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Sample records for early kidney damage

  1. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Pain Medicine & Kidney Damage Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  2. Expression of c-myc gene as an early indicator of late radiation damage of kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Genetics Medical Inst. of Bioregulation; Masuda, Koji

    1998-02-01

    We have previously described the increased proliferation and appearance of abnormally large nuclei in renal proximal tubule cells after radiation. A model has been proposed that the large nuclear cells might be dying and the increased proliferation might lead to mitotic death of these cells and cause functional damage. We measured the amount of c-myc transcript taking the ratio of densities of bands for irradiated left kidney to unirradiated right kidney after RT-PCR procedure on 24 hours after 9, 12 and 15 Gy irradiation, and found positive in 1 out of 10 after 9 Gy, 6 out of 10 after 12 Gy and 9 out of 10 after 15 Gy. Measuring c-myc expression seems to be a potential very early indicator of late radiation damage of kidney. (author)

  3. Early superoxide scavenging accelerates renal microvascular rarefaction and damage in the stenotic kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Silvia; He, Xiaochen; Chade, Alejandro R

    2012-08-15

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS), the main cause of chronic renovascular disease (RVD), is associated with significant oxidative stress. Chronic RVD induces renal injury partly by promoting renal microvascular (MV) damage and blunting MV repair in the stenotic kidney. We tested the hypothesis that superoxide anion plays a pivotal role in MV dysfunction, reduction of MV density, and progression of renal injury in the stenotic kidney. RAS was induced in 14 domestic pigs and observed for 6 wk. Seven RAS pigs were chronically treated with the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (RAS+T) to reduce oxidative stress. Single-kidney hemodynamics and function were quantified in vivo using multidetector computer tomography (CT) and renal MV density was quantified ex vivo using micro-CT. Expression of angiogenic, inflammatory, and apoptotic factors was measured in renal tissue, and renal apoptosis and fibrosis were quantified in tissue sections. The degree of RAS and blood pressure were similarly increased in RAS and RAS+T. Renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were reduced in the stenotic kidney (280.1 ± 36.8 and 34.2 ± 3.1 ml/min, P < 0.05 vs. control). RAS+T kidneys showed preserved GFR (58.5 ± 6.3 ml/min, P = not significant vs. control) but a similar decreases in RBF (293.6 ± 85.2 ml/min) and further decreases in MV density compared with RAS. These changes were accompanied by blunted angiogenic signaling and increased apoptosis and fibrosis in the stenotic kidney of RAS+T compared with RAS. The current study shows that tempol administration provided limited protection to the stenotic kidney. Despite preserved GFR, renal perfusion was not improved by tempol, and MV density was further reduced compared with untreated RAS, associated with increased renal apoptosis and fibrosis. These results suggest that a tight balance of the renal redox status is necessary for a normal MV repair response to injury, at least at the early stage of RVD, and raise caution

  4. [Effects of activating silent information regulator 1 on early kidney damage in rats with severe burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X Z; He, T; Liu, Y; Zhang, W; Han, F; Yang, C; Cai, W X; Jia, Y H; Shi, J H; Han, J T; Su, L L; Hu, D H

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of activating silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) on the early kidney damage in rats with severe burn. Methods: Thirty healthy male SD rats were divided into sham injury group (SI), pure burn group (PB), and SIRT1 activator group (SA) according to the random number table, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups PB and SA were inflicted with 30% total body surface area full-thickness scald (hereinafter referred to as burn) on the back. Immediately after injury, rats in group PB were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline in the dosage of 50 mL/kg, and those in group SA with 1 mg/mL (final mass concentration) resveratrol in the dosage of 50 mL/kg. Rats in group SI were sham injured and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline in the dosage of 50 mL/kg immediately after injury. Kidney tissue and abdominal aorta blood of rats in the three groups were collected at 24 hours after injury. The morphology of kidney tissue was observed after HE staining. The serum content of creatinine and urea nitrogen was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein expressions of SIRT1, Bax, and Bcl-2 in kidney tissue were determined with Western blotting. mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-10 in kidney tissue were determined with real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and LSD-t test. Results: (1) In rats of group SI, structures of kidney tubules and glomeruli were intact. In rats of group PB, structures of kidney tubules were not clear with casts in them, and glomeruli showed pyknosis. In rats of group SA, structures of kidney tubules were relatively intact, and the pyknosis of glomeruli were slighter as compared with that of group PB with fewer glomeruli showing pyknosis. (2) The serum content of creatinine and urea nitrogen in rats of group PB was (67±14)

  5. Radiation damage in rat kidney microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A C; Shah-Yukich, A; Babayan, R

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a specialized polymer injection casting technique permits the analysis of radiation induced damage in rat kidney glomeruli. A lead shielding device is constructed to enable the irradiation of the living rat left kidney, while the remainder of the animal is shielded from the dose, the right kidney serves as a control. The source of radiation is 137Cs which produces 0.66 MeV gamma-rays to achieve a kidney dose of 100 rad and 5000 rad in these experiments. Radiation damage to kidney glomeruli is assessed at intervals of 0, 1, 3 and 7 days post-irradiation at the two dose levels. It is found that radiation damage to kidney glomeruli is expressed morphologically at 7 days post-irradiation at the 100 rad dose level, while glomerular damage is apparent as early as 3 days post-irradiation at the 5000 rad dose level. Moreover, by 7 days post-irradiation with a 5000 rad dose, the kidney glomerulus thoroughly degenerates to a leaky fused mass of vessels. From a morphological viewpoint, kidney glomeruli are significantly more sensitive to radiation than surrounding vasculature. The methods developed here for assessment of radiation damage are highly repeatable and could serve as a standard technique in radiobiology.

  6. Detection of early kidney damages in workers exposed to lead, mercury, and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, K.H.; Gonzales, J.; Thuerauf, J.; Schiele, R.

    1980-09-01

    Our study was performed to evaluate potential adverse effects on the kidney caused by an occupational exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. We examined 81 individuals of a Zn-Cd-plant and of a Ni-Cd-battery factory, occupationally exposed to cadmium. In a chemical company, synthesizing mercury-compounds, we analyzed 23 exposed workers. The 21 persons with an exposure to lead were employed in a secondary lead smelting plant. To evaluate the degree of the occupational exposure we analysed the concentrations of the heavy metals in blood and urine samples. As indicators of an adverse effect on the kidney the renal elimination of specific proteins was determined. The analysis of proteins with a higher molecular weight, such as albumine and acid ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoproteine, was performed using a new developed laser nephelometric method. Patterns of renal eliminated proteins with a lower molecular weight were characterized applying radio immunological determination of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobuline. The results found in workers exposed to cadmium verified previous studies. The occurence of a characteristic ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulinuria takes place after a sufficient long period of exposure. In addition to this,. cadmium exposed workers had an increased elimination of total proteine. Persons with an exposure to mercury also showed a slightly increased elimination of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobuline and total proteine. An intensive long exposure to mercury and its (in-)organic compounds seems to induce an increased renal elimination of proteins. No increased renal elimination was found in persons occupationally exposed to lead.

  7. Expression of K-ras, c-fos, and c-myc genes as a potential early indicator for late radiation damage of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Genetics Medical Inst. of Bioregulation

    1999-04-01

    We previously reported that an increased proliferation and the appearance of abnormally large nuclei in proximal tubule cells were observed in irradiated kidneys. A hypothetical model has been proposed in which the production of large nuclear cells results from abortive mitotic division and their loss is an eventual result of such an aberration. We measured the amount of K-ras, c-fos, and c-myc transcript taking the ratio of densities of bands for irradiated left kidney to unirradiated right kidney after RT-PCR procedure on 24 hours after 9, 12 and 15 Gy irradiation. As for c-myc, we found positive in 1 out of 10 after 9 Gy, 6 out of 10 after 12 Gy and 8 out of 10 after 15 Gy. Measuring the c-myc expression seems to be a potential very early indicator for late radiation damage of the kidney. (author)

  8. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function

    OpenAIRE

    Caplin, B; Veighey, K.; Mahenderan, A.; Manook, M.; Henry, J; Nitsch, D; Harber, M.; Dupont, P.; Wheeler, D.C.; G. Jones; Fernando, B.; Howie, A J; Veitch, P

    2013-01-01

    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little...

  9. Evaluating kidney damage from vesico-ureteral reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaffanello M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the most relevant clinical studies that evaluate kidney damage in children with primary vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR, we reviewed and compared randomized controlled trials and clinical trials from scientific literature. In these studies, vesico-ureteral reflux was diagnosed by voiding cystourethrogram and kidney damage was assessed by either DMSA scan or urography. Relative risk with 95% confidence intervals was calculated using Review Manager Software (The Cochrane Collaboration, 2000. The overall relative risk of kidney damage shown by DMSA scan and urography was statistically higher in children with vesico-ureteral reflux of various degrees than in controls (3.7 times and 2.8 times, respectively. However, in high-grade VUR, the relative risk of congenital kidney damage was 5.6 times that of controls. We conclude that severe VUR is frequently associated with early kidney damage, perhaps with prenatal onset. Progression of kidney damage may depend on the severity of VUR and untreated urinary tract infections. Prevention of congenital kidney damage from severe VUR is possible when there is early intervention, even during fetal growth.

  10. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, Ben; Veighey, Kristin; Mahenderan, Arundathi; Manook, Miriam; Henry, Joanne; Nitsch, Dorothea; Harber, Mark; Dupont, Peter; Wheeler, David C; Jones, Gareth; Fernando, Bimbi; Howie, Alexander J; Veitch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little evidence to support differences between the study group, who had undergone serial biopsies, and a contemporaneous control group, who had not. In allografts with serial biopsies (n = 162), there was an increase in ICD between implantation (median: 2%, IQR:0-8) and 2-3 months post-transplant (median 8% IQR:4-15; p live donors was independently associated with smaller early post-transplant increases in ICD. There was no evidence for a difference in delta ICD between donation after cardiac death vs. donation after brain death, nor association with length of cold ischemia. After adjustment for GFR at the time of the second biopsy, delta ICD after three months did not predict allograft function at one yr. These findings suggest that graft damage develops shortly after transplantation and reflects donor factors, but does not predict future biochemical outcomes.

  11. De Novo Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies Developing Early or Late after Transplant Are Associated with the Same Risk of Graft Damage and Loss in Nonsensitized Kidney Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioni, Michela; Nocera, Arcangelo; Innocente, Annalisa; Tagliamacco, Augusto; Trivelli, Antonella; Basso, Sabrina; Quartuccio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Iris; Magnasco, Alberto; Drago, Francesca; Gurrado, Antonella; Guido, Ilaria; Compagno, Francesca; Garibotto, Giacomo; Klersy, Catherine; Verrina, Enrico; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Cardillo, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    De novo posttransplant donor-specific HLA-antibody (dnDSA) detection is now recognized as a tool to identify patients at risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and graft loss. It is still unclear whether the time interval from transplant to DSA occurrence influences graft damage. Utilizing sera collected longitudinally, we evaluated 114 consecutive primary pediatric kidney recipients grafted between 2002 and 2013 for dnDSA occurrence by Luminex platform. dnDSAs occurred in 39 patients at a median time of 24.6 months. In 15 patients, dnDSAs developed within 1 year (early-onset group), while the other 24 seroconverted after the first posttransplant year (late-onset group). The two groups were comparable when considering patient- and transplant-related factors, as well as DSA biological properties, including C1q and C3d complement-binding ability. Only recipient age at transplant significantly differed in the two cohorts, with younger patients showing earlier dnDSA development. Late AMR was diagnosed in 47% of the early group and in 58% of the late group. Graft loss occurred in 3/15 (20%) and 4/24 (17%) patients in early- and late-onset groups, respectively (p = ns). In our pediatric kidney recipients, dnDSAs predict AMR and graft loss irrespective of the time elapsed between transplantation and antibody occurrence. PMID:28367453

  12. Mitochondria Damage and Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body's metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell. Kidney diseases, either acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), are important clinical issues and global public health concerns with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapeutic strategies to cure or retard the progression of the diseases. Mitochondria-targeted therapeutics has become a major focus for modern research with the belief that maintaining mitochondria homeostasis can prevent kidney pathogenesis and disease progression. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular events that govern mitochondria functions in health and disease will potentially lead to improved therapeutics development.

  13. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  14. Obesity and target organ damage : the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, PE; Verhave, JC; Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Hillege, HL

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a risk marker for progressive renal function loss in patients with known renal disease. There is, however, increasing evidence that obesity may also damage the kidney in otherwise healthy subjects. There appears to be an intriguing parallel between the renal effects of obesity and those o

  15. Obesity and target organ damage : the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, PE; Verhave, JC; Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Hillege, HL

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a risk marker for progressive renal function loss in patients with known renal disease. There is, however, increasing evidence that obesity may also damage the kidney in otherwise healthy subjects. There appears to be an intriguing parallel between the renal effects of obesity and those

  16. Duodenal damage complicating percutaneous access to kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Corrêa Lopes Neto; Marcos Tobias-Machado; Roberto Vaz Juliano; Marco Aurélio Lipay; Milton Borrelli; Eric Roger Wroclawski

    2000-01-01

    CONTEXT: Since the first percutaneous nephrostomy performed by Goodwin in 1954, technical advances in accessing the kidneys via percutaneous puncture have increased the use of this procedure and thus the complications too. Among these complications, digestive tract damage is not common. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: We report a duodenal lesion that was corrected using surgical exploration and we touch on the therapeutic options, which may be conservative or interventionist. We chose conse...

  17. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5 were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7 that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography. Results We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry did not cross react with equine cystatin-C. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage.

  18. Smoking in Pregnancy Tied to Kidney Damage in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162696.html Smoking in Pregnancy Tied to Kidney Damage in Kids ... and about 17 percent of those women continued smoking while pregnant, the study authors said. Children of ...

  19. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy with Early Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina; Pazarín-Villaseñor, Leonardo; Yanowsky-Escatell, Francisco Gerardo; Andrade-Sierra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the secondary kidney damage produces diabetic nephropathy (DN). Early nephropathy is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/day), including normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or a mildly decreased GFR (60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2), with or without overt nephropathy. The earliest change caused by DN is hyperfiltration with proteinuria. The acceptable excretion rate of albumin in urine is 300 mg/day. Chronic kidney disea...

  20. Renal Damage Frequency in Patients with Solitary Kidney and Factors That Affect Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Basturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to assess renal damage incidence in patients with solitary kidney and to detect factors associated with progression. Methods. Medical records of 75 patients with solitary kidney were investigated retrospectively and divided into two groups: unilateral nephrectomy (group 1 and unilateral renal agenesis/dysplasia (group 2. According to the presence of kidney damage, each group was divided into two subgroups: group 1a/b and group 2a/b. Results. Patients in group 1 were older than those in group 2 (p=0.001. 34 patients who comprise group 1a had smaller kidney size (p=0.002 and higher uric acid levels (p=0.028 than those in group 1b at presentation. Uric acid levels at first and last visit were associated with renal damage progression (p=0.004, 0.019. 18 patients who comprise group 2a were compared with those in group 2b in terms of presence of DM (p=0.038, HT (p=0.003, baseline proteinuria (p=0.014, and uric acid (p=0.032 levels and group 2a showed higher rates for each. Progression was more common in patients with DM (p=0.039, HT (p=0.003, higher initial and final visit proteinuria (p=0.014, for both, and higher baseline uric acid levels (p=0.047. Conclusions. The majority of patients with solitary kidney showed renal damage at presentation. Increased uric acid level is a risk factor for renal damage and progression. For early diagnosis of renal damage and reducing the risk of progression, patients should be referred to a nephrologist as early as possible.

  1. Screening for chronic kidney disease can be of help to prevent atherosclerotic end organ damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozyilmaz, Akin; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerotic damage to the kidney is one of the most prevalent causes of chronic kidney disease and ultimately kidney failure. It frequently coincides with atherosclerotic damage to the heart, the brain and the lower extremities. In fact, the severity of the damage in the various end organs runs

  2. DNA damage response in nephrotoxic and ischemic kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingjuan; Tang, Chengyuan; Ma, Zhengwei; Huang, Shuang; Dong, Zheng

    2016-10-27

    DNA damage activates specific cell signaling cascades for DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, senescence, and/or cell death. Recent studies have demonstrated DNA damage response (DDR) in experimental models of acute kidney injury (AKI). In cisplatin-induced AKI or nephrotoxicity, the DDR pathway of ATR/Chk2/p53 is activated and contributes to renal tubular cell apoptosis. In ischemic AKI, DDR seems more complex and involves at least the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family, and p53; however, while ATM may promote DNA repair, p53 may trigger cell death. Targeting DDR for kidney protection in AKI therefore relies on a thorough elucidation of the DDR pathways in various forms of AKI.

  3. Endothelial glycocalyx damage is associated with leptospirosis acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libório, Alexandre Braga; Braz, Marcelo Boecker Munoz; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Meneses, Gdayllon C; Neves, Fernanda Macedo de Oliveira; Pedrosa, Danielle Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a common disease in tropical countries, and the kidney is one of the main target organs. Membrane proteins of Leptospira are capable of causing endothelial damage in vitro, but there have been no studies in humans evaluating endothelial glycocalyx damage and its correlation with acute kidney injury (AKI). We performed a cohort study in an outbreak of leptospirosis among military personnel. AKI was diagnosed in 14 of 46 (30.4%) patients. Leptospirosis was associated with higher levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; 483.1 ± 31.7 versus 234.9 ± 24.4 mg/L, P leptospirosis-associated AKI had increased level of syndecan-1 (112.1 ± 45.4 versus 41.5 ± 11.7 ng/mL, P = 0.021) and ICAM-1 (576.9 ± 70.4 versus 434.9 ± 35.3, P = 0.034) compared with leptospirosis patients with no AKI. Association was verified between syndecan-1 and ICAM-1 with serum creatinine elevation and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels. This association remained even after multivariate analysis including other AKI-associated characteristics. Endothelial injury biomarkers are associated with leptospirosis-associated renal damage.

  4. DNA Damage in Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation of Clinical Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schupp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD exhibit an increased cancer risk compared to a healthy control population. To be able to estimate the cancer risk of the patients and to assess the impact of interventional therapies thereon, it is of particular interest to measure the patients’ burden of genomic damage. Chromosomal abnormalities, reduced DNA repair, and DNA lesions were found indeed in cells of patients with CKD. Biomarkers for DNA damage measurable in easily accessible cells like peripheral blood lymphocytes are chromosomal aberrations, structural DNA lesions, and oxidatively modified DNA bases. In this review the most common methods quantifying the three parameters mentioned above, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay, the comet assay, and the quantification of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine, are evaluated concerning the feasibility of the analysis and regarding the marker’s potential to predict clinical outcomes.

  5. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy with Early Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Guillermina Miranda-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and the secondary kidney damage produces diabetic nephropathy (DN. Early nephropathy is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/day, including normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR or a mildly decreased GFR (60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2, with or without overt nephropathy. The earliest change caused by DN is hyperfiltration with proteinuria. The acceptable excretion rate of albumin in urine is 300 mg/day. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by abnormalities in renal function that persist for >3 months with health implications. Alterations in the redox state in DN are caused by the persistent state of hyperglycemia and the increase in advanced glycation end products (AGEs with ability to affect the renin-angiotensin system and the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, producing chronic inflammation and glomerular and tubular hypertrophy and favoring the appearance of oxidative stress. In DN imbalance between prooxidant/antioxidant processes exists with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS. The overproduction of ROS diminishes expression of the antioxidant enzymes (manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. The early detection of CKD secondary to DN and the timely identification of patients would permit decreasing its impact on health.

  6. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy with Early Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Sierra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the secondary kidney damage produces diabetic nephropathy (DN). Early nephropathy is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/day), including normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or a mildly decreased GFR (60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2), with or without overt nephropathy. The earliest change caused by DN is hyperfiltration with proteinuria. The acceptable excretion rate of albumin in urine is 300 mg/day. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by abnormalities in renal function that persist for >3 months with health implications. Alterations in the redox state in DN are caused by the persistent state of hyperglycemia and the increase in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with ability to affect the renin-angiotensin system and the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), producing chronic inflammation and glomerular and tubular hypertrophy and favoring the appearance of oxidative stress. In DN imbalance between prooxidant/antioxidant processes exists with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS diminishes expression of the antioxidant enzymes (manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase). The early detection of CKD secondary to DN and the timely identification of patients would permit decreasing its impact on health. PMID:27525285

  7. [The early history of the artificial kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedum, J

    2003-11-01

    turning point was the availability of purified heparin from 1925 on. Haas, who in 1924 conducted the first dialysis using hirudin, in 1927 conducted the first hemodialysis using heparin. Further hemodialysis treatments followed. Haas concluded: "The problem of hemodialysis is still in the first steps of practical application. Nevertheless it could be shown that hemodialysis has developed sufficiently to find applicability even in patients with serious kidney ailments and irritable heart...Hemodialysis was not only well tolerated but also brought a temporary subjective improvement. Of course, the technical aspects of hemodialysis still need improvement and further development to qualify as detoxicant therapy." A look at the early history of the artificial kidney and its applicability to humans reveals that J. Abel conducted the first hemodialysis on experimental animals. It also becomes evident that Haas conducted the first hemodialysis in humans. The American experiments pursued the quantitative optimization of the method in animal trials, while Haas' experiments focused on the development of a therapeutic method following the principle "primum nil nocere."

  8. Kidney diseases in children - early diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric kidney diseases were in the focus of the World Kidney Day 2016. Macedonian pediatric nephrologists gave their contribution with public appearance in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools, with interactive lectures and discussion with the youngest about the kidney function, healthy life style and simple measures to prevent kidney and urinary tract diseases. Besides promotive appearance in the media, series of lectures were presented in front of the health professionals. The aim was to attract the attention of the professionals for early diagnosis and prevention of kidney disease. The action starts in utero, followed by early postnatal imaging and assessment, conservative treatment and in selected cases surgical treatment. The emphasis is on the multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach to children and adolescents with kidney diseases.

  9. 孕期胎儿饥荒暴露与成年后肝肾功能受损的关联研究%Association between early life exposure to famine and damaging the liver and kidney function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远碧; 沈莹; 叶逵; 张丹; 张颉; 李李; 赵奇红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine how early life exposure to famine would impact on liver and kidney functions and related chronic metabolic diseases during adulthood.Methods A random cluster sampling method was adopted in Anhui province,2011 from a physical examination center,in a first-class hospital.4 252 study subjects were born between 1957 and 1963.According to the time of birth:the study subjects were divided into three groups,respectively:1957-1958 (983 persons as pre-famine),1959-1961 (1 247 persons as exposed to famine) or 1962-1963 (2 022 persons as controls,also the post-famine).Variances between groups AST,ALT,r-GGT,differences in the levels of SCr,UA,UREA and the change trend were compared.Results ALT,IBIL,TBIL,SCr,UREA were statistically different (P<0.05) among subjects born in the different years.r-GGT,ALT,AST,ALB,SCr were statistically different (P<0.05) among males bornin different years so as the r-GGT,AST,ALB,GLB,TP,SCr,UA,UREA in females (P<0.05).r-GGT,ALT,ALB,SCr differences statistically significant (P<0.05) and r-GGT,AST,ALB,GLB,TP,SCr,UA,UREA in females were statistically significantly different (P<0.05).Conclusion Early life poor nutrition could lead to developmental disorders,organ function damage in liver and kidney function during adulthood.Women appeared to have balanced diet nutrition during pregnancy which was far important in the prevention on adulthood chronic metabolic diseases.%目的 评估生命早期暴露于饥荒对现时肝肾脏功能指标水平的影响,探讨肝肾功能体检指标是否可能作为评价宫内胎儿器官发育的生物标志物.方法 整群抽取2011年安徽省某三级甲等医院健康体检中心1957-1963年出生的体检者4 252人.按照出生时间将研究对象分为3个组.即1957-1958年出生者983人为饥荒前暴露组;1959-1961年出生者1 247人为饥荒暴露组;1962-1963年出生者2 022人为饥荒后对照组.采用方差分析比较组间丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、谷氨

  10. A Plant Damage State Early Warning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chih Yao; Chou, Hwai Pwu [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2014-08-15

    In case of a severe accident, operators need to follow the emergency operating procedures (EOPS) to limit the damage. In order to assist operators to face a lot of Plant Damage States (PDS) suddenly, we try to predict and identify the Plant Damage State (PDS) for early warning and decision making. In this study, Containment Event Tree (CET) is used in this event-oriented approach to help severe accident management. The Taipower Lungmen nuclear power station (LNPS), an advanced boiling water reactor, is chosen for case study. The LNPS full scope engineering simulator is used to generate the testing data for method development.

  11. Early Acute Kidney Injury in Military Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AKI.11 From a pathophysiologic standpoint, it seems logical that massive trans- fusion could be both causative or collinear with the develop- ment of...morbidity and mortality associated with AKI in trauma, further investigation is needed to fully elucidate risk factors for AKI and their pathophysiology ... obesity , and blood product transfusion are risk factors for acute kidney injury in critically ill trauma patients. J Crit Care. 2012;27:496Y504. 15. Podoll

  12. Associations among environmental exposure to manganese, neuropsychological performance, oxidative damage and kidney biomarkers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sabrina; Baierle, Marília; Göethel, Gabriela; Barth, Anelise; Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele; Sauer, Elisa; Gauer, Bruna; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Altknecht, Louise; Jager, Márcia; Dias, Ana Cristina Garcia; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana; Gioda, Adriana; Moresco, Rafael; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) results in several toxic effects, mainly neurotoxicity. This study investigated associations among Mn exposure, neuropsychological performance, biomarkers of oxidative damage and early kidney dysfunction in children aged 6-12 years old. Sixty-three children were enrolled in this study, being 43 from a rural area and 20 from an urban area. Manganese was quantified in blood (B-Mn), hair (H-Mn) and drinking water using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The neuropsychological functions assessed were attention, perception, working memory, phonological awareness and executive functions - inhibition. The Intelligence quotient (IQ) was also evaluated. The biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCO), δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), reactivation indexes with dithiothreitol (ALA-RE/DTT) and ZnCl2 (ALA-RE/ZnCl2), non-protein thiol groups, as well as microalbuminuria (mALB) level and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity were assessed. The results demonstrated that Mn levels in blood, hair and drinking water were higher in rural children than in urban children (p<0.01). Adjusted for potential confounding factors, IQ, age, gender and parents' education, significant associations were observed mainly between B-Mn and visual attention (β=0.649; p<0.001). Moreover, B-Mn was negatively associated with visual perception and phonological awareness. H-Mn was inversely associated with working memory, and Mn levels from drinking water with written language and executive functions - inhibition. Rural children showed a significant increase in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, as well as alteration in kidney function biomarkers (p<0.05). Moreover, significant associations were found between B-Mn, H-Mn and Mn levels in drinking water and biomarkers of oxidative damage and kidney function, besides between some oxidative stress biomarkers and neuropsychological tasks (p<0.05). The findings of this

  13. Factors predicting kidney damage in Puumala virus infected patients in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphedinsson, S; Thiesson, H C; Shakar, S A;

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, infections with Puumala hantavirus cause nephropathia epidemica. Presently the risk factors predicting severe kidney damage after Puumala virus infection are not well known. The objective of the study was to investigate environmental and individual factors predicting severe kidney dama...

  14. Thalidomide Ameliorates Inflammation and Vascular Injury but Aggravates Tubular Damage in the Irradiated Mouse Kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharpfenecker, Marion; Floot, Ben; Russell, Nicola S.; Coppes, Rob P.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The late side effects of kidney irradiation include vascular damage and fibrosis, which are promoted by an irradiation-induced inflammatory response. We therefore treated kidney-irradiated mice with the anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-modulating drug thalidomide in an attempt to prevent

  15. SIMULTANEOUS PANCREAS-KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION: EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Khubutia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: evaluation of the incidence of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation.Materials and methods. The analysis of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation is presented in the paper, the most rational diagnostic algorithms, non-surgical and surgical complications’ treatment; the outcomes of the SPKT are reported.Results. 15,6% of patients experienced surgical complications, 12,5% – immunological complications, 12,5% – infectious complications, 6,25% – complications of the immunosuppressive therapy. 1-year patient survival after SPKT was 91,4%; pancreas graft survival – 85,7%; kidney graft survival – 88,6%.Conclusion. The incidence of early postoperative complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation remains signifi cant in spite of progressive improvement of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation due to surgical technique improvement, introduction of new antibacterial and immunosuppressive agents. Data, we recovered, fully correspond to the data obtained from the global medical community.

  16. EARLY DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF HEARING DAMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodanka STOILKOVIC

    1997-01-01

    Ways of obtaining findings for detection of etiology of impairment and time of the hearing damages;· Methods of diagnostic of hearing difficulties;· Problems that appear in the early diagnostics;· The role and importance of the audiorehabilitator in diagnostic of a child with hearing difficulties;· ”Useful time” and phases of speech development;· The role and benefit of the selective amplification in the treatment of children with hearing difficulties;· Characteristic audiograms for every...

  17. EARLY DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF HEARING DAMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka STOILKOVIC

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Ways of obtaining findings for detection of etiology of impairment and time of the hearing damages;· Methods of diagnostic of hearing difficulties;· Problems that appear in the early diagnostics;· The role and importance of the audiorehabilitator in diagnostic of a child with hearing difficulties;· ”Useful time” and phases of speech development;· The role and benefit of the selective amplification in the treatment of children with hearing difficulties;· Characteristic audiograms for every group of children with hearing difficulties.

  18. Thalidomide Ameliorates Inflammation and Vascular Injury but Aggravates Tubular Damage in the Irradiated Mouse Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharpfenecker, Marion, E-mail: m.scharpfenecker@nki.nl [Division of Biological Stress Response, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Floot, Ben [Division of Biological Stress Response, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Russell, Nicola S. [Division of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Coppes, Rob P. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Cell Biology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Stewart, Fiona A. [Division of Biological Stress Response, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: The late side effects of kidney irradiation include vascular damage and fibrosis, which are promoted by an irradiation-induced inflammatory response. We therefore treated kidney-irradiated mice with the anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-modulating drug thalidomide in an attempt to prevent the development of late normal tissue damage and radiation nephropathy in the mouse kidney. Methods and Materials: Kidneys of C57Bl/6 mice were irradiated with a single dose of 14 Gy. Starting from week 16 after irradiation, the mice were fed with thalidomide-containing chow (100 mg/kg body weight/day). Gene expression and kidney histology were analyzed at 40 weeks and blood samples at 10, 20, 30, and 40 weeks after irradiation. Results: Thalidomide improved the vascular structure and vessel perfusion after irradiation, associated with a normalization of pericyte coverage. The drug also reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells but could not suppress the development of fibrosis. Irradiation-induced changes in hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen levels were not rescued by thalidomide. Moreover, thalidomide worsened tubular damage after irradiation and also negatively affected basal tubular function. Conclusions: Thalidomide improved the inflammatory and vascular side effects of kidney irradiation but could not reverse tubular toxicity, which probably prevented preservation of kidney function.

  19. Kidney Disease and the Nexus of Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Kidney Injury: The Role of Novel Biomarkers as Early and Accurate Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Murthy; Farace, Giosi; Quinn, John; Yerramilli, Maha

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are interconnected and the presence of one is a risk for the other. CKD is an important predictor of AKI after exposure to nephrotoxic drugs or major surgery, whereas persistent or repetitive injury could result in the progression of CKD. This brings new perspectives to the diagnosis and monitoring of kidney diseases highlighting the need for a panel of kidney-specific biomarkers that reflect functional as well as structural damage and recovery, predict potential risk and provide prognosis. This article discusses the kidney-specific biomarkers, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), clusterin, cystatin B, and inosine.

  20. Vitamin D deficiency contributes to vascular damage in sustained ischemic acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bragança, Ana C; Volpini, Rildo A; Mehrotra, Purvi; Andrade, Lúcia; Basile, David P

    2016-07-01

    Reductions in renal microvasculature density and increased lymphocyte activity may play critical roles in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) following acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Vitamin D deficiency is associated with tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis progression following IRI-AKI We evaluated the effect of vitamin D deficiency in sustained IRI-AKI, hypothesizing that such deficiency contributes to the early reduction in renal capillary density or alters the lymphocyte response to IRI Wistar rats were fed vitamin D-free or standard diets for 35 days. On day 28, rats were randomized into four groups: control, vitamin D deficient (VDD), bilateral IRI, and VDD+IRI Indices of renal injury and recovery were evaluated for up to 7 days following the surgical procedures. VDD rats showed reduced capillary density (by cablin staining), even in the absence of renal I/R. In comparison with VDD and IRI rats, VDD+IRI rats manifested a significant exacerbation of capillary rarefaction as well as higher urinary volume, kidney weight/body weight ratio, tissue injury scores, fibroblast-specific protein-1, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. VDD+IRI rats also had higher numbers of infiltrating activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells staining for interferon gamma and interleukin-17, with a significant elevation in the Th17/T-regulatory cell ratio. These data suggest that vitamin D deficiency impairs renal repair responses to I/R injury, exacerbates changes in renal capillary density, as well as promoting fibrosis and inflammation, which may contribute to the transition from AKI to CKD.

  1. Parainfluenza 3 Infections Early After Kidney or Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helanterä, I; Anttila, V-J; Loginov, R; Lempinen, M

    2017-03-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) can cause serious infections after hematopoietic stem cell or lung transplantation. Limited data exist about PIV infections after kidney transplantation. We describe an outbreak of PIV-3 in a transplant unit. During the outbreak, 45 patients were treated on the ward for postoperative care after kidney or simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation. Overall, 29 patients were tested for respiratory viruses (12 patients with respiratory symptoms, 17 asymptomatic exposed patients) from nasopharyngeal swabs using polymerase chain reaction. PIV-3 infection was confirmed in 12 patients. One patient remained asymptomatic. In others, symptoms were mostly mild upper respiratory tract symptoms and subsided within a few days with symptomatic treatment. Two patients suffered from lower respiratory tract symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxemia, pulmonary infiltrates in chest computed tomography) and required supplemental oxygen. Four of six SPK patients and eight of 39 of kidney transplant patients were infected with PIV (p = 0.04). In patients with follow-up tests, PIV-3 shedding was still detected 11-16 days after diagnosis. Despite rapid isolation of symptomatic patients, PIV-3 findings were diagnosed within 24 days, and the outbreak ceased only after closing the transplant ward temporarily. In conclusion, PIV-3 infections early after kidney or SPK transplantation were mostly mild. PIV-3 easily infected immunosuppressed transplant recipients, with prolonged viral shedding.

  2. Estimation of Early Postmortem Interval Through Biochemical and Pathological Changes in Rat Heart and Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Noor, Mona Mohamed; Elhosary, Naema Mahmoud; Khedr, Naglaa Fathi; El-Desouky, Kareema Ibraheem

    2016-03-01

    Accurate estimation of time passed since death is a complicated task in forensic medicine especially in homicide or unwitnessed death investigations. Changes in oxidant/antioxidant parameters were investigated if it can be relied upon in estimating the early postmortem interval (EPI) in rat heart and kidney, and whether these changes were correlated with histopathological findings in these tissues. Heart and kidney tissues of 84 male albino rats were divided into 2 parts. One part used for estimation of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and total thiol as well as the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S transferase, and catalase. The second part was examined histopathologically. It was found that MDA and NO were significantly increased earlier in the heart than kidney tissues. Meanwhile, total thiol, catalase, glutathione S transferase, and GR were commenced to be significantly decreased in the heart before kidney tissues. Linear regression analysis of independent variables of heart was found to be of a high predictive value of 97.2% (EPI = 8.607 - 0.240 GR + 0.002 MDA + 0.014 NO). Structural deterioration of heart started 3 to 4 hours compared with renal sections that began 5 to 6 hours after death. The relationship between oxidant and antioxidant parameters is crucial in determining the EPI. The kidney was found to be more resistible to oxidative damage. Further research on humans is needed.

  3. Lycopene Protects the Diabetic Rat Kidney Against Oxidative Stress-mediated Oxidative Damage Induced by Furan

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Pandir; Betul Unal; Hatice Bas

    2016-01-01

    Furan is a food and environmental contaminant and a potent carcinogen in animals. Lycopene is one dietary carotenoid found in fruits such as tomato, watermelon and grapefruit. The present study was designed to explore the protective effect of lycopene against furan-induced oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat kidney. At the end of the experimental period (28 days), we found that lycopene markedly decreased the malondialdehide (MDA) levels in the kidney, urea, uric aci...

  4. Kidney injury molecule-1 expression is closely associated with renal allograft damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lianlian; Xue, Lijuan; Yu, Jinyu; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Wenlan; Fu, Yaowen

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in renal allograft biopsy samples and assess the clinical significance of its use as a biomarker for tissue damage. A total of 69 renal allograft biopsy samples from 17 patients with normal serum creatinine and 52 cases of increased serum creatinine were collected. They were divided into different groups according to the Banff 2007 diagnostic criteria. KIM-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemical methods and the association of KIM-1 and blood biochemical indexes was analyzed. KIM-1 expression increased as Banff 2007 classification grade increased and was positively correlated with tubular inflammation severity in the acute T-cell rejection group. Moreover, KIM-1 expression was strongly positive in the chronic active antibody-mediated rejection group. Interestingly, KIM-1 was weakly positive in the normal group without obvious acute rejection and injury of immunosuppressant toxicity. In this group, 27.3% (3/11) of the cases with normal serum creatinine level showed weakly positive KIM-1 expression in their renal tissues. KIM-1 expression level is positively correlated with renal allograft damage and tubular cell injury. KIM-1 is expressed in tubular epithelial cells before blood biochemical indexes become elevated and morphological changes occur. KIM-1 expression is an early, sensitive, and specific biomarker to determine renal tubular epithelial cell injury in renal allograft tissue.

  5. Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2012-02-01

    Allograft thrombosis is a devastating early complication of renal transplantation that ultimately leads to allograft loss. We report here on our experience of nine cases of immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis at a single centre between January 1990 and June 2009. The mean age was 42.9 years at time of transplant. For seven patients, the allograft thrombosis was their first kidney transplant and seven of the nine cases had a deceased donor transplant. The initial transplants functioned for a mean of 1.67 days and the patients received a second allograft at a mean of 3.1 days after graft failure. All of the re-transplants worked immediately. Four allografts failed after a mean of 52.5 months (2-155 months). Two of these died with a functioning allograft, one failed owing to chronic allograft nephropathy and one owing to persistent acute cellular rejection. The remaining five patients still have a functioning allograft after a mean of 101.8 months (7-187 months). One year allograft and patient survival after re-transplantation were 87.5% and 100% respectively (after 5 years, both were 57%). Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis can be a success. It may be considered in selected cases after allograft thrombosis.

  6. Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    Allograft thrombosis is a devastating early complication of renal transplantation that ultimately leads to allograft loss. We report here on our experience of nine cases of immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis at a single centre between January 1990 and June 2009. The mean age was 42.9 years at time of transplant. For seven patients, the allograft thrombosis was their first kidney transplant and seven of the nine cases had a deceased donor transplant. The initial transplants functioned for a mean of 1.67 days and the patients received a second allograft at a mean of 3.1 days after graft failure. All of the re-transplants worked immediately. Four allografts failed after a mean of 52.5 months (2-155 months). Two of these died with a functioning allograft, one failed owing to chronic allograft nephropathy and one owing to persistent acute cellular rejection. The remaining five patients still have a functioning allograft after a mean of 101.8 months (7-187 months). One year allograft and patient survival after re-transplantation were 87.5% and 100% respectively (after 5 years, both were 57%). Immediate re-transplantation following early kidney transplant thrombosis can be a success. It may be considered in selected cases after allograft thrombosis.

  7. SERUM AMYLASE: AN EARLY MARKER OF RENAL DAMAGE IN HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and causes progressive damage to kidney in a long term process. Hypertension impairs glomerular function and also leads to subclinical atherogenesis, there is a excretion of low molecular weight compounds like albumin and amylase in urine. This study was conducted to analyze the changes in amylase levels in hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a hospital based study. The patients attending the medicine department were selected for the study. 60 subjects were selected based on history and clinical examination consisting of 30 hypertensive patients and 30 normotensive subjects in the age group 35-60 years. Blood samples collected in vacutainers were analyzed in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Serum samples were analyzed for total protein, albumin and amylase. RESULT: The study showed a statistically significant change in the levels of serum albumin and amylase. The level of serum albumin was 3.71 ± 0.22 g/dl in cases while it was 4.14 ± 0.20 g/dl in controls. The serum amylase levels were 99.79 ±13.63 U/L in cases while it was 137.76 ± 16.86 U/L in the control. The p-value was 0.0001 which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The initial damage to glomerulus can be detected by the alteration in serum amylase values in hypertension. Thus serum amylase can be considered as an early marker for detecting the renal damage in hypertension

  8. Operative access to kidney without damage of lumbar and intercostal muscles, vessels and nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Zalewsky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is a search of operative access to the kidney with less surgical trauma and associated complications. Specific research tasks included experiment on the dead bodies of people to develop operative access to the kidney without the transversal section of muscles and damage of intercostal and lumbar vessels and nerves. The research also studied the parameters of access using the Sozon-Yaroshevich method (1954 to estimate his appropriateness in surgical practice.Operative access to the kidney with the longitudinal section of latissimus dorsi muscle and the XII rib is anatomically justified and possesses parameters which are sufficient for the successful conducting of operations on a kidney and upper departments of the urine excretion system. The suggested operative access to the kidney eliminates the damage of intercostal and lumbar muscles, vessels and nerves. Application of this operative access method to the kidney in treatment of urology patients decreases time of their treatment and eliminates relaxation of abdominal muscles and development of postoperative lumbar hernia.

  9. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and remote kidney preconditioning ameliorate brain damage through kidney-to-brain cross-talk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis N Silachev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many ischemia-induced neurological pathologies including stroke are associated with high oxidative stress. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants could rescue the ischemic organ by providing specific delivery of antioxidant molecules to the mitochondrion, which potentially suffers from oxidative stress more than non-mitochondrial cellular compartments. Besides direct antioxidative activity, these compounds are believed to activate numerous protective pathways. Endogenous anti-ischemic defense may involve the very powerful neuroprotective agent erythropoietin, which is mainly produced by the kidney in a redox-dependent manner, indicating an important role of the kidney in regulation of brain ischemic damage. The goal of this study is to track the relations between the kidney and the brain in terms of the amplification of defense mechanisms during SkQR1 treatment and remote renal preconditioning and provide evidence that the kidney can generate signals inducing a tolerance to oxidative stress-associated brain pathologies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the cationic plastoquinone derivative, SkQR1, as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant to alleviate the deleterious consequences of stroke. A single injection of SkQR1 before cerebral ischemia in a dose-dependent manner reduces infarction and improves functional recovery. Concomitantly, an increase in the levels of erythropoietin in urine and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β in the brain was detected 24 h after SkQR1 injection. However, protective effects of SkQR1 were not observed in rats with bilateral nephrectomy and in those treated with the nephrotoxic antibiotic gentamicin, indicating the protective role of humoral factor(s which are released from functional kidneys. Renal preconditioning also induced brain protection in rats accompanied by an increased erythropoietin level in urine and kidney tissue and P-GSK-3β in brain. Co-cultivation of SkQR1-treated

  10. Molecular Markers of Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis and Tubular Cell Damage in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsaku Nakagawa

    Full Text Available In chronic kidney disease (CKD, progressive nephron loss causes glomerular sclerosis, as well as tubulointerstitial fibrosis and progressive tubular injury. In this study, we aimed to identify molecular changes that reflected the histopathological progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and tubular cell damage. A discovery set of renal biopsies were obtained from 48 patients with histopathologically confirmed CKD, and gene expression profiles were determined by microarray analysis. The results indicated that hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (also known as Kidney Injury Molecule-1, KIM-1, lipocalin 2 (also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL, SRY-box 9, WAP four-disulfide core domain 2, and NK6 homeobox 2 were differentially expressed in CKD. Their expression levels correlated with the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis and tubular cell injury, determined by histopathological examination. The expression of these 5 genes was also increased as kidney damage progressed in a rodent unilateral ureteral obstruction model of CKD. We calculated a molecular score using the microarray gene expression profiles of the biopsy specimens. The composite area under the receiver operating characteristics curve plotted using this molecular score showed a high accuracy for diagnosing tubulointerstitial fibrosis and tubular cell damage. The robust sensitivity of this score was confirmed in a validation set of 5 individuals with CKD. These findings identified novel molecular markers with the potential to contribute to the detection of tubular cell damage and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney.

  11. NGAL (Lcn2) monomer is associated with tubulointerstitial damage in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Forster, Catherine S; Sise, Meghan E; Barasch, Nicholas; Solá-Del Valle, David; Viltard, Melanie; Buchen, Charles; Kupferman, Shlomo; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Bennett, Michael; Mattei, Silvia; Bovino, Achiropita; Argentiero, Lucia; Magnano, Andrea; Devarajan, Prasad; Mori, Kiyoshi; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Allegri, Landino; Barasch, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    The type and the extent of tissue damage inform the prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but kidney biopsy is not a routine test. Urinary tests that correlate with specific histological findings might serve as surrogates for the kidney biopsy. We used immunoblots and ARCHITECT-NGAL assays to define the immunoreactivity of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in CKD, and we used mass spectroscopy to identify associated proteins. We analyzed kidney biopsies to determine whether specific pathological characteristics associated with the monomeric NGAL species. Advanced CKD urine contained the NGAL monomer as well as novel complexes of NGAL. When these species were separated, we found a significant correlation between the NGAL monomer and glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.53, Phistology that typifies progressive, severe CKD.

  12. Akt1-mediated fast/glycolytic skeletal muscle growth attenuates renal damage in experimental kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanatani, Shinsuke; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Araki, Satoshi; Rokutanda, Taku; Kimura, Yuichi; Walsh, Kenneth; Ogawa, Hisao

    2014-12-01

    Muscle wasting is frequently observed in patients with kidney disease, and low muscle strength is associated with poor outcomes in these patients. However, little is known about the effects of skeletal muscle growth per se on kidney diseases. In this study, we utilized a skeletal muscle-specific, inducible Akt1 transgenic (Akt1 TG) mouse model that promotes the growth of functional skeletal muscle independent of exercise to investigate the effects of muscle growth on kidney diseases. Seven days after Akt1 activation in skeletal muscle, renal injury was induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in Akt1 TG and wild-type (WT) control mice. The expression of atrogin-1, an atrophy-inducing gene in skeletal muscle, was upregulated 7 days after UUO in WT mice but not in Akt1 TG mice. UUO-induced renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular injury, apoptosis, and increased expression of inflammatory, fibrosis-related, and adhesion molecule genes were significantly diminished in Akt1 TG mice compared with WT mice. An increase in the activating phosphorylation of eNOS in the kidney accompanied the attenuation of renal damage by myogenic Akt1 activation. Treatment with the NOS inhibitor L-NAME abolished the protective effect of skeletal muscle Akt activation on obstructive kidney disease. In conclusion, Akt1-mediated muscle growth reduces renal damage in a model of obstructive kidney disease. This improvement appears to be mediated by an increase in eNOS signaling in the kidney. Our data support the concept that loss of muscle mass during kidney disease can contribute to renal failure, and maintaining muscle mass may improve clinical outcome.

