cases in 38 to 40 weeks, group 2 included 250 cases in 40 to 41 weeks, and group 3 included 180 cases in over 41 weeks of gestation. Prenatal outcomes were recorded as: fetal distress, meconium passage, meconium aspiration, fetal weight ≥ 4 kg, Apgar score in 1 and 5 minutes, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission, maternal infection, postpartum hemorrhage, and the rate of cesarean section. Results There were significant differences in the rate of fetal distress (P < 0.001, meconium passage (P = 0.001, meconium aspiration syndrome (P < 0.001, Apgar score ≤ 3 at 1 (P = 0.025 and 5 minutes (P < 0.001, admission to NICU (P < 0.001, rate of cesarean section (P < 0.001, and maternal infection (P = 0.001 among the groups. The frequency of fetal distress was lower in group1 compared with group 2 (1.6% versus 4.4%; P = 0.011. Also fetal distress was significantly lower in group 1 than group 3 (1.6% versus 10.9%; P < 0.001. The meconium passage and meconium aspiration syndrome were statistically lower in group 1 compared with group 2 (1.6% versus 8%; P < 0.001 for meconium passage, and 0.9% versus 5.6%; P < 0.001 for meconium aspiration syndrome. Also meconium passage and meconium aspiration syndrome were significantly lower in group 1 compared with group 3 (1.6% versus 13.9%; P < 0.001 for meconium passage, and 0.9% versus 10%; P < 0.001 for meconium aspiration syndrome. The cesarean section was more frequent in group 2 compared with group 1 (24.8% versus 13.6%; P < 0.001 and in group 3 compared with group 1 (33.3% versus 13.6%, P < 0.001. There

  2. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...

  3. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  4. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  5. Labor in early life, vulnerability for health in Brazilian schoolchildren: National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Giatti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study describes exposure labor among Brazilian 9th grade students from public and private schools and investigates socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, violent situations and psychosocial factors associated with labor among adolescents. METHODS: The present study included 108,984 students from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey carried out in 2012. Variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral factors, violent situations and psychosocial aspects. Associations between labor and several health risk variables were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for sex and age. RESULTS: Approximately 13% of the students reported having a job: 17.4% of them were male. The chance of working was lower between females and individuals whose fathers' have incomplete superior education. Students who worked had greater chances to smoke (OR = 2.26; 95%CI 2.04 - 2.51, drink alcohol, use illicit drugs (OR = 2.63; 95%CI 2.29 - 3.02, drive motorized vehicles (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 2.03 2.27, have sexual intercourse (OR = 2.10; 95%CI 1.99 - 2.24, suffer physical violence (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.46 1.68, engage in fights (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.55 - 1.76, feel lonely (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.17 - 1.36 and report sleeping problems (OR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.34 - 1.60. They also have lower chances of having close friends (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.68 - 0.90. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of labor among students is high. Socioeconomical disadvantages increase the chances of early working. Early working is also associated to health damaging behavior, violent situations, sleeping problems, and social isolation. Adolescents who study and work experiment expositions that may affect distinct health dimensions and perpetuate disadvantages over lifetime.

  6. The Impact of Health Changes on Labor Supply: Evidence from Merged Data on Individual Objective Medical Diagnosis Codes and Early Retirement Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene

    2012-01-01

    The justification bias in the estimated impact of health shocks on retirement is mitigated by using objective health measures from a large, register-based longitudinal data set including medical diagnosis codes, along with labor market status, financial, and socio-economic variables. The duration...... until retirement is modeled using single and competing risk specifications, observed and unobserved heterogeneity, and flexible baseline hazards. Wealth is used as a proxy for elapsed duration to mitigate the potential selection bias stemming from conditioning on initial participation. The competing...... risk specification distinguishes complete multi-period routes to retirement, such as unemployment followed by early retirement. A result on comparison of coefficients across all states is offered. The empirical results indicate a strong impact of health changes on retirement, and hence a large...

  7. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  8. Violated Wishes About Division of Childcare Labor Predict Early Coparenting Process During Stressful and Nonstressful Family Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazan, Inna; McHale, James P; Decourcey, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that expectant parents overestimate the extent to which fathers will take part in the "work" of parenting, with mothers often becoming disenchanted when these expectations are violated following the baby's arrival. In this study, we examine the role of violated wishes concerning childcare involvement in accounting for variability in maternal and paternal marital satisfaction, and in early coparenting behavior as assessed during family-interaction sessions. The results indicate possible negative effects of violated wishes on the enacted family process and confirm previous findings regarding the effects of marital satisfaction. In addition, we uncovered differences in the way that violated maternal wishes are related to coparenting during playful and mildly stressful family interactions.

  9. Epidural Analgesia and Fever at Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. M. Shifman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.

  10. The Impact of Health Changes on Labor Supply: Evidence from Merged Data on Individual Objective Medical Diagnosis Codes and Early Retirement Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene

    with a host of demographic, labor market and financial regressors. The panel structure of the data allows following individuals year by year from the age of 50 and precisely measure changes in objectively measured health and other regressors, as well as labor market status. We consider 12 broad, mutually...

  11. Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  12. Labor force activity after 60

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Larsen, Mona

    2015-01-01

    of reference. Main emphasis is given to the development in two distint age groups, i.e. people in the first half of the 60s of which many are eligible for early retirement programs and people older than 65 mostly eligible for social security retirement programs. For these two age groups the actual development...... in labor force participation is described based on register data and on labor force surveys along with indicators of cohort relevant changes in education and health. Focus in the paper includes also the gender aspect to accommodate stronger cohort effects for women than for men. The impact on labor force...

  13. Fatiga laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Useche Mora Luz Graciela

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La fatiga laboral es un fenómeno complejo y muy común en los ambientes de trabajo especialmente en aquellos que requieren de una alta carga física y en los que son utilizadas complicadas tecnologías que presentan al hombre máximas exigencias, obligándolo a trabajar más allá de sus posibilidades psicofisiológicas y en condiciones muchas veces nocivas. En este sentido, el presente artículo se propone presentar el análisis de aspectos fundamentales de la fatiga que requieren ser conocidos por todo trabajador, con el fin de evitar situaciones de morbilidad y, por qué no decirlo, hasta de muerte.

     

  14. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  15. The Labor Market and the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of

  16. Class, Race and American Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Collomp

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor history in the United States is well‑chartered territory. It is the object of countless scholarly books, appears in many college and university curricula and it is the subject of on‑going revisions and debates. Although labor history has always implied a form of at least implicit social commitment, it has been commented upon and written about as abundantly as other aspects of social history and often with more stamina or vindication. Nineteenth and early twentieth‑century working class ...

  17. Comparing Critical Capitalist Commodity Chains in the Early Twenty-first Century: Opportunities For and Constraints on Labor and Political Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sowers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of critical historical opportunities for labor to exert power by interrupting long distance flows of commodities at the extraction, processing, and transport stages. This vulnerability has been used by workers in these industries to gain higher wages and better working conditions and to achieve political goals in national and international arenas. In this paper, we compare two commodity chains that are critical components of the global economy. The first, which we describe as transport, is a broad category involving a range of manufactured goods, whose delivery to customers around the world was fundamentally changed in the past fifty years via "containerization" and "the logistics revolution." The second is oil and gas, which also has experienced recently dramatic changes in both extraction (via "tar sands" and "[racking" and transportation. In each case, we discuss possibilities and challenges for labor and political organizing to disrupt capital in these key commodity chains. We identify the "stakes" in each commodity chain by demonstrating the vulnerabilities on which labor and political organizations/movements could capitalize, which usually stem from the capital intensity and global integration of each critical commodity chain. These vulnerabilities are the factors which form the most basic opportunities for organizing in these sectors. Our analysis further suggests that while transport and raw materials remain vulnerable nodes in capitalist commodity chains, there are also constraints and challenges to be faced by labor and social movement organizations (SMOs that might attempt to leverage power over these circuits of the world-economy.

  18. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  19. The Impact of Health Changes on Labor Supply: Evidence from Merged Data on Individual Objective Medical Diagnosis Codes and Early Retirement Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene

    2012-01-01

    The justification bias in the estimated impact of health shocks on retirement is mitigated by using objective health measures from a large, register-based longitudinal data set including medical diagnosis codes, along with labor market status, financial, and socio-economic variables. The duration...... until retirement is modeled using single and competing risk specifications, observed and unobserved heterogeneity, and flexible baseline hazards. Wealth is used as a proxy for elapsed duration to mitigate the potential selection bias stemming from conditioning on initial participation. The competing...

  20. Labor Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kenneth D.

    1971-01-01

    Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)

  1. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  2. Signs of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  3. Treatments for Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  4. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  6. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALTER, RICHARD H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…

  7. Labor migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt

  8. The relationship between early recruitment-related activities and the application decisions of new labor-market entrants: a brand equity approach to recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher J; Stevens, Cynthia Kay

    2002-12-01

    Theory and research from the marketing literature on customer-based brand equity were used to predict how positive exposure to 4 early recruitment-related activities-publicity, sponsorships, word-of-mouth endorsements, and advertising-may affect the application decisions of engineering students. Similar to prior marketing findings, the results suggested that early recruitment-related activities were indirectly related to intentions and decisions through 2 dimensions of employer brand image: general attitudes toward the company and perceived job attributes. The relationships between word-of-mouth endorsements and the 2 dimensions of brand image were particularly strong. In addition, it was found that early recruitment-related activities interacted with one another such that employer brand image was stronger when firms used publicity in conjunction with other early recruitment-related activities.

  9. Predicting early epidurals: association of maternal, labor, and neonatal characteristics with epidural analgesia initiation at a cervical dilation of 3 cm or less

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Albert; Li Pi Shan,William; Hatzakorzian,Roupen

    2013-01-01

    Albert R Moore, William Li Pi Shan, Roupen Hatzakorzian Department of Anaesthesia, McGill University Health Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Background: Retrospective studies have associated early epidural analgesia with cesarean delivery, but prospective studies do not demonstrate a causal relationship. This suggests that there are other variables associated with early epidural analgesia that increase the risk of cesarean delivery. This study was undertaken to deter...

  10. La Justicia Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Melgar, Alfredo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
    En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.

  11. Labor Laws and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...

  12. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  13. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  14. Timing of induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Stephen J; Olson-Chen, Courtney; Pressman, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Determining the optimal timing for induction of labor is critical in minimizing the risks to maternal and fetal health. While data are available to guide us in some clinical situations, such as hypertension and diabetes, many gaps in knowledge still exist in others, including cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal anomalies, and placental abruption. This review of the currently available literature assesses the risks and benefits of preterm and early term induction in a wide variety of maternal and fetal conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION..., 2013, regarding child labor and forced labor in foreign countries. Relevant information will be used by...

  16. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Ariyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.

  17. Rising U.S. Earnings Inequality and Family Labor Supply: The Covariance Structure of Intrafamily Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Dean R. Hyslop

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the labor supply contributions to individual and family earnings inequality during the period of rising wage inequality in the early 1980's. Working couples have positively correlated labor market outcomes, which are almost entirely attributable to permanent factors. An intertemporal family labor supply model with this feature is used to estimate labor supply elasticities for husbands of 0.05, and wives of 0.40. This implies that labor supply explains little of the rising a...

  18. Relationship Banking in Labor Bank

    OpenAIRE

    三村, 聡

    2012-01-01

    As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...

  19. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  20. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian…

  1. Child labor : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Kanbur, Ravi

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing c...

  2. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  3. "Dynamic Labor Shortage" In the Offing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    The United States is on the verge of a labor shortage that is partly the result of declining birth rates. An increase in work force participation by older adults, encouraged by reversals of early retirement and other policy changes, would be advantageous to employers, workers, and the economy. (Author/SK)

  4. WORKIN CONDITION OF RURAL LABOR IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Contreras-Molotla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the behavior of the working conditions of the rural labor force of Mexico in the context of trade liberalization (1990-2010. Therefore, trends in agricultural and non-agricultural occupations are reviewed; salaried and non-salaried activities; labor income; and the main demographic characteristic of labor as age and schooling. The empirical analysis shows processing micro-data samples from the Census of Population and Housing 1990, 2000 and 2010. Among the major results in low growth of wage employment in rural contexts, both agricultural and non-agricultural activities is found. The female agricultural wage labor grew to early twenty-first century and later had a contraction at the end of the decade two thousand. Males still predominantly in farming, but it has increased its participation in the agricultural wage labor. Non-agricultural occupations increased in rural contexts. However, at the last moment of the study became more precarious, as the increased work on their own, with low levels of remuneration, this situation reflects the limited labor demand of labor. Therefore, in the context of trade liberalization, not salaried occupations increased steadily and continues with low levels of remuneration. The geographic region of residence enabled to distinguish differences in the working conditions of the rural population and occupied in time regional wage gap it is slightly shortened. The Northwest, North region were showing the highest levels of labor remuneration, in contrast, the South and Gulf regions were those that had the lowest wages.

  5. TODAY THE GLOBAL LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Shchipanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.

  6. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    the early postpartum period. The provision of culturally appropriate social support is critical in the care of Hispanic immigrant childbearing women. Programs such as the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative can help improve support and promote positive outcomes in these vulnerable and disadvantaged women.

  7. Labor Market Progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  8. Parturients' need of continuous labor support in labor wards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Continuous labor support is practiced in different parts of the world. In Ethiopia ... Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the attitude of women in response to labor support based at institutional ... The reasons given for wanting companion were emotional ..... mothers play vital role in labor and delivery while men.

  9. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  10. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  11. An endogenous relationship between wages, job opportunity, and skilled labor shortage in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yin Jien

    2010-01-01

    Norway's economy has gone through unprecedented growth in the past decade. The strong growth in GDP, employment, labor productivity, real wage, and labor immigration combines with increasing outflows from the labor force, such as early retirement scheme, sickness and disability, and old age retirement implies that Norway's labor market is tight. We hypothesize demographic changes and skilled and unskilled job composition affects tertiary education participation through wage premium and job ...

  12. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  13. Labor construction trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing costs and schedule delays being experienced in construction projects have led companies to look for alternatives to their present methods of expansion. One of the facets being evaluated is the construction labor posture. As a result, more companies are employing open shop contractors. Certain benefits can be realized by open shop construction. Productivity, in terms of the time required and overall costs, is definitely improved at no sacrifice in quality. Before an owner decides to build a project open shop, however, he must be fully aware of the pro's and con's of both types of labor posture. He must know to select a capable open shop contractor and he must realize his obligations for a successful open shop program

  14. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse; Zaher, Manal S.; Hamdan, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  15. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2014-09-12

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  16. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  17. Youth Labor Migration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...

  18. Disability Insurance Benefits and Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2000-01-01

    Disability Insurance (DI) is a public program that provides income support to persons unable to continue work due to disability. The difficulty of defining disability, however, has raised the possibility that this program may be subsidizing the early retirement of workers who are not truly disabled. A critical input for assessing the optimal size of the DI program is therefore the elasticity of labor force participation with respect to benefits generosity. Unfortunately, this parameter has be...

  19. Electrohysterographic Characterization of Labor Contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Eva; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Better methods are needed for preterm labor diagnostication. We hypothesize 1) that depolarization of the myometrium propagates from fundus to isthmus, 2) that the propagation velocity (PV) is faster in labor than in non-labor, and 3) that PV can be determined by electromyography (EMG......). PV may be the best EMG-predictor of preterm labor. Knowledge on how to determine PV is insufficient though. Objective: To investigate EMG-signals from laboring myometrium and to develop a method for determining PV. Method: We included 10 women in active labor. EMG-signals were obtained via three...... of the vertical electrode order. Conclusion: Depolarization of the laboring myometrium may therefore not occur in the direction from fundus to isthmus. Further investigation is needed for PV determination....

  20. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Public Session Meeting AGENCY: International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB), U.S. Department of Labor.... Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade...

  1. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  2. Description and search labor for information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...

  3. Inestabilidad laboral y competitividad

    OpenAIRE

    García, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    En las dos últimas décadas pasadas - 1980's y 1990's -, en buena parte de los países de América Latina y el Caribe se introdujeron reformas laborales para flexibilizar el mercado laboral - Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Perú, Colombia, Panamá, entre otros - . En particular, siguiendo la experiencia de España de 1983-97, la mayoría de esas reformas promovieron la introducción de múltiples contratos laborales y redujeron los costos de indemnización por despido. La introducción de los múltip...

  4. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any agency...

  5. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  6. Effect of moving dairy cows at different stages of labor on behavior during parturition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proudfoot, K. L.; Jensen, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2013-01-01

    of labor would influence calving behavior or the length of the second stage of labor. Seventy-nine multiparous Holstein dairy cows were moved from 1 of 2 group pens to 1 of 10 maternity pens adjacent to each group pen either 3 d before expected calving date or when one or more behavioral or physical signs...... of labor were observed. These signs were noted, and were used to retrospectively categorize cows into 1 of 3 movement categories: (1) moved before labor, (2) moved during early stage I labor (signs of suddenly tense and enlarged udder, raised tail or relaxed pelvic ligaments; could also be immediately...... prelabor), or (3) moved during late stage I labor (signs of viscous, bloody mucus or abdominal contractions; could also be transitioning to stage II labor). Calves were weighed within 12h of birth and remained with their dam for 3 d. The length of the second stage of labor (the time between first abdominal...

  7. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found that occ......This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...

  8. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  9. Labor Comes into Its Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle, Edmund F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a concise and interesting overview of the rise and extension of labor activity during the New Deal. Labor took advantage of Roosevelt's pro-union policies to consolidate their power and forever transform the lives of working men and women. Discusses improvements in working conditions, wages, and benefits. (MJP)

  10. Economic implications of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Demography and labor shortage. Future challenges of labor market policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J

    2013-03-01

    For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.

  12. Child labor in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M N; Prabhu, S V; Mistry, H N

    1985-01-01

    Of the world's largest child labor force in India, Bombay has over 30,000 working children, most of them migrants. In a prospective study of 73 working children from a part of Dharavi, the biggest slum in Asia, 68% were working as hotel boys; 22% had started working before their 10th birthday, a large number doing so to increase the family income, but earning less than Rs. 100 ($11) per month. Forty percent worked more than 12 hours a day and only 16% continued schooling. Two-thirds depended entirely on their employers for food which was adequate and no child in the study was malnourished. Overall incidence of anemia and vitamin deficiency was 10% each. Only 7% had ailments related to their occupation. Because this was a cross-sectional study no conclusions can be drawn regarding long term and residual effects. Preventing children from working is likely to make worse their own as well as their families' problems unless substitute sources of income or welfare are available. Legal protection and other services near their working places are essential for those who have to work.

  13. LABOR SUBSTITUTABILITY IN LABOR INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE PRESENCE OF FOREIGN LABOR

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    The Morishima elasticity of substitution (MES) is estimated to address factor substitutability in Florida agriculture during 1960-1999. By adopting a profit maximization model of induced innovation theory, the MES's between hired and self-employed labor and the MES's between labor and capital provide implications for future immigration policies.

  14. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  15. Perceptions of care in women sent home in latent labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Claire; Faucher, Mary Ann; Lankford, Janice; Alexander, James

    2014-01-01

    To assess perceptions of care from woman discharged from an obstetrical (OB) triage unit or a labor and delivery unit with a diagnosis of false or latent labor in order to determine factors that may increase or decrease the woman's satisfaction with care. Descriptive, convenience sample. One hundred low-income pregnant women at term presenting for care in latent labor consented to participate in a telephone survey. The survey was based on the relevant research about care of women in early labor and the Donabedian quality improvement framework assessing structure, process, and outcomes of care. Forty-one percent of women did not want to be discharged home in latent labor. Common reasons included women stating they were in too much pain or they were living too far from the birth setting. Eating, drinking, and comfort measures were the most common measures women cited that would have made them feel better when in the hospital. A reoccurring response from women was their desire for very clear and specific written instructions about how to stay comfortable at home and when to return to the hospital. Comfort measures in the birth setting, including in triage, should include a variety of options including ambulation and oral nutrition. Detailed and specific written instructions about early labor and staying comfortable while at home have value for women in this survey regarding their perceptions of care. Results from this survey of low-income women suggest that a subset of women in latent labor just do not want to go home and this may be related to having too much pain and/or travel distance to the hospital. Hospital birth settings also have an opportunity to create a care environment that provides services and embodies attributes that women report as important for their satisfaction with care in latent labor.

  16. Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke

    2011-01-01

    The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...

  17. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  18. Survey of Labor Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Nan L.

    1985-01-01

    Labor economics textbooks for use with college students were surveyed. Information concerning intended audience, content, and teaching aids is provided for each text. Criteria used in evaluating the texts is provided. (RM)

  19. Smoking, Labor, & Delivery: It's Complicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    You probably have mixed feelings about going into labor. On one hand, bringing a new life into the world is really exciting. On the other, it can be really scary to have a baby, especially if this is your first child. Unfortunately, it can be even scarier if you smoke. Research shows that smoking during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for you and your baby during labor and delivery.

  20. A Labor Supply Elasticity Accord?

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent

    2011-01-01

    A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...

  1. Labor Supply and Optimization Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt

    In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....

  2. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ...), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the Generalized System of... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) October 3...

  3. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... trade benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Caribbean Basin Trade and Partnership... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) on December...

  4. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  5. Inserciones laborales tempranas: Los jóvenes trabajadores agrícolas en el Valle de Uco, Mendoza, Argentina Early labor markets incorporations: Agricultural young workers in the Uco Valley, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Bober

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las diferentes formas de inserción laboral de trabajadores jóvenes en el Valle de Uco, en la provincia de Mendoza. Durante las últimas décadas, el Valle de Uco basó su patrón de desarrollo agrícola en un modelo intensivo y empresarial de sus tres principales cultivos: los viñedos, los frutales y las hortalizas. En la actualidad, atraviesa un proceso de profunda reconversión productiva, orientada mayoritariamente hacia el mercado externo, que entre otras consecuencias pasó a modificar el funcionamiento del mercado de trabajo local. En este artículo, se contemplan las diferentes situaciones que llevan al ingreso laboral de los jóvenes en este contexto, según el momento etáreo que atraviesen. Se analiza la relación que este proceso guarda con el tamaño y la estructura de las familias y la situación socio-económica del hogar al que pertenecen. También, se examina el vínculo entre las características de los hogares y la forma de inserción de los jóvenes en el mercado de trabajo, de acuerdo al tipo de ocupación en la que se desempeñan y al destino que le dan a sus ingresos. A partir de la realización de entrevistas en profundidad a trabajadores jóvenes y a informantes clave se pudo dar cuenta de las preferencias de los jóvenes con respecto a distintos tipos de trabajos, con particular énfasis en ciertos trabajos agrícolas y, también en relación a su futuro laboral.This article deals with the different ways that young workers in the Uco Valley, at the province of Mendoza, enter to the agrarian local labour market. During the last decadas, the Uco Valley based its pattern of agricultural development in an intensive business model of its three main crops: vineyards, orchards, and vegetables. Currently, it is undergoing a process of profound restructuring of production, mainly oriented towards foreign markets, which among different consequences has modified the functioning of local labour markets. In

  6. Child Labor, Learning Problems, and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…

  7. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market

  8. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  9. A Theory of Exploitative Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton

    2003-01-01

    Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...

  10. Emotional labor in nursing praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel da Silva Vilelas

    Full Text Available Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept.

  11. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... child labor regulations published on September 2, 2011. The Department of Labor (Department or DOL) is...

  12. The state of the heart: Emotional labor as emotion regulation reviewed and revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, Alicia A; Melloy, Robert C

    2017-07-01

    Emotional labor has been an area of burgeoning research interest in occupational health psychology in recent years. Emotional labor was conceptualized in the early 1980s by sociologist Arlie Hochschild (1983) as occupational requirements that alienate workers from their emotions. Almost 2 decades later, a model was published in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology ( JOHP ) that viewed emotional labor through a psychological lens, as emotion regulation strategies that differentially relate to performance and wellbeing. For this anniversary issue of JOH P, we review the emotional labor as emotion regulation model, its contributions, limitations, and the state of the evidence for its propositions. At the heart of our article, we present a revised model of emotional labor as emotion regulation, that incorporates recent findings and represents a multilevel and dynamic nature of emotional labor as emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Labor Economics and Sociology of Labor: Demarkation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important economic and sociological problems taking into account their relevance to economics and sociology of labor as two independent sciences. The author suggests some demarcation boundaries of the concepts relevant to contemporary life within these two disciplines.

  14. Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, C

    1992-01-01

    "Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." excerpt

  15. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  16. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  17. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  18. Trabalho e emprego na educação infantil no Brasil: segmentações e desigualdades Labor and employment in early childhood education in Brazil: cleavages and inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Fraga Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se trazer resultados de pesquisa empírica sobre situações de trabalho e emprego nas instituições de educação infantil no Brasil, evidenciando o caso de Belo Horizonte, capital de Minas Gerais, que apresenta oferta em creches e pré-escolas, representativa da realidade dos grandes centros urbanos brasileiros. Efetuou-se o levantamento de fontes documentais, legislação, estatísticas, entrevistas e observações, no intuito de evidenciar as relações entre as tipologias das instituições de educação infantil e as formas de contratação, carreira, salário e condições de trabalho. As situações investigadas se referiram aos estabelecimentos de ensino público (estadual e municipal e estabelecimentos de ensino privados, segundo as categorias particular, comunitária, filantrópica e confessional. Os estabelecimentos estudados foram escolhidos, segundo amostra intencional, por localização e público preferencial atendido. Informações também foram buscadas junto aos empregadores - públicos e privados e junto às representações sindicais/associativas dos profissionais, nos setores públicos e privados. Evidenciou-se existência de profissionais com status e formação/qualificação diferenciados, bem como variadas modalidades de relações de emprego e trabalho, que revelam processo de precarização no exercício profissional na educação infantil. Segmentações no interior do setor público, e entre setor público e privado, reiteram desigualdades históricas no campo. Por outro lado, uma demanda crescente por profissionalização é observada.The present work aims at presenting results of empirical research about the situations of labor and employment in institutions of child education in Brazil, highlighting the case of Belo Horizonte, Capital city of Minas Gerais State, which offers nurseries and preschools and it is representative of Brazilian urban centers. An analysis including documental sources

  19. 0.0625%与0.1%布比卡因在硬膜外分娩镇痛中的效果比较%Epidural analgesia with 0.1% versus 0.062 5% bupivacaine for early labor;a comparison of analgesia effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫宇; 余大松

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the analgesic effects of 0. 062 5% and 0.1% bupivacaine on labor pain, so as to evaluate whether 0. 062 5% bupivacaine is suitable for early labor. Methods Totally 60 parturients in early active labor were recruited and randomized into two groups. All subjects received analgesic drugs via a lumbar epidural catheter. Group A: 0.1% bupivacaine plus 0. 000 2 % fentanyl; Group B: 0. 062 5 % bupivacaine plus 0.000 2% fentanyl. The analgesic requirement, visual analogue scale (VAS), motor block and obstetric outcome were compared between the two groups. Results No significant differences were found between the two groups in the total bupivecaine consumption and the percentages of subjects with anesthesia plane over T10 at 15 min (both P>0.05). More patients in group B needed additional supplements (P<0.05). Two groups achieved the same analgesic effect ( P>0.05), but more patients in group B had second stage maternal lower limb numbness compared with group A (P<0.05). Conclusion It is indicated that 0. 062 5% bupivacaine with fentanyl can be used for early labor epidural analgesia.%目的:将0.062 5%布比卡因应用于分娩镇痛,且与0.1%布比卡因的镇痛效果进行比较,进而评估在产程早期0.062 5%布比卡因是否适用.方法将60例产妇随机分为A组((0.1%布比卡因+0.0002%芬太尼)和B组((0.062 5%布比卡因+0.000 2%芬太尼),观察局部麻醉药用量、患者生命体征、疼痛缓解情况、分娩结局和不良反应等.结果:两组15 min时麻醉平面超过T10的产妇比例以及布比卡因总量的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05),但B组需补充布比卡因的比例显著高于A组(P<0.05),B组有双下肢麻木感的产妇比例显著低于A组(P<0.05).结论:0.062 5%布比卡因复合芬太尼适用于产程早期的分娩镇痛.

  20. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... its [[Page 31550

  1. A global strategy for labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  2. Seven Important Labor Force Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents statistics on the changing human resources mix in the labor force, which vocational counselors should be aware of. Trends include higher percentages of women working, and older men and married men leaving the work force. One result is an increasing number of persons are able to retire earlier. (JAC)

  3. Misguided guidelines for managing labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The political economy of child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...

  5. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. Labor Market Characteristics and the Labor Force Participation of Individuals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    dependent variable are well-known and range from frequent uninterpretability of results to bias in statistical tests (see, e.g., Hanushek and Jackson...shown that logit and probit analysis yield almost identical results near the means of relevant variables ( Hanushek and Jackson, 1977: 188- 189). We choose...general and lucid treatment of these and related points, see Hanushek and Jackson (1977:Ch. 7). Step 2: Analysis of labor market impact on individual

  7. 29 CFR 215.8 - Department of Labor contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject...

  8. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... 106- 200 (2002), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the... of benefits under CBTPA and AGOA, respectively. In addition, the Andean Trade Preference Act, as... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION...

  9. Failed labor induction: toward an objective diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rouse, Dwight J

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing labor induction with an unfavorable cervix according to duration of oxytocin administration in the latent phase of labor after ruptured membranes.

  10. International Labor Organization's 75th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This special issue contains eight articles that examine the following: social justice, global employment issues, International Labor Organization (ILO) standards, social security, training, tripartism, the 1994 ILO conference, and labor standards--all from a global perspective. (JOW)

  11. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  12. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...

  13. "A Welcome Debate" over Labor Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.

  14. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  15. The size of the labor wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Christoffersen, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims.......To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims....

  16. Observations on International Labor Standards and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity. Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for legislation that would ban imports to the United States of goods made with child labor provides little support for the prevailing ...

  17. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  18. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms......' returns and the riskiness of corporate ownership. To remunerate this higher volatility and stronger risk, firms' equities have to grant high return. This mechanism is able to offer an explanation of for the "equity puzzle", that is it can explain the difference between equity returns and the risk free...... rate. It is a welcome result that the simulated excess return is about the empirical estimate and this result is obtained with a logarithmic specification of the shareholders preferences....

  19. Indonesian Labor Reform Since 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Uwiyono, Aloysius

    2008-01-01

    The development of labor law in the world essentially influenced by the newest models in industrial relations in each county. In general, there are two models, Corporatist Model/Regulatory Model and Contractual Model. The first model frequently meets in the countries whose use the civil law like France, Netherlands, Germany, and Indonesia, while the second model frequently meet in common law countries like the United States of America's, England, Australia, and Malaysia. Based on the two theo...

  20. 10 CFR 440.19 - Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor... supplement wages paid to training participants, public service employment workers, or other Federal or State...

  1. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as the...

  2. Department of Labor Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... reduce or eliminate the amount of diacetyl in some kinds of flavorings, foods, and beverages. They have.... Hilda L. Solis, Secretary of Labor. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Proposed Rule Stage Regulation... in part II of this issue of the Federal Register. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Completed...

  3. John R. Commons: Pioneer in Labor Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack

    1989-01-01

    John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)

  4. Conceptual problems of the intellectual labor economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the detailed analysis of the intellectual labor and takes into account theoretical and practical aspects of the intellectual labor economics in the transition to the information society. The author describes the nature, specific features, content, structure and the bases for classification of the intellectual labor.

  5. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  6. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  7. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  8. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... reimbursable when supported by adequate records. This shall include labor costs associated with preliminary...

  9. Age-specific labor market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2008-01-01

    One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to

  10. 24 CFR 92.354 - Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor. 92.354 Section 92.354... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.354 Labor. (a) General. (1) Every contract... prevailing in the locality, as predetermined by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U...

  11. When Minority Labor Migrants Meet the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Bernt Bratsberg; Oddbjorn Raaum; Knut Roed

    2008-01-01

    We find that the lifecycle employment profiles of nonwestern male labor migrants who came to Norway in the early 1970s diverge significantly from those of native comparison persons. During the first years after arrival almost all of the immigrants worked and their employment rate exceeded that of natives. But, about ten years upon arrival, immigrant employment started a sharp and steady decline. By 2000, the immigrant employment rate was 50 percent, compared to 87 percent for the native compa...

  12. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...

  13. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28...

  14. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January...

  15. Not by Labor Alone: Considerations for Value Influence Use of the Labor Rule in Ownership Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…

  16. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C

    1989-09-01

    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.

  17. Validity and efficacy of the labor contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract.

  18. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-01-01

    The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...

  19. Modern Neuraxial Anesthesia for Labor and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Marie-Louise; Smiley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century.

  20. Neonatal morbidity after spontaneous labor onset prior to intended cesarean delivery at term: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavind, Julie; Milidou, Ioanna; Uldbjerg, Niels; Maimburg, Rikke; Henriksen, Tine B

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to investigate if labor onset before planned cesarean delivery (CD) affects the risk of neonatal admission, respiratory distress, or neonatal infectious morbidity. Our cohort included singleton term pregnant women with intended CD who delivered at Aarhus University Hospital from 1990 to 2012. Two groups of women were identified: women with intended CD performed before labor (nonlabor CD) and women with intended CD performed after spontaneous labor onset (labor-onset CD); in both groups there was no other maternal or fetal medical indication for an immediate CD or for early-term CD scheduling. Data were stratified in early-term (37-38 weeks) and full-term (39-40 weeks) deliveries. The main outcome measures were neonatal admission, respiratory distress and neonatal infectious morbidity. Among 103 919 live births, 5071 deliveries were nonlabor CDs and 731 were labor-onset CDs. Compared to nonlabor CD, labor-onset CD was associated with similar risks of neonatal admission and respiratory distress, both at early and full term, but with a two- to three-fold increased risk of newborn septicemia or antibiotic treatment at early term. Labor onset at early term was associated with a lower risk of maternal blood loss of more than 500 mL, but with a higher risk of postoperative antibiotic treatment and endometritis. Labor onset before planned CD was not associated with a decrease in neonatal respiratory morbidity, but may be associated with increased risks of neonatal infection. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Induction of labor in grand multiparous women with previous cesarean delivery: how safe is this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibber, Rachana; Al-Harmi, Jehad; Foda, Mohamed; Mohammed K, Zeinab; Al-Saleh, Eyad; Mohammed, Asiya Tasneem

    2015-02-01

    To compare the outcome of induced and spontaneous labor in grand multiparous women with one previous lower segment cesarean section (CS), so that the safety of labor induction could be assessed. In 102 women (study group), labor was induced and the outcome was compared with 280 women (control group) who went into spontaneous labor. All 382 women were grand multiparous and had one previous CS. There were no significant difference in oxytocin augmentation, CS, scar dehiscence, fetal birth weight or apgar scores between groups. There was one neonatal death, two still births, one early neonatal death and one congenital malformation in the study group and this was not significant. There was no significant difference in vaginal birth in the study (80.9%) and the control group (83.8%). In this moderate-sized study, induction of labor may be a safe option in grand multiparous women, if there is no absolute induction for repeating CS.

  2. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya

    2002-01-01

    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors....... The balanced growth path is unique if the consumption good sector is more capital intensive. However, it can be indeterminate. When the investment good sector is more capital intensive a sufficient condition for indeterminacy is that there exists at least three balanced growth paths....

  3. Labor report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares

    1998-01-01

    In agreement with the disposition in the 93 rd Article of the Mexican United States Constitution Policy, the National Institute for Nuclear Research, which is directed as decentralized public organization of the Federal Government presents its labor report corresponding to the period 1997-1998. The Institution purpose is to perform research and development in the nuclear sciences and technology fields, as well as to promote the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy and divulging the advances reached for entailing them to the economic, social, scientific and technological development of the country. (Author)

  4. 29 CFR 552.108 - Child labor provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...

  5. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists (Specialists...

  6. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  7. Reforma y contrarreforma laboral en Argentina, crónica simple de un proceso pendular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Goldin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Labor reform and counter-reform in Argentina, simple chronic of a pendulum processAfter placing it in the context of the processes of labor reforms produced in Latin America in the early 90’s (its inspiration, its dynamics, its actors, the article considers in particular the case of Argentina. Inthat assignment, it examines the labor reforms that took place there from dominant perspectives - external flexibility, internal flexibility, reduction and variation of costs, collective labor relations - confirming a strong deregulated activism in the field of individual relations, while it was verified a high administrative interventionism of decentralized bias with a limited institutional transformation in collective relations.At the end of that decade, it had already been clear that those strategies haven’t had a virtuous effect on the social labor situation or the labor market. In this context, a new government that comes into power in 2003, leaves without effect a good part of those reforms and instead it undertakes a process of institutional reconfiguration of the legal system of labor protection: a systematic increase of the Living Wage, strengthening of the collective wage bargaining - with the consequent tendential improvement of wages of workers in the formal sector - and, by virtue of parliamentary initiatives, a sequence of introduction of micro-reforms always oriented to increase the protection of workers, which as a whole would have to involve a remarkable recovery of the tutelary bias of labor regulations.

  8. Diversity of vaginal microbiota increases by the time of labor onset

    OpenAIRE

    Avershina, Ekaterina; Slangsvold, Silje; Simpson, Melanie Rae; Storrø, Ola; Johnsen, Roar; Øien, Torbjørn; Rudi, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota is an important early source of bacterial colonization for newborns. However, only a few small studies have investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota during labor. In this work, we analyzed vaginal swabs collected at 36 weeks gestation and at the onset of labor from 256 women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled study of probiotic supplementation for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in offspring. Although individuals’ vaginal microbiota was stable ov...

  9. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  10. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Garam

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.

  11. Labor potential: enhancing its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Melnichuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the views of the author about the need to expand research of labor potential, estimation of quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics at the individual, regional levels and the state as a whole to develop the mechanisms of its development. The existing methods of labour potential assessment are mainly based on the probable approach taking into account external and internal factors. In the case of assessment of labour potential of a single enterprise for the most suitable for this production method the mechanisms of its development can be worked out. However, for the state under a certain depreciation of the resource, property, financial and other potentials, aggressive manifestations of the crisis phenomena, processes etc. to resolve urgent is the problem of enhancing the development of qualitative characteristics of labor potential at all its levels. In this context it is important to exploit the potential of domestic education and science which now continue to be reformed for the sake of achieving European standards, using the advanced experience of other countries. Every means of legal, financial, managerial, and organizational impact should be used for this.

  12. 29 CFR 500.41 - Farm labor contractor is responsible for actions of his farm labor contractor employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...

  13. La reforma del proceso laboral en Uruguay. El regreso al proceso laboral autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime

  14. Beyond dualism: Multisegmented labor markets in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz; Fabian Slonimczyk

    2007-01-01

    Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...

  15. Immigrants, Labor Market Performance, and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long- term labor market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from highincome countries performed as natives, while labor migrants from low- income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability program participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival, but labor market convergence halted ...

  16. Labor epidural analgesia: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pains experienced by a woman is that of childbirth. Providing analgesia for labor has always been a challenge more so because of the myths and controversies surrounding labor. It is imperative to understand the pain transmission during various stages of labor in order to select a proper technique for providing labor analgesia. The adverse effects of labor pain are numerous and affect both the mother as well as the fetus. Currently lumbar epidural is considered to be the gold standard technique for labor analgesia. Local anaesthetics like bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used and adjuvants like clonidine, fentanyl and neostigmine have been extensively studied. However, despite being so popular, epidural analgesia is not without complications, with hypotension being the most common. Other complications include accidental dural puncture, infection, intravascular placement, high block and epidural hematoma. Other neuraxial techniques include continuous caudal analgesia, and combined spinal epidural analgesia. The numerous studies investigating the various aspects of this method have also served to dispel various myths surrounding epidural analgesia like increased incidence of cesarean section and instrumental delivery, prolongation of labor and future back pain. The future of labor analgesia lies in the incorporation of ultrasound in identifying the epidural space helping in proper catheter placement. The keywords "labor epidural" in the PUBMED revealed a total of 5018 articles with 574 review articles and 969 clinical trials. The relevant articles along with their references were extensively studied.

  17. Gender Bias and Child Labor in LDCs

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Emma Underhill

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that girls work more than boys as child labor. In this paper, we develop a model to analyze the causes and consequences of the gender differentials in child labor. In particular, we analyze the effects of gender bias on child labor. We find that when parents can give strictly positive bequests to both boys and girls, son preference on its own does not lead to gender differential in child labor. Only when parents cannot give bequests, girls work more than boys as ch...

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility and Labor Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Coe, Neil

    This article examines the circumstances under which CSR initiatives facilitate and/or constrain labor agency in GPNs. Using a case study of Nike’s CSR approach in the football manufacturing industry of Pakistan, we explore how the CSR measures advocated in a new, emerging policy paradigm on CSR...... in GPNs affect labor agency at Nike’s main football supplier factory in Pakistan. We argue that international companies may undermine labor agency in GPNs through their sourcing policies, but that their CSR policies could have a potential, albeit limited, positive impact on labor agency in GPNs which...

  19. Analysis of current labor market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Yurchyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents current state of the national labor market and highlights its main trends. We have substantiated the necessity for building institutional support to the labor market in order to meet the needs of Ukrainian economy for innovative development in integrated environment. Measures for promotion of labor market in Ukraine should be: systematization of indicators evaluating its effectiveness; involvement in the assessment of both domestic and foreign experts; permanently identify weaknesses in the institutional support labor market; improving the infrastructure of the labor market. Of particular interest in promoting the efficient functioning of the labor market include the adoption of the concept that would provide incentives for innovative development of institutional support for the labor market. Important for rebirth of man's relation to labor should belong to such institutions as education, culture, family and church. Strategy for the development of effective national labor market should be based on the innovation focus of its institutions, to increase the competitiveness of the workforce and increasing the efficiency of its use in the region.

  20. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  1. Factors that influence the timing of spontaneous labor at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogleman, Kelly A; Herring, Amy H; Kaczor, Diane; Pusek, Susan N; Jo, Hyejin; Thorp, John M

    2007-11-01

    Whether pre-term birth culminates as a result of a de novo pathologic process or is more simply early activation of physiologic mechanisms is unknown. Exploration of the onset of labor in term women with classical risk factors for early delivery might provide insights into the mechanisms leading to pre-term birth. This study examines whether sociodemographic factors known to increase the risk of pre-term birth also affect the length of term gestations. From a large prospective cohort composed of women delivering from 1995-2000, a sample was selected of 441 women from Central North Carolina, US, who delivered singletons after 37 weeks gestation. An algorithm was designed to identify induced labors and gestational age was censored at the time of induction. Gestational age was assigned by sonography and menstrual dating. Data were analysed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The main outcome measure was time to spontaneous labor. Women with 12 years of education had longer periods of gestation than women with less than 12 years of education, HR = 0.57 [0.39, 0.84]. Shorter gestational periods were found for women with pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in a previous pregnancy, HR = 3.70 [1.60, 8.52], even after adjusting for confounders. Smoking was not associated (p > 0.1) with the timing of labor at term. By studying the timing of spontaneous parturition at term we identified that there is little overlap in risk factors that affect timing of delivery between spontaneous term and pre-term births.

  2. Efficacy of aromatherapy for reducing pain during labor: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvisut, Rajavadi; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Tongsong, Theera

    2018-05-01

    Many strategies for labor pain management have been studied, including aromatherapy, which is a noninvasive, alternative medicine used as an adjunct for labor pain control. Nevertheless, the results were contradictory. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the effectiveness of aromatherapy for reducing pain during labor. A randomized controlled trial was carried out on Thai laboring primigravidae who were a low-risk singleton pregnancy undergoing vaginal delivery. All participants, both study and control group, received standard obstetric care. Aromatherapy was only provided to the study group during the first stage of labor. The women rated their pain intensity by rating scales at different stages of labor. The primary outcome was pain scores and the secondary outcomes were necessity of painkiller usage, labor time, aromatherapy-associated complications, route of delivery, and Apgar scores. A total of 104 women were recruited, 52 in each group. Baseline characteristics and baseline pain scores were comparable. The median pain score of latent and early active phase was lower in the aromatherapy group, 5 vs 6 and 7 vs 8, respectively. The mean differences of pain scores between latent and early active phase and the baseline were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group, 1.88 vs 2.6 (p = 0.010) and 3.82 vs 4.39 (p = 0.031), respectively. Late active phase pain scores and other perinatal outcomes were not significantly different. Aromatherapy is helpful in reducing pain in latent and early active phase, and can probably be used as an adjunctive method for labor pain control without serious side effects.

  3. Korean Emotional Laborers' Job Stressors and Relievers: Focus on Work Conditions and Emotional Labor Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Garam Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job st...