  13. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  14. Association of Kidney Function and Early Kidney Injury With Incident Hypertension in HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Simon B; Scherzer, Rebecca; Peralta, Carmen A; Tien, Phyllis C; Grunfeld, Carl; Estrella, Michelle M; Abraham, Alison; Gustafson, Deborah R; Nowicki, Marek; Sharma, Anjali; Cohen, Mardge H; Butch, Anthony W; Young, Mary A; Bennett, Michael R; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Subclinical kidney disease is associated with developing hypertension in the general population, but data are lacking among HIV-infected people. We examined associations of kidney function and injury with incident hypertension in 823 HIV-infected and 267 HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States. Baseline kidney biomarkers included estimated glomerular filtration rate using cystatin C, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and 7 urine biomarkers of tubular injury: α-1-microglobulin, interleukin-18, kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, liver fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and α1-acid-glycoprotein. We used multivariable Poisson regression to evaluate associations of kidney biomarkers with incident hypertension, defined as 2 consecutive visits of antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 288 HIV-infected women (35%) developed hypertension. Among the HIV-infected women, higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was independently associated with incident hypertension (relative risk =1.13 per urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio doubling, 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.20), as was lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (relative risk =1.10 per 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) lower estimated glomerular filtration rate; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.17). No tubular injury and dysfunction biomarkers were independently associated with incident hypertension in HIV-infected women. In contrast, among the HIV-uninfected women, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was not associated with incident hypertension, whereas higher urine interleukin-18, α1-acid-glycoprotein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase levels were significantly associated with incident hypertension. These findings suggest that early glomerular injury and kidney dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in

  15. Kidney Damage in Hemorrhagic Vasculitis Occurring in Childhood and Adulthood

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    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nephropathy is diagnosed in 30–60 % of patients with hemorrhagic vasculitis (HV (Schönlein Henoch puprupa and occurred in each fourth of them in the onset of the disease and with the same incidence at first recurrence of the patho­logical process. In recent years, the relative and absolute number of patients with this form of glomerular disease significantly increased. According to the results of the kidney biopsy in children, Henoch glomerulonephritis (HGN is the most common variant of the secondary immunoglobulin (Ig A nephritis. The nature of the clinical course and morphological manifestations of the HGN in patients with HV, which began in childhood and adulthood, remains unexplored. This was the purpose and objectives of this study. Materials and methods. The study included 174 patients with HV (83 % of men and 47 % of women. In 92 cases, vasculitis debuted in children (on average in 12 years, and in 82 — in the adults (on average in 25 years. I, II and III degree of activity of pathological process are set at a ratio of 1 : 2 : 2. Seropositivity for high levels of IgA occurred in 40 % of cases, by the presence of rheumatoid factor — in 27 %. At the time of the survey, cutaneous syndrome was diagnosed in 68 % of patients in the form of urticarial, hemorrhagic, papule-nodular, papule-necro­tic, pustular-ulcerative, necrotic-ulcerative, nodose-ulcerative and polymorphic forms, and articular syndrome — in 48 %. In 24 cases, kidney biopsy was performed. Results. Renal disease was revealed in 71 % of patients with HV, while on the background of nephropathy the integral index of the severity of extrarenal patho­logy was significantly higher. According to the characteristics of the articular syndrome, patients with nephropathy and without it differed little among themselves. The severity of muscle syndrome has the impact on the development of the HV. In turn, renal pathology significantly influenced the development

  16. Impact of antihypertensive therapy on progressive kidney damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, L D; Benstein, J A

    1989-06-01

    Our ability to measure precisely the pressures and flows within the glomerular microcirculation has enabled us to begin to unravel the complex relationship between systemic hypertension and kidney disease. Although a number of factors have been implicated in the development of glomerular sclerosis, one consistent finding has been that glomerular injury occurs when elevated pressures are transmitted to the glomerular capillaries. Intrarenal hypertension, in conjunction with renal hypertrophy, and, possibly, disturbances in lipid metabolism and blood coagulation constitute secondary processes through which those nephrons not severely injured by the primary renal disease are eventually destroyed. Ultimately, all renal function is lost. Clinically, increased glomerular pressure is likely to contribute to glomerular injury in those patients in whom hypertension and renal insufficiency coexist. In patients with diabetes, as yet unidentified factors cause preglomerular resistance to fall so that glomerular hypertension develops even in the absence of elevation in systemic blood pressure. Although no therapy has been proven to slow the rate of progression to end stage renal failure in humans, a number of promising interventions have been identified. These include dietary protein or salt restriction, and medication, with either converting enzyme inhibitors or calcium channel blockers.

  17. Chronic kidney disease aggravates arteriovenous fistula damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Stephan; Kokozidou, Maria; Heiss, Christian; Kranz, Jennifer; Kessler, Tina; Paulus, Niklas; Krüger, Thilo; Jacobs, Michael J; Lente, Christina; Koeppel, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) and impaired dilatation are important contributors to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. It is unclear whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) itself causes adverse remodeling in arterialized veins. Here we determined if CKD specifically triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling and assessed whether these changes affect the function of AVFs. For this purpose, we used rats on a normal diet or on an adenine-rich diet to induce CKD and created a fistula between the right femoral artery and vein. Fistula maturation was followed noninvasively by high-resolution ultrasound (US), and groups of rats were killed on 42 and 84 days after surgery for histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the AVFs and contralateral femoral vessels. In vivo US and ex vivo morphometric analyses confirmed a significant increase in NIH in the AVFs of both groups with CKD compared to those receiving a normal diet. Furthermore, we found using histological evaluation of the fistula veins in the rats with CKD that the media shrank and their calcification increased significantly. Afferent artery dilatation was significantly impaired in CKD and the downstream fistula vein had delayed dilation after surgery. These changes were accompanied by significantly increased peak systolic velocity at the site of the anastomosis, implying stenosis. Thus, CKD triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling in AVFs, all of which contribute to anatomical and/or functional stenosis.

  18. Amifostine use in radiation-induced kidney damage. Preclinical evaluation with scintigraphic and histopathologic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldir, M. [The Ministry of Health, Numune Hospital, Erzurum (Turkey); Cosar-Alas, R.; Yurut-Caloglu, V.; Saynak, M.; Caloglu, M.; Kocak, Z.; Tokatli, F.; Uzal, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey); Cermik, T.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey); Altaner, S. [Dept. of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey); Tuere, M. [Dept. of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey); Parlar, S. [Dept. of Medical Radiophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: to assess the degree of protective effects of amifostine on kidney functions via semiquantitative static renal scintigraphy and histopathologic analysis. Material and methods: 30 female albino rats were divided into three equal groups as control (CL), radiotherapy alone (RT), and radiotherapy + amifostine (RT+AMI). The animals in the CL and RT groups were given phosphate-buffered saline, whereas the animals in the RT+AMI group received amifostine (200 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection 30 min before irradiation. RT and RT+AMI groups were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy using a {sup 60}Co unit at a source-skin distance of 80 cm to the whole right kidney. They were followed up for 6 months. CL, RT, and RT+AMI groups underwent static kidney scintigraphy at the beginning of the experiment and, again, on the day before sacrificing. Histopathologically, tubular atrophy and fibrosis of the kidney damage were evaluated. Results: after irradiation, the median value of right kidney function was 48% (44-49%) and 50.5% (49%-52%) in RT and RT+AMI groups, respectively (p = 0.0002). Grade 1 kidney fibrosis was observed to be 60% in the RT group, while it was only 30% in the RT+AMI group. Grade 2 kidney fibrosis was 30% and 0% in the RT and RT+AMI group, respectively. Grade 1 tubular atrophy was 70% and 50% in the RT and RT+AMI group, respectively. Grade 2 tubular atrophy effect was the same in both groups (10%). Conclusion: static kidney scintigraphy represents an objective and reproducible method to noninvasively investigate kidney function following irradiation. Amifostine produced a significant reduction in radiation-induced loss of renal function. (orig.)

  19. Ouabain Contributes to Kidney Damage in a Rat Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

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    Luca Villa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Warm renal ischemia performed during partial nephrectomy has been found to be associated with kidney disease. Since endogenous ouabain (EO is a neuro-endocrine hormone involved in renal damage, we evaluated the role of EO in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. We measured plasma and renal EO variations and markers of glomerular and tubular damage (nephrin, KIM-1, Kidney-Injury-Molecule-1, α1 Na-K ATPase and the protective effect of the ouabain inhibitor, rostafuroxin. We studied five groups of rats: (1 normal; (2 infused for eight weeks with ouabain (30 µg/kg/day, OHR or (3 saline; (4 ouabain; or (5 saline-infused rats orally treated with 100 µg/kg/day rostafuroxin for four weeks. In group 1, 2–3 h after IRI, EO increased in ischemic kidneys while decreased in plasma. Nephrin progressively decreased and KIM-1 mRNA increased starting from 24 h. Ouabain infusion (group 2 increased blood pressure (from 111.7 to 153.4 mmHg and ouabain levels in plasma and kidneys. In OHR ischemic kidneys at 120 h from IRI, nephrin, and KIM-1 changes were greater than those detected in the controls infused with saline (group 3. All these changes were blunted by rostafuroxin treatment (groups 4 and 5. These findings support the role of EO in IRI and suggest that rostafuroxin pre-treatment of patients before partial nephrectomy with warm ischemia may reduce IRI, particularly in those with high EO.

  20. Ouabain Contributes to Kidney Damage in a Rat Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Luca; Buono, Roberta; Ferrandi, Mara; Molinari, Isabella; Benigni, Fabio; Bettiga, Arianna; Colciago, Giorgia; Ikehata, Masami; Messaggio, Elisabetta; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Manunta, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Warm renal ischemia performed during partial nephrectomy has been found to be associated with kidney disease. Since endogenous ouabain (EO) is a neuro-endocrine hormone involved in renal damage, we evaluated the role of EO in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We measured plasma and renal EO variations and markers of glomerular and tubular damage (nephrin, KIM-1, Kidney-Injury-Molecule-1, α1 Na-K ATPase) and the protective effect of the ouabain inhibitor, rostafuroxin. We studied five groups of rats: (1) normal; (2) infused for eight weeks with ouabain (30 µg/kg/day, OHR) or (3) saline; (4) ouabain; or (5) saline-infused rats orally treated with 100 µg/kg/day rostafuroxin for four weeks. In group 1, 2–3 h after IRI, EO increased in ischemic kidneys while decreased in plasma. Nephrin progressively decreased and KIM-1 mRNA increased starting from 24 h. Ouabain infusion (group 2) increased blood pressure (from 111.7 to 153.4 mmHg) and ouabain levels in plasma and kidneys. In OHR ischemic kidneys at 120 h from IRI, nephrin, and KIM-1 changes were greater than those detected in the controls infused with saline (group 3). All these changes were blunted by rostafuroxin treatment (groups 4 and 5). These findings support the role of EO in IRI and suggest that rostafuroxin pre-treatment of patients before partial nephrectomy with warm ischemia may reduce IRI, particularly in those with high EO. PMID:27754425

  1. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, ...

  2. Nigella sativa Infusion as an Antioxidant Agent Against Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Damaged in Mice

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    Hamsiah binti Halim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gentamicin is one of the most common antibiotics related to nephrotoxicity. It has been proposed that the nephrotoxicity is associated with the generation of the reactive oxygen species. Thymoquinone, an active compound of Nigella sativa, shows to have an antioxidant property. The study aims to identify the possible nephroprotective action of Nigella sativa infusion against gentamicin-induced kidney damaged in mice. Methods:This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Cell Biology Laboratory, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung from 10th November 2012 to 14th December 2012. There were four groups, each consisting of 6 mice. Group I (control negative, group II (gentamicin 100 mg/kg, group III (3.9 mg Nigella sativa infusion+gentamicin 100mg/kg and group IV (7.8 mg Nigella sativa infusion+gentamicin 100mg/kg. The kidneys were evaluated histopathologically by light microscope. The percentage average number of normal proximal tubules in group I and the percentage average number of proximal tubules damaged in group II, III and IV were measured. Results: The results showed the percentage average number of the proximal tubules damaged in group II, III and IV were 14.53%, 7.49% and 3.94% respectively. Significant differences were observed between group II and III, group II and IV, and group III and IV. Conclusion:Nigella sativa infusion protects against gentamicin-induced kidney damage in mice.

  3. Heart Failure Protein May Signal Early Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162447.html Heart Failure Protein May Signal Early Brain Damage Higher levels ... stress. Blood levels of NT-proBNP rise when heart failure worsens and fall when it gets better. Previous ...

  4. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (pMangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  5. Interleukin-19 mediates tissue damage in murine ischemic acute kidney injury.

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    Yu-Hsiang Hsu

    Full Text Available Inflammation and renal tubular injury are major features of acute kidney injury (AKI. Many cytokines and chemokines are released from injured tubular cells and acts as proinflammatory mediators. However, the role of IL-19 in the pathogenesis of AKI is not defined yet. In bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI-induced and HgCl2-induced AKI animal models, real-time quantitative (RTQ-PCR showed that the kidneys, livers, and lungs of AKI mice expressed significantly higher IL-19 and its receptors than did sham control mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that IL-19 and its receptors were strongly stained in the kidney, liver, and lung tissue of AKI mice. In vitro, IL-19 upregulated MCP-1, TGF-β1, and IL-19, and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in murine renal tubular epithelial M-1 cells. IL-19 upregulated TNF-α and IL-10 in cultured HepG2 cells, and it increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression in cultured A549 cells. In vivo, after renal IRI or a nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2 treatment, IL-20R1-deficient mice (the deficiency blocks IL-19 signaling showed lower levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in serum and less tubular damage than did wild-type mice. Therefore, we conclude that IL-19 mediates kidney, liver, and lung tissue damage in murine AKI and that blocking IL-19 signaling may provide a potent therapeutic strategy for treating AKI.

  6. Lycopene Protects the Diabetic Rat Kidney Against Oxidative Stress-mediated Oxidative Damage Induced by Furan

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    Dilek Pandir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food and environmental contaminant and a potent carcinogen in animals. Lycopene is one dietary carotenoid found in fruits such as tomato, watermelon and grapefruit. The present study was designed to explore the protective effect of lycopene against furan-induced oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat kidney. At the end of the experimental period (28 days, we found that lycopene markedly decreased the malondialdehide (MDA levels in the kidney, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels in the serum of furan-treated rats. The increase of histopathology in the kidney of furan-treated rats were effectively suppressed by lycopene. Furthermore, lycopene markedly restored superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST activities in the kidney of furan-treated rats. In conclusion, these results suggested that lycopene could protect the rat kidney against furan-induced injury by improving renal function, attenuating histopathologic changes, reducing MDA production and renewing the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  7. Branched chain amino acid profile in early chronic kidney disease

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    M Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients is a predictor of prognosis during the first period of dialysis. Serum albumin is the most commonly used nutritional marker. Another index is plasma amino acid profile. Of these, the plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, especially valine and leucine, correlate well with nutritional status. Plasma BCAAs were evaluated along with albumin and C-reactive protein in 15 patients of early stages of CKD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. A significant decrease in plasma valine, leucine and albumin levels was observed in CKD patients when compared with the controls (P <0.05. No significant difference in C-reactive protein (CRP levels was observed between the two groups. Malnutrition seen in our CKD patients in the form of hypoalbuminemia and decreased concentrations of BCAA points to the need to evaluate the nutritional status in the early stages itself. Simple measures in the form of amino acid supplementation should be instituted early to decrease the morbidity and mortality before start of dialysis in these patients.

  8. Serum and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a predictor of rat kidney histopathology in an early ischemia-reperfusion model

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    Sahala Panggabean

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The severity of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R kidney injury is highly correlated with mortality and morbidity rate. Research on human and animal prove that NGAL predicts kidney injury at early phase. The objective of this study is to prove that the increase in serum and urinary NGAL are correlated with kidney tubular epithelial damage, and this increase has occurred in initiation phase, indicated by rat kidney histopathology in an early I/R model.Methods: Twenty eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 4 hour sham (Sham 4, 8 hour sham (Sham 8, 10 minute ischemia 4 hour reperfusion (I/R 4 and 10 minute ischemia 8 hour reperfusion (I/R 8. Blood, urine and kidney samples were collected. Serum creatinine level was analyzed with Jaffe method, while serum and urinary NGAL level were analyzed with direct sandwich ELISA method. Evaluation of kidney damage were measured semi quantitatively in tissue stained with HE. Further evaluation to confirm cellular changes on kidney was performed by electron microscope and immunohistochemistry.Results: Serum NGAL was found significantly correlated with degree of kidney tissue damage (ρSpearman NGAL serum = 0.701, p < 0.001, also urinary NGAL (ρSpearman = 0.689, p < 0.001. NGAL expression differs significantly between I/R group and sham (t-test, t = -26635.056, p < 0.001, also kidney damage (t-test, t = -5.028, p < 0.001, and serum and urinary NGAL levels (Mann-Whitney, U = 0, p < 0.001. With cutoff points of 136.95 ng/mL and 58.69 ng/mL subsequently for serum and urinary NGAL , it is found that sensitivity = 1, specificity = 1.Conclusion: Elevation of serum and urinary NGAL are significantly correlated with epithelial tubular kidney damage on rat undergoing early ischaemia reperfusion. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:208-13Keywords: Early I/R kidney injury, kidney histopathology, NGAL

  9. Early detection of diabetic kidney disease: Present limitations and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih-Hung; Lin; Yi-Cheng; Chang; Lee-Ming; Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease(DKD) is one of the most common diabetic complications, as well as the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease around the world. To prevent the dreadful consequence, development of new assays for diagnostic of DKD has always been the priority in the research field of diabetic complications. At present, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate(eG FR) are the standard methods for assessing glomerular damage and renal function changes in clinical practice. However, due to diverse tissue involvement in different individuals, the so-called "non-albuminuric renal impairment" is not uncommon, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, the precision of creatinine-based GFR estimates is limited in hyperfiltration status. These facts make albuminuria and eG FR less reliable indicators for early-stage DKD. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of DKD, along with the elucidation of its genetic profiles and phenotypic expression of different molecules. With the help of ever-evolving technologies, it has gradually become plausible to apply the thriving information in clinical practice. The strength and weakness of several novel biomarkers, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic signatures in assisting the early diagnosis of DKD will be discussed in this article.

  10. CysC与β2-MG联合检测对诊断HDP患者早期肾损伤的临床价值%Clinical value of CysC and β2-MG combined detection of early kidney damage in diagnosis of patients with the HDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡世坤

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the clinical value of CysC and β2-MG combined detection of early kidney damage in diagnosis of patients with the HDP.Methods:40 patients with gestational diabetes were selected as the study group.40 normal pregnancy people were selected at the same time as the control group.During pregnancy 32~36 weeks,we detected in the two groups of pregnant women serum urea nitrogen(BUN),creatinine(CR)and β 2-MG,CysC,and compared the clinical index of examination results and the clinical parameters of the positive rate.Results:The study group of maternal serum urea nitrogen(BUN),Cr,β2-MG, CysC index and the positive rate were significantly higher than the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Gestational diabetes combined detection of β2-MG,CysC indicators are sensitive indicators of early renal injury,joint detection has important clinical value.%目的:探究妊娠期糖尿病患者联合检测β2-MG及CysC对早期肾损伤的临床价值。方法:收治妊娠期糖尿病患者40例为研究组,同期入选正常妊娠孕妇40例为对照组,于妊娠32~36周检测两组孕妇血清中尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)、胱抑素C(CysC)指标,比较两组各项临床指标的检查结果及各项临床指标的阳性率。结果:研究组孕妇血清中BUN、Cr、β2-MG、CysC指标及阳性率显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:妊娠期糖尿病患者联合检测β2-MG、CysC指标是早期肾功能损伤的敏感指标,联合检测具有重要的临床价值。

  11. Clinical, laboratory, and morphological characteristics of kidney damage in lymphoproliferative disorders

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    B. T. Dzhumabaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney involvement in the onset of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD detected rarely, observed mainly at tumor progression or relapse.Objective: to determine the clinical and morphological features of kidney damage in the initial manifestation of LPD.Materials and methods: 19 patients with LPD and kidney damage were included in the study. The diagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas was established according to 2008 WHO classification. Histological and immunohistochemical, immunofluorescent and electron microscopic studies of nephrobiopsy have been performed.Results. Patients were aged 46-83 years (median 63 years, of which 13 were men and 6 women. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia / small cell lymphocytic lymphoma was established in 12 patients, marginal zone lymphoma – in 4 pts, follicular lymphoma – in 1 patient, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia – in 1 patient and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL in 1 patient. Proteinuria was observed in 18 patients, microhematuria – in 6 pts, arterial hypertension – in 8 pts, nephrotic syndrome – in 3 pts and renal failure in 18 patients. The mean creatinine level was 330.9 ± 52.3 µmol/L, the average glomerular filtration rate was 25.7 ± 12.9 ml/min. Monoclonal IgMκ secretion was detected in 6 patients, BJκ protein – in 9 pts, increased free light chain level – in 4 pts, cryoglobulin – in 4 pts (type II cryoglobulin in 3 of them, type I – in 1 patient.Morphological study of nephrobiopsy revealed tumor lymphoid infiltration of kidney interstitium in 10 (52.6 % cases. Diffuse small cell lymphoid proliferation was detected in 1 patient, local infiltration – in 9 pts, in 3 of them in combination with glomerulonephritis, and in 4 cases with kidney carcinoma. Local large cell lymphoid proliferation was found in 1 patient with DLBCL. Amyloidosis was detected in 2 pts and thrombotic microangiopathy – in 2 patients. Glomerulopathy was revealed in 10 patients (52.6 %: mesangioproliferative

  12. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Reduce Acute and Chronic Kidney Damage in Mice.

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    Marina Burgos-Silva

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic kidney injuries (AKI and CKI constitute syndromes responsible for a large part of renal failures, and are today still associated with high mortality rates. Given the lack of more effective therapies, there has been intense focus on the use stem cells for organ protective and regenerative effects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown great potential in the treatment of various diseases of immune character, although there is still debate on its mechanism of action. Thus, for a greater understanding of the role of MSCs, we evaluated the effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (AdSCs in an experimental model of nephrotoxicity induced by folic acid (FA in FVB mice. AdSC-treated animals displayed kidney functional improvement 24h after therapy, represented by reduced serum urea after FA. These data correlated with cell cycle regulation and immune response modulation via reduced chemokine expression and reduced neutrophil infiltrate. Long-term analyses, 4 weeks after FA, indicated that AdSC treatment reduced kidney fibrosis and chronic inflammation. These were demonstrated by reduced interstitial collagen deposition and tissue chemokine and cytokine expression. Thus, we concluded that AdSC treatment played a protective role in the framework of nephrotoxic injury via modulation of inflammation and cell cycle regulation, resulting in reduced kidney damage and functional improvement, inhibiting organ fibrosis and providing long-term immune regulation.

  14. Genetic susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage in the rat. Evidence based on kidney-specific genome transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, P C; Churchill, M C; Bidani, A K; Griffin, K A; Picken, M; Pravenec, M; Kren, V; St Lezin, E; Wang, J M; Wang, N; Kurtz, T W

    1997-09-15

    To test the hypothesis that genetic factors can determine susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage, we derived an experimental animal model in which two genetically different yet histocompatible kidneys are chronically and simultaneously exposed to the same blood pressure profile and metabolic environment within the same host. Kidneys from normotensive Brown Norway rats were transplanted into unilaterally nephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-RT1.N strain) that harbor the major histocompatibility complex of the Brown Norway strain. 25 d after the induction of severe hypertension with deoxycorticosterone acetate and salt, proteinuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate, and extensive vascular and glomerular injury were observed in the Brown Norway donor kidneys, but not in the SHR-RT1.N kidneys. Control experiments demonstrated that the strain differences in kidney damage could not be attributed to effects of transplantation-induced renal injury, immunologic rejection phenomena, or preexisting strain differences in blood pressure. These studies (a) demonstrate that the kidney of the normotensive Brown Norway rat is inherently much more susceptible to hypertension-induced damage than is the kidney of the spontaneously hypertensive rat, and (b) establish the feasibility of using organ-specific genome transplants to map genes expressed in the kidney that determine susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat.

  15. Clinical Significance of Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1,Serum Cystatin C and Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin in the Prediction of Early Kidney Damage in Preeclampsia%尿肾损伤分子1、血清胱抑素C和尿中性粒细胞明胶酶相关性脂质运载蛋白预测子痫前期发病和早期肾损伤的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菁; 郑美玲; 王玉珏; 于庭

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨新型生物学标志物尿肾损伤分子1(KIM⁃1)、血清胱抑素C和尿中性粒细胞明胶酶相关性脂质运载蛋白(NGAL)与子痫前期的关系及预测子痫前期发病和早期肾损伤的价值。方法选择2014年10月至2015年7月在吉林大学第二医院住院的30例重度子痫前期孕妇、30例轻度子痫前期孕妇作为子痫前期组,并选取同期住院足月分娩的60例健康孕妇作为对照组。采用ELISA法测定尿KIM⁃1和尿NGAL,采用免疫浊度法测定血清胱抑素C。结果子痫前期组孕妇的尿KIM⁃1、尿NGAL、血清胱抑素C水平明显高于对照组(均P<0.05),随着病情进展各指标均逐渐升高。体质量指数(BMI)、肾小球滤过率(eGFR)、尿蛋白/肌酐比值、尿KIM⁃1、血清胱抑素C和尿NGAL是子痫前期发生的危险因素;尿KIM⁃1、血清胱抑素C、尿NGAL及联合预测因子作为子痫前期早期肾损伤筛查指标的灵敏度分别为83.3%、75.0%、88.9%、96.8%;特异度分别为72.7%、70.0%、75.6%、86.4%。结论尿KIM⁃1、血清胱抑素C和尿NGAL的水平可反映子痫前期的病情进展和子痫前期肾损伤的程度。尿KIM⁃1、血清胱抑素C、尿NGAL联合检测对子痫前期早期肾损伤有更高的预测价值。%Objective To investigate the relationship between serum cystain C,urinary neutrophil gelatinase⁃associated lipocalin(NGAL),uri⁃nary kidney injury molecule⁃1(KIM⁃1)and preeclampsia,and explore the value in predicting preeclampsia and early kidney damage. Methods A total of 30 cases of pregnant women with severe preeclampsia,30 cases of mild preeclampsia and 60 cases of healthy pregnant women admitted in the Second Hospital of Jilin University from October 2014 to July 2015 were enrolled for the study. ELISA was performed to check urinary KIM⁃1 and urinary NGAL,and the serum cystatin C was detected by immune turbidity method. Results KIM⁃1,NGAL,serum cystatin C

  16. Modified halloysite nanotubes and the alleviation of kidney damage induced by dietary zearalenone in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiqiang; Yin, Shutong; Liu, Min; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEN) through the analysis of biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, pathological changes and inflammatory response in the kidney of gestation sows and offspring; and, second, to evaluate the efficacy of modified halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs) for the alleviation to the adverse effects induced by ZEN. This study focused on the period of organogenesis between days 35 and 70 of gestation, and treatments included (1) a control diet; (2) contaminated grain (50% control corn and 50% mouldy corn); and (3) contaminated grain (50% control corn and 50% mouldy corn) + 1% MHNTs. ZEN treatment significantly increased most of the biochemical parameters and inflammatory cytokines and degenerative changes in the kidney and induced oxidative damage in plasma, whereas the addition of MHNTs in combination with ZEN induced a re-establishment of the biochemical parameters, the plasma oxidative stress enzyme activities and the normal histology of the kidney. Thus, the data strongly suggest that the deleterious effects of ZEN can be significantly diminished by MHNTs.

  17. Zinc prevention of electromagnetically induced damage to rat testicle and kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ahmet; Baltaci, Abdülkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Oztekin, Esma

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of lipid peroxidation when zinc is administered to rats periodically exposed to a 50-Hz electromagnetic field for 5 min at a time over a period of 6 mo. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley adult male rats were subdivided in groups of eight animals each. Group 1 served as untreated controls, group 2 was exposed to an electromagnetic field but received no additional treatment, and group 3 was exposed to electromagnetic radiation and treated with 3-mg/kg daily intraperitoneal injections of zinc sulfate. The erythrocyte glutathione activity (GSH) and the plasma, testicle, and kidney tissue levels of zinc (Zn) and of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in all of the animals. The plasma and testicle MDA levels in group 2 were higher than those in groups 1 and 3, with group 3 values significantly higher than those in group 1 (ptesticle and kidney tissues, the GSH levels in group 1 were lower than for groups 2 and 3, with group 2 significantly lower than group 3 (ptesticle and kidney tissue damage caused by periodic exposure to an electromagnetic field are ameliorated or prevented by zinc supplementation.

  18. Direct acute tubular damage contributes to Shigatoxin-mediated kidney failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubsky, Stefan; Federico, Giuseppina; Müthing, Johannes; Jennemann, Richard; Gretz, Norbert; Büttner, Stefan; Obermüller, Nicholas; Jung, Oliver; Hauser, Ingeborg A; Gröne, Elisabeth; Geiger, Helmut; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Betz, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    The pathogenesis and therapy of Shigatoxin 2 (Stx2)-mediated kidney failure remain controversial. Our aim was to test whether, during an infection with Stx2-producing E. coli (STEC), Stx2 exerts direct effects on renal tubular epithelium and thereby possibly contributes to acute renal failure. Mice represent a suitable model because they, like humans, express the Stx2-receptor Gb3 in the tubular epithelium but, in contrast to humans, not in glomerular endothelia, and are thus free of glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). In wild-type mice, Stx2 caused acute tubular dysfunction with consequent electrolyte disturbance, which was most likely the cause of death. Tubule-specific depletion of Gb3 protected the mice from acute renal failure. In vitro, Stx2 induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in human tubular epithelial cells, thus implicating a direct effect of Stx2 on the tubular epithelium. To correlate these results to human disease, kidney biopsies and outcome were analysed in patients with Stx2-associated kidney failure (n = 11, aged 22-44 years). The majority of kidney biopsies showed different stages of an ongoing TMA; however, no glomerular complement activation could be demonstrated. All biopsies, including those without TMA, showed severe acute tubular damage. Due to these findings, patients were treated with supportive therapy without complement-inhibiting antibodies (eculizumab) or immunoadsorption. Despite the severity of the initial disease [creatinine 6.34 (1.31-17.60) mg/dl, lactate dehydrogenase 1944 (753-2792) U/l, platelets 33 (19-124)/nl and haemoglobin 6.2 (5.2-7.8) g/dl; median (range)], all patients were discharged after 33 (range 19-43) days with no neurological symptoms and no dialysis requirement [creatinine 1.39 (range 0.84-2.86) mg/dl]. The creatinine decreased further to 0.90 (range 0.66-1.27) mg/dl after 24 months. Based on these data, one may surmise that acute tubular damage represents a separate

  19. The effect of hypericum perforatum on kidney ischemia/reperfusion damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Duzova, Halil; Baysal, Işil; Gül, Cemile Ceren; Kuşcu, Gülbahar; Kutluk, Fatma; Çakin, Hilal; Şeker, Şifanur; İlbeği, Esranur; Uslu, Seda; Avci, Umut; Demir, Samet; Akinci, Cihan; Atli, Sercan

    2017-11-01

    It has been revealed in recent studies that Hypericum Perforatum (HP) is influential on cancer, inflammatory diseases, bacterial and viral diseases, and has neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of HP, which is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, on kidney I/R damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, and each of the groups had eight rats: The Control Group; the Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) Group; and the IR + HP Group which was treated with 50 mg/kg of HP. The right kidneys of the rats were removed, and the left kidney developed ischemia during the 45th min, and reperfusion occurred in the following 3rd h. The histopathological findings and also the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzyme activations in the renal tissues were measured. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinin (Cre) from serum samples were determined. The levels of BUN, Cre, and kidney tissue MDA increased at a significant level, and the SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX enzyme activity decreased at a significant level in the I/R group, compared with the Control Group (p < 0.05). In the I/R + HP group, the levels of MDA decreased at a significant level compared to the I/R group, while the SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX activity increased (p < 0.05). In histopathological examinations, it was observed that the tubular dilatation and epithelial desquamation regressed in the IR + HP Group when compared with the I/R Group. It has been shown with the histological and biochemical results in this study that HP is protective against acute renal I/R.

  20. DETECTION OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS(CMV) IMMEDIATE EARLY ANTIGEN IN KIDNEY BIOPSIES AND TRANSPLANT NEPHRECTOMIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕航; 薛武军; 田普训; 郭奇; 何晓丽

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between CMV infection and renal allograft rejection. Methods 39 kidney biopsies and transplant nephrectomies were collected and investigated for CMV immediate early antigen by immunohistochemistry. Results In 14 out of 39 tissue specimens CMV immediate early antigen were found. 8 biopsies from normal donor kidneys were negative; only 1 (10%) in 10 tissue specimens with early stage acute rejection was positive; 5(55.6%) in 9 biopsies with late stage acute rejection and 8 (66.7%) in 12 tissue blocks with chronic rejection were positive. Compared with normal kidney tissues, the infections in tissues with early stage acute rejection didn't increase obviously, but increased obviously in kidney tissue specimens with late stage rejection and with chronic rejection (P<0.05). Conclusion CMV infection appears to contribute to late stage acute rejection and chronic rejection after renal transplantation.

  1. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  2. Effect of low dose dopamine on early graft function in living unrelated kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Golzari, Samad E J; Golzari, Samad; Abravesh, Mohammad; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Aghamohammadi, Davood; Zomorrodi, Afshar; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of low-dose dopamine administration on the early function of the kidney in unrelated kidney donors after transplantation. In this double-blinded clinical trial, 60 adult kidney donors and 60 recipients, younger than 50 years old, were studied. Donors and recipients were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 received dopamine 3 µ/kg/min and group 2 received similar regimen of placebo. During the first 3 days postoperatively, serum levels of urea and creatinine as well as urine output and early kidney function were compared between two groups. Serum levels of creatinine and urea and urine output during the first three days after the operation did not differ statistically significantly between two groups (P = .549, P = .306, and P = .375, respectively). Early kidney function was better significantly in group 1 (5.3 ± 3.2 versus 8.6 ± 8.0 hours; P = .048). Premedication of the kidney transplant donors with low-dose dopamine accelerates early kidney function after transplantation, but has no effect on the hemodynamic status and serum levels of creatinine and urea in the donors.

  3. The small fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 as renoprotective agent preserving the endothelial and vascular integrity in early ischemia reperfusion injury in the mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Urbschat

    Full Text Available Disruption of the renal endothelial integrity is pivotal for the development of a vascular leak, tissue edema and consequently acute kidney injury. Kidney ischemia amplifies endothelial activation and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms. After restoring a sufficient blood flow, the kidney is damaged through complex pathomechanisms that are classically referred to as ischemia and reperfusion injury, where the disruption of the inter-endothelial connections seems to be a crucial step in this pathomechanism. Focusing on the molecular cell-cell interaction, the fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 prevents vascular leakage by stabilizing these inter-endothelial junctions. The peptide associates with vascular endothelial-cadherin, thus preventing early kidney dysfunction by preserving blood perfusion efficacy, edema formation and thus organ dysfunction. We intended to demonstrate the early therapeutic benefit of intravenously administered Bβ15-42 in a mouse model of renal ischemia and reperfusion. After 30 minutes of ischemia, the fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 was administered intravenously before reperfusion was commenced for 1 and 3 hours. We show that Bβ15-42 alleviates early functional and morphological kidney damage as soon as 1 h and 3 h after ischemia and reperfusion. Mice treated with Bβ15-42 displayed a significantly reduced loss of VE-cadherin, indicating a conserved endothelial barrier leading to less neutrophil infiltration which in turn resulted in significantly reduced structural renal damage. The significant reduction in tissue and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels reinforced our findings. Moreover, renal perfusion analysis by color duplex sonography revealed that Bβ15-42 treatment preserved resistive indices and even improved blood velocity. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of early therapeutic intervention using the fibrinopeptide Bβ15-42 in the treatment of acute kidney injury resulting from ischemia and

  4. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2002-08-01

    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  5. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  6. Volumetry may predict early renal function after nephron sparing surgery in solitary kidney patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Timur H; Zhu, Jie; Popeneciu, Ionel V; Rudhardt, Nora S; Hadaschik, Boris A; Teber, Dogu; Roethke, Matthias; Hohenfellner, Markus; Zeier, Martin; Pahernik, Sascha A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the residual kidney volume measured by tumor volumetry on preoperative imaging in predicting post-operative renal function. Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the standard treatment for T1 kidney tumors. Resection of kidney tumors in solidary kidneys needs precise preoperative counseling of patients regarding post-operative renal function. Patients planned for renal tumor surgery who underwent prior nephrectomy on the contralateral side were included. We identified 35 patients in our database that underwent NSS in solitary kidneys and met the inclusion criteria. Tumor volumetry was performed on computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK). Clinical and pathological data were assessed. Follow-up data included renal function over 3 years. Mean age was 64 ± 8.1 years. Mean tumor volume on imaging was 27.5 ± 48.6 cc. Mean kidney volume was 195.2 ± 62.8 cc and mean residual kidney volume was 173.4 ± 65.3 cc. We found a correlation between renal function (MDRD) and residual kidney volume on imaging 1-week post-surgery (p = 0.038). Mid- and long-term renal function was not associated with residual kidney volume. In conclusion, renal volumetry may predict early renal function after NSS.

  7. The protective effect of Malva sylvestris on rat kidney damaged by vanadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Jean-Claude

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protective effect of the common mallow (Malva sylvestris decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium metavanadate poisoning was evaluated. On the one hand, vanadium toxicity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, causing a lipid peroxidation and an alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant defence. On the other hand, many medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, thanks to the presence of flavonoids. These properties were confirmed in Malva sylvestris by two separate methods; namely, the Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and the Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction assay. Results In 80 rats exposed to ammonium metavanadate (0.24 mmol/kg body weight in drinking water for 90 days, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in kidney. A significant increase in the formation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities was noticed. In addition, a histological examination of kidney revealed a structural deterioration of the renal cortical capsules and a shrinking of the Bowman space. In animals intoxicated by metavanadate but also given a Malva sylvestris decoction (0.2 g dry mallow/kg body weight, no such pathologic features were observed: lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological features appeared normal as compared to control rats. Conclusion Malva sylvestris is proved to have a high antioxidative potential thanks to its richness in phenolic compounds.

  8. Effect of Nigella sativa on ischemia-reperfusion induced rat kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Havakhah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:There are a few previously reported studies about the effect of Nigella sativa oil on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether pre- or post-treatment with N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (NSE would reduce tissue injury and oxidative damages in a clinically relevant rat model of renal IRI.    Materials and Methods: IRI was induced by clamping of bilateral renal arteries for 40 min fallowed by reperfusion for 180 min. NSE was prepared in a Soxhlet extractor and administrated with doses of 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg at 1 hr before ischemia induction (P-150 and 300 or at the beginning of reperfusion phase (T-150 and 300, via jugular catheter intravenously. The kidneys were then removed and subjected to biochemical analysis, comet assay or histopathological examination. Results: The kidneys of untreated IRI rats had a higher histopathological score (P

  9. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  10. 恶性肿瘤肾损害%Malignancy-associated kidney damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 付平

    2011-01-01

    Malignancy-associated kidney damage is a common complication of neoplastic disease with characteristic clinical features and pathologic alterations. Pathologic examinations exhibit a wide range of glomerular pathological changes. Solid tumors are usually associated with membranous nephropathy, whereas Hodgkin's lymphomas are associated with minimal pathological changes. Clinic manifestations exhibit diversity and nephrotic syndrome is the most common presentation. Renal lesions could act as the initial manifestation and be manifested clinically before tumor detection. In conclusion, nephrologists and pathologists should be alerted to discriminate malignancy-associated kidney damages,especially in elderly patients.%恶性肿瘤肾损害肾脏病理及临床表现多种多样.其肾损害的病理类型几乎覆盖所有肾小球病理改变,实体肿瘤多呈现膜性肾病,霍奇金病常呈现微小病变.其肾损害的临床表现也几乎覆盖所有肾损害的临床类型,但以肾病综合征最为常见.肾损害可早于原发恶性肿瘤的发现.因此,肾脏病理医生及临床医生应高度警惕恶性肿瘤肾损害的病理和临床蛛丝马迹,特别是对中老年患者,以早期甄别恶性肿瘤,合理治疗,改善患者预后.

  11. Insulin-mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage in LLC-PK1 pig kidney cell line, female rat primary kidney cells, and male ZDF rat kidneys in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Eman Maher; Kreissl, Michael C; Kaiser, Franz R; Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Stopper, Helga

    2013-04-01

    Hyperinsulinemia, a condition with excessively high insulin blood levels, is related to an increased cancer incidence. Diabetes mellitus is the most common of several diseases accompanied by hyperinsulinemia. Because an elevated kidney cancer risk was reported for diabetic patients, we investigated the induction of genomic damage by insulin in LLC-PK1 pig kidney cells, rat primary kidney cells, and ZDF rat kidneys. Insulin at a concentration of 5nM caused a significant increase in DNA damage in vitro. This was associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the presence of antioxidants, blockers of the insulin, and IGF-I receptors, and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, the insulin-mediated DNA damage was reduced. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB or AKT) was increased and p53 accumulated. Inhibition of the mitochondrial and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatase oxidase-related ROS production reduced the insulin-mediated damage. In primary rat cells, insulin also induced genomic damage. In kidneys from healthy, lean ZDF rats, which were infused with insulin to yield normal or high blood insulin levels, while keeping blood glucose levels constant, the amounts of ROS and the tumor protein (p53) were elevated in the high-insulin group compared with the control level group. ROS and p53 were also elevated in diabetic obese ZDF rats. Overall, insulin-induced oxidative stress resulted in genomic damage. If the same mechanisms are active in patients, hyperinsulinemia might cause genomic damage through the induction of ROS contributing to the increased cancer risk, against which the use of antioxidants and/or ROS production inhibitors might exert protective effects.

  12. Cadmium, type 2 diabetes, and kidney damage in a cohort of middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg P.O. Box 414, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Bergström, Göran, E-mail: goran.bergstrom@wlab.gu.se [Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Wallenberg Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Wallenberg Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    Background: It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent. Aim: To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits. Results: The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT

  13. Protective effects of berberine on high fat-induced kidney damage by increasing serum adiponectin and promoting insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ueyue; Cha, Ying; Huang, Xinmei; Liu, Jun; Chen, Zaoping; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jiong; Sheng, Li; Ding, Heyuan

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) has been reported in several studies in cell and animal models. However, the mechanism of actions is not fully understood. The present study was therefore aimed to explore the effects of berberine on insulin sensitivity and kidney damage in a high fat diet rat model. Impaired glucose tolerance rats induced by injection of berberine while fed with high fat laboratory chow. After rats were treated for 4 weeks, OGTT and IPITT were determined. Mass and PAS were used to study the kidney tissue. ELISA was used to detect the protein concentration of CRP and TNF-α. Western blot was used to detect the proteins adiponectin, adipoR1, adipoR2 and p-AMPK expression level. These encouraging findings suggest that berberine has excellent pharmacological potential to prevent kidney damage.

  14. Muscular Damage and Kidney Function in Rugby Players after Daily Whole Body Cryostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular damage, consequent to strenuous activities, could exceed the recovery potential of muscles and determine renal failure. Whole body cryostimulation is a cold-based therapy used to improve recovery or overcome fatigue symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated sessions of cryostimulation on muscle damage, renal function, and their relationship. Serum samples, from 27 elite rugby players, under training, before and after 2 sessions/day of cryotherapy over 7 days, were tested for markers of muscular (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and renal (creatinine, cystatin C functions. eGFR was calculated with two formulas based on either serum creatinine concentration (MDRD or serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations (creatinine/cystatin C CKD EPI. Pre- and posttreatment differences were determined by Wilcoxon’s test; correlations were evaluated with Spearman’s test. Cryostimulation helped muscular recovery (increased lactate dehydrogenase activity (P<0.001 and the stabile creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Creatinine was unaffected while cystatin C was increased (P=0.013. Creatinine-based eGFR was not affected by cryostimulation, while creatinine/cystatin C-based eGFR showed a slight decrease (P=0.015. eGFR and muscular biomarkers were not correlated, suggesting a real recovery effect of cryotherapy. Cystatin C seemed more sensible than creatinine in evaluating the kidney function.

  15. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease. PMID:28208659

  16. Lactate dehydrogenase as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S Alzahri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among many complications of sickle cell disease, renal failure is the main contributor to early mortality. It is present in up to 21% of patients with sickle cell disease. Although screening for microalbuminuria and proteinuria is the current acceptable practice to detect and follow renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease, there is a crucial need for other, more sensitive biomarkers. This becomes especially true knowing that those biomarkers start to appear only after more than 60% of the kidney function is lost. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether lactate dehydrogenase (LDH correlates with other, direct and indirect bio-markers of renal insufficiency in patients with sickle cell disease and, therefore, could be used as a biomarker for early renal damage in patients with sickle cell disease. Fifty-five patients with an established diagnosis of sickle cell disease were recruited to in the study. Blood samples were taken and 24-h urine collection samples were collected. Using Statcrunch, a data analysis tool available on the web, we studied the correlation between LDH and other biomarkers of kidney function as well as the distribution and relationship between the variables. Regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between serum LDH and creatinine clearance, R (correlation coefficient = -0.44, P = 0.0008. This correlation was more significant at younger age. This study shows that in sickle cell patients LDH correlates with creatinine clearance and, therefore, LDH could serve as a biomarker to predict renal insufficiency in those patients.