  4. The assessment of labor: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A

    2018-01-26

    In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts. These observations led to the formulation of criteria that elevated the assessment of labor from a rather arbitrary exercise to one guided by scientific objectivity. Researchers worldwide confirmed the basic nature of labor curves and validated their functionality. This system allows us to quantify the effects of parity, analgesia, maternal obesity, prior cesarean, maternal age, and fetal presentation and position on labor. It permits analysis of outcomes associated with labor aberrations, quantifies the effectiveness of treatments and assesses the need for cesarean delivery. Also, dysfunctional labor patterns serve as indicators of short- and long-term risks to offspring. We still lack the necessary translational research to link the physiologic manifestations of uterine contractility with changes in dilatation and descent. Recent efforts to interpret electrohysterographic patterns hold promise in this regard, as does preliminary exploration into the molecular basis of dysfunctional labor. For now, the clinician is best served by a system of labor assessment proposed more than 60 years ago and embellished upon in considerable detail since.

  5. Labor and health status in economic evaluation of health care. The Health and Labor Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Bonsel, G.; Rutten, F. F.

    1996-01-01

    A health care program may influence both costs and health effects. We developed the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ), which consists of four modules, to collect data on absence from work, reduced productivity, unpaid labor production, and labor-related problems. We applied the HLQ in several

  6. Is automation labor-displacing? : Productivity growth, employment, and the labor share

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autor, David; Salomons, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041575

    2018-01-01

    Is automation a labor-displacing force? This possibility is both an age-old concern and at the heart of a new theoretical literature considering how labor immiseration may result from a wave of “brilliant machines,” which is in part motivated by declining labor shares in many developed countries.

  7. La selectividad como riesgo laboral en la labor docente universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Martinez, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad no hay datos que sirvan de soporte para analizar la contribución de los alumnos en el fracaso escolar. Para lo cual, se ha elaborado un test con una serie de items que determinan el grado de cumplimiento de la “actividad discente” recogida en los siguientes campos: asistir a clase, hacer uso de las tutorías para resolver dudas, estudio diario para poder llevar a cabo una evaluación continua, asistir a los exámenes finales, y nivel de preparación básica e interés con que los alumnos llegan a la universidad para que los profesores puedan trabajar. El control para que este comportamiento no ocurra está en la selectividad. Una selectividad inadecuada conduce a los profesores a un estado de ansiedad, estrés laboral, y burn-out (quemado que con el mobbing que provoca el acoso de una evaluación docente mal entendida hace cada vez más inviable el trabajo docente.

  8. "Subconscious" Sex Bias and Labor Market Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Stephen E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the contention that the resentment some men feel toward working women is based on sympathy toward unemployed male breadwinners. Argues that this rationalization ignores the gross discrepancy in the size of the two labor force groups and the real issues in labor market discrimination against women. (Author/IRT)

  9. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  10. Empirical studies in labor and education economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketel, N.

    2016-01-01

    The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by

  11. Macroeconomic implications of labor market frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedláček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial

  12. "American Gothic" and the Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…

  13. 75 FR 55251 - Labor Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... immeasurable contributions of working men and women today and throughout our history. As we recognize the... and that of organized labor in our national life. Workers have not always possessed the same rights... aisles of today's superstores, organized labor has provided millions of hard-working men and women with a...

  14. A Labor Perspective on Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Anthony R.

    Most major workplace literacy programs involve unions. Organized labor's current leadership in worker education and training is not a continuation of earlier activities but an expansion of union interest and activity that is unprecedented in the history of organized labor. These efforts do not rely on public funding, because many unions have…

  15. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  16. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  17. International Trade and Labor Market Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or

  18. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  19. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  20. FADIGA LABORAL EM TRABALHADORES RURAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Nayalle de Souza Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar la existencia de estrés laboral de trabajadores rurales del Bom Jesus-PI, Brasil. Estudio descriptivo exploratorio llevado acabo entre abril y junio de 2011, con 47 trabajadores. Recopilación de datos se realizó por instrumento para evaluación del estrés llamado Cuestionario Bipolar y guión de entrevista semiestructurada con la caracterización del perfil sociodemográfico y de las condiciones de trabajo. Se tabularon los cuestionarios, que se compararon por Chi-Cuadrado con 95% de confiabilidad. Se realizó para diferenciación o clasificación de las respuestas analizadas y observación del comportamiento dentro de grupos el análisis de componentes principales y agrupaciones. El estrés es común en el medio rural, principalmente en forma de estrés intenso, debido a la exposición a condiciones insalubres para el trabajador. Aunque no se identifican, directamente, sus factores desencadenantes, por lo tanto, sus medidas de prevención.

  1. Child labor in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegmann David

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a report on child labor in the U.S. that reviewed the positive and negative aspects of work for youth. Working was found to provide young people with valuable lessons about responsibility, punctuality, interacting with people and learning about money management, increasing self-esteem and helping them become independent and skilled. Research findings suggested that working during high school may contribute to increased rates of employment and better wages up to a decade after high school completion. Research concerning the hazards associated with work indicated that, each year, tens of thousands of young people are seen in hospital emergency departments for work-related injuries, hundreds require hospitalization, and more than 70 die of work-related injuries. Long work hours during the school year were associated with problem behaviors. The report points out some important questions: updating regulations on allowable work hours, eliminating less stringent regulation of agricultural work, revising outdated rules against hazardous work, developing and implementing a comprehensive plan for monitoring the injuries, illnesses, and hazards, building workplace health and safety information into school-based programs, and developing criteria for designating "commendable workplaces for youth."

  2. Labor market trends for nuclear engineers through 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, N.; Blair, L.M.; Baker, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout most of the 1980s, both private organizations and government agencies were concerned about the availability of an adequate supply of qualified nuclear engineers. This concern was primarily the result of a number of nuclear engineering academic programs being eliminated coupled with a continuous decline in graduate and undergraduate enrollments and degrees. By the early 1990s, the number of degrees and available supply had declined to new lows, but cutbacks in funding for the nuclear weapons program and nuclear energy R ampersand D, and in hiring by the electric utility industry, offset in large measure the declining supply. Recently, concerns about environment and waste management and about nuclear safety have again generated questions about the adequacy of supply of qualified personnel for nuclear energy activities. This report briefly examines the nuclear engineering labor market. Trends in employment, new graduates, job openings, and salaries are reviewed as a basis for understanding the current labor market. This review is then used as a basis for assessing future employment needs and new graduate supply to provide an outlook for future labor market conditions through 2000

  3. Decision Making about Hospital Arrival among Low-Risk Nulliparous Women after Spontaneous Labor Onset at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Joyce K; Miley, Kathleen; Angelini, Kimberly J; Shah, Neel T

    2018-05-15

    Postponing hospital admission until the active phase of labor is a recommended strategy to safely reduce the incidence of primary cesarean births. Success of this strategy depends on women's decisions about when to transfer from home to the hospital, a process that is largely absent from research about childbirth. This study aimed to determine the decision-making criteria used by women about when to go to the hospital after the self-identification of labor onset at home. A qualitative study was conducted at an academic medical center with a sample of 21 nulliparous women who went into spontaneous labor at home and had term, singleton, and vertex-presentation births. The purposive sample consisted of women who decided to stay at home or go to the hospital in early labor. Birth narratives from in-depth interviews conducted in the postpartum period using a semistructured interview guide were subjected to content analysis. The verbatim transcriptions of the interviews were coded and categorized into a set of decision criteria. Criteria used by women in deciding to go to the hospital or stay at home in early labor included the degree of certainty with the self-identification of labor onset, ability to cope with labor pain, influence of social network members, health care provider advice, and concerns about travel to the hospital. Perception of childbirth risk and the need for reassurance about the normalcy of symptoms and fetal well-being also influenced women's decisions. Women use a common set of criteria in deciding when to arrive at the hospital during labor. Antenatal education and telephone triage interventions that incorporate the considerations of women deciding to seek or delay hospital admission in childbirth may facilitate health seeking in more advanced labor. Symptom recognition education about early labor onset and progression could reduce decisional uncertainty. © 2018 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  4. The Vulnerability of the Regional Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Rarița

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.

  5. Contemporary second stage labor patterns in Taiwanese women with normal neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Szu-Fu; Lo, Liang-Ming; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang

    2015-08-01

    To compare the duration of second stage labor among modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes and women who delivered during the early 1990 s. Data were collected from women who underwent spontaneous labor and vaginally delivered cephalic singleton fetuses with normal neonatal outcomes at the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan from 1991-1995 (Cohort 1, n = 10,721) and 2010-2014 (Cohort 2, n = 3734). We calculated the median duration and 95th percentiles of second stage labor. The women were stratified according to analgesia and parity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between the maternal/pregnancy characteristics and second stage labor duration. The median second stage labor duration was significantly longer for Cohort 2 than for Cohort 1. For nulliparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 255 minutes and 152 minutes (Cohort 2) and 165 minutes and 107 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. For multiparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 136 minutes and 43 minutes (Cohort 2) and 125 minutes and 39 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. Birth weight, maternal age at delivery, and time period (2010-2014 vs. 1991-1995) were significant factors associated with the duration of second stage labor. Modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes experienced longer second stage labors than women 25 years ago. The 95th percentile thresholds differed between nulliparous and multiparous women with and without epidural analgesia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Optimal life-cycle profiles of fertility and labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, R

    1984-01-01

    A model of life cycle fertility is developed using the language and framework of optimal control theory. The chief characteristic of children that distinguishes them from other consumer durables is, in the language of the optimal growth theory, the "irreversibility of investment." As the good does not depreciate in the ordinary sense, the stock must be monotonically nondecreasing over time. The optimal profile of fertility is, for this reason, characterized by the same type of "bang-bang" behavior found in many optimal growth problems. Yet, the fertility decision is complicated considerably by several other factors. Chief among these is the intrinsic relation to the labor-supply decision, for having children implies inevitable constraints on the mother's or father's time. Thus, optimal labor-supply decisions also must be considered. The model is developed in stages, proceeding from very simple to the more complex models. 1 section introduces the impact of fertility on the future demands for home time. It is shown that optimal fertility profiles follow turnpike paths similar to those in the growth-theory literature. A subsequent section introduces labor-supply and human-captial considerations. As the models become more complex, solutions become harder to derive and are often only outlined. The analysis provides some theoretical basis for expecting certain shapes of the life-cycle profiles of fertility, labor supply, and wages. Fertility profiles may be of 2 shapes--one beginning at a high rate, falling to a lower rate, then to zero; and one beginning at zero, rising to a moderate rate, then falling back down to zero. Labor supply profiles can be of a number of different shapes, but the impact of childbearing is to lower hours worked during the early childrearing period. As the children mature, hours worked rise (or at least fall more slowly) as home time responsibilities lessen, although the level to which they rise will probably be lower than before the 1st birth

  7. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  8. Labor Market Size and Unemployment Duration: A Theoretical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin

    2004-01-01

    When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.

  9. 75 FR 4271 - Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards 29 CFR Part 404 Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 499, revised as [[Page 4272

  10. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....

  11. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  12. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  13. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  14. Home Page, Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Training Services Alaska Labor Relations Agency Labor Standards and Safety Vocational Rehabilitation Workers' Compensation Of Interest Alaska's Job Bank Job Fairs, Recruitments, and Workshops Finding

  15. Titrated Misoprostol Versus Dinoprostone for Labor Induction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study designed to compare titrated misoprostol regarding its safety and efficacy with dinoprostone for induction of labor. ... Statistical analysis done using Student's t-test for quantitative data and ..... induction: A pilot study. Rev Bras ...

  16. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  17. Economic system and management by labor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krikorov, Y M

    1981-01-01

    Current problems in improving systematic leadership using the economic structure of the gas industry are touched upon, as are further development of democratic processes in the control of industry and increasing the creative activity of labor collectives.

  18. Alternative Work Schedules: A Labor Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalusky, John L.

    1977-01-01

    The compressed work week, flexitime, and job sharing are discussed from the labor perspective. The author suggests that it is unlikely that unions will endorse flexible work arrangements that jeopardize the eight-hour-day concept. (LBH)

  19. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the types of monitoring? • How is auscultation performed? • How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? • How ... methods of fetal heart rate monitoring in labor. Auscultation is a method of periodically listening to the ...

  20. Solidarity Action in Global Labor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Globalization transforms workforces of transnational corporation from predominantly home countrydominated workforces into foreign-dominated, multinational workforces. Thus, the national grounding of trade unions as the key form of labor organizing is challenged by new multinational compositions...... and cross-border relocations of corporate employment affecting working conditions of employees and trade unions in local places. We assume that economic globalization is characterized by expanding global corporate network of vertically and horizontally integrated (equity-based) and disintegrated (nonequity......-based) value chains. We also assume that globalization can both impede and enable labor empowerment. Based on these premises the key question is, how can labor leverage effective power against management in global corporate networks? This question is split into two subquestions: a) How can labor theoretically...

  1. Elderly Labor Supply: Work or Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haider, Steven

    2001-01-01

    .... However, very little research has examined labor market behavior in this population. In this paper, we examine a series of questions in an attempt to better understand why the elderly continue to work...

  2. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  3. Department of Labor Black Lung C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Department of Labor (DOL) provides a monthly file through the use of eData which contains the necessary identifying and payment information for all live miners,...

  4. Department of Labor, Black Lung B

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each month, the Department of Labor (DOL) sends a file via eData which contains changes to the Black Lung payments (updates only). Annually, around the time of the...

  5. Female labor force participation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Verick, Sher

    2014-01-01

    While women’s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving women’s access to quality employment, a critica...

  6. Measuring educational heterogeneity and labor quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Sørensen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the magnitude of the mismeasurement that occurs when only a few education categories are used in the construction of a constant quality index for labor input. By employing a very comprehensive data set it is found that the error resulting from the omission of information...... on education is relatively small. The empirical results are thus supportive of the current state of practice of constructing indices of constant quality labor input....

  7. Elderly Labor Supply: Work or Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haider, Steven

    2001-01-01

    .... Despite this, we find that the wages of the elderly are low both relative to younger populations and relative to the wages they earned when they themselves were young. Among individuals over the age of 70, we find that changes in health status dominate labor market transitions. Overall. our findings suggest that non- pecuniary considerations play an important role in determining elderly labor supply decisions.

  8. Child-Labor Proposal Eyes Private Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…

  9. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark

    1993-01-01

    The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less. This lower investment leads to lower wages and wage growth. The alternative "feedback" hypothesis consistent with the same facts is that women experience labor market discrimination and respond with career interruptions and specialization in household production. This paper explores the relationship between self-reported discrimina...

  10. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  11. Job Sorting in African Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fafchamps; Mans Soderbom; Najy Benhassine

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from eleven African countries, we investigate if there is a job sorting in African labor markets. We find that much of the wage gap correlated with education is driven by selection across occupations and firms. This is consistent with educated workers being more effective at complex tasks like labor management. In all countries the education wage gap widens rapidly at high low levels of education. Most of the education wage gap at low levels of education c...

  12. The labor force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  13. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    2006-01-01

    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  14. Inteligencia social en el sector laboral colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La inteligencia social en el trabajo es la competencia que desarrollan las personas para lograr acceder y realizarse laborando, está investigación busca determinar cuáles son los recursos que emplea el trabajador para ingresar y permanecer en el mercado laboral tanto formal como informal. Las condiciones del mercado laboral colombiano, hacen que subsistan y complementen el empleo y desempleo. La incapacidad del sector productivo y de servicios de generar empleo genera un deterioro de la ca...

  15. Optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm under labor taxes and labor mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ponce Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is developed a theoretical model to study the incentives that a labor tax might induce in terms of the optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm. In particular, we analyze the interaction of a labor tax that tends to reduce the wage due the firm is induced to shift backwards the tax burden to its employees minimizing the possible increase in the payroll costs and a fall of profits. However a lower wage might not be an optimal response to the establishment of a labor tax because it increases the labor turnover and as a result the firm faces both: an output’s opportunity cost and a labors turnover cost. The firm thus optimally decides to respond to the qualification and labor taxes by increasing the after tax wage.

  16. The Impact of Child Labor and School Dropout on Human Capital: Gender Differences in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie

    This chapter, Chapter 2 in "the Economics of Gender in Mexico," uses retrospective household survey data from Mexico to assess the long-term impacts of school dropout and of working early in life, in terms of adult labor market returns. Through these data, it is possible to link adult wages to the ages at which individuals started…

  17. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.

  18. International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON LABOR MARKET FLEXICURITY AUSTRIA - ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Avram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Present in the European political discourse in the early '90s, the concept of flexicurity, achieved by the contraction of two terms, flexibility and security, emerged in the European Union with the adoption of the Communication "Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity: More and Better Jobs through Flexibility and Security" in June 2007. This study, result of the research internship undertaken in October-December 2011 at WIFO, aims to capture the main dimensions of labor market flexicurity, the quality of social partnership and the present status of the targets set by of Europe 2020 Strategy. Europe 2020 Strategy aims, among other objectives, at achieving a series of targets specific for the labor market, in the European context, such as: - Employment for the population aged between 20-64 years, - Reducing the number of early school leavers, - Increasing the share of university graduates in the population between 30-34 years, - Reducing the number of people affected by poverty and social exclusion.

  20. Psychoprophylaxis during labor: associations with labor-related outcomes and experience of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Malin; Kieler, Helle; Waldenström, Ulla

    2010-06-01

    To study whether use of psychoprophylaxis during labor affects course of labor and experience of childbirth in nulliparous women. Cohort study. Women were recruited from 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between October 2005 and January 2007. A total of 857 nulliparous women with a planned vaginal delivery. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of antenatal education where the allocated groups were merged, we compared course of labor and experience of childbirth between women who used psychoprophylaxis during labor and those who did not. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy and three months after birth, and from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Mode of delivery, augmentation of labor, length of labor, Apgar score, pain relief and experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire. Use of psychoprophylaxis during labor was associated with a lower risk of emergency cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.88), but an increased risk of augmentation of labor (adjusted OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.23-2.28). No statistical differences were found in length of labor (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.95-1.83), Apgar score Psychoprophylaxis may reduce the rate of emergency cesarean section but may not affect the experience of childbirth.

  1. [Management of threatening preterm labor with intact membranes: indications for antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, N

    2002-11-01

    To analyse the benefits and disadvantages of systematic antibiotic therapy in patient presenting a preterm labor with intact membranes. We reviewed French and English reports on Medline using to the following key words: "antibiotic therapy and preterm labor, preterm labor, streptococcus B, vaginose, mycoplasma, antenatal infection". The systematic prescription of antibiotics is not recommended for patients presenting preterm labor who have intact membranes and no symptoms of infection. The benefit of antibiotics is small and shows a tendency to prolong the pregnancy and the reduction of maternal infection. No benefit has been shown for neonatal results. When early-onset neonatal sepsis develops in a case in which antepartum chemoprophylaxis was used, the isolated bacteria will present an increasing risk of bacterial drug resistance. Local treatment (cream or pessary) do not belong in the treatment of threatening preterm labor and are not recommended for the prevention of prematurity or materno fetal infection. Risk groups of patients who present a positive vaginal colonization are subject to discussion. Studies do not allow us to ascertain that antibiotics have a beneficial effect on prematurity in these groups. Antibiotics are recommended for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. This treatment reduces prematurity and maternal infections. Despite poor consensus criteria, if threatening preterm labor is associated with a bacteriuria, experts usually recommend treatment.

  2. The missing millions: organized labor, business, and the defeat of Clinton's Health Security Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, M

    1999-06-01

    During the battle over comprehensive health care reform in the early 1990s, organized labor was not only unable to put together a winning coalition but also found itself divided and on the defensive as it struggled to prevent any further erosion of the private-sector safety net of the U.S. welfare state. Labor's relative ineffectiveness has deep institutional and political roots and was not merely a consequence of its dwindling membership base. Several key institutions of the private welfare state, notably the Taft-Hartley health and welfare funds and the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) preemption, brought the interests of organized labor more closely in line with those of large employers and commercial insurers and aggravated divisions within organized labor and between unions and public interest groups. In addition, several political factors conspired to reinforce labor's tendency to stick to a policy path on health care issues that was predicated on an employer-mandate solution and that had been charted primarily by business and leading Democrats. As a result, organized labor did not emerge from the 1993-1994 struggle with its political base fortified nor with a viable long-term political strategy to achieve universal health care and to shift the political debate over health policy in a more desirable direction.

  3. False Labor at Term in Singleton Pregnancies: Discharge After a Standardized Assessment and Perinatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate perinatal outcomes in women sent home with a diagnosis of false labor at term and assess the time interval to return for delivery. This was a prospective observational cohort study of women at 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation without pre-existing medical complications who presented to our hospital-based triage unit with symptoms of labor and underwent a standardized evaluation. Women diagnosed as having false labor with a live singleton fetus in cephalic presentation without a prior cesarean delivery and sent home were compared with a group of similar women diagnosed to be in spontaneous labor. Women with hypertension, diabetes, and known fetal malformations were excluded. Using a perinatal composite outcome of respiratory insufficiency, intraventricular hemorrhage, culture-proven sepsis, Apgar score 3 or less at 5 minutes, phototherapy, and perinatal death, we tested the noninferiority of being sent home compared with being admitted for labor. The relationship of cervical dilatation to the time interval from discharge home to delivery was also analyzed. Between October 2012 and March 2016, a total of 3,949 women met inclusion criteria and were diagnosed with false labor, discharged, and returned to deliver, whereas 2,592 similar women were admitted in early labor. The mean interval from discharge to return was 4.9 days. Cesarean delivery rates were not different between the study groups-11% for both (P=.69), and the perinatal composite outcome rates were not significantly different between those sent home and those admitted-3.2% compared with 3.1% (P=.79). Women with more advanced cervical dilatation at discharge returned and delivered significantly earlier than those with less dilatation regardless of parity. Discharge with false labor at term after a standardized assessment in a triage unit was not associated with increased rates of adverse perinatal composite outcomes or cesarean delivery. The time interval to return for delivery was

  4. The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets : Second Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeri, T.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most labor economics textbooks pay little attention to actual labor markets, taking as reference a perfectly competitive market in which losing a job is not a big deal.The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets is the only textbook to focus on imperfect labor markets and to provide a systematic

  5. Using Mythematics in the Classroom: The Fifth Labor of Hercules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The mythology surrounding Hercules has been a part of human culture for over 2,500 years. In ancient Greek mythology, Eurystheus assigns various labors to Hercules, who has to perform them in order to cleanse his soul. This article treats one of the more famous labors, the fifth labor: The Augean Stables. The labor is provided verbatim from…

  6. Projecting female labor supply: The relevance of social norm change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The relevance of labor supply research for long-term labor market policy is rather low. This article is an attempt to improve on this situation in the case of female labor force participation. It focuses on labor supply decisions under fundamental uncertainty, that is, imperfect ability to cope with

  7. 36 CFR 8.4 - Federal and State labor laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...