  17. Early biomarkers of joint damage in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Ardle, Angela; Flatley, Brian; Pennington, Stephen R; FitzGerald, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Joint destruction, as evidenced by radiographic findings, is a significant problem for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Inherently irreversible and frequently progressive, the process of joint damage begins at and even before the clinical onset of disease. However, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthropathies are heterogeneous in nature and not all patients progress to joint damage. It is therefore important to identify patients susceptible to joint destruction in order to initiate more aggressive treatment as soon as possible and thereby potentially prevent irreversible joint damage. At the same time, the high cost and potential side effects associated with aggressive treatment mean it is also important not to over treat patients and especially those who, even if left untreated, would not progress to joint destruction. It is therefore clear that a protein biomarker signature that could predict joint damage at an early stage would support more informed clinical decisions on the most appropriate treatment regimens for individual patients. Although many candidate biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis have been reported in the literature, relatively few have reached clinical use and as a consequence the number of prognostic biomarkers used in rheumatology has remained relatively static for several years. It has become evident that a significant challenge in the transition of biomarker candidates to clinical diagnostic assays lies in the development of suitably robust biomarker assays, especially multiplexed assays, and their clinical validation in appropriate patient sample cohorts. Recent developments in mass spectrometry-based targeted quantitative protein measurements have transformed our ability to rapidly develop multiplexed protein biomarker assays. These advances are likely to have a significant impact on the validation of biomarkers in the future. In this review, we have comprehensively compiled a list of candidate

  18. Early biomarkers of joint damage in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Ardle, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Joint destruction, as evidenced by radiographic findings, is a significant problem for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Inherently irreversible and frequently progressive, the process of joint damage begins at and even before the clinical onset of disease. However, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthropathies are heterogeneous in nature and not all patients progress to joint damage. It is therefore important to identify patients susceptible to joint destruction in order to initiate more aggressive treatment as soon as possible and thereby potentially prevent irreversible joint damage. At the same time, the high cost and potential side effects associated with aggressive treatment mean it is also important not to over treat patients and especially those who, even if left untreated, would not progress to joint destruction. It is therefore clear that a protein biomarker signature that could predict joint damage at an early stage would support more informed clinical decisions on the most appropriate treatment regimens for individual patients. Although many candidate biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis have been reported in the literature, relatively few have reached clinical use and as a consequence the number of prognostic biomarkers used in rheumatology has remained relatively static for several years. It has become evident that a significant challenge in the transition of biomarker candidates to clinical diagnostic assays lies in the development of suitably robust biomarker assays, especially multiplexed assays, and their clinical validation in appropriate patient sample cohorts. Recent developments in mass spectrometry-based targeted quantitative protein measurements have transformed our ability to rapidly develop multiplexed protein biomarker assays. These advances are likely to have a significant impact on the validation of biomarkers in the future. In this review, we have comprehensively compiled a list of candidate

  19. Comparison of Aerobic Preservation by Venous Systemic Oxygen Persufflation or Oxygenated Machine Perfusion of Warm-Ischemia-Damaged Porcine Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenski, Julia; Mancina, Elina; Paschenda, Pascal; Beckers, Christian; Bleilevens, Christian; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Boor, Peter; Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H; Doorschodt, Benedict M

    2016-01-01

    The global shortage of donor organs for transplantation has necessitated the expansion of the organ pool through increased use of organs from less ideal donors. Venous systemic oxygen persufflation (VSOP) and oxygenated machine perfusion (OMP) have previously demonstrated beneficial results compared to cold storage (CS) in the preservation of warm-ischemia-damaged kidney grafts. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of VSOP and OMP for the preservation of warm-ischemia-damaged porcine kidneys using the recently introduced Ecosol preservation solution compared to CS using Ecosol or histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (HTK). Kidneys from German Landrace pigs (n = 5/group) were retrieved and washed out with either Ecosol or HTK after 45 min of clamping of the renal pedicle. As controls, kidneys without warm ischemia, cold stored for 24 h in HTK, were employed. Following 24 h of preservation by VSOP, OMP, CS-Ecosol, or CS-HTK, renal function and damage were assessed during 1 h using the isolated perfused porcine kidney model. During reperfusion, urine production was significantly higher in the VSOP and OMP groups than in the CS-HTK group; however, only VSOP could demonstrate lower urine protein concentrations and fractional excretion of sodium, which did not differ from the non-warm-ischemia-damaged control group. VSOP, CS-Ecosol, and controls showed better maintenance of the acid-base balance than CS-HTK. Reduced lipid peroxidation, as reflected in postreperfusion tissue thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, was observed in the VSOP group compared to the OMP group, and the VSOP and CS-Ecosol groups had concentrations similar to the controls. The ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione was higher in the VSOP, OMP, and CS-Ecosol groups than in the CS-HTK group and controls, with a higher ratio in the VSOP than in the OMP group. VSOP was associated with mitigation of oxidative stress in comparison to OMP and CS. Preservation of warm-ischemia-damaged

  20. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Protects against Gα12 Activation and Tissue Damage in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ola Z.; Zhang, Xizhong; Wei, Junjun; Haig, Aaron; Denker, Bradley M.; Suri, Rita S.; Sener, Alp; Gunaratnam, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1+/+ mice, Kim-1−/− mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1–deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12. PMID:25759266

  1. High incidence of bacteriuria in early post-kidney transplantation; results from a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parapiboon, W; Ingsathit, A; Jirasiritham, S; Sumethkul, V

    2012-04-01

    Since the incidence of bacteriuria in kidney transplant recipients varyes according to the study, we examined it among our cases. Our post hoc analysis of data from a single-center, parallel, randomized, controlled, open label study included 90 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at our hospital from April 2010 to January 2011. Patients were randomized to early ureteric stent removal at 8 days versus routine ureteric stent removal at 15 days after kidney transplantation. We identified the incidence of and causative organism for bacteriuria in the early posttransplant period. Seventy-Four patients (58% living donors) participated in this study. The overall incidence of bacteriuria was 56.7% during the first month after kidney transplantation. In patients who had bacteriuria, 48% showed symptomatic urinary tract infection, 40% asymptomatic bacteriuria and 12% urosepsis. The most common organism was Escherichia coli (40%) follow by Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%). The incidence of an ESBL producing organism was 34%. The incidence of bacteriuria was high during the early post-kidney transplant period, requiring increased awareness and surveillance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Markers of endothelial damage in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Andrés; Agüera, Maria Luisa; Luna Ruiz, Carlos; Buendia, Paula; Calleros, Laura; Garcia-Jerez, Andrea; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; Arias, Manuel; Arias-Guillen, Marta; de Arriba, Gabriel; Ballarin, Jose; Bernis, Carmen; Fernandez, Elvira; Garcia-Rebollo, Sagrario; Mancha, Javier; Del Peso, Gloria; Perez, Estefania; Poch, Esteban; Portoles, Jose M; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Sarro, Felipe; Torres, Armando; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Aljama, Pedro; Ramirez, Rafael; Carracedo, Julia

    2017-01-11

    Patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease who are on hemodialysis (HD) remain in a chronic inflammatory state, characterized by the accumulation of uremic toxins that induce endothelial damage and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to examine microvesicles (MVs), monocyte subpopulations, and angiopoietins to identify prognostic markers in HD patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 160 prevalent HD patients from 10 centers across Spain were obtained from the Biobank of the Nephrology Renal Network (REDinREN, Madrid): 80 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 80 patients without DM who were matched for clinical and demographic criteria. MVs from plasma and several monocyte subpopulations (CD14++/CD16+, CD14+/CD16++) were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the plasma concentrations of angiopoietin (Ang)1 and Ang2 were quantified by ELISA. Data on cardiovascular disease were gathered over the 5.5 years after these samples were obtained. MV level, monocyte subpopulations (CD14+/CD16++ and CD14++/CD16+), and Ang2/Ang1 ratios increased in HD patients with DM compared with non-DM patients. Moreover, MV level above the median (264 MVs/µl) were associated independently with greater mortality. MVs, monocyte subpopulations, and Ang2/Ang1 ratio can be used as predictors for CVD. In addition, MV level have potential predictive value in the prevention of CVD in HD patients. These parameters undergo more extensive changes in patients with DM.

  3. [Antiphospholipid syndrome in nephrology. Kidney damage and practical aspects of the management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, Manon; Zuily, Stéphane; Champigneulle, Jacqueline; Eschwège, Valérie; Frimat, Luc; Perret-Guillaume, Christine; Wahl, Denis

    2014-02-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is a thrombophilia characterized by the combination of arterial and/or venous thrombotic events or obstetric clinical events, associated with persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. In this syndrome, thromboses may affect all of the vascular tree, renal damage is frequently associated with a specific antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy. We propose in this review to provide updated recommendations on the management of antiphospholipid syndrome in nephrology. Treatment is based on long-term anticoagulant therapy with or without antiplatelet agents according to clinical events. The use of a conventional nephroprotection must not be forgotten (strict control of blood pressure with drugs blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system). Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome is an extremely severe complication which can threaten the vital prognosis of the patient. This justifies particular surveillance, as well as prevention in high-risk situations. We also illustrate the difficulties of long-term management in these patients, both in dialysis or kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Urinary levels of early kidney injury molecules in children with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Ali; Aktar, Fesih; Tan, İlhan; Söker, Murat; Uluca, Ünal; Balık, Hasan; Mete, Nuriye

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate urine early kidney injury molecules, including human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase A (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in children with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (CD). Twelve children with vitamin B12 deficiency and 20 healthy matched controls were included. Hematologic parameters, serum urea, creatinine (Cr), electrolytes, B12 and folate levels were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urine protein, electrolytes, andurinary early markers were measured. Patients with CD had significantly higher urine electrolyte/Cr ratios (p B12 and urinary markers in the patients (p B12 deficiency suggest a possible subclinical renal dysfunction, which cannot be determined by conventional kidney function tests.

  5. Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway Regulated-Circulating microRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0715 TITLE: Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway -Regulated Circulating microRNA PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway - Regulated Circulating microRNA Sb. GRANT NUMBER...panel of diagnostic miRNAs that are measurable in serum and will be able to identify kidney cancer in its earliest stages. We hypothesized that serum

  6. Twist2 Is Upregulated in Early Stages of Repair Following Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A.; Nichols, LaNita A.; Wang, Xinhui; Parrish, Alan R.

    2017-01-01

    The aging kidney is a marked by a number of structural and functional changes, including an increased susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI). Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that aging male Fischer 344 rats (24 month) are more susceptible to apoptosis-mediated injury than young counterparts. In the current studies, we examined the initial injury and early recovery phases of mercuric chloride-induced AKI. Interestingly, the aging kidney had decreased serum creatinine compared to young controls 1 day following mercuric chloride injury, but by day 4, serum creatinine was significantly elevated, suggesting that the aging kidney did not recover from injury. This conclusion is supported by the findings that serum creatinine and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) gene expression remain elevated compared to young controls at 10 days post-injury. To begin to elucidate mechanism(s) underlying dysrepair in the aging kidney, we examined the expression of Twist2, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that may mediate renal fibrosis. Interestingly, Twist2 gene expression was elevated following injury in both young and aged rats, and Twist2 protein expression is elevated by mercuric chloride in vitro. PMID:28208580

  7. Expansion of extracellular volume in early polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Nielsen, A H; Herlevsen, P; Kornerup, H J; Posborg, V

    1986-01-01

    Blood volume (BV), extracellular volume (ECV), blood pressure (BP), creatinine clearance (CCr), plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII), aldosterone (Aldo) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined in 18 patients with adult polycystic kidney disease, 8 normotensive (group I), 10 hypertensive (group II), and in 11 control subjects (group III). ECV but not BV was increased in group I compared with group III, whereas BV and ECV did not differ significantly between groups II and III. In group II, Aldo and AVP were increased and AII tended to be increased, while in group I the hormone levels did not differ significantly from those in group III. Sosm did not differ significantly between the groups. In the combined patient group, CCr correlated positively with BV and ECV and negatively with BP. In the patients, AII and AVP were positively correlated with BP but not with CCr. The results suggest that both the renin-angiotensin system and AVP might be involved in the BP elevation, whereas expansion of ECV can be found without an increase in BP.

  8. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  9. Magnolia Extract (BL153 Ameliorates Kidney Damage in a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for renal structural and functional changes, leading to the end-stage renal disease which imposes a heavy economic burden on the community. However, no effective therapeutic method for obesity-associated kidney disease is available. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of a magnolia extract (BL153 for treating obesity-associated kidney damage in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced mouse model. The results showed that inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and oxidative stress markers (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were all significantly increased in the kidney of HFD-fed mice compared to mice fed with a low fat diet (LFD. Additionally, proteinuria and renal structure changes in HFD-fed mice were much more severe than that in LFD-fed mice. However, all these alterations were attenuated by BL153 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and hexokinase II (HK II expression in the kidney. The present study indicates that BL153 administration may be a novel approach for renoprotection in obese individuals by antiinflammation and anti-oxidative stress most likely via upregulation of PGC-1α and HK II signal in the kidney.

  10. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  11. Predictive ability of circulating osteoprotegerin as a novel biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury induced by sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaalan, Mona; Mohamed, Waleed

    2017-06-01

    Though significant progress has been made towards new diagnostic approaches for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by different factors, there is still an urgent demand for a more specific and predictive biomarker for each type. The aim of this study is to unravel the potential diagnostic utility of circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) in septic patients who developed AKI in the ICU, compared to cystatin C (a renal function maker) and KIM-1 (a kidney damage marker). Eighty patients (male = 43, female = 37) with ages ranging from 42 to 46 years and with sepsis, 40 of whom developed AKI, and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective study. Results revealed significant progressive elevation of OPG, along with cystatin C and KIM-1, among sepsis, severe sepsis, and sepsis-AKI patients. The progression of OPG levels paralleled the deterioration of kidney and endothelial functions from sepsis to sepsis-AKI, revealed as progressively increased levels of serum E-selectin (15.3%), endothelin-1 (ET-1) (19.6%), and decreased nitric oxide (NO) (29.7%), associated with elevations of TNF-α (25.5%) and TGF-β (18%). Their comparative prognostic validity of sepsis-AKI was assessed using ROC analysis, which revealed that OPG, KIM-1, and cystatin C showed similar AUCs (0.827-0.83) but with different sensitivities, viz., 84%, 88%, and 92%, respectively. Although cystatin showed 82% specificity, OPG showed a higher, similar specificity to KIM-1 of 85%, indicating its potential function as a marker of renal damage such as KIM-1. This study revealed a significant elevation of circulating OPG in septic patients with different levels of severity and those who progressed to AKI. Moreover, OPG showed a significant correlation to KIM-1 and cystatin, as well as conventional renal, inflammatory, and endothelial markers. Having a similar specificity to KIM-1, as evidenced by the ROC analysis, OPG has the potential to serve as a reliable biomarker of kidney damage

  12. Characterisation of kidney lesions in early schistosomal-specific nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, M A; Moustafa, F E; Sally, S M; Deelder, A M; Ghoniem, M A

    1988-01-01

    In this work 42 patients with active Schistosoma mansoni infection and renal involvement were examined. Of these, 16 had asymptomatic proteinuria (group I) and 26 had the nephrotic syndrome (group II). Fifteen nonschistosomal patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome were included as control cases (group III). Renal biopsy specimens were obtained from all patients and controls. These were examined by light microscopy (LM), by direct immunofluorescence microscopy using antisera against human IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C4, C1q, and fibrinogen, and by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using monoclonal antibodies directed against the circulating schistosome antigens, circulating anodic antigen (CCA) and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA). Schistosomal-specific deposits were seen in the renal glomeruli in 24 of the 42 schistosomal patients but in none of the 15 control patients. Although schistosomal-specific deposits were seen in seven of the 16 patients presenting with asymptomatic proteinuria, no morphological changes could be seen by LM. On the other hand, schistosomal-specific deposits could be seen in the kidneys of 17 of the 26 patients presenting with the nephrotic syndrome. All but one specimen showed morphological changes when examined by LM. These were consistent with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in seven, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in five, mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis in two, membranous glomerulonephritis in one, and focal segmental hyalinosis in one patient. The present study clearly suggests that (a) schistosomal-specific nephropathy does exist in human settings, (b) it is an immune complex disease, and (c) CAA and CCA are major responsible antigens.

  13. Serum levels of advanced glycation endproducts and other markers of protein damage in early diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Perkins

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of markers of plasma protein damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration in microalbuminuria onset or subsequent decline of glomerular filtration rate (termed "early GFR decline" in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: From the 1(st Joslin Kidney Study, we selected 30 patients with longstanding normoalbuminuria and 55 patients with new onset microalbuminuria. Patients with microalbuminuria had 8-12 years follow-up during which 33 had stable GFR and 22 early GFR decline. Mean baseline GFR(CYSTATIN C was similar between the three groups. Glycation, oxidation and nitration markers were measured in protein and ultrafiltrate at baseline by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using the most reliable methods currently available. RESULTS: Though none were significantly different between patients with microalbuminuria with stable or early GFR decline, levels of 6 protein damage adduct residues of plasma protein and 4 related free adducts of plasma ultrafiltrate were significantly different in patients with microalbuminuria compared to normoalbuminuria controls. Three protein damage adduct residues were decreased and 3 increased in microalbuminuria while 3 free adducts were decreased and one increased in microalbuminuria. The most profound differences were of N-formylkynurenine (NFK protein adduct residue and N(ω-carboxymethylarginine (CMA free adduct in which levels were markedly lower in microalbuminuria (P<0.001 for both. CONCLUSIONS: Complex processes influence levels of plasma protein damage and related proteolysis product free adducts in type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The effects observed point to the possibility that patients who have efficient mechanisms of disposal of damaged proteins might be at an increased risk of developing microalbuminuria but not early renal function decline. The findings support the concept that the mechanisms responsible for microalbuminuria may differ from the

  14. Early change in proteinuria as a surrogate end point for kidney disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inker, Lesley A; Levey, Andrew S; Pandya, Kruti

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is controversial whether proteinuria is a valid surrogate end point for randomized trials in chronic kidney disease. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis of individual patient-level data. SETTING & POPULATION: Individual patient data for 9,008 patients from 32 randomized trials evaluating 5...... intervention types. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Randomized controlled trials of kidney disease progression until 2007 with measurements of proteinuria both at baseline and during the first year of follow-up, with at least 1 further year of follow-up for the clinical outcome. PREDICTOR: Early change....... Pooled estimates for the proportion of treatment effect on the clinical outcome explained by early decline in proteinuria ranged from -7.0% (95%CI, -40.6% to 26.7%) to 43.9% (95%CI, 25.3% to 62.6%) across 5 intervention types. The direction of the pooled treatment effects on early change in proteinuria...

  15. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and lipid peroxidation products in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dan; Strandgaard, S.; Borresen, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    of nitric oxide synthase and the lipid peroxidation product 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) as a marker of oxidative stress in patients with early ADPKD. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants: Patients with early ADPKD (n = 27) and age-matched volunteers (n = 30) from a single...... academic medical center. Factor: Patients with ADPKD versus controls. Outcomes & Measurement: Plasma (P) levels, urinary (U) excretion, and urinary clearance (C) of ADMA and HODE. Because of multiple comparisons, P for significance is considered less than 0.0167. Results: Patients with ADPKD had......-sectional nature of study, and limited number of markers of oxidative stress. Conclusions: P-ADMA and P-HODE levels are increased in patients with early ADPKD. Increased P-ADMA level is related to decreased CADMA and is accompanied by oxidative stress. Am J Kidney Dis 51:184-191. (c) 2008 by the National Kidney...

  16. Early Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease with Renal Injury Caused by Hypertension in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yabuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old spayed female Papillon weighing 4.0 kg presented with a history of persistent hematuria and pollakiuria. Concurrent bladder calculi, a mammary gland tumor, and nonazotemic early stage of chronic kidney disease with contracted kidneys were noted in this dog. The dog underwent cystectomy, unilateral mastectomy, and intraoperative renal biopsy. On the basis of histopathological analysis of renal biopsy results, it was suspected that renal injury of the dog was caused by persistent hypertension, and a follow-up examination revealed severe hypertension. The dog was treated with a combination of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium channel blocker. The treatment produced a good outcome in the dog, and there has been no progression of the chronic kidney disease for over 2 years.

  17. Early and Late Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Burned Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Klimm, Wojciech; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. Material/Methods Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h. Results At admission, 15.1% of the patients had eGFR burns, respiratory failure, low protein concentration (for all ppatients. Mortality was 100% with the initial GFR ≥60, 100% with the initial GFR patients and mortality in this group was 79.2%. Mortality in the entire group with AKI was 88.0% versus 24.5%. Conclusions The frequent occurrence of AKI, especially early, worsens the prognosis for survival. Assessment of renal function should be included in the prognostic scales for burned patients. PMID:27746455

  18. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in protein energy malnutrition induced liver and kidney damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2013-01-01

    ...) on hepatic injury and kidney injury associated with protein energy malnutrition (PEM). In this study, PEM was induced in weaning male Wistar albino rats by feeding them with low protein diet for 2 weeks...

  19. Inflammation and damage in an individual joint predict further damage in that joint in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, M; Kostense, P J; Verhoeven, A C; van der Linden, S

    2001-10-01

    OBJECTIVE; Several factors predict joint damage in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the context of a trial in early RA, we studied the relationship between clinical signs in individual joints and their propensity to develop progressive damage. The COBRA (Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis) multicenter trial compared the efficacy of prednisolone, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine against sulfasalazine alone in 155 patients with early RA. Two blinded observers interpreted radiographs in sequence (using the Sharp/Van der Heijde scoring system); in each center, one blinded observer performed clinical assessments every 3 months. The current analysis is based on clinical and radiologic data of the individual metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of 135 patients. Conditional stepwise logistic regression analyzed the relationship between damage (progression) and clinical signs at baseline and followup for each of these joints individually in each patient. Combination therapy strongly retarded the progression of damage. Progression was stronger in patients with rheumatoid factor, HLA-DR4, and high levels of disease activity at baseline. At baseline, 6% of the MCP and PIP joints showed damage; after 1 year, disease had progressed in 10% of these joints. Baseline damage, swelling, or pain in a joint independently and strongly predicted the progression of damage in that joint (P < 0.001). Each additional point in the swelling score (range 0-2) tripled the risk for subsequent progression. Each additional point on the Sharp scale (range 0-8 per joint) and each additional point on the pain scale (range 0-3) doubled the risk. The mean pain and swelling scores over the year were even stronger predictors of damage. Local expression of early RA disease activity, both at baseline and at 1-year followup, is strongly related to progression of damage in the individual joint.

  20. Oxidative stress as one of damage factors in early experimental nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Motin Yu.G.; Zharicov A.Yu.; Bryukhanov V.M.; Zverev Ya.F.; Lepilov A.V.; Lampatov V.V.; Motina N.V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of kidney medulla morphological study from rats with ethylenglycol oxalate nephrolithiasis model areanalyzed. Characteristics mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and malone dialdehyde expression during ethylenglycol oxalatenephrolithiasis modeling are evaluated. Registered morphological signs of oxidative damage activation and antioxidantenzyme attenuation in renal tissues.

  1. Early Hospital Readmission After Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation: Patient and Center-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E A; Kucirka, L M; McAdams-DeMarco, M A; Massie, A B; Al Ammary, F; Ahmed, R; Grams, M E; Segev, D L

    2016-02-01

    Early hospital readmission is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, rates of readmission and risk factors for readmission are unknown. We used United States Renal Data System data to study 3643 adult primary first-time simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients from December 1, 1999 to October 31, 2011. Early hospital readmission was any hospitalization within 30 days of discharge. Modified Poisson regression was used to determine the association between readmission and patient-level factors. Empirical Bayes statistics were used to determine the variation attributable to center-level factors. The incidence of readmission was 55.5%. Each decade increase in age was associated with an 11% lower risk of readmission to age 40, beyond which there was no association. Donor African-American race was associated with a 13% higher risk of readmission. Each day increase in length of stay was associated with a 2% higher risk of readmission until 14 days, beyond which each day increase was associated with a 1% reduction in the risk of readmission. Center-level factors were not associated with readmission. The high incidence of early hospital readmission following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant may reflect clinical complexity rather than poor quality of care.

  2. Plasma Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein as a Marker of Kidney Damage and Cardiovascular Risk in Advanced Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kurnatowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP is formed as a result of vitamin K insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma dp-ucMGP, kidney function and cardiovascular risk factors before and after 9-months substitution of vitamin K2 in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 4 and 5. Methods: 38 CKD patients were supplemented for 270±12 days with 90 µg vitamin K2 and 10 µg cholecalciferol or 10 µg cholecalciferol alone. At baseline and at follow-up circulating calcium, phosphate, lipids, hemoglobin, albumin and total protein, dp-ucMGP, osteoprotegerin, fetuin A, osteocalcin and fibroblast grown factor 23 (FGF-23 were assessed. Proteinuria was assessed in the first morning void. Results: Baseline plasma dp-ucMGP was 1018.6±498.3 pmol/l and was significantly higher in patients at stage 5 CKD (1388.3 ±505.4 pmol/l than at stage 4 (885.1±419.7 pmol/l, p=0.04. Vitamin K2 supplementation resulted in a decrease of dp-ucMGP level by 10.7%. Plasma dp-ucMGP was positively associated with proteinuria, serum creatinine, PTH and FGF-23; and inversely associated with glomerular filtration rate, serum hemoglobin and albumin. Conclusions: High dp-ucMGP level, reflecting a poor vitamin K status seems to be associated with kidney damage and may be also a marker of cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. Supplementation with vitamin K2 may improve the carboxylation status of MGP.

  3. DNA damage by ochratoxin A in rat kidney assessed by the alkaline comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zeljezic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies of ochratoxin A (OTA genotoxicity in experimental animals and the results obtained with cell cultures are inconsistent, although the carcinogenic potential of OTA for the kidney of experimental animals has been well established. We studied the genotoxic potential of OTA in the kidney of adult female Wistar rats (5 in each group treated intraperitoneally with OTA (0.5 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 7, 14, and 21 days measuring DNA mobility on agarose gel stained with ethidium-bromide using standard alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. Negative control animals were treated with solvent (Tris buffer, 1.0 mg/kg and positive control animals were treated with methyl methanesulfonate (40 mg/kg according to the same schedule. OTA concentrations in plasma and kidney homogenates in 7-, 14-, and 21-day treated animals were 4.86 ± 0.53, 7.52 ± 3.32, 7.85 ± 2.24 µg/mL, and 0.87 ± 0.09, 0.99 ± 0.06, 1.09 ± 0.15 µg/g, respectively. In all OTA-treated groups, the tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment in kidney tissue were significantly higher than in controls (P < 0.05. The tail length and tail moment were higher after 14 days than after 7 days of treatment (P < 0.05, and still higher after 21 days (P < 0.05. The highest tail intensity was observed in animals treated for 21 days, and it differed significantly from animals treated for 7 and 14 days (P < 0.05. OTA concentrations in plasma and kidney tissue increased steadily and OTA concentration in kidney tissue strongly correlated with tail intensity and tail moment values. These results confirm the genotoxic potential of OTA, and show that the severity of DNA lesions in kidney correlates with OTA concentration.

  4. EARLY ALLOGRAFT DYSFUNCTION AND ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: DEFINITIONS, RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Moysyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses issues related to intensive care in recipients of transplanted liver in the early postoperative period, with an emphasis on contemporary conditions and attitudes that are specific for this group of patients. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD requires immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment in case. The causes of the EAD and therapeutic tactics are discussed. Acute kidney injury (AKI and renal failure are common in patients after transplantation. We consider etiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AKI. The negative impact of EAD and AKI on the grafts survival and recipients is demonstrated. 

  5. Protective Effects of Prunus armeniaca L (Apricot on Low Dose Radiation-Induced Kidney Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KURUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This experimental study was designed to evaluate radiation-induced kidney damage and the protective effect of apricot against it using histological parameters. MATERIAL and METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups each containing 10 Sprague Dawley rats as follows: Regc: Rats on a regular diet (control diet for 28 weeks; control group. Regx: Rats on a regular diet for 28 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week. Aprc: Rats on an apricot diet for 28 weeks; control for no XRE. Aprx: Rats on an apricot diet for 28 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week. Reg+Aprc: Rats on a regular diet for 8 weeks, followed by an apricot diet for the following 20 weeks; control. Reg + Aprx: Rats on a regular diet for 8 weeks, XRE on last day of eighth week, followed by an apricot diet for 20 weeks. RESULTS: The kidneys of the control groups showed normal kidney histology, whereas Regx group showed major histopathological changes, such as glomerular collapse, hemorrhage, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. The Aprx and Reg+Aprx groups showed smaller amounts of degeneration. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we suggest that agents with antioxidant properties such as apricot may have a positive effect in the treatment of renal diseases.

  6. Protective effect of dietary flaxseed oil on arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Sana; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Farooqui, Zeba; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Khan, Farah

    2014-06-01

    Arsenic, a naturally occurring metalloid, is capable of causing acute renal failure as well as chronic renal insufficiency. Arsenic is known to exert its toxicity through oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flaxseed, richest plant based dietary source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lignans have shown numerous health benefits. Present study investigates the protective effect of flaxseed oil (FXO) on sodium arsenate (NaAs) induced renal damage. Rats prefed with experimental diets (Normal/FXO diet) for 14days, were administered NaAs (20mg/kg body weight i.p.) once daily for 4days while still on the experimental diets. NaAs nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Administration of NaAs led to a significant decline in the specific activities of brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes both in kidney tissue homogenates and in the isolated membrane vesicles. Lipid peroxidation and total sulfhydryl groups were altered upon NaAs treatment, indicating the generation of oxidative stress. NaAs also decreased the activities of metabolic enzymes and antioxidant defence system. Histopathological studies supported the biochemical findings showing extensive damage to the kidney by NaAs. In contrast, dietary supplementation of FXO prior to and alongwith NaAs treatment significantly attenuated the NaAs-induced changes.

  7. Cadmium-induced autophagy in rat kidney: an early biomarker of subtoxic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargui, Abderrahman; Zekri, Sami; Jacquillet, Gregory; Rubera, Isabelle; Ilie, Marius; Belaid, Amine; Duranton, Christophe; Tauc, Michel; Hofman, Paul; Poujeol, Philippe; El May, Michèle V; Mograbi, Baharia

    2011-05-01

    Environmental exposures to cadmium (Cd) are a major cause of human toxicity. The kidney is the most sensitive organ; however, the natures of injuries and of adaptive responses have not been adequately investigated, particularly in response to environmental relevant Cd concentrations. In this study, rats received a daily ip injection of low CdCl₂ dose (0.3 mg Cd/kg body mass) and killed at 1, 3, and 5 days of intoxication. Functional, ultrastructural, and biochemical observations were used to evaluate Cd effects. We show that Cd at such subtoxic doses does not affect the tubular functions nor does it induce apoptosis. Meanwhile, Cd accumulates within lysosomes of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells where it triggers cell proliferation and autophagy. By developing an immunohistochemical assay, a punctate staining of light chain 3-II is prominent in Cd-intoxicated kidneys, as compared with control. We provide the evidence of a direct upregulation of autophagy by Cd using a PCT cell line. Compared with the other heavy metals, Cd is the most powerful inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in PCT cells, in relation to the hypersensitivity of PCT cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that kidney cortex adapts to subtoxic Cd dose by activating autophagy, a housekeeping process that ensures the degradation of damaged proteins. Given that Cd is persistent within cytosol, it might damage proteins continuously and impair at long-term autophagy efficiency. We therefore propose the autophagy pathway as a new sensitive biomarker for renal injury even after exposure to subtoxic Cd doses.

  8. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingli; Shao, Xiaona; Sun, Bo; Miao, Chunsheng; Li, Zhengqiang; Shi, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) presents a suitable early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive nephropathy-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and to develop a rapid detection method for urinary KIM-1. Obstructive AKI was induced in an experimental rat model by a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) operation. Macro- and micromorphological kidney alterations were determined by visual observation and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Kidney functions were evaluated by detecting urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in rat urine and blood. Urinary KIM-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the protein expression levels of KIM-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin in kidney tissues were detected using immunohistochemical assays. In order to measure KIM-1 levels, colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips were developed based on the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay. The results indicated that KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in the UUO group when compared with the Sham group. KIM-1 levels in the urine and kidney tissues exhibited a time-dependent increase, together with increasing obstructive AKI in the UUO group. In addition, KIM-1 levels were demonstrated to be a more sensitive biomarker of early obstructive AKI, when compared with α-SMA and vimentin. A colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip was developed, whereby the detection of urinary KIM-1 could be completed within 5–10 min. In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrated that urinary KIM-1 may be a valuable biomarker for the early diagnosis of obstructive AKI, and the use of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip may be a promising method for the rapid detection of urinary KIM-1. PMID:28075469

  9. Induction of AMPK activity corrects early pathophysiological alterations in the subtotal nephrectomy model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriano, Joseph; Sharma, Kumar; Blantz, Roland C; Deng, Aihua

    2013-09-01

    The rat kidney ablation and infarction (A/I) model of subtotal or 5/6th nephrectomy is the most commonly studied model of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The A/I kidney at 1 wk exhibits reductions in kidney function, as determined by glomerular filtration rate, and diminished metabolic efficiency as determined by oxygen consumption per sodium transport (QO2/TNa). As renoprotective AMPK activity is affected by metabolic changes and cellular stress, we evaluated AMPK activity in this model system. We show that these early pathophysiological changes are accompanied by a paradoxical decrease in AMPK activity. Over time, these kidney parameters progressively worsen with extensive kidney structural, functional, metabolic, and fibrotic changes observed at 4 wk after A/I. We show that induction of AMPK activity with either metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide increases AMPK activity in this model and also corrects kidney metabolic inefficiency, improves kidney function, and ameliorates kidney fibrosis and structural alterations. We conclude that AMPK activity is reduced in the subtotal nephrectomy model of nondiabetic CKD, that altered regulation of AMPK is coincident with the progression of disease parameters, and that restoration of AMPK activity can suppress the progressive loss of function characteristic of this model. We propose that induction of AMPK activity may prove an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of nondiabetic CKD.

  10. [MALT B cell lymphoma with kidney damage and monoclonal gammopathy: a case study and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Vega-Cabrera, C; Peces, C; Pobes, A; Fresno, M F

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) involving the left kidney and simultaneous onset of a monoclonal gammopathy IgM kappa. No predisposing local inflammatory condition was identified. Following left nephrectomy, the renal specimen showed the centrocyte like cells and lymphoid cells in the lymphoepithelial lesions were positive for CD20 and CD79α. The neoplastic cells expressed monotypic cytoplasmic IgM kappa. The demonstration of bone marrow cells of B-lineage expressing the same monoclonal protein as the tumor suggested bone marrow involvement, even in the absence of identical morphology. Despite chemotherapy and rituximab treatment, clinical follow-up showed right kidney extension with high-grade transformation, and finally systemic dissemination. This case illustrates that the kidney is among the sites that may be involved by MALT B-cell lymphomas in a primary or secondary fashion, and the need for expanded investigation of the possible dissemination. We review the literature on this unusual extranodal lymphoma.

  11. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  12. Neonatal dexamethasone administration causes progressive renal damage due to induction of an early inflammatory response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yan; van Goor, Harry; Havinga, Rick; Baller, Julius F. W.; Bloks, Vincent W.; van der Leij, Feike R.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Navis, Gerjan; de Borst, Martin H.

    2008-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used to prevent chronic lung disease in immature newborns. Emerging evidence indicates that GC exposure in early life may interfere with kidney function and is associated with hypertension in later life. In this study, we have investigated the effect of neonatal dexa

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  14. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  15. The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2013-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of oleuropein against chemotherapy drug-induced histological changes, oxidative stress, and DNA damages in rat kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatime Geyikoglu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is responsible for a large number of renal failures, and it is still associated with high rates of mortality today. Oleuropein (OLE presents a plethora of pharmacological beneficial properties. In this study we investigated whether OLE could provide sufficient protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. With this aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: control; 7 mg/kg/d cisplatin, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg OLE; and treatment with OLE for 3 days starting at 24 hours following cisplatin injection. After exposure to the chemotherapy agent and OLE, oxidative DNA damage was quantitated in the renal tissue of experimental animals by measuring the amount of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG adducts. Malondialdehyde (MDA level, total oxidative stress (TOS, and total antioxidant status (TAS were assessed to determine the oxidative injury in kidney cells. The histology of the kidney was examined using four different staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin (H&E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS, Masson trichrome, and amyloid. In addition, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN, uric acid (UA, and creatinine (CRE levels were established. Our experimental data showed that tissue 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in the cisplatin group when compared to the control group. The glomerular cells were sensitive to cisplatin as tubular cells. In addition, treatment with cisplatin elevated the levels of BUN, UA, CRE, and TOS, but lowered the level of TAS compared to the control group. The OLE therapy modulated oxidative stress in order to restore normal kidney function and reduced the formation of 8-OHdG induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, the OLE treatment significantly reduced pathological findings in renal tissue. We demonstrate for the first time that OLE presents significant cytoprotective properties against cisplatin-induced genotoxicity by restoring the antioxidant system of the renal tissue

  17. Muscular Damage and Kidney Function in Rugby Players after Daily Whole Body Cryostimulation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Muscular damage, consequent to strenuous activities, could exceed the recovery potential of muscles and determine renal failure. Whole body cryostimulation is a cold-based therapy used to improve recovery or overcome fatigue symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated sessions of cryostimulation on muscle damage, renal function, and their relationship. Serum samples, from 27 elite rugby players, under training, before and after 2 sessions/day of cryotherapy over 7 days, wer...

  18. [ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE ORGAN DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME IN THE EARLY PERIOD AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, A A; Minbolatova, N M

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury can greatly increase the severity of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and impair patient outcomes. To study the clinical significance of acute kidney injury in patients with MODS in early postoperative period after cardiac surgety and its influence, on the severity of the patient condition and outcomes. The study involved 117 patients aged 57.2 ± 1.2 years. The Group 1, control, included 74 patients with uncomplicated postoperative period; the Group 2--43 patients with MODS, who were divided into the survivors (33 patients, group 2a) and deaths (10 patients, group 2b). In Group 2. thefollowingparaineters were higher--the volume of blood loss by 1.5 times (p = 0,001), the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass 1.7 times (p 0.001), and aortic clamping 1.6 times (p = 0,001). Group 2a and 2b on these indicators did not differ Average scale Group 2b was 1,3-fold higher than in survivors (p = 0,001). Patients differ in the severity of the central nervous system disorders (the average score of Glasgow Coma Scale survivors was 1.3 times higher P = 0,001) and severity of acute kidney injury On a RIFLE scale patients of group 2a normal data was observed in 12%, the stage of risk in 61%, and damage in 27%. In 50% of the dead was a stage of disease (p = 0.04), the rest--damage. In the dynamics of the group 2b impaired renal and hepatic functions have progressed. By day 3 ASTwas on average 2-fold higher (p = 0.01), ALT (1.9 fold, p = 0,001), alkaline phosphatase 1.5 times (p = 0.001), while the total blood protein below 1.3 times (p = 0.00 1), than in group 2a. Creatinine in patients of Group 2b was 1.4 tunes higher (p = 0,036), urea 1.6 (p = 0.026), u-NGAL 7 times higher (p = 0.001), than in group 2a. Long cardiopulmonary bypass, clamping of the aorta and a large amount of perioperative the risk of MODS in the early postoperative period, but do not affect the outcome. On the background of the dzvelopment of MODS an average score on MODS-2 scale

  19. Early damage recognition by vibration analyses - new maintenance possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, T.

    1988-01-01

    Machine monitoring based on vibration technology is shown to be an effective way of using instruments to inspect rotating machinery. The relationships with other maintenance duties are indicated. Two examples from operational practice make it clear that damage diagnosis increases the time available to a plant operator for making a decision and thus increases the scope for 'scheduled maintenance'.

  20. Early mechanisms in radiation-induced biological damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    An introduction to the mechanisms of radiation action in biological systems is presented. Several questions about the nature of the radiation damage process are discussed, including recognition of the oxygen effects, dose-response relationships, and the importance of the hydroxyl radical. (ACR)

  1. Identification of the optimal donor quality scoring system and measure of early renal function in kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    The early identification of kidney allografts at risk of later dysfunction has implications for clinical practice. Donor quality scoring systems (preoperative) and measures of early allograft function (first week postoperative) have previously shown practical utility. This study aimed to determine the optimal parameter(s) (preoperative and postoperative) with greatest predictive power for the development of subsequent allograft dysfunction.

  2. d-Phenothrin-induced oxidative DNA damage in rat liver and kidney determined by HPLC-ECD/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the risk of genotoxicity of d-phenothrin by measuring the oxidative stress it causes in rat liver and kidney. The level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)/10(6) 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) was measured by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array (DAD) and an electrochemical detector (ECD). Sixty male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups and one control group of 10 rats/group. d-phenothrin was administered intraperitoneally (IP) to the five experimental groups at 25 mg/kg (Group I), 50 mg/kg (Group II), 66.7 mg/kg (Group III), 100 mg/kg (Group IV), and 200 mg/kg (Group V) for 14 consecutive days, and the control group received only the vehicle, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). DNA from samples frozen in liquid nitrogen was isolated with a DNA isolation kit. Following digestion with nuclease P1 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hydrolyzed DNA was subjected to HPLC. The dG and 8-oxodG levels were analyzed with a DAD and ECD, respectively. In the experimental groups, the mean 8-oxodG/10(6) dG levels were 48.15 ± 7.43, 68.92 ± 20.66, 82.07 ± 14.15, 85.08 ± 28.50, and 89.14 ± 21.73 in livers and 39.06 ± 7.63, 59.69 ± 14.22, 61.13 ± 17.46, 65.13 ± 23.40, and 72.66 ± 19.04 in kidneys of Groups I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively. The mean 8-oxodG/10(6) dG levels in the control groups were 44.96 ± 12.66 for the liver and 39.07 ± 4.80 for the kidney. A statistically significant (p < 0.05), dose-dependent increase in oxidative DNA damage was observed in both organs of animals exposed to d-phenothrin when compared to controls. Furthermore, the liver showed a significantly higher level of oxidative DNA damage than the kidney (p < 0.01). In conclusion, d-phenothrin administered to rats intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days generated free radical species in a dose-dependent manner and caused oxidative

  3. Value of joint detecion of multiple biomarkers on early diagnosis of acute kidney injury in critical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光银

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of joint detection of serum cysteine proteinase inhibitors C(sCys-C),urinary kidney injury molecule 1(uKIM-1),urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin(uNGAL)and urinary interleukin 18(uIL-18)for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury(AKI)in critically ill patients.Methods A total of256 adult patients who stayed in Intensive Care Unit for

  4. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, T; Kitahara, T

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3--4 hours after infection with SV40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10--20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by preincubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl2. The ECV could be induced by UV-irradiated SV40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV40.

  5. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40. [uv radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamura, T.; Kitahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3 to 4 hours after infection with SV 40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10 to 20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV 40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by pre-incubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl/sub 2/. The ECV could be induced by uv-irradiated SV 40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV 40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV 40.

  6. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  7. Urinary biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 early predict acute kidney injury after major surgery.

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    Ivan Gocze

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of the urinary biomarkers IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 and TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 to early predict acute kidney injury (AKI in high-risk surgical patients.Postoperative AKI is associated with an increase in short and long-term mortality. Using IGFBP7 and TIMP-2 for early detection of cellular kidney injury, thus allowing the early initiation of renal protection measures, may represent a new concept of evaluating renal function.In this prospective study, urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] was measured in surgical patients at high risk for AKI. A predefined cut-off value of [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] >0.3 was used for assessing diagnostic accuracy. Perioperative characteristics were evaluated, and ROC analyses as well as logistic regression models of risk assessment were calculated with and without a [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test.107 patients were included in the study, of whom 45 (42% developed AKI. The highest median values of biomarker were detected in septic, transplant and patients after hepatic surgery (1.24 vs 0.45 vs 0.47 ng/l²/1000. The area under receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC for the risk of any AKI was 0.85, for early use of RRT 0.83 and for 28-day mortality 0.77. In a multivariable model with established perioperative risk factors, the [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test was the strongest predictor of AKI and significantly improved the risk assessment (p<0.001.Urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test sufficiently detect patients with risk of AKI after major non-cardiac surgery. Due to its rapid responsiveness it extends the time frame for intervention to prevent development of AKI.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates the kidney dysfunction and damage in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S prevents and treats a variety of disorders via its cytoprotective effects. However, the effects of H2S on rats with cisplatin (CP nephrotoxicity are unclear. The aim was to study the effects of H2S on rats with CP nephrotoxicity. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group, nephrotoxic group received single dose of CP (6 mg kg-1 and nephrotoxic groups that received single dose 100 µmol kg-1 NaHS. On fifth day after injection, urine of each rat was collected over a 24-hr period. Animals were sacrificed 6 days after CP (or vehicle treatment, and blood, urine, and kidneys were obtained, prepared for light microscopy evaluation, lipid peroxidation content and laboratory analysis. The results showed that plasma urea (226%, creatinine (271%, renal lipid peroxidation content (151%, Na and K fractional excretion, urine protein, volume and kidney weight in CP nephrotoxic rats were significantly higher and urine osmolarity and creatinine clearance lower than in controls. Increases of the proximal tubular cells apoptosis and mesangial matrix in CP nephrotoxicity group rats were observed. Hydrogen sulfide reversed the CP-induced changes in the experimental rats H2S prevented the progression of CP nephrotoxicity in rats possibly through its cytoprotective effects such as antioxidant properties.

  9. Illness representations and coping processes of Taiwanese patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Chen, Mei-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2013-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide with an increasing incidence and prevalence and high cost. The role of illness perceptions in understanding health-related behavior has received little attention in patients with early-stage CKD. This qualitative study aimed to describe the illness representation and coping process experience of patients with early-stage CKD in Taiwan. A qualitative content analysis approach was used to analyze semistructured, open-ended, one-on-one interviews with 15 patients with early-stage CKD. Purposive sampling was used to recruit patients diagnosed with early-stage CKD from the nephrology departments of two medical centers in Taiwan. Trustworthiness of the study was evaluated using four criteria suggested by Lincoln and Guba. Six themes emerged from the analysis: experiencing early symptoms, self-interpreting the causes of having CKD, realizing CKD as a long-term disease, believing CKD could be controlled by following doctors' orders, anticipating the consequences of having CKD, and adopting coping strategies to delay the progress of CKD. Findings from this study compared with previous studies reveal that education can effectively change patient illness representations as an approach to improve coping behavior. This finding offers healthcare professionals insight into the health education necessary to assess patient illness representation to provide culturally sensitive interventions.

  10. Albuminuria Is Associated with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients with Early Diabetic Kidney Disease

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    Nan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and albuminuria are both markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We speculate that albuminuria in T2DM patients with early diabetic kidney disease (DKD could predict LVH. Methods. 333 diabetic patients (219 non-DKD and 114 early DKD were enrolled. The association between albuminuria and LVMI was examined using multivariate linear regression and logistic regression. Results. The rate of LVH was significantly higher in patients with early DKD versus those without DKD (57.0% versus 32.9%; P<0.001. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that albuminuria status (no, micro-, and macroalbuminuria; P<0.001, age (P<0.001, systolic blood pressure (P=0.0578, and the use of ACEI/ARB drug (P<0.001 were independently associated with LVMI. The risks were substantially higher for LVH in the microalbuminuria group (odds ratio 2.473 (95% confidence interval 1.370–4.464 and macroalbuminuria group (odds ratio 3.940 (95% confidence interval 1.553–9.993 compared with that in non-DKD group. Concentric hypertrophy was the most common geometric pattern in patients with early DKD (36.0%, followed by eccentric hypertrophy (21.0%. Conclusions. Albuminuria is associated with higher LVMI and higher rate of LVH in patients with early phase DKD.

  11. Histopathological And Biological Studies On The Role Of Soybean And Broad Bean AgainstRadiation Induce Damage In Rat Kidney

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    Hanaa Fathy Waer, **Abdel El ­ Rahman Mohamed Attia

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the physiological and histological activities in the animal body are disturbed after exposure to ionizing radiation. These disturbances are either due to direct harmful effect of radiation on the biological systems or to the indirect effect of free radicals formed in the body after irradiation. There is growing evidence that the type of food plays an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The biological disturbance due to ionizing radiation makes search for ways of protecting living organisms essential for controlling the radiation hazards. Much of the world population relies on legumes, as a stable food. Legumes can affectively protect cells and tissues against damage. Our present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of single dose !"#$%#&f the possible protective effect of feeding beans (broad beans and soybeans against radiation exposure. Histopathological, and biological changes of kidney function in irradiated, and bean fed animals were carried out. Animals were weighted and daily food intake was determined. The result obtained revealed that soybean is an extremely rich source of protein and fat as compared to faba bean. Radiations cause a reduction in food intake and weight gain. It causes great changes in the kidney glomeruli and collecting tubules. The recovery of the cells depend on the type of feeding so, feeding soybean gives a significant radiation protection and decreases the extent of changes induced by radiation

  12. Growth performance and oxidative damage in kidney induced by oral administration of Cr(III) in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhan; Liu, Cun; Cheng, Jia; Fan, Wentao; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Jianzhu

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding chromic chloride (CrCl3) in the drinking water of chickens. Hyland brown male chickens were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups orally received 1/2 LD50, 1/4 LD50, and 1/8 LD50 CrCl3mgkg(-1) body weight daily for 42d. The fourth group was treated with water. The chickens were sacrificed at 14, 28, and 42d post-treatment. The renal injury was examined through histological analysis, and kidney mass was determined. The effects on growth performance were assessed by measuring the weight of the body, chest muscles, and leg muscles. Oxidative damage was evaluated by determining the antioxidant defense levels in kidney homogenates. The body weight and the weight of tissues gained time-dependently, but significantly decreased compared with those in the control group (Pkidney compared with those in the control groups. Whereas, administering Cr(3+) reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and total an-tioxidant capacity compared with those in the control group (Pkidney dose- and time-dependently.

  13. Functional expression of the damage-associated molecular pattern receptor P2X7 on canine kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Iman; Spildrejorde, Mari; Seavers, Aine; Curtis, Belinda L; McArthur, Jason D; Sluyter, Ronald

    2012-12-15

    Epithelial cells are important in inflammation and immunity. In this study, we examined if Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells express functional P2X7 receptors, which bind the damage-associated molecular pattern extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunoblotting revealed the expression of P2X7 in MDCK cells. A flow cytometric assay demonstrated that ATP or 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP induced ethidium(+) uptake into MDCK cells, and that this process was impaired by the P2X7 antagonists KN-62 and A438079. RT-PCR also demonstrated the presence of Toll-like receptor 4, NALP3, caspase-1, interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 in MDCK cells, as well as in positive control LPS-primed canine monocytes. In conclusion, the MDCK epithelial cell line expresses functional P2X7, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 and molecules associated with the NALP3 inflammasome. This cell line may help elucidate the role of these molecules in kidney epithelial cells and renal disorders in dogs and humans.

  14. Cardiac remodeling associated with protein increase and lipid accumulation in early-stage chronic kidney disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Mieko; Bannai, Kenji; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Yamato, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiac remodeling including myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy is frequently observed in CKD patients. In this study, we investigate the mechanism involved in cardiac hypertrophy associated with CKD using a rat model, by morphological and chemical component changes of the hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic hearts. Sprague-Dawley rats were 4/5 nephrectomized (Nx) at 11 weeks of age and assigned to no treatment and treatment with AST-120, which was reported to affect the cardiac damage, at 18 weeks of age. At 26 weeks of age, the rats were euthanized under anesthesia, and biochemical tests as well as analysis of cardiac condition were performed by histological and spectrophotometric methods. Cardiac hypertrophy and CKD were observed in 4/5 Nx rats even though vascular calcification and myocardial fibrosis were not detected. The increasing myocardial protein was confirmed in hypertrophic hearts by infrared spectroscopy. The absorption of amide I and other protein bands in hypertrophic hearts increased at the same position as in normal cardiac absorption. Infrared spectra also showed that lipid accumulation was also detected in hypertrophic heart. Conversely, the absorptions of protein were obviously reduced in the myocardium of non-hypertrophic heart with CKD compared to that of hypertrophic heart. The lipid associated absorption was also decreased in non-hypertrophic heart. Our results suggest that cardiac remodeling associated with relatively early-stage CKD may be suppressed by reducing increased myocardial protein and ameliorating cardiac lipid load.

  15. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing

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    Neha Chandarana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life.

  16. Urinary L-FABP predicts poor outcomes in critically ill patients with early acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Sharidan K; Clark, Amanda J; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi K; Wickersham, Nancy E; Ware, Lorraine B; Ikizler, T Alp; Siew, Edward D

    2015-03-01

    Biomarker studies for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) have been limited by nonselective testing and uncertainties in using small changes in serum creatinine as a reference standard. Here we examine the ability of urine L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) to predict injury progression, dialysis, or death within 7 days in critically ill adults with early AKI. Of 152 patients with known baseline creatinine examined, 36 experienced the composite outcome. Urine L-FABP demonstrated an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.70-0.86), which improved to 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.75-0.90) when added to the clinical model (AUC-ROC of 0.74). Urine NGAL, IL-18, and KIM-1 had AUC-ROCs of 0.65, 0.64, and 0.62, respectively, but did not significantly improve discrimination of the clinical model. The category-free net reclassification index improved with urine L-FABP (total net reclassification index for nonevents 31.0%) and urine NGAL (total net reclassification index for events 33.3%). However, only urine L-FABP significantly improved the integrated discrimination index. Thus, modest early changes in serum creatinine can help target biomarker measurement for determining prognosis with urine L-FABP, providing independent and additive prognostic information when combined with clinical predictors.

  17. The protective effect of Malva sylvestris on rat kidney damaged by vanadium

    OpenAIRE

    Marouane, Wafa; Soussi, Ahlem; Murat, Jean-Claude; Bezzine, Sofiane; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2011-01-01

    Background The protective effect of the common mallow (Malva sylvestris) decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium metavanadate poisoning was evaluated. On the one hand, vanadium toxicity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, causing a lipid peroxidation and an alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant defence. On the other hand, many medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, thanks to the presence of flavonoids. Thes...

  18. The protective effect of Malva sylvestris on rat kidney damaged by vanadium

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Jean-Claude; Soussi Ahlem; Marouane Wafa; Bezzine Sofiane; El Feki Abdelfattah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The protective effect of the common mallow (Malva sylvestris) decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium metavanadate poisoning was evaluated. On the one hand, vanadium toxicity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, causing a lipid peroxidation and an alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant defence. On the other hand, many medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, thanks to the presence of flavono...

  19. Involvement of FGF and BMP family proteins and VEGF in early human kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carev, Dominko; Saraga, Marijan; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2008-07-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of the appearance of the fibroblast growth factor proteins (FGF-8 and FGF-10), the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2/4 subfamily and BMP-7) and the vascular endothelial growth factor protein (VEGF) was investigated in the human mesonephros and metanephros of the 5-9 week-old conceptuses. In the mesonephros, both FGF's and BMP's were found in all structures and their expression slightly decreased in the early fetal period. VEGF positivity appeared in all mesonephric structures, and increased in the fetal period coincidently with formation of the mesonephric blood vessel network. In the metanephros, FGF-8 first appeared only in the metanephric mesenchyme, but from the 7th week on, its reactivity increased and spread to other metanephric structures. FGF-10 positive cells appeared in all metanephric structures already in the 5th week, and slightly intensified with progression of development. Cell survival and nephrogenesis in the permanent kidney might be associated with the appearance of both growth factors. Both BMP-2/4 and BMP-7 displayed a similar pattern of reactivity in all metanephric structures, and their reactivity intensified with advancing development. Alterations in their pattern of appearance might lead to the formation of small and dysplastic kidneys. Already in the earliest developmental stages, VEGF protein appeared in all metanephric structures. At later stages, VEGF showed more intense reaction in the collecting system than in the differentiating nephrons and interstitium. Due to VEGF involvement in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, abnormal VEGF appearance might lead to impaired formation of the blood vessel network in the human permanent kidney.

  20. Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in Early Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Critically Ill

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    Irma Lestari Paramastuty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI often associated with a high hospital morbi-mortality rate in the intensive care unit patients. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, has many characteristics of ideal biomarker for kidney injury. The aim of this study was to compared the temporal pattern of elevation urinary KIM-1 level following critically ill children with SCr as standart biomarker of AKI. Prospective analytic observational study was conducted during October to March 2014 in the Saiful Anwar General Hospital and Physiology Laboratory Brawijaya University. There were 13 critically ill as subjects. SCr and KIM-1 levels from all subjects were measured three times ( at admission, after 1st and 6th hour. Subjects were devided into AKI - non-AKI groups by SCr level and survivor - non survivor group at the and of the observations. Results showed that there were significantly increased levels of KIM-1 in the AKI and non-AKI and survivor-non survivor group at time point. However, we found that delta KIM-1 at time point increased significant in non AKI group and survivor group. KIM-1 at admission can diagnosed AKI in critically ill children. We conclude that urinary KIM-1 is a sensitive non-invasive biomarker to diagnosed acute kidney injury in critically ill children. Increase level of KIM-1 by time shows protective and good outcome in critically ill children.

  1. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 is an Early Noninvasive Indicator for Donor Brain Death-Induced Injury Prior to Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, W. N.; Schuurs, T. A.; Damman, J.; van Goor, H.; Vaidya, V. S.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; Bonventre, J. V.; Ploeg, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    In rat kidney, real-time PCR revealed a 46-fold Kim-1 gene upregulation after 4 h of brain death. In situ hybridization showed proximal tubular Kim-1 localization, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Also, Luminex assay showed a 6.6-fold Kim-1 rise in urine after 4 h of brain death. In huma

  2. Radiographic damage in large joints in early rheumatoid arthritis : Relationship with radiographic damage in hands and feet, disease activity, and physical disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, HH; VanLeeuwen, MA; VanRiel, PLCM; Prevoo, MLL; Houtman, PM; Lolkema, WF; VanRijwijk, MH

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the onset of radiographic damage in the large joints (hip, knees, shoulders, elbows, ankles and tarsus) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis, and the relationship of the progression of large joint damage with joint damage in hands and feet, with physical disability, and with

  3. Hs2st mediated kidney mesenchyme induction regulates early ureteric bud branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mita M; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Sweeney, Derina E; Gallegos, Thomas F; Bush, Kevin T; Esko, Jeffrey D; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2010-03-15

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are central modulators of developmental processes likely through their interaction with growth factors, such as GDNF, members of the FGF and TGFbeta superfamilies, EGF receptor ligands and HGF. Absence of the biosynthetic enzyme, heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase (Hs2st) leads to kidney agenesis. Using a novel combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we have reanalyzed the defect in morphogenesis of the Hs2st(-)(/)(-) kidney. Utilizing assays that separately model distinct stages of kidney branching morphogenesis, we found that the Hs2st(-/-) UB is able to undergo branching and induce mesenchymal-to-epithelial transformation when recombined with control MM, and the isolated Hs2st null UB is able to undergo branching morphogenesis in the presence of exogenous soluble pro-branching growth factors when embedded in an extracellular matrix, indicating that the UB is intrinsically competent. This is in contrast to the prevailing view that the defect underlying the renal agenesis phenotype is due to a primary role for 2-O sulfated HS in UB branching. Unexpectedly, the mutant MM was also fully capable of being induced in recombination experiments with wild-type tissue. Thus, both the mutant UB and mutant MM tissue appear competent in and of themselves, but the combination of mutant tissues fails in vivo and, as we show, in organ culture. We hypothesized a 2OS-dependent defect in the mutual inductive process, which could be on either the UB or MM side, since both progenitor tissues express Hs2st. In light of these observations, we specifically examined the role of the HS 2-O sulfation modification on the morphogenetic capacity of the UB and MM individually. We demonstrate that early UB branching morphogenesis is not primarily modulated by factors that depend on the HS 2-O sulfate modification; however, factors that contribute to MM induction are markedly sensitive to the 2-O sulfation modification. These data suggest that key

  4. L-citrulline protects from kidney damage in type 1 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza J Romero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage renal disease, associated with endothelial dysfunction. Chronic supplementation of L-arginine (L-arg, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, failed to improve vascular function. L-citrulline (L-cit supplementation not only increases L-arg synthesis, but also inhibits cytosolic arginase I (Arg I, a competitor of eNOS for the use of L-arg, in the vasculature. Aims. To investigate whether L-cit treatment reduces diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetes in mice and rats and to study its effects on arginase II (ArgII function, the main renal isoform. Methods. STZ-C57BL6 mice received L-cit or vehicle supplemented in the drinking water. For comparative analysis, diabetic ArgII knock out mice and L-cit-treated STZ-rats were evaluated. Results. L-cit exerted protective effects in kidneys of STZ-rats, and markedly reduced urinary albumin excretion, tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and kidney hypertrophy, observed in untreated diabetic mice. Intriguingly, L-cit treatment was accompanied by a sustained elevation of tubular ArgII at 16 wks and significantly enhanced plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Diabetic ArgII knock out mice showed greater BUN levels, hypertrophy, and dilated tubules than diabetic wild type mice. Despite a marked reduction in collagen deposition in ArgII knock out mice, their albuminuria was not significantly different from diabetic wild type animals. L-cit also restored NO/ROS balance and barrier function in high glucose-treated monolayers of human glomerular endothelial cells. Moreover, L-cit also has the ability to establish an anti-inflammatory profile, characterized by increased IL-10 and reduced IL-1beta and IL-12(p70 generation in the human proximal tubular cells. Conclusions. L-cit supplementation established an anti-inflammatory profile and significantly preserved the nephron function during type 1

  5. Toll-like receptor 4 regulates early endothelial activation during ischemic acute kidney injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianlin; John, Reji; Richardson, James A.; Shelton, John M.; Zhou, Xin J.; Wang, Yanxia; Wu, Qing Qing; Hartono, John R.; Winterberg, Pamela D.; Lu, Christopher Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers an inflammatory response which exacerbates injury that requires increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. To study this further, we used in situ hybridization, immunohistology, and isolated endothelial cells, and found increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression on endothelial cells of the vasa rectae of the inner stripe of the outer medulla of the kidney 4 h after reperfusion. This increase was probably due to reactive oxygen species, known to be generated early during ischemic AKI, because the addition of hydrogen peroxide increased TLR4 expression in MS1 microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Endothelial TLR4 may regulate adhesion molecule (CD54 and CD62E) expression as they were increased on endothelia of wild-type but not TLR4 knockout mice in vivo. Further, the addition of high-mobility group protein B1, a TLR4 ligand released by injured cells, increased adhesion molecule expression on endothelia isolated from wild-type but not TLR4 knockout mice. TLR4 was localized to proximal tubules in the cortex and outer medulla after 24 h of reperfusion. Thus, at least two different cell types express TLR4, each of which contributes to renal injury by temporally different mechanisms during ischemic AKI. PMID:20927041

  6. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael; Motta, Mariana H.; Ribeiro, Roseane F.; dos S. Hausen, Bruna; Moresco, Rafael N.; Garcia, Solange C.; da Silva, Cristiane B.; Burger, Marilise E.

    2015-04-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups ( n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  7. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roversi, Katiane, E-mail: katianeroversi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Benvegnú, Dalila M., E-mail: dalilabenvegnu@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Roversi, Karine, E-mail: karineroversi-@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Trevizol, Fabíola, E-mail: fatrevizol@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Vey, Luciana T., E-mail: luciana.taschetto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Elias, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.elias@uffs.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Fracasso, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.fra@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups (n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  8. Discovery of ZIP transporters that participate in cadmium damage to testis and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    It has been known for decades that cadmium (Cd) must enter the cell to cause damage, but there was no mechanism to explain genetic differences in response to Cd toxicity until 2005. Starting with the mouse Cdm locus associated with differences in Cd-induced testicular necrosis between inbred strains, a 24.6-centiMorgan region on chromosome 3 was reduced ultimately to 880 kb; in this segment is the Slc39a8 gene encoding the ZIP8 Zn2+/HCO3− symporter. In endothelial cells of the testis vasc...

  9. Possible involvement of microRNAs in vascular damage in experimental chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïbi, Fatiha; Metzinger-Le Meuth, Valérie; M'Baya-Moutoula, Eléonore; Djelouat, Mohamed seif el Islam; Louvet, Loïc; Bugnicourt, Jean-Marc; Poirot, Sabrina; Bengrine, Abderrahmane; Chillon, Jean-Marc; Massy, Ziad A; Metzinger, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcifications and atherosclerosis. There is a need for novel predictors to allow earlier diagnosis of these disorders, predict disease progression, and improve assessment of treatment response. We focused on microRNAs since they are implicated in a variety of cellular functions in cardiovascular pathology. We examined changes of microRNA expression in aortas of CKD and non-CKD wild type mice and apolipoprotein E knock-out mice, respectively. Both vascular smooth muscle-specific miR-143 and miR-145 expressions were decreased in states of atherosclerosis and/or CKD or both, and the expression level of protein target Myocardin was increased. The inflammatory miR-223 was increased in more advanced stages of CKD, and specific protein targets NFI-A and GLUT-4 were dramatically decreased. Expression of miR-126 was markedly increased and expression of protein targets VCAM-1 and SDF-1 was altered during the course of CKD. The drug sevelamer, commonly used in CKD, corrected partially these changes in microRNA expression, suggesting a direct link between the observed microRNA alterations and uremic vascular toxicity. Finally, miR-126, -143 and -223 expression levels were deregulated in murine serum during the course of experimental CKD. In conclusion, these miRNAs could have role(s) in CKD vascular remodeling and may therefore represent useful targets to prevent or treat complications of CKD.

  10. Malva sylvestris extract protects upon lithium carbonate-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Anouar; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Brahmi, Dalel; Smida, Amani; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazher

    2016-12-01

    Malva sylvestris has recently attracted special attention due to its potential activities in many chronic disorders. We aimed to assess the beneficial effects of Malva sylvestris extract against lithium carbonate induced renal damage in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, Malva sylvestris extract at a dose of 0.2g/kg was orally administrated, followed by 25mg/kg of lithium carbonate (intraperitoneal injection) for 30 days. Malva sylvestris extract was proved to contain large amounts of K(+), Na(+), Ca(++) and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids shown by the obtained HPLC-based analysis. The antioxidant capacities in vitro showed high level of radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The in vivo results showed that intraperitoneal injection of lithium carbonate exhibited a significant increase (pkidney. However, pretreatment with Malva sylvestris extract restored the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that lithium carbonate has induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes and histopathological damage but the supplementation with Malva sylvestris extract has prevented such toxicity.

  11. Reversal of Early Diabetic Nephropathy by Islet Transplantation under the Kidney Capsule in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and insulin therapy has many side effects in the treatment of DN. Islet transplantation has emerged as a promising therapy for diabetic patients. This study was established to investigate its advantageous effects in a rat model of early DN. Methods. Streptozotocin was administered to the rats to induce diabetes. Twelve weeks later, the diabetic rats were divided into 3 groups: the islet-transplanted group (IT group, the insulin-treated group (IN group, and the untreated group (DN group. Renal injury and kidney structure were assessed by urinalysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM detection. Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting were performed to assess renal fibrosis levels. Results. The early DN features were reversed and the glomerular filtration barrier and basement membrane structures were improved at 4 weeks after islet transplantation. The urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, protein-to-creatinine ratio, and mean thickness of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM were significantly decreased in the IT group. The expression of renal fibrotic factors was also significantly decreased. Conclusions. These data suggest that early DN can be reversed after islet transplantation, and they may facilitate the development of a clinical therapeutic strategy for human diabetes mellitus.

  12. PLASMA NEUTROPHIL GELATINASE ASSOCIATED LIPOCALIN AS AN EARLY BIOMARKER OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN SNAKE BITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamarai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury due to snake bite represents a frequent and devastating problem. Currently, Acute Kidney Injury is diagnosed by biochemical monitoring of increase in serum creatinine. Increase in serum creatinine represents a late indication of a functional change in glomerular function rate. Studies have shown that Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin has been found to be very useful for the detection of acute kidney injury within few hours of nephrotoxic insult. Limited information, however, is available regarding the study of plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in snake bite. AIM: The purpose of the study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an early biomarker of Acute Kidney Injury in patients with snake bite and to correlate with serum creatinine. If early detection of Acute Kidney Injury occurs, it can be followed by effective treatment modalities to abort the development or limit the severity of AKI. Therefore this study was designed to explore the importance of pNGAL in cases of snake bite induced AKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was designed to study the patients admitted for the treatment of snakebite within 6 hours in a tertiary care hospital. Patients admitted for snake bite were followed by estimation of pNGAL on day 1 and serum creatinine from the period of admission for up to 5 days. A total of 130 snake bite patients were enrolled and 100 were included in the final study. Snake bite patients were classified into two groups based on the occurrence and absence of AKI. Plasma NGAL and serum creatinine was estimated by solid phase Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method and Jaffe`s method respectively. Data were entered into the excel sheet and analyzed statistically using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS version 17. RESULTS:Among 100 snake bite patients 64 individuals had elevated p

  13. A comparison of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the impact of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis were used in this study. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web...

  14. Effect of early achievement of physiologic resuscitation goals in septic patients admitted from the ward on the kidneys.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.D.; Griesdale, D.E.; Litchfield, A.; Reynolds, S.; Gibney, R.T.; Chittock, D.; Pickkers, P.; Sweet, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate if early achievement of physiologic goals of resuscitation in critically ill septic patients admitted from the ward may prevent acute kidney injury (AKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a diagnosis of sepsi

  15. Effect of ATM and HDAC Inhibition on Etoposide-Induced DNA Damage in Porcine Early Preimplantation Embryos: e0142561

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HaiYang Wang; YiBo Luo; ZiLi Lin; In-Won Lee; Jeongwoo Kwon; Xiang-Shun Cui; Nam-Hyung Kim

    2015-01-01

      Oocyte maturation and embryonic development are sensitive to DNA damage. Compared with somatic cells or oocytes, little is known about the response to DNA damage in early preimplantation embryos...

  16. Double-Negative αβ T Cells Are Early Responders to AKI and Are Found in Human Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Maria N; Noel, Sanjeev; Saxena, Ankit; Bandapalle, Samatha; Majithia, Richa; Jie, Chunfa; Arend, Lois J; Allaf, Mohamad E; Rabb, Hamid; Hamad, Abdel Rahim A

    2016-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of AKI, and previous studies established important roles for conventional CD4(+) T cells, natural killer T cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs in AKI pathogenesis. We recently identified CD4(-)CD8(-) (double-negative; DN) T cells as an important subset of αβ T cell receptor-positive cells residing in mouse kidney. However, little is known about the pathophysiologic functions of kidney DN T cells. In this study, we phenotypically and functionally characterized murine kidney DN T cells in the steady state and in response to IRI. Unlike CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, DN T cells in the steady state expressed high levels of CD69, CD28, and CD40L; differentially expressed IL-27 and IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokines; spontaneously proliferated at a very high rate; and suppressed in vitro proliferation of activated CD4(+) T cells. Within the first 3-24 hours after IRI, kidney DN T cells expanded significantly and upregulated expression of IL-10. In adoptive transfer experiments, DN T cells significantly protected recipients from AKI by an IL-10-dependent mechanism. DN T cells also made up a large fraction of the T cell compartment in human kidneys. Our results indicate that DN T cells are an important subset of the resident αβ(+) T cell population in the mammalian kidney and are early responders to AKI that have anti-inflammatory properties.

  17. Early versus delayed erythropoietin for the anaemia of end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado Daza, Jorge; Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Ariza García, Amaury; Rodelo Ceballos, Joaquín; Yomayusa González, Nancy; Páez-Canro, Carol; Loza Munárriz, César; Urrútia, Gerard

    2015-12-16

    Anaemia is a common complication in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mainly develops as a consequence of relative erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency. Anaemia develops early in the course of disease and peaks among people with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Many types of EPO - also called erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) - are used to treat anaemia in people with ESKD.ESAs have changed treatment of severe anaemia among people with CKD by relieving symptoms and avoiding complications associated with blood transfusion. However, no benefits have been found in relation to mortality rates and non-cardiac fatal events, except quality of life. Moreover, a relationship between ESA use and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD has been reported in studies with fully correcting anaemia comparing with partial anaemia correction. Until 2012, guidelines recommended commencing ESA treatment when haemoglobin was less than 11 g/dL; the current recommendation is EPO commencement when haemoglobin is between 9 and 10 g/dL. However, advantages in commencing therapy when haemoglobin levels are greater than 10 g/dL but less than 11 g/dL remain unknown, especially among older people whose life expectancy is limited, but in whom EPO therapy may improve quality of life. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of early versus delayed EPO for anaemia in patients with ESKD undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 8 July 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating at the clinical benefits and harms of early versus delayed EPO for anaemia in patients with ESKD undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Studies comparing EPO with another EPO, placebo or no treatment were eligible for inclusion. It was planned that two

  18. Early diagnosis of kidney transplant rejection and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity by urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyo, M; Gudat, F; Dalquen, P; Huser, B; Thiel, G; Fujimoto, N; Ichikawa, Y; Fukunishi, T; Nagano, S; Mihatsch, M J

    1992-01-01

    A total of 2000 urine samples from 53 kidney transplant recipients were studied to develop a routine method for the early diagnosis of rejection and cyclosporin (CSA) nephrotoxicity in urine. New-Sternheimer staining and an immunocytochemical technique were used together with classical Papanicolaou staining to differentiate cells in the urine. After cell count and differentiation of second morning urine samples with New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou stains, immunocytochemistry was performed using antibodies against the following antigens: CD2, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD71 (transferrin receptor), HLA-DR and cytokeratin (Lu-5). Cell counts were obtained for the positively-reacting cells per millilitre of urine. By New-Sternheimer and Papanicolaou staining, CSA nephrotoxicity was characterized by the predominance of proximal tubular cells. During rejection episodes, increased numbers of mononuclear cells and renal epithelial cells were found. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a significant increase in CD2-, CD4-, CD8-, CD25-, CD71-, and HLA-DR-positive epithelial cells and in the ratio HLA-DR/cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells in rejection. CD25-positive cells had the highest sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of rejection. Our urine cytology technique proved to be a useful and non-invasive method for the early diagnosis of rejection and CSA nephrotoxicity.

  19. Comparison of protective effects of trimetazidine against experimental warm ischemia of different durations: early and long-term effects in a pig kidney model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayle, Christophe; Favreau, Frederic; Zhang, Kequiang; Doucet, Carole; Goujon, Jean Michel; Hebrard, William; Carretier, Michel; Eugene, Michel; Mauco, Gerard; Tillement, Jean Paul; Hauet, Thierry

    2007-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is often the consequence of an ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and associated with high mortality. Warm ischemia (WI) is a crucial factor of tissue damage, and tissue destruction led by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) can impact the early and long-term functional outcome. Trimetazidine (TMZ) is an anti-ischemic drug. Previously, we already verified its protective effect on a cold-ischemic pig kidney model by directly adding TMZ into the preservation solution (Faure JP, Baumert H, Han Z, Goujon JM, Favreau F, Dutheil D, Petit I, Barriere M, Tallineau C, Tillement JP, Carretier M, Mauco G, Papadopoulos V, Hauet T. Biochem Pharmacol 66: 2241-2250, 2003; Faure JP, Petit I, Zhang K, Dutheil D, Doucet C, Favreau F, Eugene M, Goujon JM, Tillement JP, Mauco G, Vandewalle A, Hauet T. Am J Transplant 4: 495-504, 2004). In this study, we aimed to study the potential effect of TMZ pretreatment (5 mg/kg iv 24 h before WI) on the injury caused by WI for 45, 60, and 90 min and reperfusion in a WI pig kidney model. Compared with sham-operated (control) and uninephrectomized animals (UNX), TMZ pretreatment significantly reduced deleterious effects after 45 min, and particularly 60 and 90 min, of WI by improving the recovery of renal function and minimizing the inflammatory response commonly prevalent in ischemic kidney injury. Compared with controls (control group and UNX group), it was observed that 1) hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1alpha) expression occurred earlier and with a higher intensity in the TMZ-treated groups; 2) the reduction of IRI during the first week following reperfusion was correlated with an earlier and greater expression of stathmin, which is involved in the process of tubular repair; and 3) the tubulointerstitial fibrosis was reduced, particularly after 60 and 90 min of WI. In conclusion, TMZ made the warm-ischemic kidneys more resistant to the deleterious impact of a single episode of I/R and reduced early and long-term subsequent

  20. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Dysplasia What is kidney dysplasia? Kidney dysplasia is a condition in which ... Kidney dysplasia in one kidney What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  1. Children with chronic kidney disease and hypertension: could hypertension footprints be early biomarkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balat, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is one of the major problems in chronic kidney disease (CKD), not only for adults, but also for children. It is one of the main factors in the progression of CKD, increased rate of cardiovascular disease, and impairment in quality of life. The most important devastating effect of HT is on the cardiovascular system. It may leave significant footprints in developing children that can be carried over to adulthood. Existing data clearly show that in CKD children with proteinuria the blood pressure goal should be 50th centile, while it is 75th centile in those without proteinuria. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors are considered the first choice pharmacological option in hypertensive CKD stage 2 to 4 patients. However, in clinical practice, pediatric nephrologists may experience significant problems in treatment and follow-up of these patients, especially in compliance. Due to multiple drug use, physician-patient and family cooperation would be essential to improve the compliance. Remembering the fact that prevention is always cheaper than treatment, we need early detection of CKD and its devastating complications, like HT. Therefore, active screening programs should be encouraged in children, as well as trying to find new biomarkers, inspired from the footprints of HT. Although the researches on new urinary biomarkers for early detection of CKD and HT are promising, more studies are needed in this area. This review aims to give an overview of HT in CKD children, mainly focusing on importance of HT, basic principles of treatment, problems in follow up, and possible markers for early detection of CKD and HT.

  2. Early Trends in Cystatin C and Outcomes in Patients with Cirrhosis and Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M. Belcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common and severe complication in patients with cirrhosis. Progression of AKI to a higher stage associates with increased mortality. Intervening early in AKI when renal dysfunction is worsening may improve outcomes. However, serum creatinine correlates poorly with glomerular filtration in patients with cirrhosis and fluctuations may mask progression early in the course of AKI. Cystatin C, a low-molecular-weight cysteine proteinase inhibitor, is a potentially more accurate marker of glomerular filtration. Methods. We conducted a prospective multicenter study in patients with cirrhosis comparing changes in cystatin and creatinine immediately following onset of AKI as predictors of a composite endpoint of dialysis or mortality. Results. Of 106 patients, 37 (35% met the endpoint. Cystatin demonstrated less variability between samples than creatinine. Patients were stratified into four groups reflecting changes in creatinine and cystatin: both unchanged or decreased 38 (36% (Scr−/CysC−; only cystatin increased 25 (24% (Scr−/CysC+; only creatinine increased 15 (14% (Scr+/CysC−; and both increased 28 (26% (Scr+/CysC+. With Scr−/CysC− as the reference, in both instances where cystatin rose, Scr−/CysC+ and Scr+/CysC+, the primary outcome was significantly more frequent in multivariate analysis, P=0.02 and 0.03, respectively. However, when only creatinine rose, outcomes were similar to the reference group. Conclusions. Changes in cystatin levels early in AKI are more closely associated with eventual dialysis or mortality than creatinine and may allow more rapid identification of patients at risk for adverse outcomes.

  3. [Early kidney transplant failure and return to peritoneal dialysis: preliminary study of permeability and dialysis efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Francisco; Florit, Enrique; Cigarrán-Guldrís, Secundino; Herrero-Calvo, José A; Delgado-Córdova, Margarita; Rodríguez-Cubillo, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The return to dialysis after kidney transplant (TX) failure is increasingly common. On returning to dialysis after TX failure, there is usually a similar or worse clinical situation than in patients who are on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the first time. Although there are several studies on the clinical situation of patients who return to PD after long periods with a functioning TX, there is hardly any information on the progression of a patient subgroup returning to PD after TX failure a few days or weeks after transplantation. Assess whether a short period of time on suboptimal TX and aggressive treatment/measures may influence membrane permeability, the clinical situation and dialysis efficacy on returning to PD. In 9 patients (53.5 ± 15.4 years of age, 5 males and 4 females) who had previously been on PD before early TX failure and had returned to PD (25 ± 23 days, range 10-64) over the last five years, we studied laboratory data including inflammation, nutrition, kidney function, permeability and PD efficacy, at four points during progression: before TX, immediately after returning to PD and after one month and three months on PD. We did not detect significant differences in the progression of nutrition and inflammation parameters. Diuresis decreased significantly from pre-TX volume to diuresis on return to PD and after one month on PD (p=.032), remaining at low levels after three months on PD. UF decreased from 1407 to 951 ml/day (p=.022) and from 314 to 260 ml/4h (p=.018) in the peritoneal equilibration test after three months on PD, without changes being observed in the creatinine dialysate/plasma ratio. Kt/V and weekly creatinine clearance decreased slightly and remained at adequate efficacy levels. In this small sample of patients, who returned to PD after early TX failure, it does not appear that the measures involved in managing a graft at risk over a short period of time have a major effect on clinical parameters and permeability or

  4. Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jin; Liu, Yingtao; Shan, Bohan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Dai, Lenore L.

    2014-09-01

    Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

  5. Contemporary, age-based trends in the incidence and management of patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Filson, Christopher P; Litwin, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Although kidney cancer incidence and nephrectomy rates have risen in tandem, clinical advances have generated new uncertainty regarding the optimal management of patients with small renal tumors, especially the elderly. To clarify existing practice patterns, we assessed contemporary trends in the incidence and management of patients with early-stage kidney cancer. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, we identified adult patients diagnosed with T1aN0M0 kidney cancer from 2000 to 2010. We determined age-adjusted and age-specific incidence and management rates (i.e., nonoperative, ablation, partial nephrectomy [PN], and radical nephrectomy) per 100,000 adults and determined the average annual percent change (AAPC). Finally, we compared management groups using multinomial logistic regression accounting for patient characteristics, cancer information, and county-level measures for health. From 2000 to 2010, we identified 41,645 adults diagnosed with T1aN0M0 kidney cancer. Overall incidence increased from 3.7 to 7.0 per 100,000 adults (AAPC = 7.0%, Pmanagement and ablation approached nephrectomy rates for those aged 75 to 84 years and became the predominant strategy for patients older than 84 years. Adjusting for clinical, oncological, and environmental factors, older patients less frequently underwent PN and more often received ablative or nonoperative management (P<0.001). As the incidence of early-stage kidney cancer rises, patients are increasingly treated with nonoperative and nephron-sparing strategies, especially among the most elderly. The broader array of treatment options suggests opportunities to better personalize kidney cancer care for seniors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Periconceptional undernutrition and being a twin each alter kidney development in the sheep fetus during early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaughlin, Severence M; Walker, Simon K; Kleemann, David O; Tosh, Darran N; McMillen, I Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Adaptive growth responses of the embryo and fetus to nutritional restraint are important in ensuring early survival, but they are implicated in the programming of hypertension. It has been demonstrated that kidney growth and nephrogenesis are each regulated by intrarenal factors, including the insulin-like growth factors, glucocorticoids, and the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN; from approximately 6 wk before to 7 days after conception) in singleton (control, n = 18; PCUN, n = 16) and twin pregnancies (control, n = 6; PCUN, n = 5) on the renal mRNA expression of 11beta- hydroxysteroid dehydrogensase type 1 and type 2 (11beta-HSD-1 and -2), the glucocorticoid (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptors, angiotensinogen, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R), IGF-1 and IGF-2, and IGF1R and IGF2R at approximately 55 days gestation. There was no effect of PCUN or fetal number on fetal weight on relative kidney weight at approximately day 55 of gestation. There was an inverse relationship between the relative weight of the fetal kidney at approximately day 55 and maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in fetuses exposed to PCUN. Exposure to PCUN resulted in a higher expression of IGF1 in the fetal kidney in singleton and twin pregnancies. Being a twin resulted in higher intrarenal expression of IGF-1 and IGF-2, GR, angiotensinogen, AT1R, and AT2R mRNA at 55 days gestation. Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA expression was higher in PCUN singletons, but not PCUN twins, compared with controls. Thus, there may be an adaptive response in the kidney to the early environment of a twin pregnancy, which precedes the fetal growth restriction that occurs later in pregnancy. The kidney of the twin fetus exposed to periconceptional undernutrition may also be less protected from the consequences of glucocorticoid exposure.

  7. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (pinflammation.

  8. Trefoil Factor 1 Excretion Is Increased in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lebherz-Eichinger

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In many patients CKD is diagnosed late during disease progression. Therefore, the implementation of potential biomarkers may facilitate the early identification of individuals at risk. Trefoil factor family (TFF peptides promote restitution processes of mucous epithelia and are abundant in the urinary tract. We therefore sought to investigate the TFF peptide levels in patients suffering from CKD and their potential as biomarkers for CKD. We analysed TFF1 and TFF3 in serum and urine of 115 patients with CKD stages 1-5 without dialysis by ELISA. 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Our results showed, that urinary TFF1 levels were significantly increased with the onset of CKD in stages 1-4 as compared to controls and declined during disease progression (p = 0.003, 0.8. In conclusion our results show increased levels of TFF1 and TFF3 in CKD patients with a pronounced elevation of urinary TFF1 in lower CKD stages. Furthermore, TFF1 and TFF3 seems to be differently regulated and show potential to predict various CKD stages, as shown by ROC curve analysis.

  9. Keishibukuryogan Reduces Renal Injury in the Early Stage of Renal Failure in the Remnant Kidney Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Nakagawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of keishibukuryogan on the early stage of progressive renal failure were examined in rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. Keishibukuryogan, one of the traditional herbal formulations, was given orally at a dose of 1% (w/w and 3% (w/w in chow. Administration of keishibukuryogan was started at 1 week after 5/6 nephrectomy and was continued for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, Azan staining did not reveal any severe histological changes in the kidneys of the nephrectomized rats. On the other hand, significant increases in mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 and fibronectin related to tissue fibrosis, as examined by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, were observed in nephrectomized rats, and they were significantly suppressed by 3% keishibukuryogan treatment. Against gene expressions related to macrophage infiltration, 3% keishibukuryogan treatment significantly suppressed osteopontin mRNA levels, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA levels showed a tendency to decrease, but without statistical significance. It was also observed that 3% keishibukuryogan attenuated serum urea nitrogen and urinary protein excretion levels. From these results, it was suggested that keishibukuryogan exerts beneficial effects that result in slowing the progression of chronic renal failure.

  10. Hemizygous deletion of CTGF/CCN2 does not suffice to prevent fibrosis of the severely injured kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, L.L.; Dendooven, A.; Leeuwis, J.W.; Nguyen, T.Q.; Geest, R.J. van; Giezen, D.M. van der; Broekhuizen, R.; Lyons, K.; Stoop, R.; Kemperman, H.; Schlingemann, R.; Joles, J.A.; Goldschmeding, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) is an important mediator of kidney fibrosis. Previous observations indicated that attenuation of CCN2 expression sufficed to alleviate early kidney damage. However, little is known about the role of CCN2 in fibrosis of severely damaged and more

  11. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A. van; Papazova, D.A.; Oosterhuis, N.R.; Gremmels, H.; Giles, R.H.; Fledderus, J.O.; Joles, J.A.; Verhaar, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  12. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppen, Arianne; Papazova, Diana A.; Oosterhuis, Nynke R.; Gremmels, Hendrik; Giles, Rachel H.; Fledderus, Joost O.; Joles, Jaap A.; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  13. Ectopic Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Ectopic Kidney What is an ectopic kidney? An ectopic kidney is a birth defect in ... has an ectopic kidney. 1 What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  14. Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jingmao; Chen, Hui; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

    2014-06-01

    We have explored the use of a fiber-optic probe with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing modality for early, noninvasive and, rapid diagnosis of potential renal acute rejection (AR) and other renal graft dysfunction of kidney transplant patients. Multimode silica optical fiber immobilized with colloidal Ag nanoparticles at the distal end was used for SERS measurements of as-collected urine samples at 632.8 nm excitation wavelength. All patients with abnormal renal graft function (3 AR episodes and 2 graft failure episodes) who were clinically diagnosed independently show common unique SERS spectral features in the urines collected just one day after transplant. SERS-based fiber-optic probe has excellent potential to be a bedside tool for early diagnosis of kidney transplant patients for timely medical intervention of patients at high risk of transplant dysfunction.

  15. Preserved Renal Function in Kidney Transplantation over a Thrombosed Aortobifemoral Bypass Graft: The Role of Retrograde Flow and Early Thrombolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Pampa-Saico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortobifemoral bypass (ABFB thrombosis is not uncommon, and when the artery of a renal graft is implanted on a bypass the risk of graft loss is high. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a previous history of ABFB under antiplatelet therapy and a kidney allograft implanted on the vascular prosthesis, who presented with acute limb ischemia and severe renal impairment. Imaging techniques revealed a complete thrombosis of the proximal left arm of the ABFB. However, a faint retrograde flow over the graft was observed thanks to the recanalization of distal left bypass by collateral native arteries. This unusual situation not previously reported in a kidney transplant setting, together with an early diagnosis, allowed graft survival until an early local thrombolysis resolved the problem. Two years later, renal function remains normal.

  16. Acute Page kidney following renal allograft biopsy: a complication requiring early recognition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J; Caumartin, Y; Warren, J; Luke, P P W

    2008-06-01

    The acute Page kidney phenomenon occurs as a consequence of external compression of the renal parenchyma leading to renal ischemia and hypertension. Between January 2000 and September 2007, 550 kidney transplants and 518 ultrasound-guided kidney biopsies were performed. During that time, four recipients developed acute oligo-anuria following ultrasound-guided allograft biopsy. Emergent doppler-ultrasounds were performed demonstrating absence of diastolic flow as well as a sub-capsular hematoma of the kidney. Prompt surgical exploration with allograft capsulotomy was performed in all cases. Immediately after capsulotomy, intraoperative Doppler study demonstrated robust return of diastolic flow. Three patients maintained good graft function, and one kidney was lost due to acute antibody-mediated rejection. We conclude that postbiopsy anuria associated with a subcapsular hematoma and acute absence of diastolic flow on doppler ultrasound should be considered pathognomonic of APK. All renal transplant specialists should be able to recognize this complication, because immediate surgical decompression can salvage the allograft.

  17. The concomitant use of meloxicam and methotrexate does not clearly increase the risk of silent kidney and liver damages in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Jin; Park, Min-Chan; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Soo-Kon; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-06-01

    We investigated whether the concomitant use of meloxicam and methotrexate might induce kidney and liver damages in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We enrolled 101 RA patients with normal kidney and liver functions taking meloxicam and methotrexate concomitantly for more than 6 months. Blood and urine tests were performed. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) were used for evaluating silent kidney and liver damages. Ultrasonography was also performed to exclude structural abnormalities. We adopted 90 mL/min/1.73 mm(2) and 5.3 kPa as the cutoff for an abnormal eGFR and LSM. The mean age (85 women) was 51.9 years. The mean eGFR was 97.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and the mean LSM was 4.7 kPa. The mean weekly dose of methotrexate was 13.4 mg. The mean weekly dose of methotrexate did not correlate with eGFR or LSM. Neither the cumulative dose of meloxicam or methotrexate nor the mean weekly dose of methotrexate showed the significant odds ratio or relative risk for abnormal eGFR and LSM values. The use of higher-dose MTX, above 15 mg per week, with meloxicam did not significantly increase the risk for abnormal LSM and eGFR (RR = 2.042, p = 0.185; RR = 0.473, p = 0.218). The concomitant use of meloxicam and MTX did not clearly increase the risk of silent kidney or liver damage in RA patients with normal laboratory results taking MTX and meloxicam concurrently for over 6 months.

  18. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P Mas receptor expressions (all P Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  19. Impact of very early high doses of recombinant erythropoietin on anemia and allograft function in de novo kidney-transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Nassim; Reboux, Anne-Hélène; Cointault, Olivier; Esposito, Laure; Cardeau-Desangles, Isabelle; Lavayssière, Laurence; Guitard, Joëlle; Wéclawiak, Hugo; Rostaing, Lionel

    2010-03-01

    After kidney transplantation, occurrence of anemia in the early post-transplant period (50 years, being a recipient aged >50 years, not treated for hypertension at pretransplant, and no post-transplant ESA therapy. High doses of ESA within the first month of kidney transplantation have no impact on anemia or renal function by 1 month post-transplant.

  20. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α activation improves renal oxygenation and mitochondrial function in early chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joanna L; Pham, Hai; Li, Ying; Hall, Elanore; Perkins, Guy A; Ali, Sameh S; Patel, Hemal H; Singh, Prabhleen

    2017-08-01

    The pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is driven by alterations in surviving nephrons to sustain renal function with ongoing nephron loss. Oxygen supply-demand mismatch, due to hemodynamic adaptations, with resultant hypoxia, plays an important role in the pathophysiology in early CKD. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this mismatch. We utilized the subtotal nephrectomy (STN) model of CKD to investigate the alterations in renal oxygenation linked to sodium (Na) transport and mitochondrial function in the surviving nephrons. Oxygen delivery was significantly reduced in STN kidneys because of lower renal blood flow. Fractional oxygen extraction was significantly higher in STN. Tubular Na reabsorption was significantly lower per mole of oxygen consumed in STN. We hypothesized that decreased mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity may account for this and uncovered significant mitochondrial dysfunction in the early STN kidney: higher oxidative metabolism without an attendant increase in ATP levels, elevated superoxide levels, and alterations in mitochondrial morphology. We further investigated the effect of activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a master regulator of cellular hypoxia response. We observed significant improvement in renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and tubular Na reabsorption per mole of oxygen consumed with HIF-1α activation. Importantly, HIF-1α activation significantly lowered mitochondrial oxygen consumption and superoxide production and increased mitochondrial volume density. In conclusion, we report significant impairment of renal oxygenation and mitochondrial function at the early stages of CKD and demonstrate the beneficial role of HIF-1α activation on renal function and metabolism.

  1. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  2. Biochemical and histological evaluation of kidney damage after sub-acute exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide in rats: involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, Wafa; Nakbi, Amel; Trabelsi, Mounir; Miled, Abdelhedi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of sub-acute exposure to different doses of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on rat kidney. Forty animals were divided into four equal groups and treated with different doses of 2,4-D: 0, 15, 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight per day via oral gavage for 28 consecutive days. Renal function, histopathology, tissue malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. The results showed a significant decrease (p kidney MDA as compared to controls. The histopathological study revealed tubular damages, glomerular alterations, vascular congestion and increased number of pyknotic nuclei in kidneys of all 2,4-D treated groups. The severity of these alterations increase in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings confirm that sub-acute exposure to 2,4-D induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats. Therefore, at higher doses, 2,4-D may be implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney failure via lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

  3. Early and Late Damages in Chromosome 3 of Human Lymphocytes After Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Kahdim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    Tumor formation in humans or animals is a multi-step process. An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. GI is defined as elevated or persistent genetic damages occurring many generations after the cells are exposed. While early studies have demonstrated radiation-induced GI in several cell types as detected in endpoints such as mutation, apoptosis and damages in chromosomes, the dependence of GI on the quality of radiation remains uncertain. To investigate GI in human lymphocytes induced by both low- and high-LET radiation, we initially exposed white blood cells collected from healthy subjects to gamma rays in vitro, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis post irradiation and at several intervals during the culture period. Among a number of biological endpoints planned for the project, the multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) allows identification of inversions that were expected to be stable. We present here early and late chromosome aberrations detected with mBAND in chromosome 3 after gamma exposure. Comparison of chromosome damages in between human lymphocytes and human epithelial cells is also discussed

  4. The role of nutritional assessment and early enteral nutrition for combined pancreas and kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Sally; Asderakis, Argiris; Ilham, Adel; Elker, Doruk; Chapman, Dawn; Ablorsu, Elijah

    2017-02-01

    Early post-operative enteral nutrition is an important part of perioperative management and is strongly supported by ESPEN Guidelines. However, there is limited evidence into the use of Early Enteral Nutrition (EEN) after combined Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation (PKT). We know malnutrition in type-1 diabetics with end stage renal failure (ESRF) is a common problem and a significant risk factor. Therefore, we introduced EEN in our patients. We monitored and recorded nutritional data on 29 PKT recipients who underwent transplantation between Oct 2007 and Jan 2010 without a nutritional assessment or EEN [Monitored Group (MG)] and on 30 PKT recipients between Feb 2010 and Dec 2013 who received a nutritional assessment and EEN (Naso-jejunal feed or oral intake with supplementation, according to their nutritional status) [Fed Group (FG)]. The end-point was to assess patients' daily post-transplant nutritional intake. This was calculated as a percentage of estimated nutritional requirements using the Schofield equation with a 25% added stress factor and relevant activity factor. Following a literature search and realistic targets our aim was to reach >60% requirements: achievement of ≥60% energy requirements by day-7 (7d-60%) and at the time of discharge (total-60%) [13,14]. There was no significant difference between MG and FG patients in cold ischemic time (CIT), recipient-age and donor-age, Length of Stay and donor-creatinine. In contrast, FG patients were less frequently in predialysis status 41.4% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.001; and had higher incidence of BMI Figs. 1 and 2). The FG spent a greater proportion during the first week 66.7% vs. 31%, p = benefit from planned EEN and receive better nutritional support when compared to the patients managed with the historic, reactive approach to nutritional care. Nutritional intake in the first week as well as during the whole admission was superior in patients receiving active EEN despite a more difficult post

  5. Early Change in Proteinuria as a Surrogate Endpoint for Kidney Disease Progression: An Individual Patient Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inker, Lesley A.; Levey, Andrew S.; Pandya, Kruti; Stoycheff, Nicholas; Okparavero, Aghogho; Greene, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background It is controversial whether proteinuria is a valid surrogate endpoint for randomized trials in chronic kidney disease. Study Design Meta-analysis of individual patient level data. Setting & Population Individual patient data on 9008 patients from 32 randomized trials evaluating five intervention types. Selection Criteria for Studies Randomized controlled trials of kidney disease progression until 2007 with measurements of proteinuria both at baseline and during the first year of follow-up, with at least one further year of follow-up for the clinical outcome. Predictor Early change in proteinuria. Outcomes Doubling of serum creatinine, end stage renal disease or death. Results Early decline in proteinuria was associated with a lower risk of the clinical outcome (pooled HR, 0.74 per 50% reduction in proteinuria); this association was stronger at higher levels of baseline proteinuria. Pooled estimates for the proportion of treatment effect on the clinical outcome explained by early decline in proteinuria ranged from −7.0% (95% CI, −40.6% to 26.7%) to 43.9% (95% CI, 25.3% to 62.6%) across five intervention types. The direction of the pooled treatment effects on early change in proteinuria agreed with the direction of the treatment effect on the clinical outcome for all 5 intervention types, with the magnitudes of the pooled treatment effects on the two endpoints agreeing for 4 of the 5 intervention types. The pooled treatment effects on both endpoints were simultaneously stronger at higher levels of proteinuria. However, statistical power was insufficient to determine if differences in treatment effects on the clinical outcome corresponded to differences in treatment effects on proteinuria between individual studies. Limitations Limited variety of interventions tested and low statistical power for many chronic kidney disease clinical trials. Conclusions These results provide new evidence supporting the use of an early reduction in proteinuria as a

  6. Heavy Proteinuria as a Manifestation of Acute Allograft Rejection Presenting Early after Kidney Transplantation: A Retrospective, Single-Center Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The differential diagnosis of heavy proteinuria presenting early after kidney transplantation has generally included de novo or recurrent...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The differential diagnosis of heavy proteinuria presenting early after kidney transplantation has generally included de novo...Deceased Donor 1 IgA Nephropathy 9 days 100mg% dipstick 1.5 5.8 Urine dip negative 1.5 0.5 gm/Kg/d x 5d 5 53 F AA Deceased Donor 2 Membranous

  7. HS2ST MEDIATED KIDNEY MESENCHYME INDUCTION REGULATES EARLY URETERIC BUD BRANCHING

    OpenAIRE

    Mita M. Shah; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Sweeney, Derina E.; Gallegos, Thomas F.; Bush, Kevin T.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are central modulators of developmental processes likely through their interaction with growth factors, such as GDNF, members of the FGF and TGFβ superfamilies, EGF receptor ligands and HGF. Absence of the biosynthetic enzyme, heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase (Hs2st) leads to kidney agenesis. Using a novel combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we have reanalyzed the defect in morphogenesis of the Hs2st−/− kidney. We observed that, while the ...