  8. 48 CFR 2922.101-3 - Reporting labor disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes. 2922.101-3 Section 2922.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-3 Reporting...

  9. Labor allocation in transition: evidence from Chinese rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical models are developed in this paper to quantitatively analyze households' participation in decisions on hiring labor and supplying labor off the farm, hired labor demand and off-farm labor supply of rural Chinese households. Econometric estimates use micro-level data from Zhejiang province

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-3 - Convict Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Convict Labor. 52.222-3... Labor. As prescribed in 22.202, insert the following clause: Convict Labor (JUN 2003) (a) Except as... union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted; (iii) Such paid...

  11. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  12. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION...

  13. 76 FR 38110 - Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA...

  14. Collective labor supply and housework with non-participation of women in paid labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2009-01-01

    Back to overview Collective Labor Supply and Housework with Non-Participation of Women in Paid Labor (with B. van Praag and H. Maassen van den Brink) We estimate a collective time allocation model, where two-earner households behave as if the spouses maximize a household utility function, and where

  15. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Omar A; Axtell, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  16. Employment growth through labor flow networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Guerrero

    Full Text Available It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN. This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.

  17. Pathophysiology of preterm labor with intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Asha N; Hackney, David N; Mesiano, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor. Recent studies suggest inflammatory stimuli induce labor by affecting PR transcriptional activity in uterine cells to cause functional progesterone/PR withdrawal. Advances in understanding the functional interaction of inflammatory load on the pregnancy uterus and progesterone/PR signaling is opening novel areas of research and may lead to rational therapeutic strategies to effectively prevent sPTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  19. Flexiseguridad, derecho al trabajo y estabilidad laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blancas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexisecurity, right to work and labor stabilityThis article deals with one of the most recent and innovative proposals of related flexibilization, basically, to the extinction of labor relation and that areknown as «flexisecurity» or «flexicurity». For this, the author comments the model of Denmark – country in which it’s originated «flexisecurity» – emphasizing the configuration of a «golden triangle», composed of: i flexibility in the labor relation, aimed at facilitating the dismissal ii a generous system of unemployment benefits, funded primarily by the State and iii a new policy of «activation» of the labor market, which seeks to keep large sectors of the population permanently trained to meet new labor challenges. The author emphasizes the difference between our country and Denmark, since it is a Welfare State with a high level of social protection funded by a fiscal pressure and high tax rates. Finally, the article notes that for the study of «flexisecurity» it shouldn’t ignore the legal framework derived from workers’ fundamental rights established in the Constitution and international treaties which imply: right to work, dignity and citizenship of the worker and Trade Union Freedom and Collective Rights

  20. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...

  2. Labor Force Activity after 60: Recent Trends in the Scandinavian Countries with Germany as a Benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Mona; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    In most OECD member countries labor force attachment has increased in recent years in the 60+ group. Focus in the paper is on the development in this area in Denmark, Norway and Sweden since the 1990s. The development in the same period in the German labor market is included as a frame of reference. Main emphasis is given to the development in two distinct age groups, i.e. people in the first half of the 60s of which many are eligible for early retirement programs and people older than 65 mos...

  3. Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how the composition of the labor force changes with economic development. It considers recent trends in women's labor force participation and the type of jobs held in various sectors as national per capita income increases. The paper notes that women are more likely to work in the family or informal labor market if the labor costs to firms exceed the opportunity costs of female labor to family enterprises. Firms are at a relative disadvantage compared with families in the...

  4. The estimation of labor life quality in regions of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva; Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova

    2013-01-01

    The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity) are allocated and proved. On...

  5. Model of monopolistic competition with heterogeneous labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a tool for modelling monopolistic competition markets, based on Dixit-Stiglitz ideology but taking into account heterogeneity at labor market. We analyse several modifications of a two-sector general equilibrium model. In the basic one with two levels of workers qualification their shares are determined endogenously on the base of comparison between the higher wage of the skilled worker and heterogeneous education costs, also taking into account the labor mobility between the manufacture and agriculture sector. The model is generalized for the case of continuous distribution of labor qualification. The impact of the model parameters (ratio of fixed and variable costs, market size, heterogeneity in productivity, elasticity of substitution, etc. on the obtained equilibrium prices, quantities, wages, number and size of firms, social welfare is investigated.

  6. [Miserable labor pain? Myths and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Meei-Ling; Kao, Chien-Huei

    2013-12-01

    Pain is a common, normal, and healthy physical phenomenon during childbirth. However, widely held public and clinical perspectives treat pain as a pathologic process and consider labor pain in a negative context. These perspectives ignore the positive effects of pain in the domains of protection, new life, expectation, purpose, preparation, and progression. The pain interpretation and pain experience of new mothers deeply impact their mental health, maternal-infant relationship, and transition to motherhood. This paper introduces the common myths related to labor pain, the three stages of pain transmission, and the current approaches to pain management. The authors hope childbirth caregivers may accept labor pain as a meaningful, pleasant, and positive gift, which is the first and most important step toward effective pain management.

  7. How Long Is a Normal Labor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normal progress of labor is a subject for discussion among professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of labor in women with a planned home birth and spontaneous onset who gave birth at home or in hospital after transfer. METHODS: This is a population-based study...... of home births in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). All midwives assisting at a home birth from 2008 to 2013 were asked to provide information about home births using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Birth data from 1,612 women, from Denmark (n = 1,170), Norway (n = 263), Sweden (n...... = 138), and Iceland (n = 41) were included. The total median duration from onset of labor until the birth of the baby was approximately 14 hours for primiparas and 7.25 hours for multiparas. The duration of the different phases varied between countries. Blood loss more than 1,000 mL and perineal...

  8. Unfunded pensions and endogenous labor supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly-mild restri......A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly......-mild restriction that the old be no less risk-averse than the young, extends to a neoclassical economy with endogenous labor supply....

  9. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  10. Fertility Effects on Female Labor Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF induced fertility variation in childless families to estimate the causal effect of having children on female labor supply using IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF...... treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects are: (a) negative, large and long lasting; (b) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin, and (c) similar for mothers, not treated with IVF, which suggests that IVF...

  11. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  12. Diverging patterns with endogenous labor migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, P; Rustichini, A

    1998-05-05

    "The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility." excerpt

  13. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  14. Labor-Force Dynamics at Older Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Julie M.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Labor-market transitions toward the latter parts of workers’ careers can be complex, with movement between jobs and classes of work and in and out of retirement. The authors analyzed factors associated with the labor-market transitions of older workers to self-employment from unemployment or disability, retirement, or wage and salary work using rich panel data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). They found evidence that (prior) job characteristics and liquidity constraints are important predictors of movements to self-employment for workers and nonworkers, while risk aversion is a significant predictor only for workers. PMID:23049149

  15. Reflexiones sobre la incapacidad y aptitud laboral. Nuevas sinergias entre medicina evaluadora y medicina laboral. Historia clínica laboral única: la incapacidad laboral, un continuo evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Eloy Díaz Salazar

    Full Text Available Numerosos agentes intervienen en la gestión de la incapacidad laboral, tanto temporal como permanente, y se hace necesario una actuación sinérgica entre todos ellos; del mismo modo, se considera que existen posibles actuaciones o cambios que pueden ayudar a disminuir el gasto y duración de los procesos, y proceder a la reincorporación laboral lo antes posible y de la forma más beneficiosa para el paciente, y, por ende, para la sociedad.

  16. From Labor Shortage to Labor Surplus: The Changing Labor Market Context and Its Meaning for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…

  17. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... . Executive Order No. 13126 (EO 13126) declared that it was ``the policy of the United States Government..., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank and Gaza Strip, Western Sahara, Republic of Yemen, Zambia... penalize those responsible and the adequacy of these actions. (D) Government Policies on Child Labor DOL...

  18. Challenges in Albania for improving Labor Market Information System and Labor Market Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshat Zeneli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.

  19. PENENTU UPAH REGIONAL: TENAGA KERJA TERDIDIK (SKILLED LABOR DAN TIDAK TERDIDIK (UNSKILLED LABOR DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The wage have impacts on poverty, living standards and the incentive to improve labor productivity (human capital, in particular, for economic growth. Regional decentralization has implications, which, they must be developed regional endowment to get the efficiency in production process. So it is interesting to examine the importance of regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage in Indonesia. Based on this idea, the objective of this study is to examine the contribution of regional characteristics to the regional wage differential in Indonesia. Data supplied by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics during 2003 – 2007. In this study used 3 model; Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Co-Varian Model and Generalized Least Squared (GLS. Then, the most effective model based on the smallest standard error was chosen to estimate regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage inIndonesia. The result showed that the regional characteristics, particularly skilled or unskilled labor, play an important role in determining the wage differentials in region. The empirical evidence presented that regional economic growth and the existing of high skilled labor in labor market have positive impact toward spatial wage. Then, skilled labor and unskilled will give negative influence in regional wage. The points out is laboring existence with level education or skilled level, despite not works or was working have influence toward the regional wage. Therefore, labor's policy is expected gets focused on given specialization corresponds to that region characteristics.

  20. Labor analgesia: An update on the effect of epidural analgesia on labor outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.

  1. [Labor legislation reform: law 50 of 1990. The context of the reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuzova, M

    1991-12-01

    Labor legislation reforms contained in Law 50 of 1990 were intended to facilitate international opening of Colombia's economy, which has been beset by external debt, an absence of foreign investment, technological backwardness, and low productivity. The weakness of the labor movement, aggravated by the failure of the socialist economic model and its power organization, made possible a dismantling of past labor victories. The labor reform is intended to combat stagnation in productivity which is believed by the government to result from labor instability; to create a climate permitting generation of employment, and to adapt internal labor laws to recommendations of the International Labour Organization. The effort to make labor legislation more flexible and more adaptable to market conditions removed some protectionist measures and facilitated firing or laying off of workers. Several categories of workers were removed from the jurisdiction of labor laws and placed under the jurisdiction of civil law and ultimately of market forces. The new labor law will lead to salary reductions for most workers. A 36-hour work week without overtime was created for new enterprises as a strategy to encourage job creation. The principle that labor laws should protect workers because of their unequal power relative to employers has been suppressed in the new legislation. Although it is too early to draw definite conclusions about the effect of the law on women workers, some effects are predictable. The liberating power of employment for married women has been limited in Colombia as in many other countries because women are expected to carry out their full traditional domestic role in addition to their paid employment. Women's status in the workplace has improved considerably over the past 50 years, but they still have higher unemployment rates than men, receive lower wages, and are concentrated in less skilled jobs and the informal sector. Employment in the informal sector allows

  2. Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child-labor problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children�s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

  3. El Acoso ó “Mobbing” Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcira Isabel Muñoz Osorio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo, producto de un proyecto de investigación institucional y un proyecto de aula de la cátedra dederecho laboral individual, realiza un análisis de las situaciones que surgen en el ámbito del ambiente laboral,que de una u otra forma perjudican y desestabilizan al trabajador, sujeto pasivo del acoso. El artículo pretendedar a conocer que todo ultraje y/o maltrato que se presenta en el ambiente laboral de manera repetitiva, públicay que atenta contra la dignidad humana, hoy día es objeto de sanciones. Se revisan además los antecedentes yel marco jurídico de esta conducta.Palabras claves:Acoso laboral, mobbing, agresivo, persistente, demostrable, atropello.Abstract:This article, the product of an institutional research project and a draft class of the class of individual employmentlaw, an analysis of the situations that arise in the context of the workplace, which in one way or another harmand destabilize the worker, taxpayer harassment. The article aims to show that every outrage and / or abuse thatoccurs in the workplace so repetitive, public and undermines human dignity, is now subject to sanctions. It alsolooks into the background and legal framework for this behavior.Keywords:Harassment, bullying, aggressive, persistent, demonstrable killing.

  4. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  5. Department of Labor Issues. Transition Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Secretary of Labor should place emphasis on five issues to ensure safe and healthful workplaces and to promote the welfare of wage earners. First, the Secretary should improve the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's enforcement program. Second, the Secretary should enhance the use of Job Training Partnership Act resources. Third,…

  6. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  7. A positive stigma for child labor ?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) toward child labor that is common in some developing countries. They illustrate the positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child and household-level characteristics, the analysis uses two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous background and the househol...

  8. Vulnerabilidad laboral de la mujer rural latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el estudio de la situación laboral de las mujeres rurales en los países latinoamericanos. Las mujeres rurales son uno de los grupos sociales más vulnerables en el ámbito laboral latinoamericano, debido a su baja participación laboral, a la categorización ocupacional mayoritaria como trabajadoras por cuenta propia y familiar no remunerado y a índices de feminización positivos. Pero sus posibilidades de mejorar su condición de vulnerabilidad social laboral se centra principalmente en el Empleo Rural No Agrario (ERNA, con gran potencial en el desarrollo rural, y al apoyo legislativo en cuanto al acceso a los bienes de tierra. Frente al proceso de urbanización es necesario implementar políticas públicas que tengan en cuenta la existencia de las mujeres rurales como trabajadoras en el ámbito rural y diseñar medidas de ayuda especialmente dirigidas a este colectivo.

  9. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2014-01-01

    of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  10. Emotional Labor, Face and Guan xi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianwenling

    2017-01-01

    Emotional Labor, Face and Guan xi are all relevant to performance, appearance, and emotional feelings, which are essential elements in work place. In other words, not only front-line workers, but all employees in an organization is faced up with the three

  11. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  12. Labor tax reform, unemployment, and search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal

  13. Labor recruitment and economic freedoms in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Rozanova, Marya S.

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, Jan Cremers (UvT-TLS) contributed to an international congress in Saint Petersburg dedicated to labor migration. The conference was organized by the state university of Saint Petersburg, the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation in the Russian Federation, the Center for Civil, Social,

  14. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...

  15. Labor market in Serbia: 1990-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Key problems in transitions in Serbia can be analyzed through the processes happening at the labor market. Labor market in Serbia is divided on the formal and informal one ("gray". The basic problem is mass unemployment. The unemployment in Serbia is not frictional unemployment resulting from decisions of workers to change their jobs. This kind of unemployment is considered normal at all labor markets. Since it is not frictional, unemployment in Serbia is not short-term one. This unemployment is by its nature structural and therefore long-term. Structural unemployment always arises as a result of the illadapted structure of labor supply and demand. There is a particularly high level of long-term unemployment among young people who practically do not have any work experience. The only realistic solution for mass unemployment and low wages in the Serbian economy is increasing of productivity and overall economic efficiency. Stimulating entrepreneurship and opening of new companies to absorb an enormous number of unemployed is the central issue of the economic reform. Instead of short-term passive measures, the state should adopt active measures aimed at stimulating of entrepreneurship and creating of new jobs.

  16. Temporal Autonomy in a Laboring Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss which stance towards the allocation of labor and leisure would be defensible from the perspective of modern liberal political theory. There is a long tradition in philosophy defending an ideal of leisure, but this tradition has been rightly criticized for being

  17. Essays on health and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, P.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with a range of topics in health and labor economics. The first part examines the validity of a method that aims at improving the interpersonal comparability of self-reports in surveys. The second part is concerned with the question how the demand for medical care is related to

  18. [Labor market and health. SESPAS Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana M

    2010-12-01

    The labor market, where the supply of labor meets demand, determines employment and working conditions, with positive and negative effects on the active population's health and that of their families. Labor markets are also affected by national and international social and economic policies. Unemployment, precarious contracts and new types of employment have been shown to be related to exposure to living and working conditions that cause physical and mental health problems. Some collectives, such as manual, young or immigrant workers, are more vulnerable to labor market fluctuations and more frequently experience adverse employment and working conditions. The current situation in Spain is now highly worrysome. In Spain, in 2009, more than 1.2 million workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate has doubled in 5 years, from 9% in 2005 to 18% in 2009. Temporary contracts account for 24% of all job contracts. Economic and employment policies are urgently needed to reverse this situation, which unquestionably has a negative effect on people's health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Female labor supply and housing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldershof, T.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the labor supply decisions of married and cohabiting women in relation to the housing tenure choice decision. The main motivation for a joint analysis has been the relaxation of the mortgage qualification constraint. Since 1992 households can take out a mortgage on the

  20. Teaching Labor Relations with "Norma Rae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicki Fairbanks; Provitera, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate business students in North America are often unfamiliar with the labor organizing process and frequently fail to identify with the reasons why workers join unions. This article suggests a discussion exercise based on the 1979 film, "Norma Rae," by 20th Century Fox, as an effective tool for familiarizing students with fundamental…

  1. Labor Factor Efficiency in the Agricultural Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    R?y, Inna U.; Shakulikova, Gulzada T.; Kozhakhmetova, Gulnar A.; Lashkareva, Olga V.; Bondarenko, Elena G.; Bermukhambetova, Botagoz B.; Baimagambetova, Zamzagul A.; Zhetessova, Mariyam T.; Beketova, Kamar N.; Anafiyaeva, Zhibek

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural problems associated with prospects of the rural population and agriculture in general have recently become an important factor in the modern economic policy development. The urgency of finding ways to improve the labor resource efficiency in agriculture pursuant to the state tasks is determined by the need to restore the agricultural…

  2. Incapacidad y aptitud laboral. Nuevas sinergias entre medicina evaluadora y medicina laboral. Historia clínica laboral única: la capacidad laboral, un continuo evolutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando García Benavides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En España coexisten dos sistemas públicos de salud: el universal, gestionado por las comunidades autónomas y financiado con impuestos, y el laboral, gestionado por las Mutuas y financiado por cuotas a la Seguridad Social, los cuales se reparten la responsabilidad de gestión de la incapacidad laboral. Esta doble dependencia dificulta la gestión de esta importante prestación sanitaria y social. Una gestión que es diferente en función de la etiología (común o profesional y su pronóstico (temporal o permanente. Para poder comprender mejor la naturaleza de la incapacidad laboral, y que su investigación sea útil para mejorar su gestión médica y social, conviene adoptar una perspectiva longitudinal (life course research, analizando trayectorias de incapacidad en los individuos, y no solo episodios aislados. Una trayectoria de incapacidad que debemos analizar junto a la trayectoria laboral de esa misma persona. Para analizar conjuntamente las trayectorias laboral y de incapacidad disponemos de la Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales de la Seguridad Social desde 2004. Una muestra de 873.008 afiliados (un 4%, aproximadamente en 2009 entre los que se produjeron 163.136 episodios de incapacidad temporal (IT iniciados en 2009, las cuales evolucionaron entre 2009 y 2012 a 4.738 casos de incapacidad permanente (IP. Un 2,9% en total, que fue del 12,6% en caso de tumores malignos (282 IP de 2.234 IT y del 9,2% en el caso de enfermedades cardiovasculares (344 IP de 3.532 IT. En un contexto de incremento de la esperanza de vida y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas (vivimos más pero con más incapacidad necesitamos analizar longitudinalmente las trayectorias de incapacidad para poder prevenir los años de vida laboral perdidos por IP, los cuales, como sabemos, están relacionados con la trayectoria laboral (1.

  3. Labor Dystocia: Uses of Related Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan, Sharon L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Buxton, Margaret; Holley, Sharon L; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Labor dystocia (slow or difficult labor or birth) is the most commonly diagnosed aberration of labor and the most frequently documented indication for primary cesarean birth. Yet, dystocia remains a poorly specified diagnostic category, with determinations often varying widely among clinicians. The primary aims of this review are to 1) summarize definitions of active labor and dystocia, as put forth by leading professional obstetric and midwifery organizations in world regions wherein English is the majority language and 2) describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary research studies. Major national midwifery and obstetric organizations from qualifying United Nations-member sovereign nations and international organizations were searched to identify guidelines providing definitions of active labor and dystocia or related terms. Research studies (2000-2013) were systematically identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL searches to describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary scientific publications. Only 6 organizational guidelines defined dystocia or related terms. Few research teams (n = 25 publications) defined dystocia-related terms with nonambiguous clinical parameters that can be applied prospectively. There is heterogeneity in the nomenclature used to describe dystocia, and when a similar term is shared between guidelines or research publications, the underlying definition of that term is sometimes inconsistent between documents. Failure to define dystocia in evidence-based, well-described, clinically meaningful terms that are widely acceptable to and reproducible among clinicians and researchers is concerning at both national and global levels. This failure is particularly problematic in light of the major contribution of this diagnosis to primary cesarean birth rates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  4. Observations vs. theory of household labor supply vol. I

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Keiichiro

    1986-01-01

    In this paper I shall be using three different units of laborsupply; labor supply in man units, in hourly units, and in man-hour units.The first category, labor supply in man units, indicates the quantity oflabor supplied as measured by the number of persons who are willing to work.Labor supply in hourly units refers to the quantity of percapita labor supplymeasured in hourly units. Finally, labor supply in man-hour units indicatesthe quantity of labor supplied by a group of persons measured ...