  8. Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Culturally Sensitive Interventions to Improve African Americans' and Non-African Americans' Early, Shared, and Informed Consideration of Live Kidney Transplantation: The talking about Live Kidney Donation (TALK) study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underutilized, particularly among ethnic/racial minorities. The effectiveness of culturally sensitive educational and behavioral interventions to encourage patients' early, shared (with family and health care providers) and informed consideration of LKT and ameliorate disparities in consideration of LKT is unknown. Methods/Design We report the protocol of the Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) Study, a two-phase study utilizing q...

  9. Influence of glycemic excursion on urinary albumin excretion and inflammatory factor in early diabetes kidney disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Cao; Ding-Ping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To research the influence of glycemic excursion on the level of urinary albumin excretion and inflammatory factor in early diabetes kidney disease patients.Methods:From January to December in 2015, 96 confirmed cases of early diabetes kidney disease were collected. Continuous Glucose Monito Ring System CGMS, produced by American MiniMed Inc) was used to monitor 72 h blood glucose. The influence of MAGE on the level of urinary albumin excretion, IGF-1, FKN, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP and inflammatory indexes was compared.Results:Compared cases of stable blood sugar (MAGE<5.0 mmol/L) with unstable ones (MAGE≥5.0 mmol/L), the difference of UAER and 1,5-AG had statistical significance, while HbA1c and FA had no significant difference. Pearson correlation analysis between MAGE and UAER resulted in strong correlation. And also the front inflammatory factor including IGF-1, FKN, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP all showed lower level than the cases of MAGE≥5.0 mmol/L.Conclusion:Glycemic excursion may accelerate development of kidney injury through inflammatory factors.

  10. Some effects of applied stress on early stages of cavitation damage. [test facilities for analyzing cavitation flow damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, D. J.; Hammitt, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of cavitation flow damage is discussed. The initial phases of damage and the effect of external stresses on the extent to which damage is incurred are analyzed. Three experimental facilities were used to procure the data required: (1) a water loop with venturi, (2) a mercury loop with venturi, and (3) a vibratory facility (stationary specimen, nonflow system). A description of each system is provided for the clarification of test conditions. Photographs of typical cavitation damage instances are included.

  11. Effect of Early Vasopressin vs Norepinephrine on Kidney Failure in Patients With Septic Shock: The VANISH Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anthony C; Mason, Alexina J; Thirunavukkarasu, Neeraja; Perkins, Gavin D; Cecconi, Maurizio; Cepkova, Magda; Pogson, David G; Aya, Hollmann D; Anjum, Aisha; Frazier, Gregory J; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Ashby, Deborah; Brett, Stephen J

    2016-08-02

    Norepinephrine is currently recommended as the first-line vasopressor in septic shock; however, early vasopressin use has been proposed as an alternative. To compare the effect of early vasopressin vs norepinephrine on kidney failure in patients with septic shock. A factorial (2×2), double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in 18 general adult intensive care units in the United Kingdom between February 2013 and May 2015, enrolling adult patients who had septic shock requiring vasopressors despite fluid resuscitation within a maximum of 6 hours after the onset of shock. Patients were randomly allocated to vasopressin (titrated up to 0.06 U/min) and hydrocortisone (n = 101), vasopressin and placebo (n = 104), norepinephrine and hydrocortisone (n = 101), or norepinephrine and placebo (n = 103). The primary outcome was kidney failure-free days during the 28-day period after randomization, measured as (1) the proportion of patients who never developed kidney failure and (2) median number of days alive and free of kidney failure for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both. Rates of renal replacement therapy, mortality, and serious adverse events were secondary outcomes. A total of 409 patients (median age, 66 years; men, 58.2%) were included in the study, with a median time to study drug administration of 3.5 hours after diagnosis of shock. The number of survivors who never developed kidney failure was 94 of 165 patients (57.0%) in the vasopressin group and 93 of 157 patients (59.2%) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -2.3% [95% CI, -13.0% to 8.5%]). The median number of kidney failure-free days for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both was 9 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to -24) in the vasopressin group and 13 days (IQR, 1 to -25) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -4 days [95% CI, -11 to 5]). There was less use of renal replacement therapy in the vasopressin group

  12. Protective effects of curcumin against oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in the livers and kidneys of rats with biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokaç, Mehmet; Taner, Gökçe; Aydın, Sevtap; Ozkardeş, Alper Bilal; Dündar, Halit Ziya; Taşlıpınar, Mine Yavuz; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Kılıç, Mehmet; Başaran, Arif Ahmet; Basaran, Nursen

    2013-11-01

    Curcumin, a most active antioxidant compound, has been suggested to have potential beneficial effects against most metabolic and psychological disorders, including cholestasis. In the present study, the effects of curcumin against oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in Wistar albino rats for 14 days were investigated. The rats were divided into three following groups: Sham group, the BDL group and the BDL+curcumin group. A daily dose of 50mg/kg curcumin was given to the BDL+curcumin group intragastrically for 14 days. The biomarkers of hepatocellular damage were decreased in the BDL+curcumin group compared to the BDL group, indicating that curcumin recovered the liver functions. DNA damage as assessed by the alkaline comet assay was also found to be low in the BDL+curcumin group. Curcumin significantly reduced malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, and enchanced reduced glutathione levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase enzymes activities in the livers and kidneys of BDL group. Curcumin treatment in BDL group was found to decrease tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in the livers of rats. These results suggest that curcumin might have protective effects on the cholestasis-induced injuries in the liver and kidney tissues of rats.

  13. [Protective effects of sulforaphane on the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondria complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongfeng; Li, Yajie; Liang, Bing; Wang, Shuran

    2014-11-01

    To realize the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondrial complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet and investigate the protective effects of sulforaphane against the damage. Eighty-eight adult male SD rats were used, after 1 week adaptability feeding, 8 rats were selected as control group and given low-fat diet. The other 80 rats were given high-fat diet. After 2 weeks, the 32 diet-induced obesity models were choosen whose weight gain was higher than 40%. The 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e. high fat group, high fat+sulforaphane low dose group, high fat+sulforaphane middle dose group and high fat+sulforaphane high dose group. The rats in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were orally administered with sulforaphane 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, all the 4 groups were kept feeding high-fat diet for 5 weeks. All rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed to assay the index of oxidative damages. The content of ROS (0.26 ± 0.04) and MDA((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg) in the hight-fat group were significantly higher than those in the control group((0.20 ± 0.02),(0.57 ± 0.08) U/mg)(t values were -3.02 and -4.72, P sulforaphane, the MDA amount ((0.67 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.56 ± 0.07) U/mg) in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were lower than the hight-fat group ((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg (t values were 3.65, 5.71 and 5.60. P sulforaphane low and middle dose groups ((69.12 ± 8.63), (64.43 ± 6.58) U/mg) were higher than those in the high-fat group((53.03 ± 5.70) U/mg)(t values were -3.82 and -2.71, P 0.05). High-fat diet can induce the mitochondrial oxidative dysfunction in kidney, and sulforaphane shows protective effect on the kidney mitochondrial complex from oxidative damage in obese rats induced by high-fat diet.

  14. Healing of Early Stage Fatigue Damage in Ionomer/Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Post

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the healing of early stage fatigue damage in ionomer/nano-particulate composites. A series of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid zinc ionomer/Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites with varying amounts of ionic clusters were developed and subjected to different levels of fatigue loading. The initiated damage was healed upon localized inductive heating of the embedded nanoparticles by exposure of the particulate composite to an alternating magnetic field. It is here demonstrated that healing of this early stage damage in ionomer particulate composites occurs in two different steps. First, the deformation is restored by the free-shrinkage of the polymer at temperatures below the melt temperature. At these temperatures, the polymer network is recovered thereby resetting the fatigue induced strain hardening. Then, at temperatures above the melting point of the polymer phase, fatigue-induced microcracks are sealed, hereby preventing crack propagation upon further loading. It is shown that the thermally induced free-shrinkage of these polymers does not depend on the presence of ionic clusters, but that the ability to heal cracks by localized melting while maintaining sufficient mechanical integrity is reserved for ionomers that contain a sufficient amount of ionic clusters guaranteeing an acceptable level of mechanical stability during healing.

  15. Effect of kidney damage indicators on ankle-brachial index of patients with chronic kidney disease%慢性肾脏病患者肾脏损伤指标对踝臂指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛福坤; 阎磊; 邵凤民

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者肾脏损伤指标对踝臂指数(ABI)的影响.方法:收集295例CKD患者及体检中心170例无CKD的对照人群的资料,对2组尿白蛋白/肌酐比值(ACR)、估计肾小球滤过率(eGFR)与ABI进行logistic回归分析.结果:对CKD患者进行的多变量logistic回归分析显示,在校正了传统的心血管危险因素后,ACR与eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73m2)均是低ABI的独立危险因素,OR(95%CI)分别为1.065(1.022~1.105)和1.122(1.032~2.577).结论:高ACR与低 eGFR可能导致CKD患者ABI降低.%Aim:To explore the effect of kidney damage indicators on abnormal ankle-brachial index( ABI ) of patients with chronic kidney disease( CKD ). Methods:A total of 295 patients with CKD and 170 non-CKD participants were enrolled. Association between kidney damage indicators, including estimated glomerular filtration rate ( eGFR ) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio( ACR ) and abnormal ABI were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression model. Results: After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CKD, ACR and eGFR were both independently associated with low ABI,OR( 95% CI) was 1.065( 1.022 ~ 1. 105 ) and 1. 122( 1.032~2.577 ),respectively. Conclusion: High ACR and low eGFR may induce low ABI of CKD patients.

  16. The effect of pre-operative methylprednisolone on early endothelial damage after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline; Ostrowski, S R; Lindberg-Larsen, M

    2017-01-01

    We wished to evaluate whether inhibition of the systemic inflammatory response by a single pre-operative dose of methylprednisolone reduced markers of early endothelial damage after fast-track total knee arthroplasty. We randomly allocated 70 patients undergoing elective unilateral total knee...... arthroplasty (1:1) to receive either pre-operative intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg (methylprednisolone group) or isotonic saline (control group). All procedures were performed under spinal anaesthesia without a tourniquet, using a standardised multimodal analgesic regime. The outcomes included changes...... and 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after surgery, with complete sampling from 63 patients for analyses. Methylprednisolone significantly reduced markers of endothelial damage at 24 h following surgery compared with saline (methylprednisolone group vs. control group, adjusted means (SEM)) expressed by circulating...

  17. Limitations of early serum creatinine variations for the assessment of kidney injury in neonates and infants with cardiac surgery.

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    Mirela Bojan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in kidney function, as assessed by early and even small variations in serum creatinine (ΔsCr, affect survival in adults following cardiac surgery but such associations have not been reported in infants. This raises the question of the adequate assessment of kidney function by early ΔsCr in infants undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODOLOGY: The ability of ΔsCr within 2 days of surgery to assess the severity of kidney injury, accounted for by the risk of 30-day mortality, was explored retrospectively in 1019 consecutive neonates and infants. Patients aged ≤ 10 days were analyzed separately because of the physiological improvement in glomerular filtration early after birth. The Kml algorithm, an implementation of k-means for longitudinal data, was used to describe creatinine kinetics, and the receiver operating characteristic and the reclassification methodology to assess discrimination and the predictive ability of the risk of death. RESULTS: Three clusters of ΔsCr were identified: in 50% of all patients creatinine decreased, in 41.4% it increased slightly, and in 8.6% it rose abruptly. Mortality rates were not significantly different between the first and second clusters, 1.6% [0.0-4.1] vs 5.9% [1.9-10.9], respectively, in patients aged ≤ 10 days, and 1.6% [0.5-3.0] vs 3.8% [1.9-6.0] in older ones. Mortality rates were significantly higher when creatinine rose abruptly, 30.3% [15.1-46.2] in patients aged ≤ 10 days, and 15.1% [5.9-25.5] in older ones. However, only 41.3% of all patients who died had an abrupt increase in creatinine. ΔsCr improved prediction in survivors, but not in patients who died, and did not improve discrimination over a clinical mortality model. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that a postoperative decrease in creatinine represents the normal course in neonates and infants with cardiac surgery, and that early creatinine variations lack sensitivity for the assessment of the severity of

  18. The importance of early referral for the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, K.; Madsen, M.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    contacts and medical treatment before renal replacement therapy (RRT) and the consequences for RRT modality and mortality. Methods: Nationwide cohort study including 4495 RRT patients identified in the Danish Nephrology Registry 1999-2006. The cohort was followed to end 2007 by linkage to other national......Background: Many patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are referred late to renal units. This is associated with negative aspects. The purpose of the present study was to characterize late versus early referrals for renal replacement therapy including their renal disease, health care...

  19. Severe dengue in the early postoperative period after kidney transplantation: two case reports from Hospital Geral de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuelson Hugo Félix Maia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Dengue is an arbovirosis that ranges from an asymptomatic presentation to a more severe disease, which is characterized by a vascular leakage syndrome where abdominal pain is a major symptom. Transplant recipients are immunosuppressed and are less likely to develop a severe form of the disease because of a reduction in immune-mediated responses that trigger plasma extravasation events. Herein, we report two cases of severe dengue in the early postoperative period of two kidney transplant recipients. Considering the severity of the cases, we emphasize the importance of dengue screening immediately before transplantation in areas endemic for the disease.

  20. Measures of kidney function by minimally invasive techniques correlate with histological glomerular damage in SCID mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Lauren; Rak-Raszewska, Aleksandra; Geraci, Stefania; Darssan, Darsy; Sharkey, Jack; Huang, Jiaguo; Burton, Neal C; Mason, David; Ranjzad, Parisa; Kenny, Simon; Gretz, Norbert; Lévy, Raphaël; Kevin Park, B; García-Fiñana, Marta; Woolf, Adrian S; Murray, Patricia; Wilm, Bettina

    2015-09-02

    Maximising the use of preclinical murine models of progressive kidney disease as test beds for therapies ideally requires kidney function to be measured repeatedly in a safe, minimally invasive manner. To date, most studies of murine nephropathy depend on unreliable markers of renal physiological function, exemplified by measuring blood levels of creatinine and urea, and on various end points necessitating sacrifice of experimental animals to assess histological damage, thus counteracting the principles of Replacement, Refinement and Reduction. Here, we applied two novel minimally invasive techniques to measure kidney function in SCID mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy. We employed i) a transcutaneous device that measures the half-life of intravenously administered FITC-sinistrin, a molecule cleared by glomerular filtration; and ii) multispectral optoacoustic tomography, a photoacoustic imaging device that directly visualises the clearance of the near infrared dye, IRDye 800CW carboxylate. Measurements with either technique showed a significant impairment of renal function in experimental animals versus controls, with significant correlations with the proportion of scarred glomeruli five weeks after induction of injury. These technologies provide clinically relevant functional data and should be widely adopted for testing the efficacies of novel therapies. Moreover, their use will also lead to a reduction in experimental animal numbers.

  1. Total Coumarins from Hydrangea paniculata Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Damage in Mice by Suppressing Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ma; Jingzhi, Yang; Dongjie, Wang; Dongming, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Hydrangea paniculata (HP) Sieb. is a medical herb which is widely distributed in southern China, and current study is to evaluate renal protective effect of aqueous extract of HP by cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in animal model and its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods. HP extract was prepared and the major ingredients were coumarin glycosides. AKI mouse models were established by single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin, and HP was orally administrated for total five times. The renal biochemical functions, pathological staining, kidney oxidative stress, and inflammatory status were measured. Apoptosis of tubular cells and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were also tested. Results. HP administration could improve the renal function by decreasing concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and attenuates renal oxidative stress and tubular pathological injury and apoptosis; further research demonstrated that HP could inhibit the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and regulate caspase and BCL-2 family proteins. HP also reduced renal infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and its effect might be by downregulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and stat3 signaling pathway. Conclusions. This present study suggests that HP could ameliorate cisplatin induced kidney damage by antioxidation and suppressing renal inflammation and tubular cell apoptosis.

  2. Early to late sparing of radiation damage to the parotid gland by adrenergic and muscarinic receptor agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Zeilstra, LJW; Kampinga, HH; Konings, AWT

    2001-01-01

    Damage to salivary glands after radiotherapeutic treatment of head and neck tumours can severely impair the quality of life of the patients. In the current study we have investigated the early-to-late pathogenesis of the parotid gland after radiation. Also the ability to ameliorate the damage using

  3. Sulodexide ameliorates early but not late kidney disease in models of radiation nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Michele; Naito, Takashi; Yang, Haichun; Freeman, Michael; Donnert, Ellen; Ma, Li-Jun; Dunn, Stephen R.; Sharma, Kumar; Fogo, Agnes B.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Sulodexide is a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Although sulodexide reduced albuminuria in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, long-term effects on chronic renal injury are not established. We investigated sulodexide effects and mechanisms in a rat radiation nephropathy model and in the db/db mouse model of diabetic kidney disease.

  4. Early transient mild hypothermia attenuates neurological deficits and brain damage after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilla, Nadine; Rinne, Christoph; Weiland, Judith; Linsenmann, Thomas; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Westermaier, Thomas

    2017-09-23

    Metabolic exhaustion in ischemic tissue is the basis for a detrimental cascade of cell damage. In the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a sequence of global and focal ischemia occurs, threatening brain tissue to undergo ischemic damage. This study was conducted to investigate whether early therapy with moderate hypothermia can offer neuroprotection after experimental SAH. 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH and treated by active cooling (34° C) or served as controls by continuous maintenance of normothermia (37.0° C). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intracranial pressure (ICP) and local cerebral blood flow (CBF) over both hemispheres were continuously measured. Neurological assessment was performed 24 hours later. Hippocampal damage was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Caspase-3 staining. By a slight increase of MABP in the cooling phase and a significant reduction of ICP, hypothermia improved cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in the first 60 minutes after SAH. Accordingly, a trend to increased CBF was observed during this period. The rate of injured neurons was significantly reduced in hypothermia-treated animals compared to normothermic controls. The results of this series cannot finally answer whether this form of treatment permanently attenuates or only delays ischemic damage. In the latter case, slowing down metabolic exhaustion by hypothermia may still be a valuable treatment during this state of ischemic brain damage and prolong the therapeutic window for possible causal treatments of the acute perfusion deficit. Therefore, it may be useful as a first-tier therapy in suspected SAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging identifies early biochemical markers of tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vishal K.; Ohlander, Samuel; Nguyen, Peter; Vendryes, Christopher; Parthiban, Sujeeth; Hamilton, Blake; Wallis, M. Chad; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Hannaford, Blake; Lendvay, Thomas; Hotaling, James M.; Walsh, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging can allow for the rapid imaging of tissue biochemistry in a label-free and non-perturbing fashion. With the rapid adoption of new minimally invasive surgery (MIS) technologies over the last 20 years, adequate skill to safely and effectively use these technologies may not be achieved and risk of undue physical pressure being placed on tissues is a concern. Previous work has demonstrated that a number of histological stains can detect tissue damage, however, this process requires the initiation and progression of a signaling cascade that results in the epitope of interest being expressed. We proposed to identify the early biochemical markers associated with physical tissue damage from applied forces, thus not requiring transcriptional and translational protein synthesis as traditional immunohistochemistry does. To demonstrate that FT-IR can measure biochemical changes in tissues that have undergone physical force, we took ex-vivo lamb's liver that had been freshly excised and applied varying levels of physical pressure (0kPa to 30kPa). Tissues were then formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and sectioned on to glass for H and E staining to identify damage and on to an IR slide for FT-IR imaging. Regions of interest containing hepatocytes were identified and average FT-IR spectra were extracted from the damaged and undamaged livers. FT-IR spectra showed clear biochemical changes associated with tissue damage. In addition, chemical changes could be observed proceeding histological changes observed when using conventional staining approaches.

  6. Torsade de pointes indicates early neurologic damage in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Yen; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Lin, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Tsai, Tsung-Neng

    2013-12-01

    Torsade de pointes (TdP) is a life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is related to QT prolongation. Although QT prolongation is commonly seen in acute stroke, TdP is rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old woman with ischemic stroke who presented with TdP as the initial manifestation of early neurologic deterioration. We hypothesized that an increase in intracranial pressure may result in neurohormonal activation, QT prolongation, and then myocardial damage, leading to TdP. We highlight that new onset of TdP in a patient with stroke may reflect neurologic deterioration, requiring further evaluation and specific intervention.

  7. The prevalence and significance of renal perfusion defects in early kidney transplants quantified using 3D contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Ben; Wilkinson, M; Elliott, S; Caplan, N

    2017-06-07

    Vascular complications are one of the most common causes of early kidney transplant dysfunction. Contrast enhanced ultrasound increases sensitivity to vascular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and size of vascular abnormalities in early renal transplants using 3D CEUS and the significance of perfusion defects on renal function. Ninety-nine renal transplant patients underwent 3D CEUS after surgery to quantify perfusion defects as percentage total renal volume (TRV). Serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were recorded up to 3 months post-surgery. Twenty participants had focal perfusion defects (0.2-43%TRV). There was a meaningful difference in patients with perfusion defects in eGFR at 1 month (90% CI 2.7-19.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and 3 months (90% CI 1.9-19.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and creatinine at 3 months (90% CI -56 - -8 μmol/L) using a predetermined clinical threshold. Perfusion defect size correlated well with both serum creatinine and eGFR at 3 months (R = 0.80, p ≤ 0.000 and 0.58, p = 0.038). No correlation was seen prior to 3 months. Perfusion defects in kidney transplants were more common than expected and were highly likely to reduce renal function at 1-3 months, and the size of the defect affected the degree of functional change at 3 months. • Perfusion defects were more common than previously thought. • Perfusion defects could be quantified using 3D CEUS. • The presence of even small perfusion defects may affect kidney function. • Size of perfusion defects correlated with subsequent kidney function at 3 months. • Potentially useful in informing clinician expectations of kidney function post-surgery.

  8. Indomethacin reduces glomerular and tubular damage markers but not renal inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients: a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, Martin H; Nauta, Ferdau L; Vogt, Liffert; Laverman, Gozewijn D; Gansevoort, Ron T; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Under specific conditions non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be used to lower therapy-resistant proteinuria. The potentially beneficial anti-proteinuric, tubulo-protective, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs may be offset by an increased risk of (renal) side effects. We investigated the effect of indomethacin on urinary markers of glomerular and tubular damage and renal inflammation. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective open-label crossover study in chronic kidney disease patients (n = 12) with mild renal function impairment and stable residual proteinuria of 4.7±4.1 g/d. After a wash-out period of six wks without any RAAS blocking agents or other therapy to lower proteinuria (untreated proteinuria (UP)), patients subsequently received indomethacin 75 mg BID for 4 wks (NSAID). Healthy subjects (n = 10) screened for kidney donation served as controls. Urine and plasma levels of total IgG, IgG4, KIM-1, beta-2-microglobulin, H-FABP, MCP-1 and NGAL were determined using ELISA. Following NSAID treatment, 24 h -urinary excretion of glomerular and proximal tubular damage markers was reduced in comparison with the period without anti-proteinuric treatment (total IgG: UP 131[38-513] vs NSAID 38[17-218] mg/24 h, pglomerulo- and tubulo-protective effects as observed outweigh the possible side-effects of NSAID treatment on the long term.

  9. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate hypertension and associated kidney damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, Shouko; Ueno, Mai; Tamura, Yuki; Toda, Natsuko; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Murota, Itsuki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the antihypertensive effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides, enzymatic products of high molecular natural alginate from sea weeds, in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats were investigated. Dahl S rats fed a high-salt (4% NaCl) diet were treated with sodium alginate oligosaccharides (4% or 8% w/w) for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by the tail-cuff method, and hypertensive cardiovascular benefits and kidney damage were assessed. Glomerular function and morphological sclerosis were determined. SBP increased in an age-dependent manner in the untreated Dahl S rats. Sodium alginate oligosaccharide treatment attenuated the increase in SBP in a dose-dependent manner. The heart and aortic walls weighed less in the rats treated with sodium alginate oligosaccharides than in the untreated rats. The SBP reduction was associated with a decrease in urinary protein excretion and an increase in the creatinine clearance rate. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides significantly attenuated hypertensive glomerular sclerosis and arterial injury in the kidney. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) decreased in low-salt Dahl S rats and increased with a salt challenge. The alginate oligosaccharides decreased FENa in high-salt Dahl S rats. The results of this study suggest that sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate salt-induced hypertension in Dahl S rats. This reduction is associated with decreases in cardiovascular and renal damage.

  10. Field and Laboratory Studies on Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in the Phytoplanktivorous Bighead Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field and experimental studies were conducted to investigate pathological characterizations and biochemical responses in the liver and kidney of the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp after intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of microcystins (MCs and exposure to natural cyanobacterial blooms in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu. Bighead carp in field and laboratory studies showed a progressive recovery of structure and function in terms of histological, cellular, and biochemical features. In laboratory study, when fish were i.p. injected with extracted MCs at the doses of 200 and 500 μg MC-LReq/kg body weight, respectively, liver pathology in bighead carp was observed in a time dose-dependent manner within 24 h postinjection and characterized by disruption of liver structure, condensed cytoplasm, and the appearance of massive hepatocytes with karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis. In comparison with previous studies on other fish, bighead carp in field study endured higher MC doses and longer-term exposure, but displayed less damage in the liver and kidney. Ultrastructural examination in the liver revealed the presence of lysosome proliferation, suggesting that bighead carp might eliminate or lessen cell damage caused by MCs through lysosome activation. Biochemically, sensitive responses in the antioxidant enzymes and higher basal glutathione concentrations might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs, suggesting that bighead carp can be used as biomanipulation fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination.

  11. Loss of CD28 on Peripheral T Cells Decreases the Risk for Early Acute Rejection after Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burç Dedeoglu

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease patients have a dysfunctional, prematurely aged peripheral T-cell system. Here we hypothesized that the degree of premature T-cell ageing before kidney transplantation predicts the risk for early acute allograft rejection (EAR.222 living donor kidney transplant recipients were prospectively analyzed. EAR was defined as biopsy proven acute allograft rejection within 3 months after kidney transplantation. The differentiation status of circulating T cells, the relative telomere length and the number of CD31+ naive T cells were determined as T-cell ageing parameters.Of the 222 patients analyzed, 30 (14% developed an EAR. The donor age and the historical panel reactive antibody score were significantly higher (p = 0.024 and p = 0.039 respectively and the number of related donor kidney transplantation was significantly lower (p = 0.018 in the EAR group. EAR-patients showed lower CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers (p<0.01 and the same trend was observed for CD8+CD28null T-cell numbers (p = 0.08. No differences regarding the other ageing parameters were found. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers was associated with a lower risk for EAR (HR: 0.65, p = 0.028. In vitro, a significant lower percentage of alloreactive T cells was observed within CD28null T cells (p<0.001.Immunological ageing-related expansion of highly differentiated CD28null T cells is associated with a lower risk for EAR.

  12. Slit2-Robo signaling in inflammation and kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Swasti; Robinson, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Acute kidney injury is an increasingly common global health problem and is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. In addition to facing high mortality rates, the survivors of acute kidney injury are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the most common cause of acute kidney injury, and results from impaired delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the kidney. Massive leukocyte influx into the post-ischemic kidney is one of the hallmarks of IRI. The recruited leukocytes exacerbate tissue damage and, if uncontrolled, initiate the progressive changes that lead to renal fibrosis and chronic kidney disease. Early on, recruitment and activation of platelets promotes microthrombosis in the injured kidney, further exacerbating kidney damage. The diversity, complexity, and multiplicity of pathways involved in leukocyte recruitment and platelet activation make it extremely challenging to control these processes, and past efforts have met with limited success in human trials. A generalized strategy to inhibit infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes and platelets, thereby reducing inflammation and injury, may prove to be more beneficial. In this review, we summarize recent findings demonstrating that the neuronal guidance cues, Slit and Roundabout (Robo), prevent the migration of multiple leukocyte subsets towards diverse inflammatory chemoattractants, and have potent anti-platelet functions in vitro and in vivo. These properties uniquely position Slit2 as a novel therapeutic that could be used to prevent acute kidney injury associated with IRI.

  13. Neurogenesis requires TopBP1 to prevent catastrophic replicative DNA damage in early progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsoo; Katyal, Sachin; Downing, Susanna M.; Zhao, Jingfeng; Russell, Helen R.; McKinnon, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of progenitors during neurogenesis requires a stringent genomic maintenance program to ensure transmission of genetic fidelity. However the essential factors that govern neural progenitor genome integrity are unknown. Here we report that conditional inactivation of mouse TopBP1, a protein linked to DNA replication, and a key activator of the DNA damage response kinase ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and rad3 related) is critical for maintenance of early-born neural progenitors. During cortical development TopBP1 prevented replication-associated DNA damage in Emx1-progenitors which otherwise resulted in profound tissue ablation. Importantly, disrupted neurogenesis in TopBP1-depleted tissues was substantially rescued by p53- but not ATM-inactivation. Our data establish that TopBP1 is essential for preventing replication-associated DNA strand breaks, but is not essential per se for DNA replication. Thus, TopBP1 is crucial for maintaining genome integrity in the early progenitors that drive neurogenesis. PMID:22522401

  14. Impact of Early Low-Grade Proteinuria and Allograft Dysfunction on Survival in Expanded Criteria Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, V; Cabello, M; Ruíz-Esteban, P; Sola, E; Gutiérrez, C; Jironda, C; Burgos, D; González-Molina, M; Hernández, D

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between low-grade proteinuria and worse graft survival, but this has not been fully studied in expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess whether the combination of early low-grade proteinuria (proteinuria (300 mg/d) and median creatinine (Cr; 1.7 mg/dL; interquartile range, 1.4-2.1 mg/dL) at the third month post-transplantation: Group A (Cr proteinuria proteinuria ≥300 mg/24 h; n = 38), Group C (Cr ≥1.7 mg/dL and proteinuria proteinuria ≥300 mg/24 h; n = 55). Death-censored graft survival was significantly lower in Group D compared with the rest (P proteinuria and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as associated with graft failure (hazard rate [HR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-5.97; P = .03). The early association of low-grade proteinuria and allograft dysfunction represents an important risk factor for graft loss in ECD kidney transplant recipients. Strategies to optimize renal function could improve the outcome in this specific population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of Statin Treatment in Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Eun Yeong; Myoung, Chana; Park, Hong-Suk; Kim, Ae Jin; Ro, Han; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Chung, Wookyung; Jung, Ji Yong

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a major medical challenge and frequently coexists with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which can be treated by statin trerapy. However, whether statin treatment affects renal progression and outcomes in CKD patients remains unclear. We retrospectively reviewed CKD patients at Gachon University Gil Medical Center from 2003–2013. From a total of 14,497 CKD patients, 858 statin users were paired with non-users and analyze with propensity score matching was p...

  16. AT1-receptor mediated vascular damage in myocardium, kidneys and liver in rats Lesão vascular mediada pelo receptor AT1 esses efeitos em miocárdio, rins e fígado de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Fernandez Vailati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The systemic aspect of vascular damage induced by angiotensin II (ANG II has been poorly explored in the literature. Considering the presence of ANG II and its specific receptor AT1, in several organs, all tissues might be potentially affected by its effects. The aims of this study were: To evaluate the early histological changes in the heart, liver and kidneys, produced by ANG II infusion, to evaluate the protective effect of losartan. Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control (no treatment, treated with ANG II, and treated with ANG II + losartan. ANG II was continuously infused over 72 hours by subcutaneous osmotic pumps. Histological sections of the myocardium, kidneys and liver were stained and observed for the presence of necrosis. There were ANG II-induced perivascular inflammation and necrosis of the arteriolar wall in the myocardium, kidney, and liver by, which were partially prevented by losartan. There was no significant correlation between heart and kidney damage. Tissue lesion severity was lower than that of vascular lesions, without statistical difference between groups. ANG II causes vascular injury in the heart, kidneys and liver, indicating a systemic vasculotoxic effect; the mechanisms of damage/protection vary depending on the target organ; perivascular lesions may occur even when anti-hypertensive doses of losartan are used.O aspecto sistêmico da lesão vascular induzida pela angiotensina II (ANG II tem sido pouco explorada na literatura. Considerando a presença de ANG II e de seu receptor AT1 em diversos órgãos, todos os tecidos poderiam ser potencialmente afetados por esses efeitos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar as alterações histológicas iniciais no coração, fígado e rins, produzidas pela infusão de ANG II, e avaliar o efeito protetor do losartan. Ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: controle (sem tratamento, tratados com ANG II, e tratados com ANG II + losartan. A ANG II foi

  17. Over-diuresis or cardiac tamponade? An unusual case of acute kidney injury and early closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkeerat Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An 84-year-old man with hypertension and a history of deep venous thrombosis (on warfarin was admitted with shortness of breath presumed to be due to congestive heart failure. Echocardiogram performed the following day showed a low-normal ejection fraction with signs of elevated right-sided pressures but was otherwise normal. He improved with diuretic therapy but after a few days was found to be hypotensive with a concomitant rise in creatinine with decreased urine output. This was felt to be secondary to over-diuresis but he did not respond to small boluses of intravenous fluids as his kidney function continued to worsen and hypotension persisted. He was transferred to the intermediate care unit where a rapid, bedside ultrasound revealed a new, moderate-sized pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. Pericardiocentesis, with removal of 750 cc of frank blood, led to dramatic improvement in blood pressure, kidney function, and urine output. Here, we demonstrate the utility of point-of-care ultrasound in a community hospital setting where urgent echocardiogram is not routinely available. We also report acute kidney injury due to pericardial tamponade reversed with therapeutic pericardiocentesis.

  18. CT perfusion technique for assessment of early kidney allograft dysfunction: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helck, A.; Notohamiprodjo, M.; Schoen, F.; Nikolaou, K.; Clevert, D.A.; Reiser, M.; Becker, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Wessely, M.; Schoenermarck, U.; Fischereder, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine IV, Nephrology, University Hospitals Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Klotz, E. [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    To assess the benefit of quantitative computed tomography (CT) perfusion for differentiating acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and acute rejection (AR) in kidney allografts. Twenty-two patients with acute kidney allograft dysfunction caused by either AR (n = 6) or ATN (n = 16) were retrospectively included in the study. All patients initially underwent a multiphase CT angiography (CTA) protocol (12 phases, one phase every 3.5 s) covering the whole graft to exclude acute postoperative complications. Multiphase CT dataset and dedicated software were used to calculate renal blood flow. Renal biopsy or clinical course of disease served as the standard of reference. Mean effective radiation dose and mean amount of contrast media were calculated. Renal blood flow values were significantly lower (P = 0.001) in allografts undergoing AR (48.3 {+-} 21 ml/100 ml/min) compared with those with ATN (77.5 {+-} 21 ml/100 ml/min). No significant difference (P = 0.71) was observed regarding creatinine level with 5.65 {+-} 3.1 mg/dl in AR and 5.3 {+-} 1.9 mg/dl in ATN. The mean effective radiation dose of the CT perfusion protocol was 13.6 {+-} 5.2 mSv; the mean amount of contrast media applied was 34.5 {+-} 5.1 ml. All examinations were performed without complications. CT perfusion of kidney allografts may help to differentiate between ATN and rejection. (orig.)

  19. Over-diuresis or cardiac tamponade? An unusual case of acute kidney injury and early closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurkeerat; Sabath, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    An 84-year-old man with hypertension and a history of deep venous thrombosis (on warfarin) was admitted with shortness of breath presumed to be due to congestive heart failure. Echocardiogram performed the following day showed a low-normal ejection fraction with signs of elevated right-sided pressures but was otherwise normal. He improved with diuretic therapy but after a few days was found to be hypotensive with a concomitant rise in creatinine with decreased urine output. This was felt to be secondary to over-diuresis but he did not respond to small boluses of intravenous fluids as his kidney function continued to worsen and hypotension persisted. He was transferred to the intermediate care unit where a rapid, bedside ultrasound revealed a new, moderate-sized pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. Pericardiocentesis, with removal of 750 cc of frank blood, led to dramatic improvement in blood pressure, kidney function, and urine output. Here, we demonstrate the utility of point-of-care ultrasound in a community hospital setting where urgent echocardiogram is not routinely available. We also report acute kidney injury due to pericardial tamponade reversed with therapeutic pericardiocentesis. PMID:27124173

  20. Crataegus songarica methanolic extract accelerates enzymatic status in kidney and heart tissue damage in albino rats and its in vitro cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Ali Dar, Tanveer; Zargar, Sabuhi; Bhat, Aashiq Hussain; Dar, Khalid Bashir; Masood, Akbar; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal

    2016-07-01

    Crataegus songarica K. Koch (Rosaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. This study evaluates the effect of C. songarica methanol extract on the kidney and heart tissue damage of albino rats, and to determine cytotoxic activity of various extracts of songarica on various human cancer cell lines. Rats were divided into six groups, Group I received water only; Group II received CCl4 (1 mL/kg b wt) intraperitoneal; C. songarica extract (at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b wt) orally for 15 days. Cytotoxic activity was determined by SRB method using MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SF-295, SW480 and IMR-32 cell lines. Compared with CCl4 group, administration of C. songarica extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg b wt, significantly decreases serum creatinine (59.74%), urea (40.23%) and cholesterol (54 mg/dL), MDA (0.007 nmol/mg protein) in kidney and (0.025 nmol/mg protein) in heart tissue, along with evaluation of GSH (209.79 ± 54.6), GR (111.45 ± 2.84), GPx (94.01 ± 14.80), GST (201.71) in kidney tissue and GSH (51.47 ± 1.47), GR (45.42 ± 6.69), GPx (77.19 ± 10.94), GST (49.89) in heart tissue. In addition, methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited potent anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 28.57 to 85.106 µg/mL. Crataegus songarica methanol extract has a potential antioxidant effect as it protects the kidney and heart tissue against CCl4-induced toxicity, prevents DNA damage and showed strong anticancer activity.

  1. Optimal selection of autoregressive model coefficients for early damage detectability with an application to wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Data-driven vibration-based damage detection techniques can be competitive because of their lower instrumentation and data analysis costs. The use of autoregressive model coefficients (ARMCs) as damage sensitive features (DSFs) is one such technique. So far, like with other DSFs, either full sets of coefficients or subsets selected by trial-and-error have been used, but this can lead to suboptimal composition of multivariate DSFs and decreased damage detection performance. This study enhances the selection of ARMCs for statistical hypothesis testing for damage presence. Two approaches for systematic ARMC selection, based on either adding or eliminating the coefficients one by one or using a genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed. The methods are applied to a numerical model of an aerodynamically excited large composite wind turbine blade with disbonding damage. The GA out performs the other selection methods and enables building multivariate DSFs that markedly enhance early damage detectability and are insensitive to measurement noise.

  2. DNA damage in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease; a test of the role of diabetes mellitus; a comet assay investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamur, Sevcan; Unal, Fatma; Altok, Kadriye; Deger, Serpil Muge; Yuzbasioglu, Deniz

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing rapidly. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most important cause of CKD. We studied the possible role of DM in CKD patients with respect to DNA damage, as assessed by the comet assay in 60 CKD patients (with or without DM) undergoing hemodialysis and in 26 controls. Effects of other factors, such as age, sex, hypertension, duration of hemodialysis, body mass index (BMI), and levels of hemoglobin (HB), intact parathormone (iPTH), and ferritin (FER), were also examined. Primary DNA damage measured by the comet assay was significantly higher in CKD patients than in controls. Among CKD patients, the following correlations were observed. (1) There was no difference in comet tail length or tail intensity between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. (2) Age, sex, hemoglobin, hypertension, duration of hemodialysis, and ferritin levels affected neither tail length nor intensity. (3) BMI values above 25kg/m(2) and iPTH levels above 300pg/ml were associated with significantly greater comet tail length. Our results indicate that primary DNA damage is increased in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis, compared to controls; however, DM had no additional effect.

  3. Diagnostic value of cystatin C for diagnosis of early renal damages in type 2 diabetic mellitus patients: The first experience in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Javanmardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus. Now-a-days, cystatin C (CysC is introduced as a new marker for diagnosis of renal damages; however, use of this marker in clinical laboratories is still controversial. The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum CysC for early detection or monitoring treatment of kidney damages in the Kurdish people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was estimated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Serum CysC and urine microalbumin were also measured in 126 diabetic and healthy subjects. Blood glycated hemoglobin (Hb also measured in all healthy and diabetic patients. Two independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test, as well as Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficient statistical tests were used as appropriate. Results: Serum CysC was higher (1312.41 ng/ml in diabetic patients with GFR <60 ml/min than other subjects (993.25 ng/ml (patients with normal kidney function and healthy subjects. A borderline significant correlation between CysC and estimating GFR (rs = −0.16, P = 0.05 but highly significant with microalbumin (rs = 0.22, P = 0.014 was observed. Serum CysC sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values were 100 and 4%. Conclusion: CysC cover variation of GFR and urine microalbumin, but it cannot be used as a surrogating marker of glycated Hb. According to our results, it seems that serum CysC is a useful marker for screening of DN; but it cannot be used for monitoring of treatment in diabetic patients.

  4. Early segmental changes in ischemic acute tubular necrosis of the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; Nørgaard, Tove; Hegedüs, Viktor;

    2004-01-01

    and subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. The microscopic slides from the kidneys were silver methenamine-PAS stained. In the segments of the proximal convoluted tubules of the nephrons, presence of nuclear pyknosis, places of denuded basement membranes and presence of exfoliated tubular cells were counted...... versus the subsequent loops. The distribution of the structural lesions is in accordance with the previously reported presence of a tubulo-capillary counter-current flow in the proximal convoluted tubule and, when related to the highly variable oxygen tension in the normal renal cortex of the rat...

  5. Applying an expanded set of cognitive design principles to formatting the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, José Luis; Fleming, Erik; Gannon, Monica R; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Vassalotti, Joseph A; Norris, Keith C

    2008-04-01

    The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is a free community-based health-screening program targeting populations at greatest risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), those with high rates of diabetes and hypertension, and a high proportion of racial/ethnic minorities. The KEEP Longitudinal Survey will adopt methods similar to those used in KEEP to gather follow-up data to measure CKD-related heath status and gauge program effectiveness for repeated KEEP participants with evidence of CKD stages 3 to 5. KEEP has defined objectives to enhance follow-up survey response rates and target vulnerable populations who bear the greatest CKD risk-factor burdens. The KEEP Follow-up Form was assessed for adherence to 6 cognitive design principles (simplicity, consistency, organization, natural order, clarity, and attractiveness) considered to summate the techniques guiding good survey development and for the additional cognitive design principles of readability and variation of readability across survey items. The KEEP Follow-up Form was found to include violations of each cognitive design principle and readability principle, possibly contributing to item nonresponse and low follow-up rates in KEEP. It was revised according to empirically substantiated formatting techniques guided by these principles and found during qualitative assessment to be more user friendly, simpler, better organized, more attractive, and easier to read. Subsequent development of the KEEP Longitudinal Survey form also was guided by these principles. To ensure ease of use by populations with limited literacy skills, poor health literacy, and limited survey literacy, survey researchers must apply cognitive design principles to survey development to improve participation and response rates.

  6. Human kidney damage in fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever results of glomeruli injury mainly induced by IL17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari, Carla; Simões Quaresma, Juarez Antônio; Kanashiro-Galo, Luciane; de Carvalho, Leda Viegas; Vitoria, Webster Oliveira; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Penny, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Barbara Cristina Baldez; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas

    2016-02-01

    Acute kidney injury is an unusual complication during dengue infection. The objective of this study was to better identify the characteristics of glomerular changes focusing on in situ immune cells and cytokines. An immunohistochemical assay was performed on 20 kidney specimens from fatal human cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). It was observed a lymphomononuclear infiltrate, neutrophils and nuclear fragmentation in the glomeruli, hydropic degeneration, nuclear retraction, eosinophilic tubules and intense acute congestion. Sickle erythrocytes were frequent in glomeruli and inflammatory infiltrate. The glomeruli presented endothelial swelling and mesangial proliferation. Lymphocytes CD4+ predominated over CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. There were also an expressive number of macrophagic CD68+ cells. S100, Foxp3 and CD123 cells were not identified. Cells expressing IL17 and IL18+ cytokines predominated in the renal tissues, while IL4, IL6, IL10, IL13, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were rarely visualized. The high number of cells expressing IL17 and IL18+ could reflect the acute inflammatory response and possibly contribute to the local lesion. CD8+ T cells could play a role in the cytotoxic response. DHF is a multifactorial disease of capillary leakage associated with a "Tsunami of cytokines expression". The large numbers of cells expressing IL17 seems to play a role favoring the increased permeability.

  7. Lipid Peroxidative Damage on Cisplatin Exposure and Alterations in Antioxidant Defense System in Rat Kidneys: A Possible Protective Effect of Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka I. Ognjanović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CP is an important chemotherapeutic agent, useful in the treatment of several cancers, but with several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of selenium (Se against CP-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidneys. Male Wistar albino rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg CP/kg b.m., i.p. and selenium (6 mg Se/kg b.m, as Na2SeO3, i.p., alone or in combination. The obtained results showed that CP increased lipid peroxidation (LPO and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH concentrations, suggesting the CP-induced oxidative stress, while Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication of rats with CP was followed by statistically significant decreased activity of antioxidant defense enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Treatment with Se reversed CP-induced alterations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities and significantly prevented the CP-induced kidney damage.

  8. Lipid peroxidative damage on Cisplatin exposure and alterations in antioxidant defense system in rat kidneys: a possible protective effect of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjanović, Branka I; Djordjević, Nataša Z; Matić, Miloš M; Obradović, Jasmina M; Mladenović, Jelena M; Stajn, Andraš Š; Saičić, Zorica S

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin (Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CP) is an important chemotherapeutic agent, useful in the treatment of several cancers, but with several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of selenium (Se) against CP-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidneys. Male Wistar albino rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg CP/kg b.m., i.p.) and selenium (6 mg Se/kg b.m, as Na(2)SeO(3), i.p.), alone or in combination. The obtained results showed that CP increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations, suggesting the CP-induced oxidative stress, while Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication of rats with CP was followed by statistically significant decreased activity of antioxidant defense enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Treatment with Se reversed CP-induced alterations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities and significantly prevented the CP-induced kidney damage.

  9. Early ROS-mediated DNA damage and oxidative stress biomarkers in Monoclonal B Lymphocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Rosa; Oliver, Isabel; Tormos, Carmen; Egea, Mercedes; Miguel, Amparo; Cerdá, Concha; Ivars, David; Borrego, Silvia; Carbonell, Felix; Sáez, Guillermo T

    2012-04-28

    Monoclonal B Lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as asymptomatic monoclonal B-cell expansion characterised by a CLL-phenotype, but with less than 5×10(9)/l circulating cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell damage plays a critical role in the initiation of carcinogenesis as well as in malignant transformation. The goal of this study was to perform an analysis of the oxidative stress statuses of patients affected by MBL and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We examined peripheral blood and urine specimens from 29 patients with MBL, 55 with CLL and 31 healthy subjects. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of the mutagenic base 8-oxo-2'-deoxiguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the lymphocytes and urine of MBL and CLL patients compared with controls. Significant differences were also observed in the levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and in the oxidised/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio, although an increase in 8-isoprostane was not detected. Interestingly, the antioxidant catalase activity of circulating lymphocytes decreased in the patient groups. In conclusion, early oxidative stress exists in patients with MBL and CLL, causing damage to DNA and lipid structures. The higher levels of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes than in urine may be related to a decrease in the capacity of DNA repair systems. There were no differences in the oxidative statuses of the MBL and CLL patients, suggesting that oxidative injuries appear during a pre-leukaemic state of the disease.

  10. Impact of Early Blood Transfusion After Kidney Transplantation on the Incidence of Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandiz, I; Congy-Jolivet, N; Del Bello, A; Debiol, B; Trébern-Launay, K; Esposito, L; Milongo, D; Dörr, G; Rostaing, L; Kamar, N

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of posttransplant blood transfusion on the sensitization of anti-HLA antibodies and the formation of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). The aims of our study were to determine the 1-year incidence of DSAs (assessed using a solid-phase assay) and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant patients who had or had not received a blood transfusion during the first year after transplantation. Included were 390 non-HLA-sensitized patients who had received an ABO-compatible kidney transplant and had not previously or simultaneously received a nonkidney transplant. Overall, 64% of patients received a red blood cell transfusion within the first year after transplantation, most within the first month. The overall 1-year incidence of DSAs was significantly higher in patients that had undergone transfusion (7.2% vs. 0.7% in patients with no transfusion, p transfusion group (n = 15, 6%) compared with the nontransfusion group (n = 2, 1.4%; p = 0.04). Blood transfusion was an independent predictive factor for de novo DSA formation but not for AMR. Patients who had a transfusion and developed DSAs were more often treated with cyclosporin A (n = 10, 55.5%) rather than tacrolimus (n = 45, 19.4%; p = 0.0001). In conclusion, early posttransplant blood transfusion may increase immunological risk, especially in underimmunosuppressed patients.