  5. Intra-operative maternal complications of emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor is a big challenge in obstetrics due to increased risk of intraoperative complications. In the last decade, a rapid increase in cesarean section done in advanced labor has been observed. Difficult deli-very of the fetal head during cesarean section carries a high risk of intraoperative complications like cervical and uterine tears, intra operative hemorrhage and trauma to the baby. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to find out the frequency and risk factors for intra-operative complications in emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor, so that appropriate management protocols can be planned to reduce these complications. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit - 2 of Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Services Hospital, Lahore; from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2007. All patients undergoing emergency cesarean sections done on laboring mothers were included in the study. The sample was divided into two groups; emergency C-section done in advanced labor as the study group and emergency C-section in early labor as the control group. Data were collected regarding age, parity, booked or unbooked status, indications for cesarean section, level of competence of operating surgeon, intra-operative complications and the risk factors for these complications. Data were recorded on a structured proforma and compared between the two groups. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer programme SPSS Version 14 for windows applying student t-test for quantitative and chai square test for qualitative parameters. A p-value < 0.05 was used as statistically significant. Results: Out of 2064 total deliveries in the year 2007, 1290 (62.5%) were vaginal deliveries and 774 (37.5%) were C-Sections. Out of 774 C-Section, 174 (23%) were elective and 600 (77%) were emergency. Out of 600 emergency C

  6. Migrants at the Russian labor market: occupations, mobility, intensity of labor and wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mukomel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should

  7. Red herring: Acute back pain after combined spinal epidural for labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Chuan Tay

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Symphysis pubis diastases complicate 1:300 to 1:30,000 pregnancies. Peripartum pain in chronological sequence with labor epidural analgesia often attracts instinctive causation and distress. Predisposing risk factors include macrosomia, short second stage of labor, forceps use, multiparity, small pelvis, intense uterine contractions, previous pelvic ring pathology and trauma. A gestational diabetic primigravid parturient presents with acute post-partum back pain after an uneventful analgesic labor epidural. Her pain distributed over the right paravertebral L5-S1 region without radiculopathy, worsened with positional change and accompanied by urinary incontinence, precluding child care. Spine imaging incidentally revealed a 38 mm symphysis pubis diastasis. A pelvic binder by orthopaedics aided physiotherapy and ambulation. Pubic diastases are usually conservatively managed, unless separation exceeds 5 cm when early surgery may improve functional outcomes. Although symptoms may recur in subsequent pregnancies, it does not preclude vaginal delivery. Early recognition and prompt management aim to reduce parturient morbidity and promote resumption of activity. Keywords: Symphysis pubis diasthesis, Pubic symphysis diasthesis, Post-epidural pain, Labor epidural pain, Post-partum pain

  8. Acoso laboral - daño psíquico Laboral abuse - psychological damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Varela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El escrito se enmarca en el proyecto UBACyT P433 El acoso laboral en la administración pública. Aportes de la psicología jurídica, de la Programación Científica 2008-2010, bajo la dirección del Profesor Osvaldo Varela. La temática abordaba en la actualidad constituye un área científica de vacancia a pesar de la importancia que día a día adquiere en el ámbito laboral y judicial. En esta ocasión se trabajará en la relación y articulación entre la noción de acoso laboral y la de daño psíquico, estimando que el acoso laboral provocaría en las personas que lo padecen un daño psíquico.This document is inserted in the UBACyT P433 project: The laboral abuse in the public administration. Juridic - psychology contribution, of 2008-2010 scientific program, under Professor Osvaldo Varela direction. The thematic approached in present days establish a scientific area of vacancy in front of the day by day importance in the laboral and judicial ambit. In this occasion the work will be done in the relation and articulation between the laboral abuse notion and the psychological damage, estimating that the laboral abuse will provoke in people that suffer it a psychological damage.

  9. Improving Labor Productivity and Labor Elasticity at Multiproduct Japanese Cuisine Restaurant Introducing Cell-Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura , Takeshi; Takenaka , Takeshi; Ohura , Syuichi

    2013-01-01

    Part III: Sustainable Services; International audience; This study examined improvement of labor productivity and elasticity of labor hour on sales of a multiproduct Japanese cuisine restaurant. Conventionally, multiproduct restaurant operations include a line production system in the kitchen. Japanese chefs are assumed to be low-skilled workers with staff members supported by someone. A cell production system is introduced into a Japanese Cuisine restaurant to improve it. Results show that t...

  10. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  11. The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almtairi, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

  12. [Labor rights and the organization of workers in a context of change in labor relations: effects on health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.

  13. The shape of uterine contractions and labor progress in the spontaneous active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira; Golmakani, Nahid; Saadatjoo, Seyyed Ali-Reza; Ghomian, Nayyereh; Baghbani, Behjat

    2015-03-01

    Dystocia is the most common indication of primary cesarean section. The most common cause of dystocia is uterine dysfunction. In prolonged labor, more attention is usually paid to the fetus and pelvis rather than to the role of uterine contractions in a delivery. Therefore, we decided to determine the relationship between the labor progress and uterine contractions shapes. In this cross-sectional study, 200 primiparous women participated having a single pregnancy and cephalic presentation. Uterus contractions were recorded using electronic fetal monitoring at the beginning of the active phase of labor (dilatation 3-5 cm) for 30 min. Fall to rise (F:R) ratio was calculated by determining the duration of returning from a contraction peak to its baseline (fall) and the duration of the rise time from baseline to peak (rise) in two groups. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. In this study, 162 women had a normal delivery and 38 women had a cesarean (CS) delivery due to the lack of labor progress. The average F:R ratio was 1.13±0.193 seconds in the vaginal delivery group and 1.64±0.301 seconds in the CS group. This difference was statistically significant (PR ratio was higher in the group that lacked labor progress. Therefore, contraction shapes can be used to predict the labor progress.

  14. 29 CFR 215.4 - Employees not represented by a labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees not represented by a labor organization. 215.4 Section 215.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.4 Employees not represented by a labor...

  15. The estimation of labor life quality in regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity are allocated and proved. On the basis of an author’s calculation method of an integrated index of labor life quality of the population in regions of Russia are calculated and analyzed in dynamics. Regularities of formation of an integrated index of labor life quality in regions of Russia are revealed, ways of an assessment of efficiency of realized state programs in the social and labor sphere are planned.

  16. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural labor: (i) The cultivation of the soil; (ii) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training... mushrooms, or in connection with the hatching of poultry constitute agricultural labor only if such services...

  17. 76 FR 28034 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... of Subjects Labor-management relations, employee management relations, and Information collection... opportunity to comment on the following information collection requests. The information collection requests...

  18. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  19. Access to Justice and Labor Law Reform in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Wijayanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of national labor law system guarantees fair is one of legal reform to achieve access to justice. This study aims to analyze whether the system of labor law has given capacity to achieve access to justice as the basis for implementing international labor relations in Asia. The method of this study is a normative legal research with statute approach. The findings support that there was an inconsistency on the substance of the legal structures that affect the low legal culture. The substance of the national labor law systems have not adapted the comprehensive International Labor Organization (ILO conventions. Less robust system of national labor laws affect access to justice in the weak field of labor in the region. How To Cite: Wijayanti, A. (2016. Access to Justice and Labor Law Reform in Asia. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 17-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.144

  20. Labor Market Determinants of Migration Flows in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research attention has focused on the labor market impacts of immigration, the operation and competitiveness of the European Union (EU labor market, and the expenditures and advantages of labor circulation for sending and receiving economies. The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the negative social consequences arising from the mobility of workers, the social and economic drivers of migration, and the effect of immigration on natives’ labor market results such as wages and employment.

  1. Social Ties for Labor Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina

    such ties. However, mobility decisions made by inventors with outstanding patenting track records (star inventors) were not impacted by social ties. We conclude that social ties support labor market access for migrant inventors and determine regional choices while dependence on these ties is substantially......We study the impact of social ties on the migration of inventors from East to West Germany, using the fall of the Iron Curtain and German reunification as a natural experiment. We identify East German inventors via their patenting track records prior to 1990 and their social security records...... in the German labor market after reunification. Modeling inventor migration to West German regions after 1990, we find that Western regions with stronger historically determined social ties across the former East-West border attracted more inventors after the fall of the Iron Curtain than regions without...

  2. Labor, Welfare and Coping with the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis...... are the weaknesses? What are the human costs and collateral damage in the context of new types of regulation of labor markets and social welfare in the broadest sense and what are the differences and similarities between the models in general specifically with regard to crisis management? The approach guiding...... on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and their potential...

  3. Forms and causes of labor disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denada Keçiçi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Labor disputes can be small or large, individual or collective, refer to a particular job or lie in more than one enterprise. The causes of these disputes are numerous and diverse, ranging from a simple appeal of one individual employee for the right of compensation, in a collective complaint of the employees about the unsafe or unhealthy conditions of work, or termination of work by all employees in a workplace, claiming that they are prevented from setting up a union to protect their interests. The product of this process is a binding agreement for its implementation and is the result of ongoing cooperation between employees and employers based on consensual decision. Organizations of employees are important actors of collective conflict resolution procedures of labor relations, and particularly those held in the offices of reconciliation, should revitalize their role.

  4. LABOR GYMNASTICS: STRETCHING EXERCISE X FLEXIONAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Amorin Anchieta Borges da Silva, Isabel Cristina Taranto e Fernanda Piasecki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many opportunities for the society to live a healthful and long life. At the same time, never people was so sedentary and without harmony. Without a healthy body and with “an occupied mind” the human loses exactly what more it needs: the disposal to produce, to coexist and to live a good life. In this context, the present research aimed to revise some terms related to labor gymnastics, which is focused in the prevention of risks related to hours of working and in the reduction of muscular tension levels that may be originated during a day of work. Thus, the present study will make a differentiation between the use of stretching and flexionament during labor gymnastic sessions.

  5. Idleness, returns to education and child labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".

  6. Forced Labor during the Romanian Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Chioveanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available My paper aims to retrieve and present in general lines one aspect of the Romanian Holocaust that was since recently ignored by most scholars in the field, namely the forced labor of the Jewish population. Part of the deliberate anti-Jewish policy of the Antonescu government, the issue of forced labor is relevant as it completes the picture of the Holocaust in Romania, at the same time indicating the border between the Romanian apartheid society and the Romanian genocidal state. The paper thus points at the necessity for the scholars to continue their research in the field of holocaust studies at large, a topic that is far from exhausting its resources and significance.

  7. Social inequalities in probabilistic labor markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He

    2015-03-01

    We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.

  8. Health insurance reform: labor versus health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Awar, May

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.

  9. Gender Division of Labor and Alimony

    OpenAIRE

    Waka Cheung; Yew-Kwang Ng

    2011-01-01

    According to the principle of comparative advantage, the gender division of labor is utility enhancing during marriage. However, in the long term it decreases the earning power of the party who specializes in housework. Once the marriage is dissolved she/he will be the losing party and hence should be compensated by the other party, who specializes in paid work which usually involves higher degree in the accumulation of human capital. As an effective means of compensation, it is shown formall...

  10. National Labor Administration and Democracy in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    apparatus. 51 Even now, much emphasis is given to the nature of the elites involved in formulating policy in agencies such as the Ministerio de Economia ...Lechner, ed., Estado y Politica en America Latina. Mexico , D.F.: Siglo XXI, 1981); and Przeworski, "Economic Conditions of Class Compromise...inclusionary labor relations systems, it seems that workers in Mexico and Venezuela are, as a class, disaffected with the prevailing order, something

  11. Statistical Discrimination in a Competitive Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of employee job selection in a model of statistical discrimination in a competitive labor market. In an economy in which there are quality differences between groups, a surprisingly strong condition is required to guarantee discrimination against the worse qualified group --- MLRP must hold. In addition, because of the self-selection bias induced by competition, the resulting discrimination is small when compared to the magnitude of the underlying quality differe...

  12. TRAINING ON PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND LABOR ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Polevaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the training of spe-cialists in the eld of labor and the house-keeper personnel management within the federal state educational standards of higher education. The analysis of the possibility of training in these specialties in the various educational standards. The necessity of focusing on the prepara-tion of these destinations within certain standards.

  13. The Division of Labor, Investment, and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaokai Yang

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a dynamic general equilibrium model based on corner solutions to formalize the classical theory of investment and capital which considers investment to be a vehicle for developing a high level of division of labor in roundabout productive activities. If it takes time for a specialist producer of tractors to learn the right method in producing commercially viable tractors, specialization in producing tractors is infeasible in the absence of investment in terms of consumption go...

  14. Reorganization of Firms and Labor Market Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar; Snower, Dennis J.

    1997-01-01

    Much of the history of economic enterprise has involved reaping the benefits from specialization of labor by dividing increasingly fragemented tasks among different employees - as vividly described already by Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations. This development was greatly facilitated through the rise of "Tayloristic organizations," where standardized inputs are processed to yield standardized outputs, and where different functional tasks (e.g. administration, production, marketing, design) ...

  15. LABOR FLEXICURITY IN THE WAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, economists and specialists in human resources have shown a growing interest for more efficient wage policy, one that proves to be judiciously developed and in accordance with the specific activity of each entity. Therefore, an effective wage policy should be part of the general policy of the firm and should answer, on the one hand to the general requirements of increasing the efficiency of the activity and on the other hand to provide stimulation and motivation for the staff so to achieve not only individual performance but bring along added value to the overall business performance. This article is part of a broader research conducted by authors in the field of wages and labor market flexicurity. In elaborating this article we have appealed to an exhaustive analysis of EU law regarding remuneration of labor, in general, and labor flexicurity, in particular, the opinions of experts in the field were considered and their opinions, or some legal texts, the most significant ones, were presented in this work in a summary form. A critical documentary work on Community regulations and Romanian legislation, foreign specialized literature and the one published in our country was performed while conducting the research. The theoretical approach of flexicurity is different from state to state within the European Union in relation to the development and diversification of the labor market of each state. In some countries the efforts can focus on the firms for retraining, requalification, while in others the focus should be put on training during periods of inactivity or unemployment.

  16. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben

    2006-01-01

    from advantaged to disadvantaged workers. A worker can be disadvantaged in the sense that they may have less ability to aquire and utilize skills in the workplace. The model explains why passive benefits tend to fall and active benefits tend to increase during the course of unemployment spell....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  17. Sexual orientation and labor market outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Drydakis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Studies from countries with laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation suggest that gay and lesbian employees report more incidents of harassment and are more likely to report experiencing unfair treatment in the labor market than are heterosexual employees. Gay men are found to earn less than comparably skilled and experienced heterosexual men. For lesbians, the patterns are ambiguous: in some countries they have been found to earn less than their heterosexual counterpart...

  18. Labor market institutions: Curse or blessing?

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsen, Carsten; Welsch, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    Previous literature has identified considerable non-pecuniary costs to macroeconomic fluctuation and uncertainty. The present paper investigates whether and to what extent labor market institutions can mitigate those costs. We study how life satisfaction of European citizens is affected by employment protection and the level and duration of unemployment benefit payments. We differentiate between direct effects (at given macroeconomic conditions) and total effects (including the feedback throu...

  19. Labor Supply Flexibility and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie; William Samuelson

    1989-01-01

    This paper develops a model showing that people who have flexibility in choosing how much to work will prefer to invest substantially more of their money in risky assets than if they had no such flexibility. Viewed in this way, labor supply flexibility offers insurance against adverse investment outcomes. The model provides support for the conventional wisdom that the young can tolerate more risk in their investment portfolios than the old. The model has other implications for the study of ho...

  20. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section... EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope... bylaws of such organizations, shall be employers within the meaning of the act. (a) An organization doing...

  1. Regional Labor Market Integration, Shadow Wages and Poverty in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Le Dang; Oostendorp, Remco H.

    2017-01-01

    Poor workers suffer from low returns to their most abundant resource, labor. In this paper we show that labor market integration strongly affects these returns for poor workers in Vietnam. Using seven representative household surveys, it is shown that while regional labor markets have become

  2. White Ethnics, Racial Prejudice, and Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Scott

    The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…

  3. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  4. The Impact of Child Labor on Schooling Outcomes in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo

    2011-01-01

    Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…

  5. Idiosyncratic Shocks, Child Labor and School Attendance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharisma, Bayu

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop…

  6. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  7. SYSTEM OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN IT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Levon M. Seropov

    2015-01-01

    Internal and external factors, which influence labor productivity in IT companies, are considered. Internal factors are considered as fundamental factors, directlyinfluencing labor productivity. The analysismethod PESTL is adapted for fi nding out of external factors of labor productivity.

  8. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.332 Exchange of labor between farmers. (a) Occasionally a farmer may help his neighbor with the harvest of his crop. For instance, Farmer B helps his neighbor Farmer A...

  9. 12 CFR 269.1 - Definition of a labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of a labor organization. 269.1... RESERVE SYSTEM POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.1 Definition of a labor... to the terms or conditions of membership because of race, color, sex, creed, age or national origin. ...

  10. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  11. 20 CFR 404.1055 - Payments for agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments for agricultural labor. 404.1055... Payments for agricultural labor. (a) When cash payments are not wages. We do not include as wages your cash payments in a calendar year after 1987 from an employer for agricultural labor (see § 404.1056) if your...

  12. Labor Motivation. Fundamental Element in Organizational Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Coromoto Peña Rivas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the influence of motivation on human talent and determine the factors that have the greatest impact on work performance. The research was developed on the basis of a hermeneutic methodology, which began in the bibliographical-documentary revision allowing to obtain the theoretical references, basic and relevant criteria about the labor motivation, in such a way that the obtaining, identification and description of the data facilitated the achievement of the objective set, resulting in a motivated employee to provide the company with a better performance, develop a sense of belonging, fidelity to what it does, reflecting as a consequence benefits for both the company and employees concluding that the behavior of an employee in the organization, depends on the motivational factors that are applied in order to satisfy their basic needs such as good labor relations, job satisfaction, positive working environment and the results of job satisfaction; nowadays, motivating rightly has become an activity that will get employees to create a sense of belonging and the activity that each of them perform, yield positive results in order to contribute successfully in what the organization does. As a fundamental element in the assertive development of the organization, motivation is closely related to job satisfaction, labor relations and the work environment, without neglecting the role of the manager who plays a special role, at the time of carrying the responsibility and apply the most appropriate strategies of motivation within a business organization.

  13. Labor market modeling recognizing latent job attributes and opportunity constraints : an empirical analysis of labor market behavior of Eritrean women

    OpenAIRE

    Arneberg, Marie W.; Dagsvik, John K.; Jia, Zhiyang

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes labor market behavior of urban Eritrean women with particular reference to the impact of education, earnings and labor market opportunities. Unlike traditional models of labor supply, which assume that work can be supplied freely in the labor market, we develop a framework that explicitly takes into account the notion of job opportunities and observable sets of feasible jobs. The framework is formulated within a random utility setting in which unob...

  14. 75 FR 34421 - Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year (FY... the timeframe to submit pre-applications for section 514 Farm Labor Housing (FLH) loans and section...

  15. Labor progress indices and dynamics of the individual uterine contraction during the active stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob; Odeh, Marwan; Kaminsky, Svetlana; Shnaider, Oleg; Megel, Yuri; Barnea, Ofer

    2014-03-01

    To obtain and study new data on the dynamics of the labor process and to develop a contraction-based index of labor progress. This study was carried out at the Delivery Room, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, Israel, using a new device (Birth Track). We continuously monitored cervical dilatation (CD) and head descent (HD) in 30 nulliparaous women during active labor with (augmented group) and without (study group) oxytocin augmentation. This led to the development and validation of progress indices based on features extracted from continuous monitoring. There were no significant differences between the average of each parameter in the study and augmented groups, except for HD velocity. Average HD velocity was faster in the study group. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that head station (HS) amplitude and Toco amplitude were the best parameters for predicting HD velocity in both groups. In the study group, average HD velocity was also significantly related to Toco rate and contraction efficiency. In the augmented group, only a weak correlation with Toco rate was seen, and no correlation with contraction efficiency. With the assistance of the Birth Track device, we can obtain continuous data on the labor process and indices to estimate the labor progress process without the use of vaginal (manual) examination. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  17. Drivers of Labor-Related Indicators across Diverse Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This regional case study is focused on employment, remuneration and labor productivity, with a particular emphasis on the interplay between labor productivity and other labor-related indicators and macroeconomic conditions in Italy, Egypt, Lebanon and Greece. Its value lies in the high degree of consistency and comparability of the data, owing to a shared data collection methodology. This has allowed for the compilation of both national and regional comparisons. The data is treated in two groups—the first group consists of national data that considers all the active vessels in a country; the second group focuses on the trawl segments of Italy and Egypt. These two countries present an interesting case study because they are so different in terms of labor productivity and remuneration performance. For instance, in Italy labor shortages have caused a shift in fishing strategies towards less labor-intensive operations to maintain the socioeconomic sustainability of the fisheries, while in Egypt macroeconomic conditions have resulted in a larger labor pool and strong incentives to work in the fisheries sector. The regional study demonstrates that labor-related indicators are interconnected and there is an inversely proportional relationship between labor productivity and remuneration and employment levels. This relationship necessitates a combined analysis. The results across and between the countries were compared, with particular attention given to labor productivity and remuneration in the respective countries with a discussion centred around the potential drivers of labor productivity.

  18. Chambers of work - steps in the development of labor law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Tutuianu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social changes that followed the war and perfection state unit generated new and complex problems in all areas. We try to present problems directly aimed at the working class, that is formalized and institutionalized labor, social and economic context of the time. As regards labor law of 1927 rooms and discussions around it, brought the authors to the conclusion that trying to regulate relations between labor and capital and precise directives followed, social reconciliation, abolition of trade union activity, labor movement split and its supervision. Concessions workers were considered only illusory and employers with state dominance. However during 1933/1934, Chambers work activity had a positive role in the field of enforcement of labor law, serving an important role in other institutions and labor organizations, representing a significant step in the development of labor law.

  19. Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.

  20. An Overview of the Labor Market Problems of Indians and Native Americans. Research Report No. 89-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…

  1. The gender division of labor and second births: Labor market institutions and fertility in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Nagase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has examined how the gendered household division of labor may deter the transition to second birth. However, little research has investigated how workplace norms influence men's household work. Objective: This paper takes into account labor market structure, workplace norms, and the legal environment governing working conditions to contextualize men's contribution to household labor and its effect on transition to second birth. Methods: Using data from the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century (2002 Cohort, we employ fixed-effects models to estimate the effect of workplace norms on men's contribution to household work and the effect of men's household work hours on transition to second birth. Results: Japanese male university graduates in large firms do a smaller share of household labor than other men. These men are subject to workplace norms prevalent in firm-internal labor markets, which have been supported by Japanese Supreme Court rulings. These norms influence men's allocation of time between the workplace and the home. Moreover, analysis of the transition to second birth indicates that husband's share of household work is an important predictor of second birth, especially for dual-earner couples. Conclusions: Our empirical results suggest that unless changes are made in Japanese employment law and workplace norms, dual-earner couples in particular will continue to face difficulties proceeding to a second birth. Contribution: This paper demonstrates how the economic and cultural context can create disincentives for men to contribute to household labor, which in turn lowers the probability of transition to second birth.

  2. Foreign labor and regional labor markets: aggregate and disaggregate impact on growth and wages in Danish regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....

  3. De la movilidad ocupacional a las condiciones de trabajo: Algunas reflexiones en torno a diferentes carreras laborales dentro del servicio doméstico en la ciudad de Buenos Aires Employment Promotion and Working Conditions: Early Reflections on Different Careers within the Domestic Labor in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Tizziani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El tema de la movilidad ocupacional y social ha sido uno de los ejes de análisis privilegiados por la literatura latinoamericana sobre el trabajo doméstico remunerado. En la Argentina, las primeras interpretaciones se inscribían en problemáticas ligadas a la migración campo-ciudad. La inserción en el servicio doméstico era concebida como una primera ocupación, de carácter transitorio, que debía desembocar en la búsqueda de otras formas de trabajo asalariado. En las últimas décadas, este enfoque ha sido modificado por diferentes investigaciones que muestran que la movilidad hacia otros sectores de actividad es escasa entre las mujeres que se insertan en el servicio doméstico, que daría lugar a una movilidad estrictamente horizontal. Sobre la base de un estudio cualitativo, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar el rol que cumple el empleo doméstico en las trayectorias laborales y sociales de las mujeres que lo ejercen. Veremos que muchas de las empleadas domésticas entrevistadas durante el trabajo de campo han permanecido gran parte de su vida activa dentro de esta forma de empleo. El análisis de diferentes carreras laborales nos permitirá abordar los factores que organizan la movilidad interna y sus efectos sobre la experiencia cotidiana de trabajo.Social and career mobility has been long one of the most important and frequent topics in Latin American studies of paid domestic labor. In Argentina, the first investigations focused on the aspects related to the migration from rural to urban areas. In these studies, domestic service jobs were usually interpreted as a first and transitional working experience that should lead to other jobs or positions in the labor market. In the last decades, this interpretation has been questioned by different studies showing the lack of or scarce mobility from domestic service to other types of jobs or professions. This also would confirm the observation that mobility occur within the

  4. Uterine overdistention induces preterm labor mediated by inflammation: observations in pregnant women and nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams; Singh, Natasha; Mohan, Aarthi R.; Young, Roger C.; Ngo, Lisa; Das, Ananya; Tsai, Jesse; Bansal, Aasthaa; Paolella, Louis; Herbert, Bronwen R.; Sooranna, Suren R.; Gough, G. Michael; Astley, Cliff; Vogel, Keith; Baldessari, Audrey E.; Bammler, Theodor K.; MacDonald, James; Gravett, Michael G.; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Johnson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Uterine overdistention is thought to induce preterm labor in women with twin and multiple pregnancies, but the pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated for the first time the pathogenesis of preterm birth associated with rapid uterine distention in a pregnant nonhuman primate model. STUDY DESIGN A nonhuman primate model of uterine overdistention was created using preterm chronically catheterized pregnant pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) by inflation of intraamniotic balloons (N = 6), which were compared to saline controls (N = 5). Cesarean delivery was performed due to preterm labor or at experimental end. Microarray, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Luminex (Austin, TX), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein levels from monkey (amniotic fluid, myometrium, maternal plasma) and human (amniocytes, amnion, myometrium) tissues. Statistical analysis employed analysis of covariance and Wilcoxon rank sum. Biomechanical forces were calculated using the law of Laplace. RESULTS Preterm labor occurred in 3 of 6 animals after balloon inflation and correlated with greater balloon volume and uterine wall stress. Significant elevations of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins occurred following uterine overdistention in an “inflammatory pulse” that correlated with preterm labor (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2α, all P < .05). A similar inflammatory response was observed in amniocytes in vitro following mechanical stretch (IL1β, IL6, and IL8 mRNA multiple time points, P < .05), in amnion of women with polyhydramnios (IL6 and TNF mRNA, P < .05) and in amnion (TNF-α) and myometrium of women with twins in early labor (IL6, IL8, CCL2, all P < .05). Genes differentially expressed in the nonhuman primate after balloon inflation and in women with polyhydramnios and twins are involved in tissue

  5. Experiences and unmet needs of women with physical disabilities for pain relief during labor and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Bellil, Linda; Mitra, Monika; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Smith, Lauren D

    2017-07-01

    Childbirth is widely acknowledged as one of the most painful experiences most women will undergo in their lifetimes. Alleviating labor and delivery pain for women with physical disabilities can involve an additional level of complexity beyond that experienced by most women, but little research has explored their experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of women with physical disabilities with respect to pain relief during labor and delivery with the goal of informing their care. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with twenty-five women with physical disabilities from across the United States. Women expressed specific preferences for the method of pain relief. Some confronted systemic barriers in exploring their options for pain relief, while others were given a choice. At times, anesthesiologists lacked knowledge and experience in caring for women with disabilities. Conversely, some women described how the administration of anesthesia was meticulously planned and attributed their positive labor and delivery experiences to this careful planning. Advanced, individualized planning and evaluation of their options for pain relief was most satisfying to women and enabled them to make an informed choice. This approach is consistent with the recommendations of clinicians who have successfully provided pain relief during labor to women with complex physical disabilities. Clinicians who have successfully delivered babies of women with these and similar disabilities emphasize the importance of a team approach where the anesthesiologist and other specialists are involved early on in a woman's care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics for labor analgesia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Brenda A; Chestnut, David H; Hawkins, Joy L

    2002-01-01

    Some anesthesiologists contend that intrathecal opioid administration has advantages over conventional epidural techniques during labor. Randomized clinical trials comparing analgesia and obstetric outcome using single-injection intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable analgesia with few serious side effects. This meta-analysis compared the analgesic efficacy, side effects, and obstetric outcome of single-injection intrathecal opioid techniques versus epidural local anesthetics in laboring women. Relevant clinical studies were identified using electronic and manual searches of the literature covering the period from 1989 to 2000. Searches used the following descriptors: intrathecal analgesia, spinal opioids, epidural analgesia, epidural local anesthetics, and analgesia for labor. Data were extracted from 7 randomized clinical trials comparing analgesic measures, incidence of motor block, pruritus, nausea, hypotension, mode of delivery, and/or Apgar scores. Combined test results indicated comparable analgesic efficacy 15 to 20 minutes after injection with single-injection intrathecal opioid administration. Intrathecal opioid injections were associated with a greater incidence of pruritus (odds ratio, 14.01; 99% confidence interval, 6.9 to 28.3), but there was no difference in the incidence of nausea or in the method of delivery. Published studies suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable early labor analgesia when compared with epidural local anesthetics. Intrathecal opioid administration results in a greater incidence of pruritus. The choice of technique does not appear to affect the method of delivery.

  7. Organized labor and the origins of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Robert

    2014-11-01

    New Solutions is republishing this 1991 article by Robert Asher, which reviews the history of organized labor's efforts in the United States to secure health and safety protections for workers. The 1877 passage of the Massachusetts factory inspection law and the implementation of primitive industrial safety inspection systems in many states paralleled labor action for improved measures to protect workers' health and safety. In the early 1900s labor was focusing on workers' compensation laws. The New Deal expanded the federal government's role in worker protection, supported at least by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), but challenged by industry and many members of the U.S. Congress. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO backed opposing legal and inspection strategies in the late 1940s and through the 1950s. Still, by the late 1960s, several unions were able to help craft the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and secure new federal protections for U.S. workers.

  8. Barrera del desempeño laboral

    OpenAIRE

    María Del Rosario Alvarez-Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    El estres es un hecho complejo en la vida de toda persona con efectos distintos en cada quien, que no puede ser evitada ya que en todos lo momentos de la vida se esta en riesgo de presentarlo ante cualquier situacion, o una actividad laboral o familiar, que puede llegar a generar cualquier cambio que represente estres. Los sucesos negativos, dario, enfermedad o muerte de un ser querido, son hechos estresantes, asi como los sucesos positivos; ascender en el trabajo trae consigo el estres del n...

  9. Labor and pollution prevention in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an account of Canadian Chemicals Policy over the past three decades, including the project for the "virtual elimination" of toxic chemicals and the federal government's Chemical Management Plan. The latter is what remained when the virtual elimination program achieved few results. The article then embarks on its central theme: explaining how the labor movement introduced the concept and the practice of Pollution Prevention (P2) to Canada, as well as its impact on legislation and policies over the use reduction of chemical pesticides. The Appendix is a glossary of terms and concepts used in the article.

  10. Epidural Labor Analgesia and Maternal Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Emily E; Arendt, Katherine W

    2017-06-01

    Women receiving an epidural for labor analgesia are at increased risk for intrapartum fever. This relationship has been supported by observational, before and after, and randomized controlled trials. The etiology is not well understood but is likely a result of noninfectious inflammation as studies have found women with fever have higher levels of inflammatory markers. Maternal pyrexia may change obstetric management and women are more likely to receive antibiotics or undergo cesarean delivery. Maternal pyrexia is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. With these consequences, understanding and preventing maternal fever is imperative.

  11. 29 CFR 452.14 - Newly formed or merged labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 452.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT... identity the terms of its officers may not be extended beyond the maximum period specified by the Act for...

  12. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Informe pericial: un caso de acoso laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID GONZÁLEZ TRIJUEQUE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La psicología forense constituye una especialización clásica en países anglosajones y que en España está tomando cada día mayor importancia, siendo habitual que los peritos asesoren a nuestros tribunales y jueces en materias de carácter psicológico. Por otra parte, la intervención del psicólogo como perito en la jurisidicción social (laboral resulta aún más novedosa que en otras (p. ej., penal, menores, familia, por lo que serán de interés los conocimientos en materia preventiva y de psicología del trabajo, aunque sin obviar la premisa de que para ser un buen perito forense es necesario poseer una completa formación en psicología clínica (evaluación, psicodiagnóstico, psicopatología. En el presente artículo se facilita un informe pericial elaborado conjuntamente por expertos en psicología forense y laboral, respectivamente, sobre un tema de gran interés actual como es el acoso psicológico en el lugar de trabajo (mobbing, temática que puede ser abordada desde las distintas jurisdicciones españolas (civil, penal, social, contencioso-administrativo.

  14. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  15. STUDY ON LABOR CHARACTERISTICS IN NETWORK ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta SOAVA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available E-Business revolution takes place anywhere on the globe, the whole world is connected; many small businesses of today can become tomorrow leaders of the global market; the whole world will benefit from every word that has added an ,,e". Internet development has been one of the most effective creations of the human mind, by that both individuals and companies can be in direct connection without the constraints of space and time. The new economy has produced radical changes in the company, both in terms of carrying out the activities and in the nature of labor relations, with profound implications on work and life styles of people. In this paper we wanted to emphasize the changes produced of the work styles achieved along the development of information and communication technologies. Thus we have shown labor paradigm changes in the XXI century, features and benefits of teleworking, the types of work that can be done via the Internet, an overview of the most used platforms for remote work, stressing the importance of teamwork virtual.

  16. Essays in Labor Economics and Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case of immigr......This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case...... in particular. The effects appear present both in municipal and national elections, despite the very different issues decided at the two levels of government. The second chapter (co-authored with Raymond Fisman, Emir Kamenica and Inger Munk) studies the effect of a salary reform in the European Parliament...... to learn about the impact of salaries on the behavior and composition of legislators. Increases in salaries cause large increases in the willingness to hold office but do not affect the level of effort exerted while in office. For the composition of legislators, increases in salaries leads to elected...

  17. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel de Heus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Roel de Heus, Eduard J H Mulder, Gerard H A VisserDepartment of Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?Keywords: atosiban, oxytocin receptor antagonist, nifedipine, calcium channel blocker, preterm birth, tocolytic drugs, preterm labor

  18. Statistical Mechanics of Japanese Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He

    We introduce a probabilistic model to analyze job-matching processes of recent Japanese labor markets, in particular, for university graduates by means of statistical physics. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weakening if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. By assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate and Gini index. We discuss social inequalities in labor markets, and provide some ways to improve these situations, such as the informal job offer rate, the job-worker mismatch between students and companies. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.

  19. Emotional labor actors: a latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes of Nulliparous Women with Spontaneous Labor Onset Admitted to Hospitals in Pre-active versus Active Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre

  1. 76 FR 61115 - Notice of Publication of 2011 Update to The Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... or Forced Labor AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Department of Labor. ACTION... Affairs (ILAB) has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of..., Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S...

  2. Identification of first-stage labor arrest by electromyography in term nulliparous women after induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasak, Blanka; Graatsma, Elisabeth M; Hekman-Drost, Elske; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Schagen van Leeuwen, Jules H; Visser, Gerard H A; Jacod, Benoit C

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide induction and cesarean delivery rates have increased rapidly, with consequences for subsequent pregnancies. The majority of intrapartum cesarean deliveries are performed for failure to progress, typically in nulliparous women at term. Current uterine registration techniques fail to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage labor arrest. An alternative technique, uterine electromyography has been shown to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage arrest of labor in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor at term. The objective of this study was to determine whether this finding can be reproduced in induction of labor. Uterine activity was measured in 141 nulliparous women with singleton term pregnancies and a fetus in cephalic position during induced labor. Electrical activity of the myometrium during contractions was characterized by its power density spectrum. No significant differences were found in contraction characteristics between women with induced labor delivering vaginally with or without oxytocin and women with arrested labor with subsequent cesarean delivery. Uterine electromyography shows no correlation with progression of labor in induced labor, which is in contrast to spontaneous labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufka Walts, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often t...

  4. Capturing Talent: Generation Y and European Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    GAYLE ALLARD; Cristina Simón; RAQUEL MARTIN

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the challenge of capturing talent from both the political and the management level in Western Europe. It begins by identifying the special characteristics of Generation Y: those born since 1980 and recently joining national labor forces. It then evaluates the rigidity of labor markets in the European countries, dividing them into most and least regulated and exploring some of the labor-market characteristics that accompany those extremes. Finally, it identifies the employm...

  5. Currency Integration under Labor Mobility: when Cost is incurred

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimi, Taiyo

    2014-01-01

    We assess whether renouncing monetary policy autonomy becomes a cost of currency integration under labor mobility in the framework of the New Open Economy Macroeconomics. Assuming Nash equilibrium among central banks of candidate countries, we find that the forfeiture of monetary policy autonomy becomes a cost when country-specific total factor productivity shocks hit them, labor input weights differ between candidate countries, and country specific shocks on marginal disutility of labor occu...

  6. Beyond Dualism: Multi-Segmented Labor Markets in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz; Fabián Slonimczy

    2007-01-01

    Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...

  7. The Labor Market Integration of Immigrant Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Taryn Ann Galloway

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Out of necessity, the earliest studies of immigrants' performance in the labor market in Western countries focused solely on men. However, as the employment rates of women in Western countries rise and approach those of men, questions about the labor market adjustments of immigrant women also become increasingly relevant. Furthermore, studies of earnings assimilation have typically analyzed only those individuals actually employed (full-time) in the labor market. Henc...

  8. Towards improving construction labor productivity and projects’ performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa E. Shehata; Khaled M. El-Gohary

    2011-01-01

    Proper management of resources in construction projects can yield substantial savings in time and cost. As construction is a labor-intensive industry, this paper focuses on labor productivity in the construction industry. This study considers the current state-of-the-art issues relevant to this subject. It covers the construction labor productivity definitions, aspects, measurements, factors affecting it, different techniques used for measuring it and modeling techniques. The main outcome fro...

  9. Selection into Labor Force and Gender Unemployment Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Bicakova

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets the groundwork for analysis of the effect of selection into labor force on gender unemployment gaps. We derive the Manski bounds for gender unemployment gaps in 21 EU countries and show that in addition to the positive selection documented in the gender wage gap research, there is also evidence of negative selection into the labor force among women after childbirth. While positive selection of women into the labor force leads to downward bias in gender unemployment gaps, negat...

  10. The labor/land ratio and India's caste system

    OpenAIRE

    Duleep, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that India’s caste system and involuntary labor were joint responses by a nonworking landowning class to a low labor/land ratio in which the rules of the caste system supported the institution of involuntary labor. The hypothesis is tested in two ways: longitudinally, with data from ancient religious texts, and cross-sectionally, with twentieth-century statistics on regional population/land ratios linked to anthropological measures of caste-system rigidity. Both the longit...

  11. Movimiento sindical venezolano y flexibilización laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Añez Hernández, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como propósito explorar el movimiento sindical venezolano y la flexibilización laboral, identificando su aplicación, las acciones del movimiento sindical y la alianza surgida entre el Estado-sindicato-trabajadores para superar la precarización laboral. Los resultados reflejan que la flexibilización laboral en Venezuela generó consecuencias negativas a los trabajadores, porque perdieron su estabilidad en el empleo y los beneficios contractuales. Dicha situa...

  12. Analysis of labor accidents in Brazil, 2004-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Everton Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Current research synthesizes epidemiological data on morbo- mortality by labor accidents in the Brazilian population and gives a cross- section of these accidents in Brazil between 2004 and 2007. Current descrip- tive and exploratory analysis uses databases of thePublic Health Ministry on labor accidents. In fact, 465.700 and 653.090 labor accidents were notified respectively in 2004 and 2007, with a trend towardsan increase in number. The state of Santa Catarina was t...

  13. International differences in wage and nonwage labor costs

    OpenAIRE

    Riveros, Luis A.

    1989-01-01

    The ratio of nonwage labor costs (for social security, pensions, vacation days, severence compensation, and the like) to direct wage costs is proportionately higher in Europe and Latin America than in Asia and Africa - largely because workers there are protected more by regulations. The distortionary growth of labor costs because of increasing nonwage costs is not common in the LDCs however. The author of this paper found that international differences in labor costs are attributable largely ...

  14. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  15. Are we getting healthier as we grow older? Implications for babyboomer labor force participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah J; Passey, Megan E; Earnest, Arul; Gloor, Ian C; Shrestha, Rupendra

    2007-10-01

    The Intergenerational Report (IGR) released by the Department of the Treasury of the Commonwealth of Australia in 2002 highlighted pressures that in the future would threaten the sustainability of the Australian government's budget balance. These pressures result from the growing needs of an aging population and labor shortages that will limit economic growth and taxation revenue. The IGR has become a driving force in planning government policy. The Treasurer has recently said that "the whole economic agenda of the government at the moment is drawn from the IGR." In response, the Prime Minster and Treasurer have promoted deferred or gradual retirement as part of the solution. However, about 50% of men and 20% of women retire early as a result of ill health, indicating that poor health is potentially a limiter of economic growth. This paper reports lower labor force participation among persons with poorer health and that these persons move out of the labor force at a faster rate as they age. A range of measures suggests some decline in health in the pre-retirement age group (those aged from 40 to 64 years). This indicates that better health may be a facilitator of greater labor force participation in the baby boomer cohort. However, there is evidence that improving economic conditions in Australia leading to low unemployment has created an environment more favorable to the employment of older workers with health problems as there has been a rise in labor force participation in these groups, and measures to prevent chronic disease may further increase the employment prospects.

  16. Epidural Labor Analgesia-Fentanyl Dose and Breastfeeding Success: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy I; McCarthy, Robert J; Toledo, Paloma; Jones, Mary Jane; White, Nancy; Wong, Cynthia A

    2017-10-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health concern. High cumulative doses of epidural fentanyl administered for labor analgesia have been reported to be associated with early termination of breastfeeding. We tested the hypothesis that breastfeeding success is adversely influenced by the cumulative epidural fentanyl dose administered for labor analgesia. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of parous women at greater than 38 weeks gestation who planned to breastfeed, had successfully breastfed a prior infant, and who received neuraxial labor analgesia. Participants were randomized to receive one of three epidural maintenance solutions for labor analgesia (bupivacaine 1 mg/ml, bupivacaine 0.8 mg/ml with fentanyl 1 μg/ml, or bupivacaine 0.625 mg/ml with fentanyl 2 μg/ml). The primary outcome was the proportion of women breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. Maternal and umbilical venous blood fentanyl and bupivacaine concentration at delivery were measured. A total of 345 women were randomized and 305 had complete data for analysis. The frequency of breastfeeding at 6 weeks was 97, 98, and 94% in the groups receiving epidural fentanyl 0, 1, and 2 μg/ml, respectively (P = 0.34). The cumulative fentanyl dose (difference: 37 μg [95% CI of the difference, -58 to 79 μg], P = 0.28) and maternal and umbilical cord venous fentanyl and bupivacaine concentrations did not differ between women who discontinued breastfeeding and those who were still breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. Labor epidural solutions containing fentanyl concentrations as high as 2 μg/ml do not appear to influence breastfeeding rates at 6 weeks postpartum.

  17. Features of the Regional Labor Markets in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Pošta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We use the Labor Office data for the regions of the Czech Republic to investigate some of the structural features of the respective labor markets. We build our approach on the matching function of the search model of the labor market. In the paper we show how the regional labor markets differ with respect to vacancies, unemployment, matches between unemployed and vacancies, probability of finding a job and labor market tightness. We also demonstrate how these characteristics evolved over time. We show that the labor markets were really hit the hardest several years after the great recession began to affect the Czech Republic. We go on to estimate the matching function for the respective regional labor markets and show that the sensitivity of the probability of finding a job to the labor market tightness generally increased over time, which we interpret as a positive sign. We set our results in the framework of some of the earlier work which has been done. With all the data and estimates used we are able to pinpoint the most troubled regions as far as the structural features of the labor market are concerned.

  18. 48 CFR 22.1404 - Department of Labor notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with... appropriate notices that state the contractor's obligations and the rights of individuals with disabilities...

  19. What Caused the Recession of 2008? Hints from Labor Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Mulligan

    2009-01-01

    A labor market tautology says that any change in labor usage can be decomposed into a movement along a marginal productivity schedule and a shift of the schedule. I calculate this decomposition for the recession of 2008, assuming an aggregate Cobb-Douglas marginal productivity schedule, and find that all of the decline in employment and hours since December 2007 is a movement along the schedule. This finding suggests that a reduction in labor supply and/or an increase in labor market distorti...

  20. International Comparisons on Internal Labor Markets and Corporate Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework which demonstrates how the structures of corporate internal labor markets are formed within the broader labor and capital market context in the U.S. and Japan. This framework is then used to evaluate labor markets within Korean companies and to identify points of change which might promote greater efficiency. Prior to the Asian economic crisis, Korean conglomerates had large, closed internal labor markets. However, in the aftermath of the crisis, they have pursued structural downsizing and moved to open their labor markets. The empirical evidence introduced in this paper affirms the argument that the first step toward creating a flexible labor market in Korea should begin with establishing an efficient corporate governance structure. This implies that a simple switch from the Japanese paradigm for human resource management to an Anglo-American model or vice-versa may not improve internal labor market performance unless the change is accompanied by a solution to the problems posed by the minority controlling structure of Korean companies. The implications of this study for guiding policy in developing countries having labor market rigidities and underdeveloped corporate governance is clear. Capital market structure and corporate governance systems may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of any policies aimed at building an efficient human resource management system and a flexible labor market.