  11. Protective effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sodium nitroprusside-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M W; Priyamvada, S; Khan, S A; Khan, S; Naqshbandi, A; Yusufi, A N K

    2012-10-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) a nitric oxide (NO) donor has proven toxic effects. Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) has been shown to reduce the severity of numerous ailments. Present study examined whether intake of fish oil (FO)/flaxseed oil (FXO, Omega Nutrition, St Vancouver, Canada) would have protective effect against SNP-induced toxicity. Male Wistar rats (150 ± 10 g) were used in this study. Initially animals were divided into two groups: one fed on normal diet and the other on 15% FO/FXO for 15 days. On the 16th day, SNP (1.5 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days daily. After 7 days animals were killed, kidneys were harvested for further analysis. SNP induced nephrotoxicity by increasing serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, SNP significantly decreased malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and malic enzyme but increased lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Brush border membrane enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and leucine amino peptidase were also decreased. The activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased concomitantly with increased lipid peroxidation, indicating that the significant kidney damage has been inflicted by SNP. Feeding of FO and FXO with SNP ameliorated the changes in various parameters caused by SNP. The results of the present study suggest that ω-3 PUFA-enriched FO and FXO from seafoods and plant sources, respectively, are similarly effective in reducing SNP-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage. Thus, vegetarians who cannot consume FO can have similar health benefits from plant-derived ω-3 PUFA.

  12. Indomethacin reduces glomerular and tubular damage markers but not renal inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients: a post-hoc analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H de Borst

    Full Text Available Under specific conditions non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be used to lower therapy-resistant proteinuria. The potentially beneficial anti-proteinuric, tubulo-protective, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs may be offset by an increased risk of (renal side effects. We investigated the effect of indomethacin on urinary markers of glomerular and tubular damage and renal inflammation. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective open-label crossover study in chronic kidney disease patients (n = 12 with mild renal function impairment and stable residual proteinuria of 4.7±4.1 g/d. After a wash-out period of six wks without any RAAS blocking agents or other therapy to lower proteinuria (untreated proteinuria (UP, patients subsequently received indomethacin 75 mg BID for 4 wks (NSAID. Healthy subjects (n = 10 screened for kidney donation served as controls. Urine and plasma levels of total IgG, IgG4, KIM-1, beta-2-microglobulin, H-FABP, MCP-1 and NGAL were determined using ELISA. Following NSAID treatment, 24 h -urinary excretion of glomerular and proximal tubular damage markers was reduced in comparison with the period without anti-proteinuric treatment (total IgG: UP 131[38-513] vs NSAID 38[17-218] mg/24 h, p<0.01; IgG4: 50[16-68] vs 10[1-38] mg/24 h, p<0.001; beta-2-microglobulin: 200[55-404] vs 50[28-110] ug/24 h, p = 0.03; KIM-1: 9[5]-[14] vs 5[2]-[9] ug/24 h, p = 0.01. Fractional excretions of these damage markers were also reduced by NSAID. The distal tubular marker H-FABP showed a trend to reduction following NSAID treatment. Surprisingly, NSAID treatment did not reduce urinary excretion of the inflammation markers MCP-1 and NGAL, but did reduce plasma MCP-1 levels, resulting in an increased fractional MCP-1 excretion. In conclusion, the anti-proteinuric effect of indomethacin is associated with reduced urinary excretion of glomerular and tubular damage markers, but not with reduced excretion of renal

  13. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa D Flora

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  14. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  15. Childhood chronic-kidney-disease: a longitudinal-qualitative study of families learning to share management early in the trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Veronica; Lambert, Heather; Clarke, Charlotte; Campbell, Steve; Jacoby, Ann

    2008-11-01

    To explore the ways families learn to share management during the early stages of childhood chronic-kidney-disease. This longitudinal, descriptive study based on the tenets of grounded theory, aimed to derive meaning about family-professional interactions during shared management. Data were obtained from six newly referred families, four renal nurses, four paediatric nephrologists and one dietician through: 36 semi-structured interviews, 21 case-note reviews and four child/parent learning diaries. Three learning stages were identified: dependent (families' understanding was superficial, they lacked underlying knowledge and were totally reliant on professional guidance); co-dependent (families engaged competently in management but still required extensive guidance); independent (families communicated effectively with staff and competently adjusted management within professionally defined parameters). Five families actively shared management from early in the trajectory and progressed to independent learning when, by mutual agreement, professional input to management gradually decreased. The remaining family adopted a passive approach to management, did not progress to independent learning and remained reliant on professional input. Families in this study demonstrated three learning stages in becoming competent at management. Future research is needed to investigate the ways professionals promote family competence early in the trajectory and the factors that can facilitate or hinder families' progression to independent learning.

  16. Polymicrobial Infections in the Early Period of Kidney Transplantation in a Case with Wegener's Granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda COŞKUN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wegener's granulomatosis (WG is a disorder that causes necrotizing granulomatosis vasculitis particularly of the upper respiratory tract, lung and kidney. A 43-year-old male who had been treated with hemodialysis because of renal insufficiency due to WG underwent live donor renal transplantation. Pulmonary infiltrates were detected on the postoperative 4th day and antibiotic therapy was started with a diagnosis of sepsis and pulmonary infection. Dialysis treatment was also started due to the degradation of renal function for the patient who was intubated during follow-up. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (BiPAP treatment was started after extubation. The graft and respiratory function improved during clinical follow-up. Resistant hospital infections, causing respiratory failure and systemic complications, were facilitated by a long history of hospitalization before transplantation, the presence of WG and immunosupression and were successfully treated with a multidisciplinary approach.a

  17. Effects of recipient’s pre-transplant triglyceride abnormalities on early renal function recovery after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of recipient's pre-transplant triglyceride (TG abnormalities on early graft function (EGF after kidney transplantation. Methods According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 154 identified living-kidney transplant recipients in the 309 Hospital of Chinese PLA from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2014 were enrolled in present study, including 124 males and 30 females, and aged of 31.9±8.4 years. The cohort was divided into two groups: TG normal group (0.401.70mmol/L or require lipid lowering therapy, n=47. The incidences of poor early graft renal function (PEGF, slow graft function (SGF and delayed graft function (DGF were compared between the two groups, and then the serum creatinine (Scr levels were compared among the patients showing immediate graft function (IGF at 3rd, 7th and 30th day after transplantation. The ROC curve was drawn up taking TG as diagnosis index to explore the optimal cut-off value for predicting PEGF, SGF and DGF after transplantation. Results Compared with the TG normal group, the TG abnormalities group showed significantly higher incidence of PEGF and DGF (P<0.05. Among the IGF patients, the TG abnormalities group showed higher Scr level at the 7th and 30th day after transplantation (P<0.05. The area under ROC curve (AUC reflected TG levels for PEGF, SGF and DGF were 0.774, 0.704 and 0.818, respectively (P<0.05. The optimal cut-off values were all 1.37mmol/L. Conclusions Recipients with abnormal pre-transplant TG level may have worse EGF after renal transplantation. The risk of developing PEGF, SGF and DGF tends to emerge when pre-transplant TG level is higher than 1.37mmol/L. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.12

  18. Biophysical modelling of early and delayed radiation damage at chromosome level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, S.; Eidelman, Y.

    Exposure by ionising radiation increases cancer risk in human population Cancer is thought to originate from an altered expression of certain number of specific genes It is now widely recognised that chromosome aberrations CA are involved in stable change in expression of genes by gain or loss of their functions Thus CA can contribute to initiation or progression of cancer Therefore understanding mechanisms of CA formation in the course of cancer development might be valuable tool for quantification and prognosis of different stages of radiation carcinogenesis Early CA are defined as aberrations induced in first post-irradiation mitotic cycle The present work describes the original biophysical technique for early CA modelling It includes the following simulation steps the ionising particle track structure the structural organisation of all chromosomes in G 0 G 1 cell nucleus spatial distribution of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks dsb within chromosomes dsb rejoining and misrejoining modelling cell cycle taking into account mitotic delay which results in complex time dependence of aberrant cells in first mitosis The results on prediction of dose-response curves for simple and complex CA measured in cells undergoing first division cycle are presented in comparison with recent experimental data There is increasing evidence that CA are also observed in descendents of irradiated cells many generations after direct DNA damage These delayed CA or chromosome instability CI are thought to be a manifestation of genome

  19. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester as a Protective Agent against Nephrotoxicity and/or Oxidative Kidney Damage: A Detailed Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeyya Akyol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, an active component of propolis, has been attracting the attention of different medical and pharmaceutical disciplines in recent years because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antiviral, antifungal, and antineoplastic properties. One of the most studied organs for the effects of CAPE is the kidney, particularly in the capacity of this ester to decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by several drugs and the oxidative injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. In this review, we summarized and critically evaluated the current knowledge regarding the protective effect of CAPE in nephrotoxicity induced by several special medicines such as cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclosporine, gentamycin, methotrexate, and other causes leading to oxidative renal injury, namely, I/R models and senility.

  20. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester as a protective agent against nephrotoxicity and/or oxidative kidney damage: a detailed systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Sumeyya; Ugurcu, Veli; Altuntas, Aynur; Hasgul, Rukiye; Cakmak, Ozlem; Akyol, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, has been attracting the attention of different medical and pharmaceutical disciplines in recent years because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antiviral, antifungal, and antineoplastic properties. One of the most studied organs for the effects of CAPE is the kidney, particularly in the capacity of this ester to decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by several drugs and the oxidative injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In this review, we summarized and critically evaluated the current knowledge regarding the protective effect of CAPE in nephrotoxicity induced by several special medicines such as cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclosporine, gentamycin, methotrexate, and other causes leading to oxidative renal injury, namely, I/R models and senility.

  1. Serum uric acid and its association with hypertension, early nephropathy and chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Early detection diabetic nephropathy (DN is important. Whether serum uric acid (SUA has a role in the development of DN is not known. Objective: To study the relationship between SUA and hypertension, early nephropathy and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: The total number of the study was 986 participants, according to presence and duration of diabetes were classified into three groups. Group I; including 250 healthy participants. Group II; including 352 with onset of diabetes 5 years. All participants were submitted to complete clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory investigations, including glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C, as well triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein ratios (TG/HDL-C, SUA, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results: SUA, BP, HbA1c, TG/HDL-C ratio, and ACR levels were significantly higher in group III than group I, II and in II than I. eGFR significantly lower in group III than group I, II and in II than I (p 6.1 mg/dl, > 6.2 mg/dl and > 6.5 mg/dl had a greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying hypertension, early nephropathy and decline eGFR respectively. Conclusion: Even high normal SUA level, was associated with the risk of hypertension, early nephropathy and decline of eGFR. Moreover SUA level may identify the onset of hypertension, early nephropathy and progression of CKD in T2DM.

  2. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  3. Urinary exosomal activating transcriptional factor 3 as the early diagnostic biomarker for sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, Tanaporn; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Issara-Amphorn, Jiraphorn; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-07

    An early sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (sepsis-AKI) biomarker is currently in needed. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is a candidate of sepsis-AKI biomarker but with different cut-point values. Urinary exosomal activating transcriptional factor 3 (uATF3) has been mentioned as an interesting biomarker. We conducted experiments in mice and a prospective, multicenter study in patients as a proof of concept that urine exosome is an interesting biomarker. An early expression of ATF3 in kidney of CD-1 mice at 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture implied the possibility of uATF3 as an early sepsis-AKI biomarker. Increase serum creatinine (Scr) ≥0.3 mg/dL from the baseline was used as an AKI diagnosis and urine was analyzed for uATF3 and uNGAL. Patients with baseline Scr at admission ≥1.5 mg/dL were excluded. The analysis showed higher Scr, uNGAL and uATF3 in patients with sepsis-AKI in comparison with patients with sepsis-non-AKI and healthy volunteers. A fair correlation, r(2) = 0.47, between uATF3 and uNGAL was showed in sepsis-AKI group with Scr ≥2 mg/dL. To see if uATF3 could be an early sepsis-AKI biomarker, urine sample was collected daily during the first week of the admission. In sepsis-AKI and sepsis-non-AKI groups, uNGAL were 367 ± 43 ng/mL and 183 ± 23 ng/mL, respectively; and uATF3 were 19 ± 4 ng/mL and 1.4 ± 0.8 ng/mL, respectively. With the mean value of uNGAL and uATF3 in sepsis AKI as a cut-off level, AUROC of uNGAL and uATF3 were 64% (95% CI 0.54 to 0.74) and 84% (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91), respectively. Urine exosome is an interesting source of urine biomarker and uATF3 is an interesting sepsis-AKI biomarker.

  4. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  5. IL-21 promotes the production of anti-DNA IgG but is dispensable for kidney damage in lyn-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Toni; Mayeux, Jessica M; Ortega, Sterling B; Karandikar, Nitin J; Li, Quan-Zhen; Rakheja, Dinesh; Zhou, Xin J; Satterthwaite, Anne B

    2013-02-01

    The autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by loss of tolerance to nuclear Ags and a heightened inflammatory environment, which together result in end organ damage. Lyn-deficient mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, lack an inhibitor of B-cell and myeloid cell activation. This results in B-cell hyper-responsiveness, plasma cell accumulation, autoantibodies, and glomerulonephritis (GN). IL-21 is associated with autoimmunity in mice and humans and promotes B-cell differentiation and class switching. Here, we explore the role of IL-21 in the autoimmune phenotypes of lyn(-/-) mice. We find that IL-21 mRNA is reduced in the spleens of lyn(-/-) IL-6(-/-) and lyn(-/-) Btk(lo) mice, neither of which produce pathogenic autoantibodies or develop significant GN. While IL-21 is dispensable for plasma cell accumulation and IgM autoantibodies in lyn(-/-) mice, it is required for anti-DNA IgG antibodies and some aspects of T-cell activation. Surprisingly, GN still develops in lyn(-/-) IL-21(-/-) mice. This likely results from the presence of IgG autoantibodies against a limited set of non-DNA Ags. These studies identify a specific role for IL-21 in the class switching of anti-DNA B cells and demonstrate that neither IL-21 nor anti-DNA IgG is required for kidney damage in lyn(-/-) mice.

  6. Assessment of Plasma and NGAL for the Early Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery in Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI); Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD); End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD); Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR); Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL); Serum Creatinine (SCr); Urine Creatinine (UCr); Urine Albumin (UAlb)

  7. The predictive value of early acute kidney injury for long-term survival and quality of life of critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, Ivo W; Frencken, Jos F; Peelen, Linda M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314038426; Slooter, Arjen J C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173059740; Cremer, Olaf L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815683; van Delden, Johannes J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086541331; van Dijk, Diederik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241616301; de Lange, Dylan W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors for the combination of long-term survival and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after intensive care unit (ICU) stay have not yet been studied. Our aim was to assess whether early acute kidney injury (eAKI), AKI occurring on the first day of ICU admission, is an i

  8. Early systemic microvascular damage in pigs with atherogenic diabetes mellitus coincides with renal angiopoietin dysbalance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Khairoun (Meriem); M.M. van den Heuvel (Mieke); B. van den Berg (Bernard); O. Sorop (Oana); De Boer, R. (Rients); N.S. van Ditzhuijzen (Nienke); I.M. Bajema (Ingeborg); H.J. Baelde; M. Zandbergen; D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); T. Rabelink (Ton); M.E. Reinders (Marlies); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); J.I. Rotmans (Joris)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a range of microvascular complications including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Microvascular abnormalities in the kidneys are common histopathologic findings in DN, which represent one manifestation of ongoing systemic microvascular dama

  9. Serum neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin during the early postoperative period predicts the recovery of graft function after kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Mamoru; Iwamatsu, Fumi; Kuroyanagi, Yoko; Nakaya, Miho; Ichino, Manabu; Marubashi, Shigeru; Nagano, Hiroaki; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka

    2012-06-01

    Kidneys procured from donors after cardiac death hold great potential to expand the donor pool. However, they have not yet been fully used, in part due to the high incidence of delayed graft function. Although urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a well-known early biomarker for renal injury after kidney transplantation, its usefulness is limited in cases with delayed graft function because of the unavailability of a urine sample. We evaluated serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a potential biomarker to predict the functional recovery of kidneys transplanted from donors after cardiac death. Consecutive patients transplanted with a kidney from a living related (39), brain dead (1) or post-cardiac death (27) donor were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected serially before and after kidney transplantation. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was measured using the ARCHITECT® assay. Average serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was markedly high during the pre transplantation period. It decreased rapidly after transplantation. The slope of the decrease correlated well with the recovery period. By analyzing ROC curves we determined cutoffs to predict immediate, slow or delayed graft function requiring hemodialysis for longer than 1 week with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that serial monitoring of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may allow us to predict graft recovery and the need for hemodialysis after kidney transplantation from a donor after cardiac death. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Application Value of Urinary Cystatin C in Early Diagnosis of Kidney Disease%尿液CysC在肾病早期诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文凯良; 彭佑铭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical application value of urinary cystatin C (Cys C) in early impaired kidney function. Methods The serum creatinine (Scr), serum Cys C, and urirary cystatin C in 130 patients with kidney disease and 80 healthy individuals were detected by automatic clinical chemistry analyzer (Hitachi 7600 - 020). Results The mean levels of urinary Cys C, serum Cys C and Scr were increased gradually with renal hypofunction. Moreover, urinary Cys C was positively correlated with these two indexes and it was a more sensitive marker to reflect the kidney impairment. Conclusions Compared with serum Scr and Cys C, urinary Cys C is more sensitive to evaluate the inchoate damages on renal function and it is a better index for the diagnosis of kidney diseases.%目的 探讨尿液半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂C(Cystain C,CysC)对早期肾功能受损的临床应用价值.方法 用Hitachi 7600-020全自动生化分析仪检测130例肾病患者和80例健康体检人的血清Cr、血清CysC和尿液CysC的水平.结果 尿液CysC浓度与血清Cr、血清CysC的水平随肾功能的减退而逐渐升高,呈正相关,但其敏感性更好.结论 尿液CysC浓度比血清Cr、血清CysC更能反映肾病早期损害的情况,且对肾病的阳性检出率更高.

  11. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamio Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD.

  12. 延肾胶囊延缓残肾损伤的实验研究%Experimental study of Yan-shen capsule retarding remnant kidney damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁发焕; 李一标; 光丽霞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the dosage-effect relation of Yan-shen capsule to retard remnant kidney progressive damage and compared the curative effect of Yan-shen capsule with Shen-Shuai-Ning capsule. Methods:120 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, 20 rats in each group. Rats of group A were shin-operattrol drug Shen-Shuai-Ning capsule. Group A and B were given the same volume of saline. The rats were feeded with standard big granule feed for 15 g/100 g bw/d. the rats were permitted to drink water freely. On day 15 and 90 after operation, serum urea (BUN) and creatinine (SCr), hemoglobin (Hb), renal histology under optical microscope and trans-electron microscope, and morphometry were observed. There were 10 rats for each group and each time point.Results: It was found that, on 90 day after operation, concentrations of BUN and SCr in group B were obviously higher and concentration of Hb was lower and concentration of Hb was higher than that in group B (P <0.05). the higher the dosage of Yan-Shen capsule was, the lower the concentrations of BUN and SCr. The concentrations of BUN and SCr iin group F were lower than that in group B but higher than that in group E. under optical microscope,the remnant kidney of group B showed glomerular mesangial cell proliferating, glomerular mesangial matrix dilation,glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. The longer the time was after operation, the serious the renal histological damage. The morphometry showed that group B had higher ratio of sclerosis glomeruli and damaged tubules and interstitial than group A (P <0.05). group C, D and E had lower ratio of sclerosis glomeruli and damaged tubules and interstitial than group B (P <0.05). the higher the dosage of Yan-Shen capsule was, the lower the ratio of sclerosis glomeruli and damaged tubules and interstitial. This ratio of group F was lower than group B but higher than group D and F. under trans-electron imcroscope, the glomerular mesangial cell

  13. Validity of early MRI structural damage end points and potential impact on clinical trial design in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Joshua F; Conaghan, Philip G; Emery, Paul;

    2016-01-01

    Wilcoxon rank sum tests and tests of proportion estimated the sample size required to detect differences between combination therapy (methotrexate+golimumab) and methotrexate-monotherapy arms in (A) change in damage score and (B) proportion of patients progressing. RESULTS: Patients with early MRI...

  14. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  15. Diagnosis of early-stage damage to polymer - glass fibre composites using non-contact measurement of vibration signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figlus, Tomasz; Koziol, Mateusz [Silesian University of Technology, Katowice (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    Ensuring reliable operation of the means of transport requires the development of methods for early detection of damage to its components made of composite materials. For diagnostic testing of composite materials during normal operation of the means of transport, the authors propose to use non-contact vibration measurement methods and their subsequent processing and analysis. The paper presents the results of laboratory tests whose aim was to assess the ability to detect early symptoms of damage to composite materials using non-contact vibration measurement methods. The measurements included mechanical curves of the glass composite samples made in a conventional manner and simultaneously their vibrations were measured in a non-contact manner using a laser vibrometer. Continuous wavelet transform was used for processing vibration signals. Calculated time-frequency scale distributions of vibration signals enabled the designation of frequency scale bands in which early, low-energy symptoms of damage to glass composites are observed. The analysis results allow to draw conclusions that the use of non-contact measurements and processing of vibration signals extends the existing range of composites research and enables detection of early, low-energy symptoms of damage to glass fibre reinforced composites.

  16. Inferior early posttransplant outcomes for recipients of right versus left deceased donor kidneys: an ANZDATA registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher-Coponat, H; McDonald, S; Clayton, P; Loundou, A; Allen, R D M; Chadban, S J

    2013-02-01

    Anatomical differences between right and left kidneys could influence transplant outcome. We compared graft function and survival for left and right kidney recipients transplanted from the same deceased organ donor. Adult recipients of 4900 single kidneys procured from 2450 heart beating deceased donors in Australia and New Zealand from 1995 to 2009 were included in a paired analysis. Right kidneys were associated with more delayed graft function (DGF) (25 vs. 21% for left kidneys, p kidneys (89.1 vs. 91.1% for left kidneys, p = 0.001), primarily attributed to surgical complications (66 versus 35 failures for left kidneys). Beyond the first posttransplant year, kidney side was not associated with eGFR, graft or patient survival. Receipt of a right kidney is a risk factor for inferior outcomes in the first year after transplantation. A higher incidence of surgical complications suggests the shorter right renal vein may be contributory. The higher susceptibility of right kidneys to injury should be considered in organ allocation.

  17. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase single nucleotide polymorphism and left ventricular function in early chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Chand

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS Glu298Asp single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype has been associated with a worse phenotype amongst patients with established heart failure and in patients with progression of their renal disease. The association of a cardiac functional difference in non-dialysis CKD patients with no known previous heart failure, and eNOS gene variant is investigated.140 non-dialysis CKD patients, who had cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging and tissue doppler echocardiography as part of two clinical trials, were genotyped for eNOS Glu298Asp SNP retrospectively.The median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was 50 mls/min and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 74% with no overt diastolic dysfunction in this cohort. There were significant differences in LVEF across eNOS genotypes with GG genotype being associated with a worse LVEF compared to other genotypes (LVEF: GG 71%, TG 76%, TT 73%, p = 0.006. After multivariate analysis, (adjusting for age, eGFR, baseline mean arterial pressure, contemporary CMR heart rate, total cholesterol, high sensitive C-reactive protein, body mass index and gender GG genotype was associated with a worse LVEF, and increased LV end-diastolic and systolic index (p = 0.004, 0.049 and 0.009 respectively.eNOS Glu298Asp rs1799983 polymorphism in CKD patients is associated with relevant sub-clinical cardiac remodelling as detected by CMR. This gene variant may therefore represent an important genetic biomarker, and possibly highlight pathways for intervention, in these patients who are at particular risk of worsening cardiac disease as their renal dysfunction progresses.

  18. Genotoxicity of freshwater ecosystem shows DNA damage in preponderant fish as validated by in vivo micronucleus induction in gill and kidney erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiakor, M O; Okonkwo, J C; Ezeonyejiaku, C D

    2014-12-01

    Genotoxicity of Anambra River was studied by micronucleus (MN) assay of preponderant fish species in the river. The micronucleus indices obtained were used as biomarker to estimate and predict pollution profile and possible danger of feeding on the aquatic species. Micronuclei profile of the fish was measured from gill and kidney erythrocytes using microscopic technique. Season, species and location effects on micronuclei, together with their interactions were also determined. Two major seasons (rainy and dry) and preponderant fish species in the river (Synodontis clarias, Linnaeus, 1758 and Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1757) were studied at five distinct locations that displayed differential environmental stresses. The study showed that the micronucleus index of fish is an excellent biomarker for measuring pollution level and genotoxicity of freshwater habitat. Season, species of fish and location affect micronuclei profile of the fish species sampled in the river. Disease outbreak among rural dwellers depending on the river for domestic and other uses is imminent and they lack knowledge on its health implication. Moreover, the study maintained that the micronuclei in fish could be measured from either the gill or kidney; however, gill is more efficient as it enables collection of several samples from the same individuals without sacrificing it, and Synodontis clarias fish species appeared to be more vulnerable to the genotoxic damage than Tilapia nilotica. Consequently, the study recommended regular monitoring (micronucleus tests) of edible aquatic life such as Synodontis clarias in order to eliminate the danger of people feeding on toxic metals, some of which are carcinogenic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of complement receptor 1 (CR1; CD35) on epithelial cells: A model for understanding complement-mediated damage in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Java, Anuja; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Hourcade, Dennis E; Zhang, Fan; Atkinson, John P

    2015-10-01

    The regulators of complement activation gene cluster encodes a group of proteins that have evolved to control the amplification of complement at the critical step of C3 activation. Complement receptor 1 (CR1) is the most versatile of these inhibitors with both receptor and regulatory functions. While expressed on most peripheral blood cells, the only epithelial site of expression in the kidney is by the podocyte. Its expression by this cell population has aroused considerable speculation as to its biologic function in view of many complement-mediated renal diseases. The goal of this investigation was to assess the role of CR1 on epithelial cells. To this end, we utilized a Chinese hamster ovary cell model system. Among our findings, CR1 reduced C3b deposition by ∼ 80% during classical pathway activation; however, it was an even more potent regulator (>95% reduction in C3b deposition) of the alternative pathway. This inhibition was primarily mediated by decay accelerating activity. The deposited C4b and C3b were progressively cleaved with a t½ of ∼ 30 min to C4d and C3d, respectively, by CR1-dependent cofactor activity. CR1 functioned intrinsically (i.e, worked only on the cell on which it was expressed). Moreover, CR1 efficiently and stably bound but didn't internalize C4b/C3b opsonized immune complexes. Our studies underscore the potential importance of CR1 on an epithelial cell population as both an intrinsic complement regulator and an immune adherence receptor. These results provide a framework for understanding how loss of CR1 expression on podocytes may contribute to complement-mediated damage in the kidney.

  20. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

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    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.

  1. Protein conjugated with aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation as an independent parameter of the carbonyl stress in the kidney damage

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    Medina-Navarro Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the well-defined and characterized protein modifications usually produced by oxidation is carbonylation, an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of proteins. However, carbonyl groups can be introduced into proteins by non-oxidative mechanisms. Reactive carbonyl compounds have been observed to have increased in patients with renal failure. In the present work we have described a procedure designed as aldehyde capture to calculate the protein carbonyl stress derived solely from lipid peroxidation. Methods Acrolein-albumin adduct was prepared as standard at alkaline pH. Rat liver microsomal membranes and serum samples from patients with diabetic nephropathy were subjected to the aldehyde capture procedure and aldol-protein formation. Before alkalinization and incubation, samples were precipitated and redisolved in 6M guanidine. The absorbances of the samples were read with a spectrophotometer at 266 nm against a blank of guanidine. Results Evidence showed abundance of unsaturated aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes and in the serum of diabetic patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Carbonyl protein and aldol-proteins resulted higher in the diabetic nephropathy patients (p Conclusion The aldehyde-protein adduct represents a non oxidative component of carbonyl stress, independent of the direct amino acid oxidation and could constitute a practical and novelty strategy to measure the carbonyl stress derived solely from lipid peroxidation and particularly in diabetic nephropathy patients. In addition, we are in a position to propose an alternative explanation of why alkalinization of urine attenuates rhabdomyolysis-induced renal dysfunction.

  2. Defense Response Characteristics of Suburban Pine Stands of Krasnoyarsk City at Early Stage of Anthropogenous Damage

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    G. G. Polyakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2002–2013, on permanent sample plots (PPs, the condition of suburban middle-aged pine stands of Krasnoyarsk was investigated. Annual assessments of parameters of defense response of stem phloem of the sample trees on the action of extractives from mycelium Ceratocystis laricicola (Redfern & Minter were carried out. The size of a phloem necrosis and its shift along a stem relative to inoculation hole were measured. The pine stands (polluted and conditionally background are convenient for determining condition changes at early stages of damage. These stands are affected by different anthropogenic factors, but don't differ in vigor state as visually estimated on a 6-point scale of Forest Regulation of Russian Federation. PPs have similar forest inventory characteristics, except for PPs on an edge of polluted pine forest where the site class is reduced. Significant shift of necrosis in phloem up on a stem within two years following a year when there was a spring creeping fire is registered. It proves the reversal of normal basipetal transport of assimilates toward crown and feasibility of using necrosis asymmetry for assessment of fire influence on physiological condition of pine stands. The increase of necroses size (decrease of resistance after a fire was noted during later period in comparison with reversal of transport of assimilates in the stem. Influence of a chemical burn of needles on acropetal shift of necrosis was expressed to a lesser extent in comparison with a fire.

  3. Kidneys in Rats

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    Ahmad Reza Bandegi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These observations indicate that saffron and its active constituent crocin can prevent chronic stress–induced oxidative stress damage of the brain, liver and kidneys and suggest that these substances may be useful against oxidative stress.

  4. Effects of DNA damage on oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryonic development

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    Shen YIN,Junyu MA,Wei SHEN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is one of the most common threats to meiotic cells. It has the potential to induce infertility and genetic abnormalities that may be passed to the embryo. Here, we reviewed exogenous factors which could induce DNA damage. Specially, we addressed the different effects of DNA damage on mouse oocytes and embryonic development. Complex DNA damage, double-strand breaks, represents a more difficult repair process and involves various repair pathways. Understanding the mechanisms involved in DNA damage responses may improve therapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer and fertility preservation.

  5. 替诺福韦的肾脏-骨骼毒性及其防治%Tenofovir-induced kidney-bone damage:prevention and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江宇泳; 蔡晧东

    2014-01-01

    替诺福韦是一种新型核苷酸类逆转录酶抑制剂,用于治疗HIV感染和慢性乙型肝炎。替诺福韦的潜在肾毒性与药物在肾脏排泄有关,病理改变表现为肾小管损害,临床表现为血磷降低和血清肌酸升高,还可导致Fanconi综合征、间质性肾炎和急性肾衰竭。替诺福韦的骨毒性是肾毒性的继发表现,临床表现为肌无力、骨痛和骨折。替诺福韦对肾脏-骨骼损害与基础疾病、基因多态性、血药浓度和药物相互作用有关。服用替诺福韦的患者应定期监测肾功能、电解质,低磷血症患者给予补磷治疗。肌酐清除率﹤50 ml/min的患者应调整替诺福韦的给药剂量。大部分患者在停用替诺福韦后肾功能会明显改善,部分患者可发展为慢性肾病。%Tenofovir is a new class of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor with effective for treating HIV-infection and chronic hepatitis B. The potential renal toxicity of tenofovir is related to renal excretion. Renal histopathology revealed tubular injury. The main clinical manifestations of renal damage are decreased phosphorus and increased serum creatinine,and Fanconi syndrome,interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure may also develop. The bone toxicity of tenofovir is secondary to renal toxicity. The clinical manifestations include muscle weakness,bone pain and bone fracture. Tenofovir caused kidney-bone damage are associated with underlying diseases, gene polymorphism, plasma drug concentration and drug interactions. Patients taking tenofovir should be regularly monitored for renal function and electrolyte. The hypophosphatemia were treated with phosphate supplementation. The drug dosage should be adjusted when creatinine clearance rate is ﹤50 ml/min. Renal function was improved markedly after tenofovir withdrawal in some patients,but part of patients progressed to chronic kidney disease.

  6. Protective Effect of Short-Term Genistein Supplementation on the Early Stage in Diabetes-Induced Renal Damage

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    Min Ju Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress has been concerned in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN, which may cause kidney damage associated with inflammation and fibrosis. This study has been conducted to investigate the role of genistein supplementation in an acute DN state. Mice with FBG levels more than 250 mg/dL after alloxan injection (single i.p., 150 mg/kg were considered as diabetic. Diabetic mice (DM were further subdivided according to their FBG levels, medium-high FBG (DMMH < 450 mg/dL and high FBG (DMH; 450 mg/dL and were administrated by an AIG-93G diet supplemented with different doses of genistein (0, 0.025 or 0.1%. After 2 weeks’ treatment, the levels of kidney malondialdehyde (MDA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and plasma creatinine and lipid profiles, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation-related markers, were measured (P<0.05. Genistein supplementation improved levels of FBG in the DMMH groups, but not in the DMH group, regardless of the treatment dose. Moreover, the supplementation attenuated kidney oxidative stress indicated by MDA, BUN, and plasma creatinine. In addition, genistein treatment decreased inflammatory markers such as nuclear factor kappa B (p65, phosphorylated inhibitory kappa B alpha, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and improved oxidative stress markers (nuclear-related factor E2, heme oxygenase-1, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase isoforms in treatment groups, regardless of the genistein treatment dose. Furthermore, genistein supplementation inhibited the fibrosis-related markers (protein kinase C, protein kinase C-beta II, and transforming growth factor-beta I in the DN state. However, 0.1% genistein supplementation in diabetes with high FBG levels selectively showed a preventive effect on kidney damage. These results suggest that genistein might be a good protective substance for DN through regulation of

  7. Vojta and Bobath combined treatment for high risk infants with brain damage at early period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyan Wu; Xiaohui Peng; Xuesong Li; Qingling Niu; Hong Guo; Huitao Huang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the process of early screening and interventions to high risk infants with brain damage,the occasion and choosing methods of interventions and the combined application of different interventions are still at the exploratory phase.OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of early intervention using Vojta and Bobath combined treatment in high risk infants with brain damage, and investigate the effect of early rehabilitation on the prognosis.DESIGN: A randomized controlled comparative observation.SETTING: Daqing Oil Field General Hospital of Heilongjiang Province.PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four high risk infants younger than 1 year were selected from the Department of Pediatrics, Daqing Oil Field General Hospital of Heilongjiang Province from October 2005 to October 2006,including 52 boys (62%) and 32 girls (38%). The treatment started at the age of 0 - 3 months in 11 cases (13%), 4 - 6 months in 28 cases (33%), 7 - 9 months in 35 cases (42%), and 10 - 12 months in 10 cases (12%). Infants with at least two of the followings were enrolled, including 7 Vojta abnormal postural reflexes,slow or disorder of motor development, increase of muscular tension, postural abnormality, primary reflection residual and CT/MRI abnormalities. Informed consents were obtained from their guardians. The 84 infants were randomly divided into treatment group (n =42) and control group (n =42).METHODS: All the children were intravenously injected with cerebroprotein hydrolysate injection or cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection, 10 times as a course for 2 - 5 courses; Besides, the infants in the treatment group also received early rehabilitative training of Vojta and Bobath combined treatment, once a day, 40 minutes per time, 5 times a week followed by a 2-day rest, 1 month as a course, and totally 2 - 5 courses. The Vojta method was to facilitate the automatic regulation by reflexlocomotion. Bobath method was to inhibit abnormal posture but facilitate the normal one, thus it is

  8. Protective effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on L-arginine-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M W; Priyamvada, S; Khan, S A; Khan, S; Naqshbandi, A; Yusufi, A N K

    2012-10-01

    L-Arginine (ARG), an essential amino acid, is the endogenous source of the deleterious nitric oxide. Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched fish oil (FO) has been shown to reduce the severity of certain types of cancers, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Present study examined whether feeding of FO/flaxseed oil (FXO) would have protective effect against ARG-induced nephrotoxicity. ARG-induced nephrotoxicity was recorded by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. ARG significantly altered the activities of metabolic and brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes. ARG caused significant imbalances in the antioxidant system. These alterations were associated with increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and altered antioxidant enzyme activities. Feeding of FO and FXO with ARG ameliorated the changes in various parameters caused by ARG. Nephrotoxicity parameters lowered and enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, BBM and inorganic phosphate (32Pi) transport were improved to near control values. ARG-induced LPO declined and antioxidant defense mechanism was strengthened by both FO and FXO alike. The results of the present study suggest that ω-3 PUFA-enriched FO and FXO from seafoods and plant sources, respectively, are similarly effective in reducing ARG-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage. Thus, vegetarians who cannot consume FO can have similar health benefits from plant-derived ω-3 PUFA.

  9. Galectin-3 Blockade Reduces Renal Fibrosis in Two Normotensive Experimental Models of Renal Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martinez, Ernesto; Ibarrola, Jaime; Calvier, Laurent; Fernandez-Celis, Amaya; Leroy, Celine; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Rossignol, Patrick; Lopez-Andres, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Background Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, is increased in kidney injury and its pharmacological blockade reduces renal damage in acute kidney injury, hyperaldosteronism or hypertensive nephropathy. We herein investigated the effects of pharmacological Gal-3 inhibition by modified citrus pectin (MCP) in early renal damage associated with obesity and aortic stenosis (AS). Results Gal-3 was upregulated in kidneys from high fat diet (HFD) rats and in animals with partial occlusion of ascending aorta (AS). Urinary and plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and urinary albumin were enhanced in HFD and AS rats. In kidney from obese rats, fibrotic markers (collagen, TFG-β), epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules (α-smooth muscle actin, E-cadherin), inflammatory mediator (osteopontin) and kidney injury marker (kidney injury molecule-1) were modified. In kidney from AS rats, fibrotic markers (collagen, CTGF), epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, β-catenin, E-cadherin) and kidney injury markers (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1) were altered. Histologic observations of obese and AS rat kidneys revealed tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 with MCP normalized renal Gal-3 levels as well as functional, histological and molecular alterations in obese and AS rats. Conclusions In experimental models of mild kidney damage, the increase in renal Gal-3 expression paralleled with renal fibrosis, inflammation and damage, while these alterations were prevented by Gal-3 blockade. These data suggest that Gal-3 could be a new player in renal molecular, histological and functional alterations at early stages of kidney damage. PMID:27829066

  10. Early Life Influences Kidney Function at Age 63–64 Years, but So Does Adult Body Size: Results from the Newcastle Thousand Families Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephanie L.; Mann, Kay D.; Pearce, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is suggested that impaired fetal growth can affect kidney development, resulting in fewer glomeruli being formed and reduced kidney function later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate early life variables in relation to adult kidney function, and compare these to the influence of later life variables. Methods Detailed information was collected prospectively regarding 1,142 babies, born in 1947 in Newcastle upon Tyne. At the age of 63–64 years, 335 participants had serum creatinine successfully measured and completed a lifestyle questionnaire. These measurements were used to calculate their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results Body mass index (BMI) and being female were significantly negatively associated with eGFR. Birth weight was significantly positively associated with eGFR. In sex-specific analyses, BMI and cigarette smoking remained significant for males (n = 154), with a near significant association for birth weight, whereas none of the variables remained significant for females (n = 181). Conclusions The findings suggest that sex, size at birth and BMI may be important variables influencing adult kidney function. However, as only a small amount of variance in eGFR was explained by these variables, additional longitudinal studies would be beneficial for assessing lifecourse influences on kidney function. PMID:23785509

  11. Early life influences kidney function at age 63-64 years, but so does adult body size: results from the newcastle thousand families birth cohort.

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    Stephanie L Harrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is suggested that impaired fetal growth can affect kidney development, resulting in fewer glomeruli being formed and reduced kidney function later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate early life variables in relation to adult kidney function, and compare these to the influence of later life variables. METHODS: Detailed information was collected prospectively regarding 1,142 babies, born in 1947 in Newcastle upon Tyne. At the age of 63-64 years, 335 participants had serum creatinine successfully measured and completed a lifestyle questionnaire. These measurements were used to calculate their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI and being female were significantly negatively associated with eGFR. Birth weight was significantly positively associated with eGFR. In sex-specific analyses, BMI and cigarette smoking remained significant for males (n = 154, with a near significant association for birth weight, whereas none of the variables remained significant for females (n = 181. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that sex, size at birth and BMI may be important variables influencing adult kidney function. However, as only a small amount of variance in eGFR was explained by these variables, additional longitudinal studies would be beneficial for assessing lifecourse influences on kidney function.

  12. REGIONAL RADIOGRAPHIC DAMAGE AND FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS: DIFFERENCES IN EARLY AND LATE DISEASE

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    Ward, Michael M.; Learch, Thomas J.; Gensler, Lianne S.; Davis, John C.; Reveille, John D.; Weisman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Radiographic damage and functional limitations both increase with the duration of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We examined whether radiographic damage contributed more to functional limitations in late AS than in early AS, and if the strength of association varied with the anatomic region of damage. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 801 patients with AS, we examined associations of the lumbar modified Stoke AS Spine Score (mSASSS), cervical mSASSS, lumbar posterior fusion, cervical posterior fusion, and hip arthritis with the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-S). Results Higher lumbar and cervical mSASSS were associated with more functional limitations, but there was an interaction between mSASSS and the duration of AS such that the strength of their association with functional limitations decreased with increasing duration of AS. Cervical posterior fusion was associated with worse functioning independent of mSASSS. Hip arthritis was significantly associated with functional limitations independent of measures of spinal damage. Among patients with AS ≥ 40 years, the number of comorbid conditions accounted for most of the variation in functioning. Results were similar for both the BASFI and HAQ-S. Conclusions Although both radiographic damage and functional limitations increase over time in AS, the relative contribution of radiographic damage to functional limitations is lower among patients with longstanding AS than early AS, suggesting patients may accommodate to limited flexibility. Damage in different skeletal regions impacts functioning over the duration of AS. Functional limitations due to comorbidity supervene in late AS. PMID:23042639

  13. Whole-exome sequencing reveals genetic variants associated with chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in North Central Region, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-09-01

    The familial clustering observed in chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka strongly suggests the involvement of genetic factors in its pathogenesis. The objective of the present study is to use whole-exome sequencing to identify the genetic variants associated with CKDu. Whole-exome sequencing of eight CKDu cases and eight controls was performed, followed by direct sequencing of candidate loci in 301 CKDu cases and 276 controls. Association study revealed rs34970857 (c.658G > A/p.V220M) located in the KCNA10 gene encoding a voltage-gated K channel as the most promising SNP with the highest odds ratio of 1.74. Four rare variants were identified in gene encoding Laminin beta2 (LAMB2) which is known to cause congenital nephrotic syndrome. Three out of four variants in LAMB2 were novel variants found exclusively in cases. Genetic investigations provide strong evidence on the presence of genetic susceptibility for CKDu. Possibility of presence of several rare variants associated with CKDu in this population is also suggested.

  14. Thermography Inspection for Early Detection of Composite Damage in Structures During Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Parker, F. Raymond; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Christopher W.; Bly, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composite structures are commonly tested under controlled loading. Understanding the initiation and progression of composite damage under load is critical for validating design concepts and structural analysis tools. Thermal nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is used to detect and characterize damage in composite structures during fatigue loading. A difference image processing algorithm is demonstrated to enhance damage detection and characterization by removing thermal variations not associated with defects. In addition, a one-dimensional multilayered thermal model is used to characterize damage. Lastly, the thermography results are compared to other inspections such as non-immersion ultrasonic inspections and computed tomography X-ray.

  15. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS WITH CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION MANIFESTATION IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD

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    L. V. Limareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To optimize the management of postoperative renal allograft recipients through the introduction of methods for predicting risk of manifestation of cytomegalovirus infection on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the clinical and immunological status. Materials and methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 303 patients with end-stage renal disease, among them – were the recipients of renal allograft – 136, among whom 29 within 2 months after the operation had clinical signs of CMV infection. Assessable "CMV syndrome", laboratory evidence of CMV infection, the incidence of antigens (genes of HLA A, B and DRB *1, calculated goodness of fit χ2 and relative risk RR, changes MCP-1 in urine. Results. In renal allograft recipients with clinical and laboratory evidence of CMV infection in the early postoperative period, significantly more (χ2 > 3,8 met antigen B35. A positive association with CMV infection was detected also for DRB1 * 08, B21, B22, B41, A24 (9, B51 (5, DRB1*14 and DRB1*15. Protective effects possessed antigens / alleles of genes A26 (10, B14, B38 (16 B61 (40 and DRB1*16. MCP-1 levels in this group of recipients were raised to 2174,7 ± 296,3 pg/ml with a strong negative correlation with the levels of urea and creatinine in serum (r = 0,9, p < 0.001. Conclusion. Immunological markers of risk manifestation of CMV infection in recipients of kidneys in the early postoperative period are: the carriage of В35 и В55,56(22, В49(21, В41, DRB1*08 и DRB1*15, an increase of levels of MCP-1 in urine without increasing the levels of urea and creatinine in the serum. 

  16. The importance of early referral for the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a Danish nationwide cohort study

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    Hommel Kristine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are referred late to renal units. This is associated with negative aspects. The purpose of the present study was to characterize late versus early referrals for renal replacement therapy including their renal disease, health care contacts and medical treatment before renal replacement therapy (RRT and the consequences for RRT modality and mortality. Methods Nationwide cohort study including 4495 RRT patients identified in the Danish Nephrology Registry 1999–2006. The cohort was followed to end 2007 by linkage to other national registries. Late referral: follow-up ≤16 weeks in renal unit before RRT start. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality or waiting list status within 365 days in late referrals versus early referrals. Results A total of 1727 (38% incident RRT patients were referred late. Among these, 72% were treated in non-nephrology hospital departments and 91% in general practice 2 years to 16 weeks before RRT start. Fewer late referrals received recommended pre-RRT treatment as judged by renin-angiotensin-system blockade: 32% versus 57% or the D-vitamin analogue alfacalcidol: 5% versus 30% (P  Conclusions Late nephrology referrals were well-known to the healthcare system before referral for RRT start and more often had near normal plasma creatinine levels within 2 years before RRT start. They infrequently received available treatment or optimal first RRT modality. An increased effort to identify these patients in the healthcare system in time for proper pre-dialysis care including preparation for RRT is needed.

  17. HIV and kidney diseases: 35 years of history and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto; Soto, Karina

    2016-12-01

    Kidney diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are often misdiagnosed. Despite reductions in morbidity and mortality owing to widespread use of highly effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still more common in these patients than in the general population, and are associated with poor health outcomes. HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV immune complex kidney diseases are the more recognizable HIV-related kidney diseases. However, a broad spectrum of kidney disorders related or not directly related with HIV infection can be observed, including cART-induced AKI, CKD, proximal tubular dysfunction, crystalluria and urolithiasis, among others. This review summarizes the major epidemiologic studies of kidney diseases in HIV-infected patients, discusses novel approaches that may potentially limit nephrotoxicity such as the use of tenofovir alafenamide, and outlines current screening measures for early diagnosis of kidney dysfunction or tubular damage, and for accurate detection of increased risk for acute or chronic kidney diseases.

  18. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

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    Kunihiro Yamagata

    Full Text Available Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD, the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD.Stratified open cluster-randomized trial.A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters in Japan.A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs.All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice.The primary outcome measures were 1 the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2 the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3 the progression of CKD.The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01. Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (p<0.01. The average eGFR deterioration rate tended to be lower in group B (group A: 2.6±5.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 2.4±5.1 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.07. A significant difference in eGFR deterioration rate was observed in subjects with Stage 3 CKD (group A: 2.4±5.9 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 1.9±4.4 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.03.Our care

  19. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  20. Statin use is associated with early recovery of kidney injury after vascular surgery and improved long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.J.M. Welten (Gijs); M. Chonchol (Michel); O. Schouten (Olaf); S.E. Hoeks (Sanne); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); M.R.H.M. van Sambeek (Marc); D. Poldermans (Don)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Acute kidney injury (AKI) after major vascular surgery is an important risk factor for adverse long-term outcomes. The pleiotropic effects of statins may reduce kidney injury caused by perioperative episodes of hypotension and/or suprarenal clamping and improve long-term

  1. Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Kidneys KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Kidneys A A A ... and it will be lighter. What Else Do Kidneys Do? Kidneys are always busy. Besides filtering the ...

  2. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish-brown ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...

  3. Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  4. Congenital malformations and damage in early infancy of the central nervous system; Fehlbildungen und fruehkindliche Schaedigungen des ZNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Sektion Neuroradiologi; Stephani, U. (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Universitaetskinderklinik - Klinik fuer Neuropaediatrie

    2007-07-01

    Congenital malformations and cerebral damage in early infancy cause complex morphological and clinical changes. Modern imaging techniques, and especially NMR, have provided deeper knowledge of these diseases in the past few years. Based on the neuroradiological findings, the book presents a complete picture of congenital malformations of the central nervous systems and cerebral damage in early infancy; it describes the underlying pathomechanisms, clinical symptoms and therapies. Neurologists and neuropaediatricians are enabled to diagnose malformations correctly and to develop optimal therapy strategies in cooperation with other medical disciplines. Neuroradiologists and radiologists, on the other hand, will find a manual for correct interpretation and differential diagnosis of their findings and a guide for interpreting the findings and deciding further therapeutic or diagnostic interventions. (orig.)

  5. Effects of ischaemic post-conditioning on the early and late testicular damage after experimental testis ischaemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, L; Irrera, N; Squadrito, F; Marini, H; Nicotina, P A; Arena, S; Romeo, C; Antonuccio, P; Altavilla, D

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemic post-conditioning (IPostC) might represent an innovative surgical approach to protect organs from ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the contrasting effects of IPostC on the early and late damage induced by testicular I/R injury. Testis I/R was induced by occluding the right testicular vessels using a clip. Male rats were divided into the following groups: sham, I/R and I/R + IPostC. In the I/R group, the clip was removed after 60 min of ischaemia, and reperfusion was allowed for 30 min, 1 and 30 days. In the I/R + IPostC group, three cycles of 30-sec reperfusion and 30-sec ischaemia were performed after 60 min of ischaemia and then reperfusion followed up for 30 min, 1 and 30 days. Following 30-min reperfusion, there was an increase in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in I/R rats; after 1 day of reperfusion, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were significantly increased; IκB-α expression reduced; and a marked damage in both testes was observed. IPostC inhibited MAPKs, cytokines and NF-κB expression, augmented IκB-α expression and decreased histological damage in testes subjected to I/R. After 30 days of reperfusion, I/R injury activated the apoptosis machinery, caused severe histological damage and reduced spermatogenic activity. By contrast, IPostC did not modify the apoptotic markers, the histological alterations as well as spermatogenic activity following 30 days of reperfusion. Our data demonstrate that IPostC protects the testis from the early damage induced by I/R injury, but it does not protect against the late damage.

  6. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as an early biomarker for prediction of acute kidney injury after cardio-pulmonary bypass in pediatric cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fatina I Fadel; Abdel Rahman, Azza M.O.; Mohamed, Mohamed Farouk; Habib, Sonia A.; Ibrahim, Mona H.; Sleem, Zeinab S.; Bazaraa, Hafez M; Soliman, Mohamed M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery is considered one of the most frequent surgical procedures in which acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a frequent and serious complication. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an early AKI biomarker after CPB in pediatric cardiac surgery. Material and methods The study included forty children aged 2 to 78 months undergoing CPB. They were divided into group I: pat...

  7. An integrative study of the genetic, social and environmental determinants of chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Gunarathne, E D L; Yan, Junxia; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Muso, Eri; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo; Watanabe, Takao; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Koizumi, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations on chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology characterized by tubulointerstitial damages (CKDu) in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka have supported the involvement of social, environmental and genetic factors in its pathogenesis. We conducted a social-environmental-and-genetic epidemiology study on a male population in NCR to investigate the genetic and environmental contributors. We recruited 311 case-series patients and 504 control candidates. Of the 504 control candidates, 218 (43%) were eliminated because of the presence of hypertension, proteinuria, high HbA1c, high serum creatinine or high alpha-1 microglobulin in urine. None of 18 metals measured (μg//) in urine, including Cd, As and Pb, showed significantly higher concentrations in cases compared with controls. As speciation results showed that 75-80% of total urinary As was in the form of arsenobetaine, which is non-toxic to humans. None of the metal concentrations in drinking water samples exceeded guideline values. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to determine the genetic contributors. The GWAS yielded a genome-wide significant association with CKDu for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs6066043; p=5.23 × 10(-9) in quantitative trait locus analysis; p=3.73 × 10(-9) in dichotomous analysis) in SLC13A3 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter member 3). The population attributable fraction and odds ratio for this SNP were 50% and 2.13. Genetic susceptibility was identified as the major risk factor for CKDu. However, 43% of the apparently healthy male population suffers from non-communicable diseases, suggesting their possible influence on CKDu progression.

  8. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max, versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max and sedentary behaviour (SED, in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p=0.001, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.028, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.045. Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p=0.035, reduced plasma LDL (p=0.001, triglycerides (p=0.029, and total cholesterol (p=0.002, increased plasma albumin (p=0.047, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.005, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.048. These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  9. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-01-18

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

  10. Significance of arthrosonography for knee joint damage diagnosis in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Sizova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess significance of arthrosonography in diagnosis of in knee joint changes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 44 patients with early RA aged 19 to 73 years were examined. 29,5% of pts had early RA without primary osteoarthritis (OA, 70,5% had early RA with primary OA. Ultrasonography of knee joints was performed with Diasonics (USA, 1997 by the linear sensor with frequency of 7 MHz. The protocol of ultrasonic examination of knee joints was filled for each pt. Results. Clinical signs of of knee joint synovitis have been revealed in 61,5% of pts with early RA without primary OA, and in 80,6% of pts with early RA with primary OA, ultrasonic - in 100% of pts. Intraarticular knee joint effusion resulted in increase of suprapatellar bursa and lateral recesses size. Extraarticular inflammation was frequently shown by thickening of semymemranous muscles tendons, especially in pts with the early RA with primary OA (p<0,005. Degenerative changes in the group of pts with primary OA were more expressed in early RA and usually accompanied by non-uniform decrease of cartilage thickness and occurrence of osteophytes while cartilage in pts with early RA without primary OA had normal thickness or thickening because of swelling, and osteophytes were absent. Conclusion. Prevalence of knee joint intraarticular and extraarticular inflammatory changes over degenerate changes (symmetric thickening of the synovium, primary increase of the sizes of suprapatellar bursa and lateral recesses because of effusion, thickening of tendons of knee joints at the normal or increased thickness of cartilage because of inflammation can be considered sonographic sign of early RA. In pts with early RA coincided with primary OA these changes were usually found in combination with non-uniform decrease of cartilage thickness. In case of cartilage inflammatory edema, detection of osteophytes allows to confirm presence of OA in pts with

  11. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  12. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Kidney Disease Simple Kidney Cysts Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  13. EARLY DETECTION, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH SIGHT DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DIKIC

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight damages can appear in every period of the human life, from birth till very old age. The disorders of the sight function retard and hinder the possibility of learning, proper informing as well as recognizing the objects in reality. The possibility for rehabilitation and adaptation is bigger and the psychical consequences in the person development are smaller, if the person with damaged sight is younger and rehabilitation and correction of the incorrect sight function start at proper time, i.e., immediately after the detection of the damage.The developmental deviation with children with damaged sight can be recognized in the general physical development, in poorer fund of real ideas in the sensomotor development, in the space notion and space relations, in reduced motivation for certain activities and so on. However, these children have the same needs as the children with normal sight, such as: love, sympathies, care, discipline, learning, understanding, patience and so on. It should be taken into consideration that each child is an individual which means a special approach to the rehabilitation. In fact, more often we find children who, besides the sight damages, have other damages such as: cerebral paralysis, hearing damages, mental retardation, emotional disorders and so on.The preventive measures contribute to the decreasing number of children with more difficult psycho-physical anomalies and they mean obligation of the community to organize: Advisory Institutions for pregnant women, quick and prompt intervention of the ophthalmologists and other experts, increasing of the general culture of the population and so on, and the systematic sight check-ups of every child should be performed in the first, third and sixth year of their lives.The expert treatment of sight handicapped children should start from the very detection of the sight damage (blindness and low vision. For small blind and low vision children the Developmental Advisory

  14. Use of Early Biomarkers in Neonatal Brain Damage and Sepsis: State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of early noninvasive biochemical markers of disease is a crucial issue of the current scientific research, particularly during the first period of life, since it could provide useful and precocious diagnostic information when clinical and radiological signs are still silent. The ideal biomarker should be practical and sensitive in the precocious identification of at risk patients. An earlier diagnosis may lead to a larger therapeutic window and improve neonatal outcome. Brain damage and sepsis are common causes of severe morbidity with poor outcome and mortality during the perinatal period. A large number of potential biomarkers, including neuroproteins, calcium binding proteins, enzymes, oxidative stress markers, vasoactive agents, and inflammatory mediators, have been so far investigated. The aim of the present review was to provide a brief overview of some of the more commonly investigated biomarkers used in case of neonatal brain damage and sepsis.

  15. Use of Early Biomarkers in Neonatal Brain Damage and Sepsis: State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Iliana; Auriti, Cinzia; Ronchetti, Maria Paola; Prencipe, Giusi; Gazzolo, Diego; Dotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The identification of early noninvasive biochemical markers of disease is a crucial issue of the current scientific research, particularly during the first period of life, since it could provide useful and precocious diagnostic information when clinical and radiological signs are still silent. The ideal biomarker should be practical and sensitive in the precocious identification of at risk patients. An earlier diagnosis may lead to a larger therapeutic window and improve neonatal outcome. Brain damage and sepsis are common causes of severe morbidity with poor outcome and mortality during the perinatal period. A large number of potential biomarkers, including neuroproteins, calcium binding proteins, enzymes, oxidative stress markers, vasoactive agents, and inflammatory mediators, have been so far investigated. The aim of the present review was to provide a brief overview of some of the more commonly investigated biomarkers used in case of neonatal brain damage and sepsis. PMID:25685774

  16. Earliness, leaf surface wax and sugar content predict varietal differences for thrips damage in cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    When cabbage is cultivated for storage in the Netherlands, it is usually harvested around mid-October. This type of cabbage crop may be severely damaged by thrips (Thrips tabaci). The thrips population on the plants and the more severe symptoms develop mostly during September and October. Also durin

  17. Earliness, leaf surface wax and sugar content predict varietal differences for thrips damage in cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    When cabbage is cultivated for storage in the Netherlands, it is usually harvested around mid-October. This type of cabbage crop may be severely damaged by thrips (Thrips tabaci). The thrips population on the plants and the more severe symptoms develop mostly during September and October. Also durin

  18. Remote ischemic conditioning enhanced the early recovery of renal function in recipients after kidney transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Hongfeng; Shou, Zhangfei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Rending; Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Jianghua

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) can attenuate ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) in recipients after kidney transplantation using donation after cardiac death. Forty-eight recipients referred for kidney transplantation were recruited. The paired recipients who received the kidneys from the same donor were randomly assigned (one received RIC and the other did not). RIC was induced by three 5-min cycles of brief repetitive ischemia and reperfusion by clamping the exposed external iliac artery. Blood samples were withdrawn at hour 2, hour 12, days 1-7, day 14, and day 30 to measure serum creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate after transplantation. Urine samples were collected at hours 2, 12, 24, and 48 to measure urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin after transplantation. Renal tissues were obtained at 30 min for histologic changes after transplantation. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics of the recipients and donors between RIC and control groups. The serum creatinine level was lower in the RIC group compared with that of the control group (12 h, days 1-14, P  0.05); the estimated glomerular filtration rate was higher in the RIC group compared with that of the control group (12 h, days 1-14, P 0.05); urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, an early marker of IRI, was lower in the RIC group at hours 2, 12, 24, and 48 (2 h, 48 h, P > 0.05; 12 h, 24 h, P control group. The graft pathology showed no differences between RIC and control groups. RIC enhanced the early recovery of renal function in recipients after kidney transplantation. Our results provide a novel potential approach to attenuate transplantation-associated IRI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011229 Combined detection of markers in the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. CHE Miaolin (车妙琳) ,et al. Renal Division,Renji Hosp,Med Sch,Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200127.

  20. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-04-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  1. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM and other extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  2. Cys C, BUN and sCr level in patients with early renal damage of acute glomerulonephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhang; Ge Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the levels of Cys C, BUN and sCr in patients of early renal damage of acute glomerulonephritis.Methods: A total of 90 cases with acute glomerulonephritis treated in Nephrology Department of our hospital from May 2013 to May 2015 were randomly selected, among whom 32 cases of AKI1 stage (A group), 28 cases of AKI2 stage (B group) and 30 cases of AKI3 stage (C group), and 35 cases of healthy volunteers receiving routine physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Cystatin C (Cys C), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCr) were detected, and acute physiology and chronic health status score (APACHEⅡ scoring) was conducted in all research subjects. The correlation of APACHEⅡ scores with Cys C, BUN and sCr levels was analyzed respectively.Results: The differences in Cys C, BUN and sCr levels and APACHEⅡ scores among groups were statistically significant (P=0.000); there was significant positive correlation between APACHEⅡ scores and levels of Cys C, BUN and sCr of three groups of patients with acute glomerulonephritis (r>0.00), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); in the diagnosis of early renal damage in patients with acute glomerulonephritis, the areas of Cys C, BUN and sCr under ROC curve were 0.946, 0.832 and 0.896, respectively.Conclusions: Cys C, BUN and sCr levels significantly increase with the increase of early renal damage of acute glomerulonephritis, both sensitivity and specificity of Cys C level are higher, and it has higher clinical application value.

  3. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingzhen [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Shen, Chunzi [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zibo (China); Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhiping, E-mail: zhipingw@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  4. Flow-associated dilatory capacity of the brachial artery is intact in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Iversen, Jens;

    2006-01-01

    females and 18 males, age 36 +/- 10 years) with polycystic kidney disease and normal renal function were compared to 27 healthy controls. The dilatory responses of the brachial artery to postischemic increased blood flow [endothelium-dependent flow-associated dilatation (FAD)] and to nitroglycerin......-selectin and von Willebrand factor antigen were also measured. RESULTS: No differences in FAD or NID were found between patients and controls (104.6 +/- 4.2 vs. 105.3 +/- 3.9%, mean +/- SD, p = 0.55, and 117.0 +/- 8.4 vs. 117.5 +/- 7.6%, p = 0.75). However, the plasma concentration of VCAM-1 was elevated...... and the plasma concentration of NOx was reduced in patients with polycystic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: Biochemical markers confirm an association between polycystic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. However, a normal FAD of the brachial artery suggests that the endothelial dysfunction does not involve...

  5. Kidney Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-ray called a voiding cystourethrogram. Antibiotics for kidney infections Antibiotics are the first line of treatment ... the infection is completely eliminated. Hospitalization for severe kidney infections For a severe kidney infection, your doctor ...

  6. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  7. Early and Late Chromosome Damages in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Gamma Rays and Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations and inversions are considered stable, and cells containing these types of chromosome aberrations can survive multiple cell divisions. An efficient method to detect an inversion is multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) which allows identification of both inter- and intrachromosome aberrations simultaneously. Post irradiation, chromosome aberrations may also arise after multiple cell divisions as a result of genomic instability. To investigate the stable or late-arising chromosome aberrations induced after radiation exposure, we exposed human lymphocytes to gamma rays and Fe ions ex vivo, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis and at several time intervals during the culture period post irradiation. With gamma irradiation, about half of the damages observed at first mitosis remained after 7 day- and 14 day- culture, suggesting the transmissibility of damages to the surviving progeny. Detailed analysis of chromosome break ends participating in exchanges revealed a greater fraction of break ends involved in intrachromosome aberrations in the 7- and 14-day samples in comparison to the fraction at first mitosis. In particular, simple inversions were found at 7 and 14 days, but not at the first mitosis, suggesting that some of the aberrations might be formed days post irradiation. In contrast, at the doses that produced similar frequencies of gamma-induced chromosome aberrations as observed at first mitosis, a significantly lower yield of aberrations remained at the same population doublings after Fe ion exposure. At these equitoxic doses, more complex type aberrations were observed for Fe ions, indicating that Fe ion-induced initial chromosome damages are more severe and may lead to cell death. Comparison between low and high doses of Fe ion irradiation in the induction of late damages will also be discussed.

  8. Assessment of DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients - and a clinical study of a dietary supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Rodhe, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Decreased kidney function is associated with higher levels of oxidative stress, inflammation and malnutrition. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a higher risk to develop cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis and cancer compared to the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in CKD patients. Many CKD patients also report oral health problems including dry mouth symptoms, inflammation in the oral cavity and changes in the salivary constit...

  9. Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Culturally Sensitive Interventions to Improve African Americans' and Non-African Americans' Early, Shared, and Informed Consideration of Live Kidney Transplantation: The talking about Live Kidney Donation (TALK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senga Mikiko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Live kidney transplantation (LKT is underutilized, particularly among ethnic/racial minorities. The effectiveness of culturally sensitive educational and behavioral interventions to encourage patients' early, shared (with family and health care providers and informed consideration of LKT and ameliorate disparities in consideration of LKT is unknown. Methods/Design We report the protocol of the Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK Study, a two-phase study utilizing qualitative and quantitative research methods to design and test culturally sensitive interventions to improve patients' shared and informed consideration of LKT. Study Phase 1 involved the evidence-based development of culturally sensitive written and audiovisual educational materials as well as a social worker intervention to encourage patients' engagement in shared and informed consideration of LKT. In Study Phase 2, we are currently conducting a randomized controlled trial in which participants with progressing chronic kidney disease receive: 1 usual care by their nephrologists, 2 usual care plus the educational materials, or 3 usual care plus the educational materials and the social worker intervention. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will include patients' self-reported rates of consideration of LKT (including family discussions of LKT, patient-physician discussions of LKT, and identification of an LKT donor. We will also assess differences in rates of consideration of LKT among African Americans and non-African Americans. Discussion The TALK Study rigorously developed and is currently testing the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions to improve patients' and families' consideration of LKT. Results from TALK will provide needed evidence on ways to enhance consideration of this optimal treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00932334

  10. Early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor- to everolimus-based therapy following kidney transplantation : Results of the randomized ELEVATE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fijter, Johan W; Holdaas, Hallvard; Øyen, Ole; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Sundar, Sankaran; Bemelman, Frederike J; Sommerer, Claudia; Pascual, Julio; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Pongskul, Cholatip; Oppenheimer, Frederic; Toselli, Lorenzo; Russ, Graeme; Wang, Zailong; Lopez, Patricia; Kochuparampil, Jossy; Cruzado, Josep M; van der Giet, Markus

    In a 24-month, multicenter, open-label, randomized trial, 715 de novo kidney transplant recipients were randomized at 10-14 weeks to convert to everolimus (n=359) or remain on standard calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy (n=356; 231 tacrolimus; 125 cyclosporine), all with mycophenolic acid and

  11. Early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor- to everolimus-based therapy following kidney transplantation : Results of the randomized ELEVATE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fijter, Johan W; Holdaas, Hallvard; Øyen, Ole; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Sundar, Sankaran; Bemelman, Frederike J; Sommerer, Claudia; Pascual, Julio; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Pongskul, Cholatip; Oppenheimer, Frederic; Toselli, Lorenzo; Russ, Graeme; Wang, Zailong; Lopez, Patricia; Kochuparampil, Jossy; Cruzado, Josep M; van der Giet, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In a 24-month, multicenter, open-label, randomized trial, 715 de novo kidney transplant recipients were randomized at 10-14 weeks to convert to everolimus (n=359) or remain on standard calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy (n=356; 231 tacrolimus; 125 cyclosporine), all with mycophenolic acid and stero

  12. Early and moderate sensory stimulation exerts a protective effect on perilesion representations of somatosensory cortex after focal ischemic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Christian; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that intensive training within an early critical time window after focal cortical ischemia increases the area of damaged tissue and is detrimental to behavioral recovery. We postulated that moderate stimulation initiated soon after the lesion could have protective effects on peri-infarct cortical somatotopic representations. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of mild cutaneous stimulation delivered in an attention-demanding behavioral context on the functional organization of the perilesion somatosensory cortex using high-density electrophysiological mapping. We compared the effects of 6-day training initiated on the 3rd day postlesion (early training; ET) to those of same-duration training started on the 8th day (delayed training; DT). Our findings confirm previous work showing that the absence of training aggravates representational loss in the perilesion zone. In addition, ET was found to be sufficient to limit expansion of the ischemic lesion and reduce tissue loss, and substantially maintain the neuronal responsiveness to tactile stimulation, thereby preserving somatotopic map arrangement in the peri-infarct cortical territories. By contrast, DT did not prevent tissue loss and only partially reinstated lost representations in a use-dependent manner within the spared peri-infarct cortical area. This study differentiates the effects of early versus delayed training on perilesion tissue and cortical map reorganization, and underscores the neuroprotective influence of mild rehabilitative stimulation on neuronal response properties in the peri-infarct cortex during an early critical period.

  13. Effects of valproic acid and dexamethasone administration on early bio-markers and gene expression profile in acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Speir

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR causes acute kidney injury (AKI with high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this investigation was to ameliorate kidney IR injury and identify novel biomarkers for kidney injury and repair. Under general anesthesia, left renal ischemia was induced in Wister rats by occluding renal artery for 45 minutes, followed by reperfusion and right nephrectomy. Thirty minutes prior to ischemia, rats (n = 8/group received Valproic Acid (150 mg/kg; VPA, Dexamethasone (3 mg/kg; Dex or Vehicle (saline intraperitoneally. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 24 or 120 h post-IR. Plasma creatinine (mg/dL at 24 h was reduced (P<0.05 in VPA (2.7±1.8 and Dex (2.3±1.2 compared to Vehicle (3.8±0.5 group. At 3 h, urine albumin (mg/mL was higher in Vehicle (1.47±0.10, VPA (0.84±0.62 and Dex (1.04±0.73 compared to naïve (uninjured/untreated control (0.14±0.26 group. At 24 h post-IR urine lipocalin-2 (μg/mL was higher (P<0.05 in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (9.61-11.36 compared to naïve group (0.67±0.29; also, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1; ng/mL was higher (P<0.05 in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (13.7-18.7 compared to naïve group (1.7±1.9. Histopathology demonstrated reduced (P<0.05 ischemic injury in the renal cortex in VPA (Grade 1.6±1.5 compared to Vehicle (Grade 2.9±1.1. Inflammatory cytokines IL1β and IL6 were downregulated and anti-apoptotic molecule BCL2 was upregulated in VPA group. Furthermore, kidney DNA microarray demonstrated reduced injury, stress, and apoptosis related gene expression in the VPA administered rats. VPA appears to ameliorate kidney IR injury via reduced inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis/stress related gene expression, and improved regeneration. KIM-1, lipocalin-2 and albumin appear to be promising early urine biomarkers for the diagnosis of AKI.

  14. Effects of Valproic Acid and Dexamethasone Administration on Early Bio-Markers and Gene Expression Profile in Acute Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Ryan W.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Andrews, Jared M.; Gelnett, Mary S.; Brand, Timothy C.; Salgar, Shashikumar K.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) causes acute kidney injury (AKI) with high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this investigation was to ameliorate kidney IR injury and identify novel biomarkers for kidney injury and repair. Under general anesthesia, left renal ischemia was induced in Wister rats by occluding renal artery for 45 minutes, followed by reperfusion and right nephrectomy. Thirty minutes prior to ischemia, rats (n = 8/group) received Valproic Acid (150 mg/kg; VPA), Dexamethasone (3 mg/kg; Dex) or Vehicle (saline) intraperitoneally. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 24 or 120 h post-IR. Plasma creatinine (mg/dL) at 24 h was reduced (P<0.05) in VPA (2.7±1.8) and Dex (2.3±1.2) compared to Vehicle (3.8±0.5) group. At 3 h, urine albumin (mg/mL) was higher in Vehicle (1.47±0.10), VPA (0.84±0.62) and Dex (1.04±0.73) compared to naïve (uninjured/untreated control) (0.14±0.26) group. At 24 h post-IR urine lipocalin-2 (μg/mL) was higher (P<0.05) in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (9.61–11.36) compared to naïve group (0.67±0.29); also, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1; ng/mL) was higher (P<0.05) in VPA, Dex and Vehicle groups (13.7–18.7) compared to naïve group (1.7±1.9). Histopathology demonstrated reduced (P<0.05) ischemic injury in the renal cortex in VPA (Grade 1.6±1.5) compared to Vehicle (Grade 2.9±1.1). Inflammatory cytokines IL1β and IL6 were downregulated and anti-apoptotic molecule BCL2 was upregulated in VPA group. Furthermore, kidney DNA microarray demonstrated reduced injury, stress, and apoptosis related gene expression in the VPA administered rats. VPA appears to ameliorate kidney IR injury via reduced inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis/stress related gene expression, and improved regeneration. KIM-1, lipocalin-2 and albumin appear to be promising early urine biomarkers for the diagnosis of AKI. PMID:25970334

  15. Association between early airway damage-associated molecular patterns and subsequent bacterial infection in patients with inhalational and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Robert; Jones, Samuel; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Jaspers, Ilona; Peden, David B; Cairns, Bruce A; Noah, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is a major cause of morbidity affecting outcome following burn and inhalation injury. While experimental burn and inhalation injury animal models have suggested that mediators of cell damage and inflammation increase the risk of infection, few studies have been done on humans. This is a prospective, observational study of patients admitted to the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center at the University of North Carolina who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for treatment of burn and inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over a 2-yr period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of tissue injury and inflammation. These include damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as hyaluronic acid (HA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70), and high-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB-1). The study population was comprised of 72 patients who had bacterial cultures obtained for clinical indications. Elevated HA, dsDNA, and IL-10 levels in bronchial washings obtained early (the first 72 h after injury) were significantly associated with positive bacterial respiratory cultures obtained during the first 14 days postinjury. Independent of initial inhalation injury severity and extent of surface burn, elevated levels of HA dsDNA and IL-10 in the central airways obtained early after injury are associated with subsequent positive bacterial respiratory cultures in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury.

  16. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans.

  17. Systemic oxidative DNA and RNA damage are not increased during early phases of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Hjorthøj, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia develop higher levels of oxidative stress, which may contribute to deteriorating mental illness. In order to examine oxidative stress in the early stages of severe mental illness, we examined the levels of systemic Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA...

  18. Early age damage quantification of actively restrained concrete using inverse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Ali

    Early-age cracking can be a significant problem in concrete pavements, floors, and bridge decks. Cracking occurs when the volumetric changes associated with drying, hydration, and temperature reduction are prevented. Good knowledge about the characteristics of early age concrete is necessary to achieve reliable crack control. Volumetric changes due to shrinkage depend on the type of concrete and its components. It has been found that light weight aggregates can work as internal reservoir to supply the concrete matrix with water that is needed during the early age; this process is called internal curing. Also fibers can give more ductility to the concrete and produce less shrinkage. There is a need to better understand the effects of early age uniaxial restraint on long term concrete mechanical performance. In this study, two types of concrete were studied (high performance fiber reinforced concrete and ordinary concrete) under actively restrained loading conditions to assess the effect on the long term fracture toughness and energy. Single edge notched specimens having dimensions of 250 mm x 150 mm x 75 mm and a notch to depth ratio of 0.33 were caste and used in both direct tension and three point bending. The direct tension tests were carried out on a direct tension loading frame constructed in house that was supplied with two mechanical jacks and load cell.

  19. Radioiodine remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer does not further increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids - early effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarewicz Jacek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Radioiodine (131I therapy is widely accepted as an essential part of therapeutic regimens in many cases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Radiation-induced oxidative damage to macromolecules is a well known phenomenon. Frequently examined process to evaluate oxidative damage to macromolecules is lipid peroxidation (LPO, resulting from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. The aim of the study was to examine serum LPO level in hypothyroid (after total thyroidectomy cancer patients subjected to ablative activities of 131I. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 21 patients (18 females and 3 males, average age 52.4 ± 16.5 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary (17 patients or follicular (4 patients thyroid carcinoma. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH blood concentration (BRAHMS, Germany, measured before 131I therapy. Activity of 2.8 - 6.9 GBq of 131I was administered to the patients orally as sodium iodide (OBRI, Poland. Concentrations of malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA + 4-HDA, as an index of LPO (LPO-586 kit, Calbiochem, USA, were measured in blood serum just before 131I administration (day "0" and on the days 1-4 after 131I therapy. Sera from 23 euthyroid patients served as controls. Correlations between LPO and TSH or 131I activity were calculated. Results Expectedly, serum LPO level, when measured before 131I therapy, was several times higher (p 131I therapy. LPO did not correlate with TSH concentration. In turn, negative correlation was found between 131I activity and LPO level on the day "2" after radioiodine treatment. Conclusions Radioiodine remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer does not further increase oxidative damage to membrane lipids, at least early, after therapy.

  20. Commercial multicopter unmanned aircraft system as a tool for early stage forest survey after wind damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, Martin; Vybostok, Jozef; Merganic, Jan; Tomastik, Julian; Cernava, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    In recent years unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are objects of research in many areas. This trend can be seen also in forest research where researchers are focusing on height, diameter and tree crown measurements, monitoring of forest fire, forest gaps and health condition. Our research is focusing on the use of UAS for detecting areas disturbed by wind and deriving the volume of fallen trees for management purposes. This information is crucial after the wind damage happened. We used DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ and acquired the imagery of one forest stand (5.7 ha). The UAS is a quadcopter "all in one" solution. It has a built-in camera with gimbal and a remote controller. The camera is controlled through the application (android/ios). The built-in camera has an image resolution of 4384×3288 (14 megapixels). We have placed five crosses within the plot to be able to georeference the point cloud from UAS. Their positions were measured by Topcon Hiper GGD survey-grade GNSS receiver. We measured the border of damaged area by four different GNSS devices - GeoExplorer 6000, Trimble Nomad, Garmin GPSMAP 60 CSx and by smartphone Sony Xperia X. To process images from UAS we used Agisoft Photoscan Professional, while ArcGIS 10.2 was used to calculate and compare the areas . From the UAS point cloud we calculated DTM and DSM and deducted them. The areas where the difference was close to zero (-0.2 to 0.2) were signed as potentially wind damage areas. Then we filtered the areas that were not signed correctly (for example routes). The calculated area from UAS was 2.66 ha, GeoExplorer 6000 was 2.20 ha, Nomad was 2.06 ha, Garmin was 2.21 ha and from Xperia was the area 2.24 ha. The differences between UAS and GPS devices vary from 0.42 ha to 0.6 ha. The differences were mostly caused by inability to detect small spots of fallen trees on UAS data. These small spots are difficult to measure by GPS devices because the signal is very poor under tree crowns and also it is difficult to find

  1. Endothelial pentraxin 3 contributes to murine ischemic acute kidney injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianlin; Matzuk, Martin M.; Zhou, Xin J.; Lu, Christopher Y.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a receptor forDamage Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules and also the lipopolysaccharide receptor, is required for early endothelial activation leading to maximal inflammation and injury during murine ischemic acute kidney injury. DNA microarray analysis of ischemic kidneys from TLR4-sufficient and deficient mice showed that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was upregulated only on the former while transgenic knockout of PTX3 ameliorated acute kidney injury. PTX3 was expressed predominantly on peritubular endothelia of the outer medulla of the kidney in control mice. Acute kidney injury increased PTX3 protein in the kidney and the plasma where it may be a biomarker of the injury. Stimulation by hydrogen peroxide, or the TLR4 ligands recombinant human High-Mobility Group protein B1 or lipopolysaccharide, induced PTX3 expression in the Mile Sven 1 endothelial cell line and in primary renal endothelial cells suggesting that endothelial PTX3 was induced by pathways involving TLR4 and reactive oxygen species. This increase was inhibited by conditional endothelial knockout of Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, a mediator of a TLR4 intracellular signaling pathway. Compared to wild type mice, PTX3 knockout mice had decreased endothelial expression of cell adhesion molecules at 4 hours of reperfusion possibly contributing to a decreased early maladaptive inflammation in the kidneys of knockout mice. At 24 hours of reperfusion, PTX3 knockout increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules when regulatory and reparative leukocytes enter the kidney. Thus, endothelial PTX3 plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ischemic acute kidney injury. PMID:22895517

  2. Early biomarkers for acute kidney injury%早期诊断急性肾损伤的生物学标志物研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玲

    2010-01-01

    急性肾损伤(AKI)是一种常见的严重疾病.由于缺乏诊断AKI的早期生物学标志物,往往导致早期有效治疗的延误.目前对于诊断AKI新的生物学标志物的研究已发展到了临床研究阶段,最有希望成为早期诊断AKI的生物学标志物包括中性粒细胞明胶酶相关脂质运载蛋白、IL-18、肾损伤分子-1和L-脂肪酸结合蛋白.本文就近年来关于上述几种生物学标志物的研究作一综述,为应用早期诊断AKI的生物学标志物提供理论依据.%Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a common and devastating problem in clinical medicine. The lack of early biomarkers for AKI has led to a delay in initiating potentially effective therapies.Identification of novel biomarkers for AKI has progressed to the clinical phase of the biomarker discovery process. The most promising AKI biomarkers include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, IL-18, kidney injury molecule-1 and liver-type fatty acid binding protein. In this article, we review the study of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin,IL-18, kidney injury molecule-1 and liver-type fatty acid binding protein in recent years,in order to provide the theory basis for the clinical application of the early biomarkers for AKI.

  3. Solitary Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  4. The Benefit of Sirolimus Maintenance Immunosuppression and Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin Induction in Liver Transplant Recipients That Develop Acute Kidney Injury in the Early Postoperative Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Duhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data are limited describing renal outcomes in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT recipients prescribed sirolimus (SRL maintenance immunosuppression (MIS and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG induction. We investigated whether SRL MIS and rATG induction facilitated recovery of acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period. This retrospective descriptive study screened 308 consecutive OLTs performed between 2006 and 2009. All patients received rATG induction with steroid avoidance. MIS consisted of SRL or TAC with mycophenolate mofetil. A total of 197 patients were included: 168 (85% received TAC and 29 (15% received SRL for a median of 365 days. Demographics were similar between groups except for a higher incidence of pretransplant renal dysfunction in the SRL recipients (SRL 59% versus TAC 21%; P<0.05. The eGFR was significantly (P<0.05 higher for all time points in the TAC group with the exception of month 2. However, improvement in eGFR was significantly (P<0.05 greater in the SRL group postoperatively. Our study suggests that rATG induction and SRL maintenance immunosuppression facilitate renal recovery for liver transplant recipients that develop acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period.

  5. The benefit of sirolimus maintenance immunosuppression and rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction in liver transplant recipients that develop acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhart, Benjamin T; Ally, Winston A; Krauss, Amy G; Hudson, Joanna Q; Eason, James D; Rao, Vinaya; Vanatta, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Published data are limited describing renal outcomes in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients prescribed sirolimus (SRL) maintenance immunosuppression (MIS) and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induction. We investigated whether SRL MIS and rATG induction facilitated recovery of acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period. This retrospective descriptive study screened 308 consecutive OLTs performed between 2006 and 2009. All patients received rATG induction with steroid avoidance. MIS consisted of SRL or TAC with mycophenolate mofetil. A total of 197 patients were included: 168 (85%) received TAC and 29 (15%) received SRL for a median of 365 days. Demographics were similar between groups except for a higher incidence of pretransplant renal dysfunction in the SRL recipients (SRL 59% versus TAC 21%; P < 0.05). The eGFR was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for all time points in the TAC group with the exception of month 2. However, improvement in eGFR was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the SRL group postoperatively. Our study suggests that rATG induction and SRL maintenance immunosuppression facilitate renal recovery for liver transplant recipients that develop acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period.

  6. Effect of insulin glargine on heart and kidney damage in burned rats with delayed fluid resuscitation%甘精胰岛素对延迟复苏烧伤大鼠心脏肾脏损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻翔; 孔豫苏; 李伟人; 鲁加祥; 李嘉琥

    2015-01-01

    , GPx, T-AOC were significantly lower (P<0.05).Compared with the burn control group, the burn plus insulin group MDA, XO, MPO in the heart and kidney tissues were significantly lower ( P<0.05);SOD1, CAT, GPx, T-AOC were significantly higher (P<0.05).(3) Compared with the sham burn group, the blood glucose in burn control group and burn plus insulin group were significantly higher, the blood glucose in the burn plus insulin group was significantly lower in contrast to the burn control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Insulin glargine possesses the protective effect against heart and kidney damage in burned rats with delayed fluid resuscitation, which may be associated with early glycemic control and alleviation of tissues lipid peroxidative injury.%目的:探讨甘精胰岛素对延迟复苏烧伤大鼠心脏、肾脏组织的保护作用。方法24只雄性SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为假伤组、烧伤对照组、烧伤+胰岛素组,每组各8只。假伤组浸入37℃温水中15 s模拟烫伤。烧伤对照组、烧伤+胰岛素组(95.0±0.5)℃热水中15 s制作烧伤总面积( TBSA)30%、Ⅲ度烫伤模型,伤后6 h腹腔注射生理盐水(40 mL/kg)。烧伤+胰岛素组于伤后2 h皮下注射甘精胰岛素[1.0 U/(kg· d)],烧伤对照组同法注射等量生理盐水。烧伤各组于伤后24 h采集腹主动脉血及心脏、肾脏组织标本。采用分光光度法测定血糖、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、α-羟丁酸脱氢酶(α-HBDH)、肌酸激酶(CK)、尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、丙二醛(MDA)、黄嘌呤氧化酶(XO)、髓过氧化物酶(MPO)、超氧化物歧化酶1(SOD1)、过氧化氢酶( CAT)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GPx)、总抗氧化能力( T-AOC);免疫抑制法测定肌酸激酶同工酶( CK-MB)。结果①烧伤对照组LDH、α-HBDH、CK、CK-MB、BUN、Cr均显著高于假伤组(P<0.05);与烧伤对照组比较,烧伤

  7. Early myocardial damage assessment in dystrophinopathies using 99Tcm-MIBI gated myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Zhang,1,* Zhe Liu,2,* Ke-You Hu,3 Qing-Bao Tian,3 Ling-Ge Wei,4 Zhe Zhao,5 Hong-Rui Shen,5 Jing Hu5 1Department of Cardiovascular Disorders, 2Department of Geriatrics, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 3The Public Health Department, Hebei Medical University, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, 5Department of Neuromuscular Disorders, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China *Li Zhang and Zhe Liu are first coauthors of this paper Background: Early detection of muscular dystrophy (MD-associated cardiomyopathy is important because early medical treatment may slow cardiac remodeling and attenuate symptoms of cardiac dysfunction; however, no sensitive and standard diagnostic method for MD at an earlier stage has been well-recognized. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the early diagnostic value of technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99Tcm-MIBI gated myocardial perfusion imaging (G-MPI for MD.Methods and results: Ninety-one patients underwent 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI examinations when they were diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD (n=77 or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD; n=14. 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI examinations were repeated in 43 DMD patients who received steroid treatments for 2 years as a follow-up examination. Myocardial defects were observed in nearly every segment of the left ventricular wall in both DMD and BMD patients compared with controls, especially in the inferior walls and the apices by using 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI. Cardiac wall movement impairment significantly correlated with age in the DMD and BMD groups (rs=0.534 [P<0.05] and rs=0.784 [P<0.05], respectively. Intermittent intravenous doses of glucocorticoids and continuation with oral steroid treatments significantly improved myocardial function in DMD patients (P<0.05, but not in BMD patients.Conclusion: 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI is a sensitive and safe approach for early evaluation of cardiomyopathy in patients with DMD or BMD

  8. Modeling early physical and chemical events for DNA damage induced by photons and tritium beta particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseenko, V. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Waker, A.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Prestwich, W.V. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-02-01

    A method has been developed to model production of single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB) in Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) by ionizing radiations. Modeling is carried out by Monte Carlo means and includes consideration of direct energy depositions in DNA molecules, production of chemical species following water radiolysis, diffusion of chemical species, and their interactions with each other and DNA. Computer-generated electron tracks in liquid water are used to model energy deposition and to derive the initial localization of chemical species. Atomistic representation of the DNA with a first hydration shell is used to derive direct energy depositions in DNA molecules and the resulting consequences, and to derive coordinates of reactive sites for modeling of the chemical stage of radiation damage. Diffusion of chemical species is followed in time, and the reactions of species with each other and DNA are considered to occur in an encounter-controlled manner. Time of diffusion follow-up is restricted to 10{sup -12}- 10{sup -9} s, which yields a diffusion length of hydroxyl radicals comparable to that in the cellular environment. DNA SSB are assumed to result from any direct energy depositions in the sugar/phosphate moiety, ionizations in water molecules bound to sugar/phosphate and hydroxyl attacks on deoxyribose. DSB are assumed to result from two SSB on opposite strands separated by 10 or fewer base pairs. Photon radiations in the energy range 70 keV-1 MeV and tritium beta particles are considered. It is shown that for naked DNA in B-form (the configuration thought to be most biologically relevant) the effectiveness of tritium for SSB and DSB production is, within statistical uncertainties, comparable to photon radiation with energies in the range 70 keV-1 MeV, although a tendency for increased DSB production has been observed for 70 keV photons that represent orthovoltage X-rays and for tritium beta particles. It is predicted that hydroxyl

  9. Protective effect of cadmium poisoning mice liver and kidney damage of the phragmites polysaccharide%芦根多糖对镉中毒小鼠肝肾组织损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珍; 尤其嘉; 杨靖亚; 晁若瑜

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨芦根多糖对镉中毒小鼠肝肾损伤的影响方法:通过建立镉中毒小鼠模型,分别以芦根多糖高剂量组[480mg/(kg· d)],多糖中剂量组[240mag/(kg·d)],多糖低剂量组[120mg/(kg· d)],共连续灌胃20d.正常组和模型组小鼠正常饲喂,正常饮水.观察表征变化、称重;制作石蜡切片进行病理形态学观察;检测肝肾组织的MDA含量、GSH含量、GSH-Px活性.结果:不同浓度的芦根多糖对镉引起的小鼠肝和肾损伤均具有保护作用芦根多糖高剂量组其对小鼠的组织损伤保护作用最有效.结论:芦根多糖对镉中毒小鼠肝肾损伤有保护作用.%Objective:To study the influence of the phragmites polysaccharide of cadmium poisoning in mice liver and kidney damage. Methods:Through the establishment of the mouse model of cadmium poisoning,respectively, to the high dose group of phragmites polysaccharide [480mg/( kg·d)], polysaccharide medium dose group [240mg/(kg·d)],polysaccharides low dose group [120mg/(kg·d)],a total of intragastric adminstration for 20d. Normal group and model group of normal mice fed normal drinking water. Observing characterization of changes in weighing,paraffin slice with pathological morphological observation,detecting liver and kidney tissue content of MDA,GSH,GSH -Px activity. Results;The phragmites polysaccharides of different concentrations had a protective effect on mouse liver and kidney injury caused by cadmium poisoning. The high dose group of phragmites polysaccharide had the most effective tissue damage in mice protective effect. Conclusion: Phragmites polysaccharide had a protective effect on cadmium poisoning in mice liver and kidney damage.

  10. [A clinical study on organ protective effect of early high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Cheng; Qian, Ke-jian; Wang, Lian-qun; Liu, Fen; Zeng, Zhen-guo; Zhu, Feng; Xia, Liang; Zhan, Yi-an

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the organ protective effect of early continuous HVHF in patients with MODS complicated by AKI. 117 patients requested HVHF in ICU due to MODS/AKI were enrolled from June 2006 to June 2011 for clinical data collection. The patients were categorized, by RIFLE scale (R-risk of renal dysfunction, I-injury to the kidney, F-failure of kidney, L-loss of kidney function, E-end stage kidney disease), into three groups: RIFLE-R (n = 15), RIFLE-I (n = 23) and RIFLE-F (n = 79). The values of their serum creatinine (SCr), oxygenation index (PaO(2) /FiO(2) ), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), blood lactic acid (Lac), prothrombin time (PT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score were recorded, at the beginning of, and within 72 hours after HVHF. The 90-day survival rate in each group was calculated. No significant difference was found between RIFLE-R and RIFLE-I group, within 72 hours after HVHF, in SCr, PaO(2) /FiO(2) , EVLWI, Lac, PT, AST, or APACHE II score. The mean values of SCr, EVLWI, Lac, PT, AST, APACHE II score, within 72 hours after HVHF in the RIFLE-F group were significantly higher in comparison with RIFLE-R, and RIFLE-I group [SCr (μmol/L): 260.50±35.51 vs. 83.61±21.07, 89.71±23.81 ; EVLWI (ml/kg): 12.18±2.11 vs. 10.94±1.50,10.76±1.92; Lac (mmol/L): 2.40±0.56 vs. 1.58±0.27, 1.68±0.35; PT (sec): 14.14±1.50 vs. 12.67±1.18, 12.51±0.94; AST (U/L): 96.19±18. 84 vs. 47.91±12.85, 56.39±13.44; APACHE II score: 20.17±2.61 vs. 17.79±2.65, 18.53±2.87, P 0.05). Early HVHF has protective effect against organs injury in patients with MODS and AKI.

  11. Early (N170/M170 face-sensitivity despite right lateral occipital brain damage in acquired prosopagnosia

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    Esther eAlonso Prieto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS. Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (occipital face area, OFA, we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left fusiform face area, or lFFA. These results were replicated by a magneto-encephalographic (MEG investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170 on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere - might be necessary to generate

  12. Axonal damage and loss of connectivity in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine pathways in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Silvia Paola; Presotto, Luca; Baroncini, Damiano; Garibotto, Valentina; Moresco, Rosa Maria; Gianolli, Luigi; Volonté, Maria Antonietta; Antonini, Angelo; Perani, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    A progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is considered the main feature of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent neuropathological evidence however suggests that the axons of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system are the earliest target of α-synuclein accumulation in PD, thus the principal site for vulnerability. Whether this applies to in vivo PD, and also to the mesolimbic system has not been investigated yet. We used [(11)C]FeCIT PET to measure presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) activity in both nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems, in 36 early PD patients (mean disease duration in months ± SD 21.8 ± 10.7) and 14 healthy controls similar for age. We also performed anatomically-driven partial correlation analysis to evaluate possible changes in the connectivity within both the dopamine networks at an early clinical phase. In the nigrostriatal system, we found a severe DAT reduction in the afferents to the dorsal putamen (DPU) (η(2) = 0.84), whereas the SN was the less affected region (η(2) = 0.31). DAT activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VST) were also reduced in the patient group, but to a lesser degree (VST η(2) = 0.71 and VTA η(2) = 0.31). In the PD patients compared to the controls, there was a marked decrease in dopamine network connectivity between SN and DPU nodes, supporting the significant derangement in the nigrostriatal pathway. These results suggest that neurodegeneration in the dopamine pathways is initially more prominent in the afferent axons and more severe in the nigrostriatal system. Considering PD as a disconnection syndrome starting from the axons, it would justify neuroprotective interventions even if patients have already manifested clinical symptoms.

  13. A Case Study of Damage Energy Analysis and an Early Warning by Microseismic Monitoring for Large Area Roof Caving in Shallow Depth Seams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow depth coal seams are widely spread in Shendong mining area, which is located in the Northwestern region of China. When working face is advanced out of concentrated coal pillar in upper room and pillar goaf, strong strata behaviors often cause support crushing accidents, and potentially induce large area residual pillars instability and even wind blast disaster. In order to predict the precise time when the accident happens, guaranteeing life-safety of miner, microseismic monitoring system was for the first time applied in shallow coal seam. Based on damage mechanics correlation theory, the damage energy model is established to describe relationship between damage level and cumulative energy of microseismic events. According to microseismic monitoring data of two support crushing accidents, the damage energy model is verified and an effective early warning method of these accidents is proposed. The field application showed that the early warning method had avoided miners suffering from all support crushing accidents in Shigetai coal mine.