  1. Hypothyroidism is a predictor of disability pension and loss of labor market income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. AIM: Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group......, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. METHODS: This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed...... before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market...

  2. The Failed Probability of Love Over Labor in THX 1138 (1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wydler Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship on panopticism and film rarely considers aesthetic attributes of the medium. Thematic elements associated with panopticism are often examined instead. George Lucas’ directorial debut, THX 1138 (1971, uses aesthetic values in filmmaking to screen a narrative grounded in panopticism. By drawing on the Foucaultian principle of panopticism, this article illustrates the ideological confliction between labor and love that is central to the protagonist THX. On the surface, THX 1138 situates the sexual ideologies of the early Seventies in a socialist contention. The sexual ideology that favors love and freedom of expression is placed in direct conflict with a socialist ideology that labor and obedience. This ideological strife erupts on screen in a dystopian future that is visualized in panoptic cinematography techniques. The result is an analysis of the nuanced visual mastery on Lucas’s part that serves as an explicit commentary grounded in the political and cultural contention never quite resolved in American history.

  3. Personality, preterm labor contractions, and psychological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Krissi, Haim; Levy, Sigal; Freund, Yael; Carmiel, Naama; Ashwal, Eran; Peled, Yoav

    2016-03-01

    Research of psychological factors associated with imminent preterm labor (PTL) is sparse, compared with considerable research of preterm birth. We explored state and trait psychological variables associated with PTL, both pre- and postpartum. During 2012-2014, 56 women hospitalized due to PTL, and 33 pregnant women without PTL, responded during gestational week 20-33, to a demographic questionnaire, the Big-Five Inventory (BFI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Fear of Childbirth Questionnaire, and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Inventory (MFAS). At 4-6 weeks postpartum, 35 and 23 of the women in the respective groups responded online to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother to Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). Compared to women without PTL, women with PTL scored higher on neuroticism, openness to experience, and MFAS (p personality variables, but not with psychological consequences, other than elevated prepartum attachment to the fetus.

  4. Theories of international labor migration: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C W

    1995-01-01

    "Emigration pressures are primarily the result of increasing inequalities between countries which, in turn, are the result of factors internal to less developed countries and their relations with developed countries. Both micro (neoclassical) and macrostructural theories of migration are reviewed. It is argued that the neoclassical theory of migration is often unjustly criticized and is sufficiently robust to incorporate those structural considerations which are at the core of macrostructural theories. Moreover, the neoclassical theory, with slight modification, can incorporate the ¿new economics of migration.' The major empirical problem confronting models of international labor migration is that migration flows are constrained by immigration policy. This policy, in turn, is influenced by various special interest groups. The direction and form of migration flows is conditioned by contemporary and historical relationships between source and destination countries." excerpt

  5. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  6. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heus, Roel; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A

    2010-08-09

    Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist) and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker) as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?

  7. Cervicometry in the evaluation of preterm labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoles Mendez, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    One of the current problems of greater importance in perinatal medicine is the preterm labor, because besides elevating the perinatal morbidity and mortality, it causes neurological damage and affects growing in the newborns. In this paper not only the value of cervicometry is highlighted as a screening method in population with high risk of preterm newborns, but also its importance to predict the occurrence threat of the last condition when uterine contractions exist, reason why the appropriate technique, approaches, indications and the advantages of this procedure are described, as well as the cut level for the cervical length is determined in its different modalities. As a result, a care protocol for pregnants with prematurity risk based on the use of cervicometry was introduced, which is considered a valuable screening tool in the selected population

  8. 78 FR 17721 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    .... Department of Labor, which is the point of contact for the NAALC and the Labor Chapters of U.S. FTAs. The... of the U.S. Department of Labor serves as the U.S. point of contact under the FTAs listed above. The... for travel expenses. Authority: The authority for this notice is granted by the FACA (5 U.S.C. App. 2...

  9. Mothers’ labor market choices and child development outcomes in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Reynolds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines associations between labor market participation of Chilean mothers and the cognitive, language, and socio-economic development of their children. Using a nationally-representative sample of 3-year-old children, we test if mothers’ work intensity in the two previous years is associated with child development outcomes; data were collected in 2010 when children were one year old, and again in 2012, when they were three years old. We find that children who were three years old with mothers who worked for higher fractions of their children’s lives in the previous two years perform significantly better on all tests (cognitive, language, socio-emotional than children whose mothers had worked less, while controlling for baseline test performance. These main effects did not remain significant with the inclusion of a wide range of socio-economic, demographic control variables, however. Our results were similarly null when using an IV analysis or a propensity score matching approach. We provide descriptive information on theoretical pathways by which maternal work may influence child development. Though several of these pathways (e.g. preschool, toys, maternal stress seem to be associated with both maternal work and child development outcomes, the pathways are not sufficiently strong to generate an association between maternal work and child development. We conclude that Chilean mothers’ employment in early childhood generally does not have an effect on child development.

  10. Impact of ALSO training on the management of prolonged labor and neonatal care at Kagera Regional Hospital, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the management of prolonged labor and neonatal care before and after Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) training. METHODS: Staff involved in childbirth at Kagera Regional Hospital, Tanzania, attended a 2-day ALSO provider course. In this prospective intervention study...... conducted between July and November 2008, the management and outcomes of 558 deliveries before and 550 after the training were observed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the rate of cesarean deliveries owing to prolonged labor, and vacuum delivery was not practiced after the intervention...... 5.6% to 71.5% (RR 12.71; 95% CI, 9.04-17.88). There was a significant decrease from 6 to 0 neonatal deaths before discharge among those born with an Apgar score after 1minute of 4 or more (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: ALSO training had no effect on the management of prolonged labor. Early contact between...

  11. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...

  12. Labor rights as legal constitutional category – Kosovo in relation to international labor organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Vokrri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.

  13. El teletrabajo como tendencia del mercado laboral / Telecommuting as a labor market tendency

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with telecommuting as the last transition of the work environment, through the history of economic thought. It is analyzed from different key aspects such as, its conceptualization and proposal for classification, workers rights, motivation, and telecommuting workers’ profiles, as well as areas of application. Telecommuting is a labor market tendency that is currently transforming the idea that humans need to leave home and move physically to a place of work;...

  14. Child Labor: Labor Can Strengthen Its Efforts To Protect Children Who Work. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Occupational safety and health data and labor statistics were evaluated in order to update a 1991 report on child labor. Data were from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); the Department of Labor's (DOL's) investigations database and individual…

  15. ambulation during labor with combined spinal-epidural analgesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    cations including aphasia, dysphagia, altered level of consciousness, high sensory block, respiratory depression, and respiratory arrest, following induction of CSEA for labor pain. Conclusion. In summary, the CSEA technique for ambulatory analgesia in labor has a good record of efficacy and safety and can be ac-.

  16. 5 CFR 9701.508 - Homeland Security Labor Relations Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.508 Homeland Security Labor... impression or a major policy. (2) In cases where the full HSLRB acts, a vote of the majority of the HSLRB (or...

  17. Couples’ Attitudes, Childbirth, and the Division of Labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Miranda; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine effects of partners’ attitudes on the timing of the birth of a first child, the division of domestic labor, the division of child care, and the division of paid labor of couples. They use data from the Panel Study of Social Integration in the Netherlands, which

  18. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  19. The marital dynamics of conflict over the division of labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    The division of labor as a source of conflict is a concern for many couples. This study goes beyond the mere prediction of the amount of marital conflict by scrutinizing the relationship between spouses' discontent with the division of labor, their conflict interaction patterns, and subsequent

  20. An Empirical Illustration of Positive Stigma towards Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Harry A Patrinos; Najeeb Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    This empirical note complements the qualitative and theoretical research on positive household stigma towards child labor. We use data from Guatemala and two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous background and household head's childhood work experience. We then adopt binomial probit regression methods to illustrate that positive stigma has a large effect on child labor practices, and a modest effect on school enrollment.

  1. 24 CFR 1000.16 - What labor standards are applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What labor standards are applicable? 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.16 What labor standards are...

  2. Workers of the world: Essays toward a global labor history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.

    2008-01-01

    The studies offered in this volume contribute to a Global Labor History freed from Eurocentrism and methodological nationalism. Using literature from diverse regions, epochs and disciplines, the book provides arguments and conceptual tools for a different interpretation of history - a labor history

  3. 20 CFR 656.24 - Labor certification determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certification applications. (2) If the labor certification presents a special or unique problem, the Director of... opportunity as a college or university teacher, the U.S. worker must be at least as qualified as the alien. (3... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor certification determinations. 656.24...

  4. Institutions of Higher Education Under the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    The Fair Labor Standards Act contains provisions and standards concerning minimum wages, equal pay, maximum hours and overtime pay, recordkeeping, and child labor. These basic requirements apply to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce and also to employees in certain enterprises that are so…

  5. FREE MOVEMENT OF SKILLED LABOR WITHIN THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Adhisti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss how the free movement of skilled labor policy under the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC scenario enhances opportunities for labor mobility from low-skilled labor countries, what challenges will be faced, and how this policy impacts their economies. The implementation of the AEC’s free movement of skilled labor policy is projected to face challenges such as mismatched labor qualifications, fulfilling ASEAN commitment, time for implementation of ASEAN commitments, and controlling the flow of illegal migrant workers. However, ASEAN leaders already set some supporting policies to overcome challenges from this system by improving labor market information, encouraging language and skills training, managing government and public supports, expanding mutual recognition arrangements and enhancing social protection for migrant workers. If these supporting policies can be implemented, the AEC’s free movement of skilled labor policy will improve the quality of human resources in ASEAN, especially from lower-middle income countries including Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Thailand. As the results, those six countries are expected to increase the high-skilled employment rates by 0.3 to 1.4 percent and the wage rates up to 10-20 percent in 2025. Thus, the projected increases in the employment and wage rates of ASEAN skilled labor will induce an expansion of the ASEAN economic growth to 7.1 percent in 2025.

  6. Women in Workplace: Vocational Education and Segregated Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasonen, Johanna; Burge, Penny L.

    The United States and Finland show a clear gender stratification in work life. The uneven, gender-biased division of labor has been maintained, even though about half of the total U.S. and Finnish labor force are women. In both countries, female students tend to make traditional occupational choices that prepare them for low-paying fields where…

  7. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  8. Working Hours Flexibility and Older Workers' Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the presence of hours constraints on the UK labor market and its effect on older workers labor supply, both at the extensive and the intensive margin. Using panel data for the period 1991-2004, the results from a competing risks model show that over-employed male workers can

  9. Collective labor supply and child care expenditures: theory and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; Ghysels, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. We find that the individual labor supplies are hardly affected by changes in the prices of child care services. In addition, the child care price effects on the

  10. Teaching about Child Labor and International Human Rights. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.; Jensen, Elizabeth S.

    An estimated 246 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 work in the agricultural, industrial, and craft sectors worldwide. Approximately 180 million of these children work under the worst forms of child labor as defined by the International Labor Organization (2002). In spite of conventions and protocols designed to eradicate the worst…

  11. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

  12. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Ethiopian Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…

  13. Females in Vocational Education: Reflections of the Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard; Pritchard, Alice M.

    1991-01-01

    The fact that gender desegregation of vocational programs has not yet been achieved might be related to labor force occupational segregation by gender. Social theorists view schooling inequities as mirrors of social structure, whereby schools track students to maintain social stratification. Mirroring the labor market, education has segregated…

  14. What the '90s Labor Shortage Will Mean to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Samuel L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a number of forces that will determine the labor supply and demand in the United States in the 1990s: growth in the economy, automation, national policy, immigration policies, changing family, and technical advances. Examines steps a company can take in relation to these forces and makes suggestions concerning future labor needs. (CT)

  15. Labor Dystocia as First Presentation of Pelvic Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis van Hamont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying causes of labor dystocia can be various. Lack of expulsive forces or fetal malpresentation are amongst the most common ones. However, pelvic masses are described as well. Here we describe two cases of labor dystocia as first presentation of pelvic malignancy.

  16. Re-constructing the origins of modern labor management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.

    2010-01-01

    Mainstream history generally assumes that modern labor-management techniques originated in factories in Europe and North America employing 'free' wage laborers. The present explorative article argues, however, that important innovations were born outside the North Atlantic region (especially in the

  17. Primary and Secondary Labor Markets: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical work in labor economics and the sociology of work relating to the segmentation of the labor market into a primary and a secondary sector and examines the implications for vocational rehabilitation. Transition into primary sector employment is explored as an important aspect of career development for individuals…

  18. Do Workplace Flexibility Policies Influence Time Spent in Domestic Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Mary C.; Estes, Sarah Beth; Glass, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. midwestern sample of mothers and fathers, the authors examine whether using workplace flexibility policies alters time spent in housework and child care. They hypothesize that an individual's policy use will lead to more time in domestic labor and that his or her spouse's policy use will lead to less time in domestic labor.…

  19. Women\\'s Labor Force Participation and Introduction of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this paper was to analyze the relationship between women\\'s labor force participation and socioeconomic changes associated with structural adjustment in China and Congo Brazzaville. We conclude that structural adjustment policies have led to an increase in feminization of the labor force in these two ...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.578 Financial management of labor housing. The requirements established in subpart G of this part...

  1. Understanding the Trend in the Brazilian Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning

    regression analysis is an attempt to gain insights and understand the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market. Moreover, this research sheds light to essential institutional interventions and nature of the free play of the market that are relevant to the behavior of the trend in the seafaring labor...

  2. 46 CFR 5.71 - Maritime labor disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime labor disputes. 5.71 Section 5.71 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.71 Maritime labor disputes. Under no circumstances will the Coast Guard exercise its authority for the purpose of favoring any party to a maritime...

  3. The Use of Music in Labor: Pain Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    plane, vagina and external genitals during the expulsion phase (Corli et al., 1986). Regardless of the origin of the pain of labor, Stewart (1977...medical intervention or assistance. Once these myths are dispelled, they can be confident enough in their own body’s ability to successfully labor and

  4. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  5. La mejora del clima laboral: propuesta de herramientas

    OpenAIRE

    Padial Alcalá, José María

    2017-01-01

    El clima laboral está relacionado con la RSC cuando tratamos la relación de la organización con el grupo de interés de los empleados. Varios autores han establecido esta conexión encontrando diversas formas de enfocar el clima laboral, siendo rele

  6. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply......, such as prior period slack creation or pessimistic managerial expectations with respect to future demand....

  7. Decomposing changes in the aggregate labor force participation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simple methodology for decomposing changes in the aggregate labor force participation rate (LFPR) over time into demographic group changes in labor force participation behavior and in population share. The purpose is to identify the relative importance of behavioral changes and population changes as driving forces behind changes in the aggregate LFPR.

  8. Education, Labor Markets and the Retreat from Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and the Current Population Survey, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents enjoyed the same, stronger labor market conditions as their…

  9. Inserción laboral de personas con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    Jordán de Urríes, Francisco de Borja

    2000-01-01

    Informe sobre el proceso de integración laboral en España, los elementos útiles del empleo con apoyo y las actividades de los profesionales de la inserción laboral. INICO. Informes del Instituto Universitario de Integración en la Comunidad

  10. The labor protection and safety measures at the electrolysis department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to labor protection and safety measures at the electrolysis department. Thus, the characteristics of dangerous and harmful production factors as well as the danger of thermal burns and thermal exposure were considered. Safety requirements on labor safety were studied.

  11. Academic Labor Markets and Assistant Professors' Employment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Lowell L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data for 638 assistant professors who joined graduate sociology departments between 1975 and 1992, I examine the claim that when the labor market for new doctorates is weak, assistant professors experience less favorable employment outcomes than when that labor market is strong. Surprisingly, I find that those hired during the weak…

  12. MANUFACTURING PRICES, PRODUCTIVITY, AND LABOR COSTS IN 5 ECONOMIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANARK, B

    The United States continues to surge ahead of other major industrial economies in terms of lower prices, higher levels of labor productivity, and better unit labor cost performance; while the depreciation of the dollar plays an important role, real productivity gains are important as well.

  13. Writing Center Administration and/as Emotional Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Rebecca; McKinney, Jackie Grutsch; Caswell, Nicole I.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have offered research and theory about emotional labor and the feeling of emotion in rhetoric and composition, but we have little if any such research on writing center work specifically. Drawing on data from a year-long qualitative study of writing center directors' labor, this article examines writing center directors' emotional labor…

  14. Deposit-refund on labor : a solution to equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper studies the employment effects of a deposit-refund scheme on labor in a simple search-theoretic model of the labor market. It is shown that if a firm pays a deposit when it fires a worker to be refunded when it employs the same or another worker, the vacancy rate increases and the

  15. Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India. Couverture du livre Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India. Auteur(s):. Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 30 janvier 2008. ISBN : 9780415436113. 384 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552503737. Téléchargez le PDF.

  16. The dynamics of Chinese rural households' participation in labor markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosig, S.; Glauben, T.; Herzfeld, T.; Rozelle, S.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to the dynamics of labor market participation of Chinese rural households. Based on a theoretical farm household framework the choice between four distinct labor market participation states is empirically analyzed. Using household data over the period 1995¿2002 from the province

  17. 23 CFR 633.207 - Construction labor and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction labor and materials. 633.207 Section 633... OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.207 Construction labor and materials. (a) Construction and materials shall be in accordance with the State highway...

  18. Labor Agency in the Football Manufacturing Industry of Sialkot, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    be highly gendered and tends to be more constrained than facilitated by both vertical forces (the governance of GPNs) and horizontal forces (local socio-economic and labor market contexts). This is done through a case study of labor agency in the football manufacturing industry of Sialkot, Pakistan....

  19. Intersectionality at Work: Determinants of Labor Supply among Immigrant Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2014-06-01

    This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women's labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict.

  20. Labor Share in National Income: Implications in the Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razgūnė Aušra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that stability of labor share in national income is a key foundation in macroeconomic models, scientists acknowledge, that in the last three decades it has been declining around the world. The Baltic countries are not an exception; they follow similar patters to large economies, thus the research aims at determining economic factors at play. With the help of error correction model and time series data covering the past twenty years, we determine factors which contribute to the decline of labor share in the Baltic countries. We find significant long-term relationships between labor share and government spending, trade openness, and emigration. Government spending exhibits the highest contribution to variance of labor share in Lithuania, which also explains a large part of Latvia’s labor share variations. We find many similarities between the analyzed countries, however some differences are also visible.

  1. Contemporary labor patterns: the impact of maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Zhang, Jun; Vanveldhuisen, Paul; Troendle, James; Beaver, Julie; Hibbard, Judith U

    2011-09-01

    We sought to compare labor patterns by body mass index (BMI). A total of 118,978 gravidas with a singleton term cephalic gestation were studied. Repeated-measures analysis constructed mean labor curves by parity and BMI categories for those who reached 10 cm. Interval-censored regression analysis determined median traverse times, adjusting for covariates in vaginal deliveries and intrapartum cesareans. In the labor curves, the time difference to reach 10 cm was 1.2 hours from the lowest to highest BMI category for nulliparas. Multiparas entered active phase by 6 cm, but reaching this point took longer for BMI ≥40.0 (3.4 hours) compared to BMI .05) but decreased as BMI increased for multiparas (P < .001). Labor proceeds more slowly as BMI increases, suggesting that labor management be altered to allow longer time for these differences. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ROLE AND CONSEQUENCES OF EMOTIONAL LABOR IN THE WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Fortuna SCHIOPU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of emotions in the workplace has begun to be increasingly studied by theorists and researchers in organizational behavior. One essential construct in the literature is the emotional labor which is perceived to be the management of feelings to express organizationally desired emotions. This article aims to review existing perspectives on emotional labor, to differentiate the concepts of emotional labor and emotional dissonance, to analyze emotion regulation strategies, and to discuss the consequences of emotional labor in the workplace. These clarifications with regard to the emotional labor and its mechanisms can help manage their associated negative outcomes (such as emotional exhaustion, lower job satisfaction, higher levels of burnout, and intentions to quit the job and sustain their possible positive outcomes (such as feelings of accomplishment and enhanced identification with the work role.

  3. Idleness, returns to education and child labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".Apesar das recentes tendências sobre trabalho infantil serem positivas, ver ILO (2006, há importantes deficiências no entendimento do fenômeno. A exclusão da categoria "crianças desocupadas" (não trabalham e nem estudam em estudos passados, como também a ausência de informações fidedignas sobre retornos da educação são importantes omissões. Utilizando uma base de dados mais detalhada, bem como uma proxy para retornos da educação encontramos evidências que confirmam resultados tradicionais como o efeito positivo das características dos pais e a relação positiva entre o número de crianças, no trabalho infantil. Por outro lado, apontamos para novos entendimentos, como o fato da variável Índice de Massa Corporal possuir efeito positivo e a grande variação regional dos efeitos das estimativas. Por fim, sugerimos uma nova perspectiva sobre a questão das "crianças de rua" através da análise da categoria de "crianças desocupadas".

  4. Trial of Labor Compared With Cesarean Delivery in Superobese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasch, Jennifer L; Thompson, Jennifer L; Newton, J Michael; Zhai, Amy W; Osmundson, Sarah S

    2017-11-01

    To examine whether labor compared with planned cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all women with body mass indexes (BMIs) at delivery of 50 or greater delivering a live fetus at 34 weeks of gestation of greater between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2015. Pregnancies with multiple gestations and major fetal anomalies were excluded. The primary outcome was a composite of maternal and neonatal morbidity and was estimated to be 50% in superobese women based on institutional data. A sample size of 338 women determined the study period and was selected to show a 30% difference in the incidence of the primary outcome between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. There were 344 women with BMIs of 50 or greater who met eligibility criteria, of whom 201 (58%) labored and 143 (42%) underwent planned cesarean delivery. Women who labored were younger, more likely to be nulliparous, and less likely to have pre-existing diabetes. Among women who labored, 45% underwent a cesarean delivery, most commonly for labor arrest (61%) or nonreassuring fetal status (28%). Composite maternal and neonatal morbidity was reduced among women who labored even after adjusting for age, parity, pre-existing diabetes, and prior cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.75). In the subgroup of women (n=234) who underwent a cesarean delivery, whether planned (n=143) or after labor (n=91), there were no differences in maternal and neonatal morbidity except that severe maternal morbidity was increased in women (n=12) who labored (8.8% compared with 2.1%, relative risk 4.2, 95% CI 1.14-15.4). Despite high rates of cesarean delivery in women with superobesity, labor is associated with lower composite maternal and neonatal morbidity. Severe maternal morbidity may be higher in women who require a cesarean delivery after labor.

  5. Labor Inhibits Placental Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472

  6. 29 CFR 3.6 - Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.6 Section 3.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON....6 Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. Any contractor or...

  7. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards. 570.25 Section 570.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards...

  8. 29 CFR 801.65 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 801.65 Section 801.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative...

  9. 29 CFR 500.231 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 500.231 Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 500.231 Section 500.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 75 FR 27366 - OLMS Listens: Office of Labor-Management Standards Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards OLMS Listens: Office of Labor-Management Standards Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Office of Labor-Management Standards, Department of Labor. ACTION... stakeholders and other interested parties to provide individual comments and suggestions. All interested...

  11. 29 CFR 500.60 - Farm labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and general obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and general obligations. The Act imposes certain specific recruitment, contractual and general obligations on farm labor contractors and farm labor contractor employees... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and...

  12. 76 FR 53880 - Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This notice corrects the scoring...

  13. 76 FR 35244 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... failing to fulfill its obligations and commitments under the International Labour Organization Declaration... were inconsistent with its commitments under the Labor Chapter. The objectives of the review of the... commitments or obligations arising under a labor chapter * * *.'' The Procedural Guidelines specify that OTLA...

  14. The gravity model of labor migration behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandr, Tarasyev; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we present a dynamic inter-regional model, that is based on the gravity approach to migration and describes in continuous time the labor force dynamics between a number of conjugate regions. Our modification of the gravity migration model allows to explain the migration processes and to display the impact of migration on the regional economic development both for regions of origin and attraction. The application of our model allows to trace the dependency between salaries levels, total workforce, the number of vacancies and the number unemployed people in simulated regions. Due to the gravity component in our model the accuracy of prediction for migration flows is limited by the distance range between analyzed regions, so this model is tested on a number of conjugate neighbor regions. Future studies will be aimed at development of a multi-level dynamic model, which allows to construct a forecast for unemployment and vacancies trends on the first modeling level and to use these identified parameters on the second level for describing dynamic trajectories of migration flows.

  15. Barrera del desempeño laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Rosario Alvarez-Ramirez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El estres es un hecho complejo en la vida de toda persona con efectos distintos en cada quien, que no puede ser evitada ya que en todos lo momentos de la vida se esta en riesgo de presentarlo ante cualquier situacion, o una actividad laboral o familiar, que puede llegar a generar cualquier cambio que represente estres. Los sucesos negativos, dario, enfermedad o muerte de un ser querido, son hechos estresantes, asi como los sucesos positivos; ascender en el trabajo trae consigo el estres del nuevo status, de nuevas responsabilidades. Dentro de los trastornos clinicos vinculados al estres hay alteraciones como: trastornos del sumo, ulceras, dolores de cabeza, aceleracion del ritmo cardiaco y otros trastornos como los cardiovasculares: palpitaciones, hipertension arterial, trastornos digestivos, dolores, ardores, vomitos, nauseas, diarrea o estreriimiento y trastornos cutaneos: donde se presenta transpiracion de manos y pies y problemas alergicos. En el estres se pueden llegar a presentar dos tipos de estres: el positivo y el negativo. Los cuales presentan unas caracteristicas muy particulares, como en el estres negativo: una persona se encuentra ante un nitmero creciente de demandas que le plantean dificultad o constituyen una amenaza, se debe mirar el modo de afrontarlas. En el Estres positivo se presenta cuando la percepcion de capacidad de demanda es mucho mas amplia que las verdaderas demandas. Un aspecto fundamental ante la presencia de estres es la practica necesaria de un deporte o la realizacion de actividades recreativas.

  16. The Labor Environment, Risk and Communication Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto César Machado

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this reflection makes a theoretical analysis on communication in the labor environment of the worker and its social consequences. He analyzes some theoretical precepts that have permeated the social representations and some reflections about it. It discusses the current legislation and makes a theoretical revision regarding the subject, passing through precepts of the language, as well as approaches cognitive values presented in the local and regional work environment and its operational risks, where it discusses the conceptions and the factors that related and articulated with some aspects of this research. The approaches presented in the planning and discussion about the work environment, its risks and the failures in interpersonal communication in the professional activity are analyzed, taking into account the theoretical presuppositions of social cognition in order to attend the approaches focused on the environment, communication and risks at work. In relation to the representations and the theoretical practices of this study, the bibliographic analysis about them makes efforts to conceptualize its closure related to the presented ideas. O Meio Ambiente Laboral, Risco e a Falha na Comunicação Resumo: esta reflexão faz uma análise teórica sobre a comunicação no meio ambiente laborativo do trabalhador e suas consequências sociais. Ele analisa alguns preceitos teóricos que perpassaram pelas representações sociais e algumas reflexões a respeito da mesma. Discute sobre a legislação vigente e faz uma revisão teórica a respeito do tema, perpassando por preceitos da linguagem, bem como aborda valores cognitivos apresentados no ambiente laborativo local, regional e seus riscos operacionais onde discute as concepções e os fatores que relacionaram e articularam junto a algumas vertentes desta investigação. As abordagens apresentadas no planejamento e discussão sobre o ambiente laborativo, seus riscos e as falhas na

  17. Fertility and patterns of labor force participation among married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lovin, L; Tickamyer, A R

    1981-01-01

    Variations in women's response to childbearing and participation in the labor force are examined with the expectation that 2 distinct patterns will emerge clarifying the fertility-work effect. The hypothesis is offered that 1 group of women will drop out entirely at the onset of childbearing, returning to work after the children have grown, if at all. Another group will work almost continuously with almost no gap in labor force participation. Past research, concentrating on averaged direction of causal flow, have obscured this bimodal distribution. 3 problems hamper the study of fertility effects on career discontinuity: detailed work and birth histories covering extended periods of time are scarce, variables often obscure variability, and censored histories are frequent in which the timing of an event may or may not occur until after the survey and therefore cannot be observed. Data for the analysis are from the 1970 EEO survey (Explorations in Equaltiy of Opportunity), a national sample survey of women who were high school sophomores in 1955. Using only complete data from women who were still married to their 1st husbands yielded a sample size of 703. Of these, 39% were working in 1970 and 85% had 2 or more children. Employment status, recorded for each year, was a dichotomous variable distinguishing between no employment during the year and any employment. The fertility variable indicated if a child was or was not adopted or born during the year. The women were much more likely to work before their 1st birth than afterwards, at least during the early adult years covered by this survey. Women who began childbearing while still in high school were more likely to continue working after birth. College graduates were also somewhat more likely to continue working after their 1st birth. 70% of the women worked before their 1st birth, 30% after the onset of childbearing. Work discontinuity, measured by the number of gaps in employment indicate that over 50% of the

  18. What can be done about child labor ? - An overview of recent research and its implications for designing programs to reduce child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the research on child labor, and places the phenomenon in a broader development agenda. It explains the demand for, and supply of child labor, linking these factors to others, such as the supply of education. Then it looks into the private, and social costs of, and benefits from child labor. Against this background, strategies fore reducing child labor are debated.

  19. GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS CIRCUMVENTS NEUTROPHILS AND NEUTROPHIL EXTRACELLULAR TRAPS DURING AMNIOTIC CAVITY INVASION AND PRETERM LABOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldenow, Erica; Gendrin, Claire; Ngo, Lisa; Bierle, Craig; Vornhagen, Jay; Coleman, Michelle; Merillat, Sean; Armistead, Blair; Whidbey, Christopher; Alishetti, Varchita; Santana-Ufret, Veronica; Ogle, Jason; Gough, Michael; Srinouanprachanh, Sengkeo; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Bansal, Aasthaa; Liggitt, H. Denny; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Waldorf, Kristina M Adams

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with the majority of early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B Streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we utilized a unique chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy. This model allows monitoring of uterine contractions, timing of MIAC and immune responses during pregnancy-associated infections. Here, we show that adverse outcomes such as preterm labor, MIAC, and fetal sepsis were observed more frequently during infection with hemolytic GBS when compared to nonhemolytic GBS. Although MIAC was associated with systematic progression in chorioamnionitis beginning with chorionic vasculitis and progressing to neutrophilic infiltration, the ability of the GBS hemolytic pigment toxin to induce neutrophil cell death and subvert killing by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in placental membranes in vivo facilitated MIAC and fetal injury. Furthermore, compared to maternal neutrophils, fetal neutrophils exhibit decreased neutrophil elastase activity and impaired phagocytic functions to GBS. Collectively, our studies demonstrate how a unique bacterial hemolytic lipid toxin enables GBS to circumvent neutrophils and NETs in placental membranes to induce fetal injury and preterm labor. PMID:27819066

  20. Overeducation and mismatch in the labor market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Hanushek, E.A.; Machin, S.; Woessmann, L.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter surveys the economics literature on overeducation. The original motivation to study this topic reports that the strong increase in the number of college graduates in the early 1970s in the United States led to a decrease in the returns to college education. We argue that Duncan and

  1. Child labor. A matter of health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society.

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of division of labor games with selfish agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Li, Qiaoyu; Zhang, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    The division of labor is one of the most basic and widely studied aspects of collective behavior in natural systems. Studies of division of labor are concerned with the integration of the individual worker behavior into a colony level task organization and with the question of how the regulation of the division of labor may contribute to the colony efficiency. This paper investigates the evolution of the division of labor with three strategies by employing the evolutionary game theory. Thus, these available strategies are, respectively, strategy A (performing task A), strategy B (performing task B), and strategy D (not performing any task but only free riding others' contributions). And, two typical networks (i.e., BA scale-free network and lattice network) are employed here for describing the interaction structure among agents. The theoretical analysis together with simulation results reveal that the division of labor can evolve and leads to players that differ in their tendency to take on a given task. The conditions under which the division of labor evolves depend on the costs for performing the task, the benefits led by performing the task, and the interaction structures among the players who are involved with division of labor games.

  3. Factors associated with higher oxytocin requirements in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; England, Sarah K; Roehl, Kimberly A; Odibo, Anthony O; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2015-09-01

    To identify clinical characteristics associated with high maximum oxytocin doses in women who achieve complete cervical dilation. A retrospective nested case-control study was performed within a cohort of all term women at a single center between 2004 and 2008 who reached the second stage of labor. Cases were defined as women who had a maximum oxytocin dose during labor >20 mu/min, while women in the control group had a maximum oxytocin dose during labor of ≤20 mu/min. Exclusion criteria included no oxytocin administration during labor, multiple gestations, major fetal anomalies, nonvertex presentation, and prior cesarean delivery. Multiple maternal, fetal, and labor factors were evaluated with univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Maximum oxytocin doses >20 mu/min were administered to 108 women (3.6%), while 2864 women received doses ≤20 mu/min. Factors associated with higher maximum oxytocin dose after adjusting for relevant confounders included maternal diabetes, birthweight >4000 g, intrapartum fever, administration of magnesium, and induction of labor. Few women who achieve complete cervical dilation require high doses of oxytocin. We identified maternal, fetal and labor factors that characterize this group of parturients.

  4. Testing the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Showering in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann

    : Therapeutic showering is a holistic nursing intervention that is often available and supports physiologic labor. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of therapeutic showering with usual care during active labor. Research questions were as follows: Are there significant differences between women who showered 30 minutes during active labor and those who received usual labor care in anxiety, tension, relaxation, pain, discomfort, and coping? Is there a difference in use of obstetric interventions between groups? A convenience sample of healthy low-risk women in active labor was recruited (N = 32). A pretest posttest control group repeated-measures design was used. Participants were randomized to treatment group (n = 17), who showered for 30 minutes, or to control group (n = 14) who received usual labor care. Women evaluated pain, discomfort, anxiety, tension, coping, and relaxation at enrollment, again 15 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care, then again 30 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care. Chart reviews after delivery recorded obstetric interventions. The showering group had statistically significant decreases in pain, discomfort, anxiety and tension, and significant increase in relaxation. There were no differences in use of obstetric interventions. Therapeutic showering was effective in reducing pain, discomfort, anxiety, and tension while improving relaxation and supporting labor in this sample.

  5. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Abolition of Labor Makes you Free–Labor as Mystification, Practice and Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ribać

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author tries to articulate a rational demand for the expansion of free time and transformation of wage labor. Firstly, the author demontrates that the internalization of fetishized capitalist relations is an integral part of capitalism. He demonstrates that both the capitalist and worker construct the meaning of the world through arbitrary forms of perception, and that in this process the work itself is a vital factor that generates, modifies and reproduces these forms themselves. Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and Foucault’s investigations about body and norm complement Marx’s theorization of abstract labor. This complement is then a focal point of phenomenological critique of the abstract labor practice. In the second part of the article, the author presents a strategic proposal of the French economist Michel Husson, whose arguments defend a specific transgression of capitalism: shorter working week through the socialization of products and services. Husson’s strategic proposition is also complemented. The author complements it with the ideas of how class struggle can be expanded beyond the borders of professional solidarity to the terrain of universal suffrage. He rethinks living space in a universal and unconditional manner, which can substantially reduce the subordination to economic necessity. His argument postulates that apartments as well as other housing units must be rethought outside of value form. In the last part of the article, the author tries to crystalize his line of arguments by addressing some of Husson’s implicit as well as explicit assumptions. Through critique of capitalism as a systemic totality, the author tries to fully articulate his demand for historical and material conditions of autonomy, which is structured and conditioned by limitations of capitalist system.

  7. Labor report 1997-1998; Informe de labores 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In agreement with the disposition in the 93 rd Article of the Mexican United States Constitution Policy, the National Institute for Nuclear Research, which is directed as decentralized public organization of the Federal Government presents its labor report corresponding to the period 1997-1998. The Institution purpose is to perform research and development in the nuclear sciences and technology fields, as well as to promote the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy and divulging the advances reached for entailing them to the economic, social, scientific and technological development of the country. (Author)

  8. The Effectiveness of Hypnosis Intervention for Labor: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2017-10-01

    Hypnosis has been shown to help pregnant women experience improved labor and postpartum periods. The present study compares the differences between experimental (n = 23) and control groups (n = 22) on specific variables measured both during labor and 24 hr postpartum. The participants in the experimental group received the hypnosis intervention at weeks 16, 20, 28, and 36 of pregnancy, while those in the control group received only routine antenatal care. The data collected at the labor stage describe the length of the labor stage, pain relief used during labor, the method of delivery, and the type of assisted vaginal delivery. Within 24 hr of delivery, data on neonatal birth weight, neonatal Apgar scores, and self-reported pain were obtained. The labor stage results showed no significant differences in the length of the second and third stages of labor. Although the participants in the experimental group reported higher pain levels immediately prior to, during, and immediately after delivery, their use of pethidine during labor was significantly lower than the control group participants. None of the experimental group participants opted for an epidural, and they had a greater number of assisted vaginal deliveries than the control group participants. The 24 hr postpartum results showed that the neonates of the experimental group participants had nonsignificantly higher Apgar scores than those of the women in the control group. Group differences in neonatal weight were not significant. The results of the present study indicate that hypnosis is useful for assisting pregnant women during labor and the postpartum period.

  9. Delayed versus immediate pushing in second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary; Johnson, Eileen; Lee, Vickie; Massey, Liz; Purser, Debbie; Ring, Karen; Sanderson, Stephanye; Styles, Juanita; Wood, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of two different methods for management of second stage of labor: immediate pushing at complete cervical dilation of 10 cm and delayed pushing 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation. This study was a randomized clinical trial in a labor and delivery unit of a not-for-profit community hospital. A sample of 44 nulliparous mothers with continuous epidural anesthesia were studied after random assignment to treatment groups. Subjects were managed with either immediate or delayed pushing during the second stage of labor at the time cervical dilation was complete. The primary outcome measure was the length of pushing during second stage of labor. Secondary outcomes included length of second stage of labor, maternal fatigue and perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations. Two-tailed, unpaired Student's t-tests and Chi-square analysis were used for data analysis. Level of significance was set at p pushing; N = 16 delayed pushing). The delayed pushing group had significantly shorter amount of time spent in pushing compared with the immediate pushing group (38.9 +/- 6.9 vs. 78.7 +/- 7.9 minutes, respectively, p = .002). Maternal fatigue scores, perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations were similar for both groups. Delaying pushing for up to 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation resulted in a significant decrease in the time mothers spent pushing without a significant increase in total time in second stage of labor.In clinical practice, healthcare providers sometimes resist delaying the onset of pushing after second stage of labor has begun because of a belief it will increase labor time. This study's finding of a 51% reduction in pushing time when mothers delay pushing for up to 90 minutes, with no significant increase in overall time for second stage of labor, disputes that concern.

  10. 48 CFR 22.406-12 - Cooperation with the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for..., interviews with workers, and all other aspects of investigations undertaken by the Department of Labor. When...

  11. Energy and labor cost of gasoline engine remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, E.R.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents a detailed estimate of the labor and energy, by fuel type, required by the U.S. economy to remanufacture gasoline-fueled automobile and truck engines. Th estimate was obtained by combining data provided by several remanufacturers with the results of input--output analysis. A rough estimate of the labor and energy required to manufacture new engines is also given. These estimates suggest that remanufactured engines require 50% of the energy and 67% of the labor that new engines require.

  12. Health, Enterprise, and Labor Complementarity in the Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Nyshadham, Anant

    2017-05-01

    We study the role of household enterprise as a coping mechanism after health shocks. Using variation in the cost of traveling to formal sector health facilities to predict recovery from acute illness in Tanzania, we show that individuals with prolonged illness switch from farm labor to enterprise activity. This response occurs along both the extensive (entry) and intensive (capital stock and labor supply) margins. Family members who are not ill exhibit exactly the same pattern of responses. Deriving a simple extension to the canonical agricultural household model, we show that our results suggest complementarities in household labor.

  13. Marriage, Specialization, and the Gender Division of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Baker; Joyce P. Jacobsen

    2005-01-01

    A customary gender division of labor is one in which women and men are directed towards certain tasks and/or explicitly prohibited from performing others. We offer an explanation as to why the gender division of labor is so often enforced by custom, and why customary gender divisions of labor generally involve both direction and prohibition. Our model builds on the literature on the marital hold-up problem, and considers both problems in choice of specialty and human capital acquisition in a ...

  14. Satisfacción laboral de los trabajadores con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    Ainhoa, Durá; Karmele, Salaberría

    2011-01-01

    En el presente estudio descriptivo se ofrecen datos sobre el nivel de satisfacción laboral de 328 trabajadores/ as con discapacidad del sector de la limpieza en la empresa Galant Garbitasuna, S.L.U., del Grupo Gureak de Gipuzkoa. Se describen las características sociodemográficas y el perfil laboral, así como el nivel de satisfacción general, y también por sexo y categoría laboral. Los resultados muestran que la satisfacción general es medio-alta, que las mujeres están más satisfechas con su ...

  15. Estrés laboral: Funcionarios de instituciones penitenciarias

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Murciego, Estela

    2016-01-01

    El estrés laboral es uno de los principales riesgos identificados en el mundo laboral de la sociedad actual. Varios puestos de trabajo llevan consigo asociadas una serie de responsabilidades y de un número elevado de tareas en proporción a la jornada laboral, las interacciones entre distintas personas no siempre son sencillas y otros factores hacen que los trabajadores no siempre puedan sentirse a gusto en su lugar de trabajo habitual. Por este motivo y dado el incremento de casos en los ú...

  16. Patriarchy, family structure and the exploitation of women's labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J A; Ciscel, D H

    1988-09-01

    The authors present a case for including the patriarchal model into the analysis of female labor force participation in the United States. They argue that only if it is assumed that the division of labor and distribution of goods and services are structured to benefit the male head of the family can various trends be explained, including the low relative income of women compared to men, the increase in female labor force participation without a corresponding increase in household work by men, and the increasing number of divorces initiated by women despite the fact that divorce increases female poverty.

  17. Labor migration and risk aversion in less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, E; Stark, O

    1986-01-01

    "In this paper we question the pioneering work of Todaro, which states that rural-to-urban labor migration in less developed countries (LDCs) is an individual response to a higher urban expected income. We demonstrate that rural-to-urban labor migration is perfectly rational even if urban expected income is lower than rural income. We achieve this under a set of fairly stringent conditions: an individual decision-making entity, a one-period planning horizon, and global risk aversion. We obtain the result that a small chance of reaping a high reward is sufficient to trigger rural-to-urban labor migration." excerpt

  18. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  19. Developing construction labor through modular training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.R.; Amos, T.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Traditionally, the construction industry has depended on apprenticeship, technical and vocational schools, and experience through informal on-the-job training to meet the industry's demands for skilled manpower. However, as increasingly larger heavy construction projects, such as nuclear power plants, have come to demand more and more skilled craftsmen, the traditional methods of developing construction labor have become insufficient both in terms of the number of workers made available and in the quality of their skills. Over the past eight years, Brown and Root, Inc., has developed a task oriented modular system for training construction workers which supplements a worker's on-the-job training and decreases the time it requires the individual to become a productive member of the project workforce in his work. This training approach is not a series of the semester-long courses which have typified apprenticeship and vocational training in the past, but a systems approach to designing and implementing a program of classroom modules for craft development programs which emphasize both the hands-on tasks a construction worker must perform in his craft as well as the related theory required. The system consists of a number of modular courses which can be sequenced, for each craft, to develop construction skills in each worker according to both his needs and the needs of the project. The training modules for a particular craft program are developed utilizing Instructional Systems Development (ISD). This process is divided into five major phases: analysis, establishment of objectives, preparation of tests, planning and developing instructional content, and evaluation

  20. The effect of aromatherapy with lavender essence on severity of labor pain and duration of labor in primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoreh; Pirak, Arezoo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lavender essence inhalation on severity of labor pain and duration of labor. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 pregnant women in two groups. The experimental group received 2 drops of Lavender essence inhaled at three stages (4-5, 6-7, 8-9 cm cervical dilation) and severity of the labor pain and duration of labor was measured before and after intervention. The control group was treated with distilled water as a placebo in the similar ways, too. The results showed that difference in the labor pain before and after intervention in two groups was significant (P = 0/001). But there was no difference in mean duration of the active phase and the second stage of labor between the two groups. Lavender essence aromatherapy may be an effective therapeutic option for pain management for women in labor. Published by Elsevier Ltd.