  14. The Effect of Osmotherapy and Tight Control of Acidosis on Early Graft Function among Deceased-Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etezadi, F.; Najafi Abrandabadi, A. H.; Motaharinia, J.; Mojtahedzadeh, M.; Pourfakhr, P.; Khajavi, M. R.; Gooran, S.; Shariat Moharari, R.; Dehghani, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reperfusion injury and the acid-base status of the transplant are important factors affecting post-transplantation graft function. Objective: We hypothesized that infusing hypertonic saline (HS) or tight control of acid-base status of the blood rushing through renal graft using sodium bicarbonate may have beneficial effects on early graft function. Methods: Candidates for deceased-donor kidney transplant were randomized into three groups. HS group (n=33) received 50 mL/kg normal saline (NS) titrated during operation plus 4 mL/kg of 5% HS just within graft reperfusion phase; bicarbonate group (n=37) was administered 60 mL/kg NS while their metabolic acidosis (base excess ≤5 mEq/L) was tightly corrected every 30 min with sodium bicarbonate; and a control group (n=36) that received 60 mL/kg normal saline while they were administered sodium bicarbonate only, if they encountered severe metabolic acidosis (base excess ≤15 mEq/L). The primary outcome was defined as early post-operative renal function evaluated based on serial serum creatinine levels. The study was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2013122815841N19). Results: Post-operative early graft function improved significantly during the first 3 days in the intervention groups (pcontrol of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate infusion improve early renal function during renal transplant surgery.

  15. Preserved Renal Function in Kidney Transplantation over a Thrombosed Aortobifemoral Bypass Graft: The Role of Retrograde Flow and Early Thrombolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saúl Pampa-Saico; Sara Jiménez-Alvaro; Fernando Caravaca-Fontán; Ana Fernández-Rodríguez; Maite Rivera-Gorrín; Juan Sánchez; Antonio Chinchilla; Roberto Marcén

    2016-01-01

    Aortobifemoral bypass (ABFB) thrombosis is not uncommon, and when the artery of a renal graft is implanted on a bypass the risk of graft loss is high. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a previous history of ABFB under antiplatelet therapy and a kidney allograft implanted on the vascular prosthesis, who presented with acute limb ischemia and severe renal impairment. Imaging techniques revealed a complete thrombosis of the proximal left arm of the ABFB. However, a faint retrograde ...

  16. 论沥青路面早期损坏的预防措施%Discussion on prevention measures of early damages of asphalt pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪香莲

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the present asphalt concrete pavement construction and caused pavement early damages,this paper analysed the reasons and preventive measures of pavement early damages from pavement structure layer,mixing ratio design,raw materials,construction control and other aspects,in order to reduce the early damage of asphalt pavement,prolong the service life of pavement.%结合当前沥青混凝土路面施工及产生的路面早期破坏,从路面结构层、配合比设计、原材料、施工控制等方面分析了路面早期破坏的原因及预防措施,以减少沥青路面早期损坏,延长路面使用寿命。

  17. Evaluation of the progression of visual field damage in patients suffering from early manifest glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdicchi, Andrea; Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Cutini, Alessandro; Ciarnella, Angela; Scuderi, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background This retrospective study aimed to determine how often a perimetric examination should be carried out in order to identify visual field (VF) changes in patients with relatively early manifestation glaucoma. Materials and methods Patients included had a relatively recent manifestation of primary open-angle glaucoma. Patients with a minimum follow-up of 5 years and a minimum of seven VF tests were included. Statistical analysis was performed to verify the trend of variations in mean defect (MD) over time (PeriData). The results were subjected to a t-test for a comparative analysis of progression of VF changes over time. The annual rate of progression provided by PeriData considering all the VFs analyzed was compared with that obtained on half of the VF examinations during the same follow-up period. An analysis of the MD trend over time was also carried out in relationship to the number of VF tests done and by dividing the sample into a high-frequency group (more than eight VFs) and a low-frequency group (fewer than eight VFs) in the follow-up period. Results A total of 96 eyes of 96 patients were included, and overall 846 VFs were examined. The paired t-test performed comparing the MD index of all the VFs against half of them did not show statistical significance (P=0.537). The high-frequency group comprised 39 eyes (average VF 11.05±1.91, average time interval 0.76 years) while the low-frequency group comprised 57 eyes (average VF 6.95±0.6, average time interval 1.21 years). The analysis of the MD trend in the high-frequency patients showed significance (P=0.017); the low-frequency group did not show statistical significance (P=0.08). Conclusion The number of VFs in a determined time interval was not significant. However, a greater frequency of tests provides a predictive evaluation of the rate of progression of early manifestation open-angle glaucoma. PMID:27601881

  18. Chronic kidney disease screening methods and its implication for Malaysia: an in depth review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almualm, Yasmin; Zaman Huri, Hasniza

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred.  Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia.  Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR 60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been otherwise missed if only albuminuria and serum creatinine are measured.

  19. Early termination of immune tolerance state of hepatitis B virus infection explains liver damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamun-Al-Mahtab; Sheikh; Mohammad; Fazle; Akbar; Helal; Uddin; Sakirul; Islam; Khan; Salimur; Rahman

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess an early termination of immune toler-ance state of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Ban-gladesh and its clinical significance. METHODS: From a series of 167 treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients aged between 12 to 20 years(mean ± SD; 17.5 ± 2.8 years), percutaneous liver biopsies of 89 patients who were all hepatitis B e antigen negative at presentation were done. Of them, 81 were included in the study. They had persistently normal or raised serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT) values. A precore mutation(PCM) study was accom-plished in 8 patients who were randomly selected. RESULTS: Forty-four(53.7%) patients had significant necroinflammation(HAI-NI > 7), while significant fi-brosis(HAI-F ≥ 3) was seen in 15(18.5%) patients. Serum ALT(cut off 42 U/L) was raised in 29(35.8%) patients, while low HBV DNA load(< 105 copies/mL)was observed in 57(70.4%) patients. PCM was nega-tive in all 8 patients. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the current concept of age-related immune tolerance state of HBV infection deserves further analyses in different popula-tion groups.

  20. Treatment of an Early Kaposi’s Sarcoma Case Post Kidney Transplantation by Sirolimus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Najafi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi᾽s sarcoma (KS can develop in 0.06% to 4.1% of kidney transplant recipients. Here we describe a case of 50-year-old man who developed KS a few months after kidney transplantation. After transplantation, he had delayed graft function and was managed by anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG for five days. At the discharge, his immunosuppressive therapy was prednisolone 20 mg/day, tTacrolimus (Pprograf® 4 mg/day, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2 gr/day, while he also took Vvalcyte and diltiazem. Once diagnosed with KS, the Prograf® (tacrolimus  was replaced by prednisolone (5 mg/day and sirolimus (2 mg/day. Gradually the skin nodule on the patient arm disappeared, and the others nodule on the right his leg was decreased. It seems that the examination of skin should be a part of regular follow-up and dermatologist examination is recommended every 6 months.

  1. Dimethoate induces kidney dysfunction, disrupts membrane-bound ATPases and confers cytotoxicity through DNA damage. Protective effects of vitamin E and selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Karray, Aida; Hakim, Ahmed; Ben Ali, Yassine; Troudi, Afef; Soudani, Nejla; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Zeghal, Najiba

    2013-12-01

    Dimethoate (DM) is an organophosphate insecticide widely used in agriculture and industry and has toxic effects on non-target organisms especially mammalian. However, we still know little about DM-induced kidney injury and its alleviation by natural antioxidants. In the present study, selenium (Se), vitamin E, DM, Se+DM, vitamin E+DM, Se+vitamin E+DM were given to adult rats for 4 weeks. Plasma creatinine and uric acid, kidney MDA, PC, H2O2 and AOPP levels were higher, while Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and LDH values were lower in the DM group than those of controls. A smear without ladder formation on agarose gel was shown in the DM group, indicating random DNA degradation and DM-induced genotoxicity. A decrease in kidney GSH, NPSH and plasma urea levels and an increase in GPx, SOD and catalase activities were observed in the DM group when compared to those of controls. Plasma cystatin C levels increased, indicating a decrease in glomerular filtration rate. When Se or vitamin E was added through diet, the biochemical parameters cited above were partially restored in Se+DM and vitamin E+DM than DM group. The joint effect of Se and vitamin E was more powerful against DM-induced oxidative stress and kidney dysfunction. The changes in biochemical parameters were substantiated by histological data. In conclusion, our results indicated a possible mechanism of DM-induced nephrotoxicity, where renal genotoxicity was noted, membrane-bound ATPases and plasma biomarkers were disturbed. Se and vitamin E ameliorated the toxic effects of this pesticide in renal tissue suggesting their role as potential antioxidants.

  2. Genomic Integrity Is Favourably Affected by High-Intensity Interval Training in an Animal Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Scanlan, Aaron T; Vella, Rebecca K; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible disease that diminishes length and quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests CKD progression and genomic integrity are inversely and causally related. To reduce health complications related to CKD progression, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. To date, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with postulations regarding the mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. In order to examine the ability of aerobic exercise to encourage improvements in genomic integrity, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 85 % VO2max), low intensity training (LIT; 45-50 % VO2max), and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. To assess genomic integrity, we examined kidney-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes related to genomic repair and stability: Fan1, Mre11a, and telomere length as measured by T/S ratio. Following HIIT, mRNA expression of Fan1 was significantly up-regulated, compared to SED (p = 0.026) and T/S ratio was significantly increased, compared to SED (p < 0.001) and LIT (p = 0.002). Our results suggest that HIIT is superior to SED and LIT as HIIT beneficially influenced the expression of genes related to genomic integrity.

  3. [Enterolithotomy and early cholecystectomy, an application of damage control surgery for patients with gallstone ileus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, Jesica; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Lorenzo-Rocha, Nieves; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Medina-Arana, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent gallstone ileus is an uncommon mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to occlusion of the intestine by an intraluminal biliary calculus. Female, 75 years old, ischaemic heart disease (stent), arrived in our department complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed tomography showed gallstone ileus. The patient underwent an enterotomy with gallstone removal. Three months later, the patient came back with the same clinical symptoms and signs. A new computed tomography highlighted a gallstone ileus again. Enterolithotomy and gallstone removal, cholecystectomy and closure of cholecystoduodenal fistula were performed. The patient had a prolonged hospital stay due to the development of congestive heart failure. Case 2. Male, 71 years old, ischaemic heart disease and aortocoronary bypass, seen in our department complaining of vomiting. Computed tomography showed aerobilia and gallstone ileus. The patient underwent an urgent enterolithotomy. Seven months later, the patient came back with the same clinical symptoms and signs. Computed tomography showed a new gallstone ileus. An enterotomy and gallstone removal, cholecystectomy and closure of cholecystoduodenal fistula were performed. The patient died due to multi-organ failure in post-surgery period. In the elderly patients with concomitant medical illnesses with the risk of a second laparotomy, it is justifiable to reconsider the definitive repair in the treatment of gallstone ileus. The enterolithotomy in acute phase followed by early cholecystectomy (4-8 weeks) may be a safe method for eliminating, not only the possibility of recurrent gallstone ileus, and probably the need for a second laparotomy, but also the exceptional possibility of developing a gallbladder carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Enriched Environment Protects the Optic Nerve from Early Diabetes-Induced Damage in Adult Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Dorfman

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm optic nerve (ON could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment (EE or remained in a standard environment (SE for 6 weeks. Anterograde transport, retinal morphology, optic nerve axons (toluidine blue staining and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity, microglia/macrophages (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1 immunoreactivity, astrocyte reactivity (glial fibrillary acid protein-immunostaining, myelin (myelin basic protein immunoreactivity, ultrastructure, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels were assessed in non-diabetic and diabetic animals housed in SE or EE. No differences in retinal morphology or retinal ganglion cell number were observed among groups. EE housing which did not affect the STZ-induced weight loss and hyperglycemia, prevented a decrease in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, ON axon number, and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity. Moreover, EE housing prevented an increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity, and astrocyte reactivity, as well as ultrastructural myelin alterations in the ON distal portion at early stages of diabetes. In addition, EE housing avoided a decrease in BDNF levels induced by experimental diabetes. These results suggest that EE induced neuroprotection in the diabetic visual pathway.

  5. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dialysis replaces only a small part of kidney function, so getting adequate treatment is key to living long and living well with kidney ... Sexuality and Fertility Maintaining a healthy sex life and ...

  6. Early Vascular Damage in Young Women with DM-1 and Its Relation to Anti-Müllerian Hormone: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelien C. de Kat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular function is suggested to be associated with ovarian reserve, but the relationship with microvascular function has never been studied. In this cross-sectional pilot study, the relationship of microvascular damage markers with AMH was studied in premenopausal women. Twenty-two regularly cycling women with type 1 diabetes (DM-1 and a reference group of 20 healthy regularly cycling women were included, from whom blood was drawn in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The main outcome was the correlation between circulating progenitor cells (CPCs, markers for early vascular damage, and AMH, a marker for ovarian reserve. Secondary endpoints for early vascular impairment were circulating angiogenic cells and additional biomarkers. Median AMH levels were 2.2 µg/L [1.2–3.5] in the DM-1 group and 2.1 µg/L [0.85–3.8] in the reference group. CPCs were significantly decreased in women with DM-1; 1204±537 CD34+/CD45dim cells were counted in the DM-1 group, compared to 2264±1124 in the reference group. CPCs and other markers of early vascular damage were not correlated with AMH levels in a multivariable analysis. These results underscore previous findings of early vascular damage in DM-1 and suggest that there may not be a relationship between vascular function and ovarian reserve. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01665716.

  7. Early monitoring of the human polyomavirus BK replication and sequencing analysis in a cohort of adult kidney transplant patients treated with basiliximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischitelli Monica

    2011-08-01

    results confirm previous studies indicating that BKV replication may occur during the early hours after kidney transplantation, reaches the highest incidence in the third post-transplantation month and then decreases within the sixth month, maybe due to induction therapy. Moreover, it might become clinically useful whether specific BKV subtypes or rearrangements could be linked to a particular disease state in order to detect them before BKVAN onset.

  8. [Effect of supplementing Qi-nourishing Yin-dispersing blood stasis-dredging collateral herbs on p38 MAPK signaling pathway in kidney of early diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jianghua; Sun, Yufeng; Wang, Yuehua; Wang, Huiqing

    2010-03-01

    To study the effect of supplementing Qi-nourishing Yin and dispersing blood stasis-dredging collateral herbs on p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in the kidney of early diabetic rats. Dividing SD rats randomly into 6 groups: Simple nephrectomy group, model group, irbesatan group, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) low dose group, TCM middle dose group and TCM high dose group. Each group of rats was fed with the corresponding dose of medicine. After 6 weeks, detecting 24 h urine protein (UPro) level, renal function, p38 MAPK mRNA and p-p38 MAPK protein level. UPro levels of irbesatan group, TCM low group and TCM middle dose group decreased significantly (P herbs could treat DN rats effectively by inhibiting the expression of p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  9. The prodromal phase of obesity-related chronic kidney disease: early alterations in cardiovascular and renal function in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Anke; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-11-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a relevant health condition with multi-organ involvement. Obesity shows significant tracking into adult life and is associated with an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes both during childhood and later adulthood. The classical sequelae of obesity such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome and inflammation do develop at a paediatric age. Cardiovascular consequences, such as increased carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular hypertrophy, as well as functional alterations of the heart and arteries, are commonly traceable at an early age. Renal involvement can occur at a young age and is associated with a high probability of progressive chronic kidney disease. There is solid evidence suggesting that consequent treatment including both lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy can reduce cardiovascular, metabolic and renal risks in obese children and adolescents.

  10. Ensuring the safety of living kidney donors and recipients in China through ethics committee oversight: an early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Z; Lulin, M; Guoliang, W; Xiaofei, H

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, the Regulation on Human Organ Transplantation was enacted in China requiring the establishment of ethics committees to oversee living donor organ transplantation and establishing specific requirements that must be met. We established an Ethics Committee on Organ Transplantation at Peking University Third Hospital, and described its composition, its methods and operating procedures in the examination and approval of living-related donor kidney transplantation (LRDKT) and our initial experience. All 60 proposed cases of LRDKT were presented to the Ethics Committee for discussion, among which 53 cases were approved and seven cases were disapproved due to a variety of reasons that are discussed. The Ethics Committee on Organ Transplantation plays an important role in the ethical oversight of living-related donor organ transplantation in order to ensure to the greatest extent possible the safety, rights and interests of donors and recipients.

  11. Immunophenotyping and efficacy of low dose ATG in non-sensitized kidney recipients undergoing early steroid withdrawal: a randomized pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Grafals

    Full Text Available Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG is commonly used as an induction therapy in renal transplant recipients, but the ideal dosage in tacrolimus-based early steroid withdrawal protocols has not been established. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the immunophenotyping and efficacy of lower dose ATG in low immunological-risk kidney transplant recipients. In this prospective study, 45 patients were randomized (1∶1 to our standard dose ATG (total dose 3.75 mg/kg(sATG vs. lower dose 2.25 mg/kg (lowATG. All patients underwent early steroid withdrawal within 7 days. The primary end point was biopsy-proven acute rejection at 12 months. Prospective immunophenotyping of freshly isolated PBMCs was performed at baseline, 3, 6, 12 months post-transplant. The rate of acute rejection was 17% and 10% in the sATG and lowATG, respectively. Effector memory T cells, Tregs and recent thymic emigrants T cells had similar kinetics post-transplant in both groups. No statistically significant differences were found in graft survival, patient survival or infections between the two groups, though there was a non-significant increase in leukopenia (43%v s. 30%, CMV (8% vs. 0 and BK (4% vs. 0 infections in sATG group vs. lowATG. In sum, in low immunological risk kidney recipients undergoing steroid withdrawal, low dose ATG seems to be efficacious in preventing acute rejection and depleting T cells with potentially lower infectious complications. A larger study is warranted to confirm these findings.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00548405.

  12. Which is more suitable for kidney transplantation at the early post-transplantation phase in China - low dosing or standard dosing of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C; Xue, W; Tian, P; Ding, X; Pan, X; Xiang, H; Tian, X; Li, Y; Zheng, J

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) and the clinical outcome in kidney transplant recipients in the early post-transplantation phase. Then explain which regimen is more suitable for Chinese renal transplant recipients. In total, 60 de novo kidney transplant recipients treated with tacrolimus and steroids were randomised to receive EC-MPS at standard dose (SD; 1440 mg/day; n = 28) or low dose (LD; 1080 mg/day; n = 32). Efficacy parameters, safety and tolerability were assessed over a 6-month study period. Full mycophenolic acid (MPA) areas under the curve (AUCs) were completed on days 3 and 5, whereas a three-point limited sampling strategy (LSS) was utilised for MPA AUC assessments at 2 weeks and months 1, 3 and 6 (the LSS for three-time-point MPA AUC 0-12 h (mg h/l) = 15.99 + 0.87C1 h  + 0.68C2 h  + 7.85C4 h ; r(2)  = 0.8670. The mean AUC levels at day 3 and day 5 in the SD group were significantly higher than in the LD group (57.4 mg·h/l vs. 38.2 mg·h/l and 59.3 mg·h/l vs. 44.8 mg·h/l, respectively, p transplant recipients can be achieved with a higher starting dose. In addition, a SD regimen was as well-tolerated as a LD regimen. Furthermore, early adequate MPA exposure significantly lowered the rate of acute rejection without compromising safety and tolerability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Influence of Deceased Donor and Pretransplant Recipient Parameters on Early Overall Kidney Graft-Survival in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Ludwig Fischer-Fröhlich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scarcity of grafts for kidney transplantation (KTX caused an increased consideration of deceased donors with substantial risk factors. There is no agreement on which ones are detrimental for overall graft-survival. Therefore, we investigated in a nationwide multicentre study the impact of donor and recipient related risks known before KTX on graft-survival based on the original data used for allocation and graft acceptance. Methods. A nationwide deidentified multicenter study-database was created of data concerning kidneys donated and transplanted in Germany between 2006 and 2008 as provided by the national organ procurement organization (Deutsche Stiftung Organtransplantation and BQS Institute. Multiple Cox regression (significance level 5%, hazard ratio [95% CI] was conducted (n=4411, isolated KTX. Results. Risk factors associated with graft-survival were donor age (1.020 [1.013–1.027] per year, donor size (0.985 [0.977–0.993] per cm, donor’s creatinine at admission (1.002 [1.001–1.004] per µmol/L, donor treatment with catecholamine (0.757 [0.635–0.901], and reduced graft-quality at procurement (1.549 [1.217–1.973], as well as recipient age (1.012 [1.003–1.021] per year, actual panel reactive antibodies (1.007 [1.002–1.011] per percent, retransplantation (1.850 [1.484–2.306], recipient’s cardiovascular comorbidity (1.436 [1.212–1.701], and use of IL2-receptor antibodies for induction (0.741 [0.619–0.887]. Conclusion. Some donor characteristics persist to impact graft-survival (e.g., age while the effect of others could be mitigated by elaborate donor-recipient match and care.

  14. Logistic regression analysis of the risk factors for kidney damage in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura%儿童过敏性紫癜肾脏损害危险因素Logistic回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 陆彪

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析过敏性紫癜(HSP)患儿肾脏损害的相关危险因素.方法:对2008年8月至2010年8月住院确诊为HSP207例患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:单因素分析年龄、临床类型、M、B、SD、PLT、PDW、CER、PTA、PTR、INR、APTT-R、AG、TP、ALB、GGT、LDH、TG、CHOL、CREA、IgG 差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),年龄、皮疹反复、消化道症状、ALB、LDH在肾脏损害易感因素Logistic回归分析中有统计学意义(P=0.002、P=0.008、P=0.007、P=0.005、P=0.04).结论:年龄、皮疹反复、消化道症状、ALB、LDH是HSP肾脏损害的危险因素,对于有上述因素的HSP患儿更应加强观察.%Objective To investigate the risk factors for kidney damage in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). Methods Clinical data of 204 children with HSP from August 2008 to August 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Univariate analysis indicated that age, clinical types, M, B, SD, PLT, PDW, CER, PTA, PTR, INR, APTT-R, AG, TP, ALB, GGT, LDH, TG, CHOL, CREA, and IgG werre significantly positive (P < 0.05). The stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that age, repeated shin rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, ALB, and LDH were the risk factors for kidney damage in children with HSP (P= 0.002, P= 0.008, P= 0.007, P= 0.005, P= 0.04). Conclusion Age, repeated shin rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, ALB, and LDH were the risk factors for kidney damage in children with HSP, patients who had these factors would need reinforced observation.

  15. High salt intake damages the heart through activation of cardiac (pro renin receptors even at an early stage of hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Hayakawa

    Full Text Available It has not yet been fully elucidated whether cardiac tissue levels of prorenin, renin and (PRR are activated in hypertension with a high salt intake. We hypothesized that a high salt intake activates the cardiac tissue renin angiotensin system and prorenin-(prorenin receptor system, and damages the heart at an early stage of hypertension.Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR received regular (normal-salt diet, 0.9% and high-salt (8.9% chow for 6 weeks from 6 to 12 weeks of age. The systolic blood pressure, plasma renin activity (PRA and plasma angiotensin II concentration were measured, and the protein expressions of prorenin, (prorenin receptor, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II AT1 receptor, ERK1/2, TGF-β, p38MAPK and HSP27 in the myocardium were investigated. The cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography, and histological analysis of the myocardium was performed.The high-salt diet significantly increased the systolic blood pressure, and significantly reduced the PRA and plasma angiotensin II concentration both in the WKYs and SHRs. Cardiac expressions of prorenin, renin, (PRR, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II AT1 receptor, phosphorylated (p-ERK1/2, p-p38MAPK, TGF-β and p-HSP27 were significantly increased by the high salt diet both in the WKYs and SHRs. The high-salt diet significantly increased the interventricular septum thickness and cardiomyocyte size, and accelerated cardiac interstitial and perivascular fibrosis both in the WKYs and SHRs. On the other hand, dilatation of left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and impairment of left ventricular fractional shortening was shown only in salt loaded SHRs.The high-salt diet markedly accelerated cardiac damage through the stimulation of cardiac (PRR and angiotensin II AT1 receptor by increasing tissue prorenin, renin and angiotensinogen and the activation of ERK1/2, TGF-β, p38MAPK and HSP27 under higher blood pressure.

  16. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high let radiations or photons - Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Afzal, S. M. J.; Crouse, D. A.; Hanson, W. R.; Fry, R. J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Recent studies on protection against early and late effects by aminothiols, prostaglandins, and other compounds are discussed.

  17. Statins in chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassimatis, Theodoros I; Goldsmith, David J A

    2014-10-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to improve cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in the general population as well as in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins' beneficial effects have been attributed to both cholesterol-lowering and cholesterol-independent "pleiotropic" properties. By their pleiotropic effects statins have been shown to reduce inflammation, alleviate oxidative stress, modify the immunologic responses, improve endothelial function and suppress platelet aggregation. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit an enormous increase in CVD rates even from early CKD stages. As considerable differences exist in dyslipidemia characteristics and the pathogenesis of CVD in CKD, statins' CV benefits in CKD patients (including those with a kidney graft) should not be considered unequivocal. Indeed, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that statins exert diverse effects on dialysis and non-dialysis CKD patients. Therefore, it seems that statins improve CV outcomes in non-dialysis patients whereas exert little (if any) benefit in the dialysis population. It has also been proposed that dyslipidemia might play a causative role or even accelerate renal injury. Moreover, ample experimental evidence suggests that statins ameliorate renal damage. However, a high quality randomized controlled trial (RCT) and metaanalyses do not support a beneficial role of statins in renal outcomes in terms of proteinuria reduction or retardation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline.

  18. Predict value of monitoring changes of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 after coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention on early diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the predict value of monitoring changes of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin(NGAL)and kidney injury molecule-1(KIM-1)after coronary angiography(CAG)and percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI)on the early diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy(CIN).Methods One hundred and sixty patients underwent CAG and PCI were en-

  19. Role of New Biomarkers: Functional and Structural Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdoxia Tsigou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI depends on detection of oliguria and rise of serum creatinine level, which is an unreliable and delayed marker of kidney damage. Delayed diagnosis of AKI in the critically ill patient is related to increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged length of stay, and cost escalation. The discovery of a reliable biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI would be very helpful in facilitating early intervention, evaluating the effectiveness of therapy, and eventually reducing cost and improving outcome. Innovative technologies such as genomics and proteomics have contributed to the discovery of new biomarkers, such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, cystatin C (Cys C, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, interleukin-18 (IL-18, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP. The current status of the most promising of these novel AKI biomarkers, including NGAL, Cys C, KIM-1, L-FABP, and IL-18, is reviewed.

  20. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  1. Damage-control orthopedics versus early total care in the treatment of borderline high-energy pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gengfen; Wang, Ziming; Du, Quanyin; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Aimin

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of damage-control orthopedics (DCO) vs early total care (ETC) in the treatment of borderline high-energy pelvic fractures. Seventy-two patients with borderline high-energy pelvic fractures were retrospectively reviewed; 39 received DCO and 33 received ETC. Demographic data and initial injury severities were comparable between groups, except for Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) head scores and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. Regarding postoperative complications, the incidence rates of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score were significantly lower in the DCO group compared with the ETC group. Similar results were also observed in subgroups stratified by age (younger than 40 years and 40 years and older). Regarding patients with Tile B fractures, there was no significant difference between groups in incidence rates of overall postoperative complications. However, in patients with Tile C fractures, especially in those 40 years and older, the DCO group had a lower incidence rate of ALI and had lower APACHE II scores than did the ETC group. This study's findings indicate that DCO is the most suitable therapeutic option for patients with Tile C fractures, especially for those 40 years and older, whereas ETC is preferred for patients with Tile B fractures, provided that it is possible to avoid a second operation as well as any delays in patient mobilization.

  2. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponge Kidney? Complications of medullary sponge kidney include hematuria, or blood in the urine kidney stones urinary ... both kidneys. Complications of medullary sponge kidney include hematuria, or blood in the urine kidney stones urinary ...

  3. A new method of modelling early plasma creatinine changes predicts 1-year graft function after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogstrup, Nicoline V; Bibby, Bo Martin; Aulbjerg, Camilla;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed graft function after renal transplantation is associated with inferior long-term outcome. To evaluate the impact of slow onset graft function, we aimed to model and correlate early changes in plasma creatinine (p-cr) with long-term graft function. MATERIALS: In a single centre...

  4. Aqueous extract of Senecio candicans DC induce liver and kidney damage in a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; Raman, Jegadeesh; Pandian, Arjun; Kuppamuthu, Kumaresan; Nanjian, Raaman; Sabaratam, Vikineswary; Naidu, Murali

    2016-08-01

    Senecio candicans DC. (Asteraceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcer and stomach pain in the Nilgiris, district, Tamil Nadu. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of Senecio candicans (AESC) plant in Wistar albino rats. The study was conducted in consideration of the OECD 408 study design (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) and the extract was administered via gavage at doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 90-days. Hematological, biochemical parameters were determined on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of administration. Animals were euthanized after 90 d treatment and its liver and kidney sections were taken for histological study. The results of sub-chronic study showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum uric acid, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALP) levels. Histological examination of liver showed mild mononuclear infiltration in the portal trait, enlarged nucleus around the central vein and mild loss of hepatocyte architecture in rats treated with 750 mg/kg of AESC. Histological examination of kidney showed focal interstitial fibrosis, crowding of glomeruli and mild hydropic change with hypercellular glomeruli in rats treated with 750 mg/kg of AESC. However, no remarkable histoarchitectural change in hepatocytes and glomeruli were observed in rats treated with lower concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) of AESC compared to control group animals. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of AESC in the present study was 500 mg/kg b.w. Signs of toxic effects are evident from the current study. Although AESC contains low concentrations of PA, findings from this study suggest that regular consumers of herbal remedies derived from this plant may develop kidney and liver toxicity. Further studies on the isolation and characterization of PAs are necessary to determine the safe dose level of the extract for therapeutic use

  5. The Association between Polyclonal Combined Serum Free Light Chain Concentration and Mortality in Individuals with Early Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhvir K Assi

    Full Text Available A major component of increased mortality risk in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors including markers of inflammation. We studied whether a novel marker of systemic inflammation, elevated serum combined polyclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (cFLC, was an independent risk factor for increased all-cause mortality in people with CKD stage 3. In a prospective community based cohort study, 1695 participants with stage 3 CKD and no cases of monoclonal gammopathy had cFLC concentrations measured. cFLC levels were determined using the summation of Freelite kappa and lambda assays. All other bioclinical variables were collected at the time of sample collection. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the relationship between high cFLC levels (>43.3 mg/L and mortality. There were 167 deaths (10% after a median of 1375 days. cFLC levels at recruitment were higher in participants who died compared with those who were alive at the end of the study; median: 46.5 mg/L (IQR: 36.1-65.4 mg/L and 35.4 mg/L (28.1-46.6 mg/L respectively, P 43.3 mg/L levels had an increased risk of mortality compared to people with normal cFLC levels (P <0.001. Elevated cFLC levels were independently associated with worse survival (Hazard ratio: 1.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.16; P=0.03. Other independent risk factors for worse survival were: older age, male gender, previous cardiovascular event, lower eGFR and higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP. To conclude, high cFLC levels predict increased mortality in people with stage 3 CKD, independent of established risk factors and other markers of inflammation.

  6. 硫氢化钠防治截肢术后大鼠肾脏损伤的机制%Sodium hydrosulfide for prevention of kidney damage in rats after amputation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 刘宁; 任青爱; 张海峰; 谢晓华

    2013-01-01

    ).Plasma level of H2S,kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1),myeloperoxidase enzyme (MPO),malondialdehyde (MDA),nitric oxide (NO),urea nitrogen,creatinine,and renal tissue MPO,MDA,and KIM-1 levels,and activity of CSE were measured and the renal histological and mitochondrial structural changes were observed using optical and electron microscopy.In another experiment with SD rats,the rats were randomized also into these 4 groups (n=8) for measurement of renal mitochondrial respiratory control ratio,membrane potential and ATP activity.Results Traumatic changes in rat kidney cells and mitochondrial structure occurred in the rats 6 h after amputation with significantly increased plasma and renal KIM-1 (P<0.01) but significantly decreased H2S/CSE levels (P<0.01).Plasma H2S/kidney CSE level was significantly increased following NarS intervention (P<0.01),which reduce the damage of the kidney tissue and significantly lower plasma and renal KIM-1,NO,BUN,Cr,MPO,and MDA (P<0.01).Rat kidney mitochondrial respiratory control ratio,membrane potential and ATP activity all decreased significantly after amputation (P<0.01) increased significantly after the application of NaHS; such improvements did not occur following PPG treatment.Conclusion Amputation can lead to damage to the structure and function of the rat kidneys,and NaHS can significantly improve mitochondrial function and further reduce renal structural and functional impairments,suggesting that H2S,as an endogenous mediator,may act on the mitochondria through several pathways to regulate energy metabolism and participate in the pathophysiological processes of tissue damage and repair.

  7. Prevalence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in term neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in term neonates with perinatal ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Background: The kidney is the most damaged organ in asphyxiated full-term infants.

  8. Laparoscopic en bloc kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Modi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is well establish procedure and having advantages over open donor nephrectomy in terms of having less pain, early ambulation and rapid post operative recovery. To extend the advantages of laparoscopic surgery to the recipient, recently we have performed laparoscopic kidney transplantations when kidney was procured from deceased donors. As a further extension of the procedure, here we present a case of laparoscopic en bloc kidney transplantation in obese diabetic recipient who received kidneys from 70 year old non-heart beating donor.

  9. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  10. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka A Pozdzik

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target.In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ inhibition in a rat model of AAN.Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11 and its control isotype (13C4 were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p. at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc was injected daily.At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro.The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation.

  11. Obesity and kidney disease: Beyond the hyperfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, A; Franzese, O; Nisticò, S; Campia, U; Lauro, D; Cardillo, C; Di Daniele, N; Tesauro, M

    2016-09-01

    In industrialized countries, overweight and obesity account for approximately 13.8% and 24.9% of the kidney disease observed in men and women, respectively. Moreover, obesity-associated glomerulopathy is now considered as "an emerging epidemic." Kidney function can be negatively impacted by obesity through several mechanisms, either direct or indirect. While it is well established that obesity represents the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, awareness that obesity is associated with direct kidney damage independently of hypertension and diabetes is still not widespread. In this paper we will discuss the emerging role of adipose tissue, particularly in the visceral depot, in obesity-induced chronic kidney damage.

  12. Diagnostic utility of oxidative damage markers for early rheumatoid arthritis in non-smokers and negative anti-CCP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Melguizo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Besides the development of new markers and diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA, many patients are still diagnosed after several years of symptoms. Oxidative stress markers are already increased at an early stage of RA. Our aim was to evaluate the additional diagnostic value of these markers. Methods. A case-control study was performed. Patients met the 1987 RA ACR criteria, less than 2 years of symptoms and no previous treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD, steroids or vitamin E. Controls were selected from patient's relatives and matched (1:1 by gender, age, and current smoking habit. Oxidative damage markers were malonyldialdehyde (MDA, Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH and Carbonyl proteins (CP. Statistical analysis was performed in agreement with the STARD initiative. Results. Sixty-five RA patients without treatment and 65 healthy controls were included. LOOH, CP, antibodies against citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP and rheumatoid factor (RF were significantly higher in patients, and MDA higher in controls. The same results were obtained in the subgroups of patients who smoke or not, and in anti-CCP positive or negative. The diagnosis performance of traditional markers showed good specificity but low sensitivity. The addition of LOOH and CP increased the sensitivity and the area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC curve especially in non-smoking (66% and negative anti-CCP (51% patients. Conclusions. The separate or combined addition of LOOH or CP to the traditional disease markers improved the diagnosis of RA, especially in non-smoking or negative anti-CCP patients.

  13. A single intratracheal instillation of single-walled carbon nanotubes induced early lung fibrosis and subchronic tissue damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Roh, Jinkyu; Kim, Soo-Nam; Kang, Min-Sung; Han, Young-Ah; Kim, Younghun; Hong, Jin Tae; Choi, Kyunghee

    2011-09-01

    Large amounts of nanomaterials may reach both the natural and occupational environments. This represents a potential health hazard. People have forecasted that CNTs may lead to the toxicity such as mesothelioma and fibrosis like asbestos. To identify dominant immune responses induced by SWCNTs, we investigated the composition of bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, the secretion of cytokine and collagen, histopathology, protein expression, and cell phenotypes over time after a single administration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). In our results, the number of total cells and macrophages remained at the up-regulated level until Day 28, neutrophils rapidly increased at Day 1, and lymphocytes increased from Day 7. In the BAL fluid, pro-inflammatory cytokines rapidly increased at Day 1 and remained at an up-regulated level throughout the experimental period. IL-12 and IL-10 rapidly increased at Day 1 after administration and remained at a similar level until Day 28. IFN-γ and IL-4 reached the maximum at Day 1, and IL-5, TGF-β, and collagen reached the maximum at Day 7. IL-13 and IL-17 increased in a time-dependent manner. The distribution of B cells and cytotoxic T cells markedly increased at Days 7 and 14, and fibrotic lesions were histopathologically observed at Days 7 and 14. The expressions of caspase-3, p53, COL1A1, COX-2, iNOS, MMP-9, and MMP-2 were also markedly increased at Days 7 and 14. In addition, the expression of mesothelin, iNOS, MMP-9, and p53 was up-regulated until Day 28. Based on these findings, we suggest that a single intratracheal instillation of SWCNTs may induce early lung fibrosis and subchronic tissue damage.

  14. Early conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus following living-donor kidney transplantation: outcomes at 5 years posttransplant in the randomized ZEUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerer, Claudia; Budde, Klemens; Zeier, Martin; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Reinke, Petra; Eisenberger, Ute; Mühlfeld, Anja; Arns, Wolfgang; Stahl, Rolf; Heller, Katharina; Wolters, Heiner H; Suwelack, Barbara; Klehr, Hans Ulrich; Hauser, Ingeborg A; Stangl, Manfred; Nadalin, Silvio; Dürr, Michael; Porstner, Martina; May, Christoph; Wimmer, Peter; Witzke, Oliver; Lehner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    To assess 5-year efficacy, renal, and safety outcomes following early conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus vs. a standard cyclosporine-based regimen in living-donor kidney transplant (LDKT) recipients. The ZEUS study was a randomized, open-label, 1-year, multicenter study in which 300 de novo kidney transplant recipients continued to receive cyclosporine or converted to everolimus at 4.5 months post-transplant, with annual follow-up visits to 5 years post-transplant. Of the 80 LDKT patients who were randomized, 75 completed the 1-year core study and 60 attended the 5-year follow-up visit. At year 5, 15/31 (48.4%) everolimus patients and 20/29 (69.0%) cyclosporine patients remained on the study drug. Mean adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at year 5 in LDKT recipients was 67.2 vs. 60.8 mL/min/1.73m2 for everolimus vs. cyclosporine (mean difference 6.4 mL/min/1.73m2; p = 0.031). For patients who remained on study drug, the mean difference was 13.2 mL/min/1.73m2 (p = 0.003), but no significant difference was seen in patients who switched from study drug (mean -2.6 mL/min/1.73m2, p = 0.701). Patient and graft survival rates were similar with everolimus and cyclosporine. Biopsy-proven acute rejection occurred in 22.0% vs. 7.5% of LDKT patients randomized to everolimus vs. cyclosporine (p = 0.116). Only 1 LDKT patient discontinued everolimus due to adverse events during years 1 - 5. Early initiation of everolimus with calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal after LDKT improved graft function to 5 years post-transplant compared to standard CNI-based therapy. The renal benefit was concentrated in patients who remained on everolimus. An increase in mild acute rejection was not associated with long-term graft loss.

  15. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cyt......Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels...... of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands......, the heart, brain, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs were compared. Catheterized mice had higher levels of IL-6 than did control mice, but other cytokine levels did not differ between the groups. No significant difference in body weight was found. The histology revealed inflammatory and regenerative (healing...

  16. Expression of human complement factor H prevents age-related macular degeneration-like retina damage and kidney abnormalities in aged Cfh knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin-Dong; Kelly, Una; Landowski, Michael; Toomey, Christopher B; Groelle, Marybeth; Miller, Chelsey; Smith, Stephanie G; Klingeborn, Mikael; Singhapricha, Terry; Jiang, Haixiang; Frank, Michael M; Bowes Rickman, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Complement factor H (CFH) is an important regulatory protein in the alternative pathway of the complement system, and CFH polymorphisms increase the genetic risk of age-related macular degeneration dramatically. These same human CFH variants have also been associated with dense deposit disease. To mechanistically study the function of CFH in the pathogenesis of these diseases, we created transgenic mouse lines using human CFH bacterial artificial chromosomes expressing full-length human CFH variants and crossed these to Cfh knockout (Cfh(-/-)) mice. Human CFH protein inhibited cleavage of mouse complement component 3 and factor B in plasma and in retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera, establishing that human CFH regulates activation of the mouse alternative pathway. One of the mouse lines, which express relatively higher levels of CFH, demonstrated functional and structural protection of the retina owing to the Cfh deletion. Impaired visual function, detected as a deficit in the scotopic electroretinographic response, was improved in this transgenic mouse line compared with Cfh(-/-) mice, and transgenics had a thicker outer nuclear layer and less sub-retinal pigment epithelium deposit accumulation. In addition, expression of human CFH also completely protected the mice from developing kidney abnormalities associated with loss of CFH. These humanized CFH mice present a valuable model for study of the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration and dense deposit disease and for testing therapeutic targets.

  17. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  18. Mapping time-course mitochondrial adaptations in the kidney in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Melinda T; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Penfold, Sally A; Higgins, Gavin C; Thallas-Bonke, Vicki; Tan, Sih Min; Van Bergen, Nicole J; Sourris, Karly C; Harcourt, Brooke E; Thorburn, David R; Trounce, Ian A; Cooper, Mark E; Forbes, Josephine M

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) drives ATP production by mitochondria, which are dynamic organelles, constantly fusing and dividing to maintain kidney homoeostasis. In diabetic kidney disease (DKD), mitochondria appear dysfunctional, but the temporal development of diabetes-induced adaptations in mitochondrial structure and bioenergetics have not been previously documented. In the present study, we map the changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function in rat kidney mitochondria at 4, 8, 16 and 32 weeks of diabetes. Our data reveal that changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics precede the development of albuminuria and renal histological changes. Specifically, in early diabetes (4 weeks), a decrease in ATP content and mitochondrial fragmentation within proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) of diabetic kidneys were clearly apparent, but no changes in urinary albumin excretion or glomerular morphology were evident at this time. By 8 weeks of diabetes, there was increased capacity for mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) by pore opening, which persisted over time and correlated with mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and glomerular damage. Late in diabetes, by week 16, tubular damage was evident with increased urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) excretion, where an increase in the Complex I-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), in the context of a decrease in kidney ATP, indicated mitochondrial uncoupling. Taken together, these data show that changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics may precede the development of the renal lesion in diabetes, and this supports the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary cause of DKD.

  19. Acute Kidney Injury – An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Varrier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of acute kidney injury (AKI occurs frequently in hospitalised patients, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditure. In the context of a precipitating insult, disturbances in both global and microcirculatory renal blood flow, tubular cell damage, and activation of pro- inflammatory pathways lead to impairment of numerous elements of renal function. Classification systems, including the recent ‘Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ (KDIGO classification, typically define and stage AKI in terms of the magnitude of rise in serum creatinine (SCr and the presence of oliguria. At present there is no cure for AKI and the key principles of its management include early recognition, haemodynamic optimisation, correction of hypovolaemia, ceasing and avoidance of nephrotoxic medications, and treatment of the underlying cause. Recent data show that the type and volume of fluid therapy can affect renal function and that further guidance is required. In the future it is hoped that novel technologies, including biomarkers and real-time measurement of glomerular filtration rate will allow the earlier identification of patients with AKI, whilst a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of AKI will lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. Despite SCr usually recovering after an episode of AKI, there is growing recognition that survivors of AKI are at an increased risk of subsequent chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal failure and premature death.

  20. Computerized clinical decision support for the early recognition and management of acute kidney injury: a qualitative evaluation of end-user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasundaram, Nigel S; Bevan, Mark T; Sims, Andrew J; Heed, Andrew; Price, David A; Sheerin, Neil S

    2016-02-01

    Although the efficacy of computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) for acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear, the wider literature includes examples of limited acceptability and equivocal benefit. Our single-centre study aimed to identify factors promoting or inhibiting use of in-patient AKI CCDS. Targeting medical users, CCDS triggered with a serum creatinine rise of ≥25 μmol/L/day and linked to guidance and test ordering. User experience was evaluated through retrospective interviews, conducted and analysed according to Normalization Process Theory. Initial pilot ward experience allowed tool refinement. Assessments continued following CCDS activation across all adult, non-critical care wards. Thematic saturation was achieved with 24 interviews. The alert was accepted as a potentially useful prompt to early clinical re-assessment by many trainees. Senior staff were more sceptical, tending to view it as a hindrance. 'Pop-ups' and mandated engagement before alert dismissal were universally unpopular due to workflow disruption. Users were driven to close out of the alert as soon as possible to review historical creatinines and to continue with the intended workflow. Our study revealed themes similar to those previously described in non-AKI settings. Systems intruding on workflow, particularly involving complex interactions, may be unsustainable even if there has been a positive impact on care. The optimal balance between intrusion and clinical benefit of AKI CCDS requires further evaluation.

  1. Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Primary Kidney Cancer: A 3-Dimensional Conformal Technique Associated With Low Rates of Early Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.pham@petermac.org [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Thompson, Ann [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kolsky, Michal Schneider [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Devereux, Thomas; Lim, Andrew [Department of Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Siva, Shankar [Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To describe our 3-dimensional conformal planning approaches and report early toxicities with stereotactic body radiation therapy for the management of primary renal cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of a phase 1 trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary inoperable renal cell carcinoma. A dose of 42 Gy/3 fractions was prescribed to targets ≥5 cm, whereas for <5 cm 26 Gy/1 fraction was used. All patients underwent a planning 4-dimensional CT to generate a planning target volume (PTV) from a 5-mm isotropic expansion of the internal target volume. Planning required a minimum of 8 fields prescribing to the minimum isodose surrounding the PTV. Intermediate dose spillage at 50% of the prescription dose (R50%) was measured to describe the dose gradient. Early toxicity (<6 months) was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (v4.0). Results: From July 2012 to August 2013 a total of 20 patients (median age, 77 years) were recruited into a prospective clinical trial. Eleven patients underwent fractionated treatment and 9 patients a single fraction. For PTV targets <100 cm{sup 3} the median number of beams used was 8 (2 noncoplanar) to achieve an average R50% of 3.7. For PTV targets >100 cm{sup 3} the median beam number used was 10 (4 noncoplanar) for an average R50% value of 4.3. The R50% was inversely proportional to decreasing PTV volume (r=−0.62, P=.003) and increasing total beams used (r=−0.51, P=.022). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) suffered grade ≤2 early toxicity, whereas 8 of 20 patients (40%) were asymptomatic. Nausea, chest wall pain, and fatigue were the most common toxicities reported. Conclusion: A 3-dimensional conformal planning technique of 8-10 beams can be used to deliver highly tolerable stereotactic ablation to primary kidney targets with minimal early toxicities. Ongoing follow-up is currently in place to assess long-term toxicities and cancer control.

  2. Study on the protection of Emodin on kidney damage in rat with severe acute pancreatitis%大黄素对大鼠重症急性胰腺炎肾损伤的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏利; 王建华; 杨兴武

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨大黄素对大鼠重症急性胰腺炎肾损伤的保护作用及可能机制.方法 大鼠48只,随机分为重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)模型组、大黄素治疗组及空白组,造模6h、12h后分别测定各组血清淀粉酶(Amy)、肌酐(Cr)、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)含量,观察肾脏组织学改变情况.结果 与模型组比较,大黄素治疗组血清TNF-α、Amy 、Cr的含量均明显降低.肾脏病理损伤评分较模型组也明显减少.结论 大黄素可以减少SAP大鼠体内炎症递质TNF-α的释放,减轻SAP大鼠的肾脏损伤.%Objective It is to explore the protection of Emodin on kidney damage in rat with severe acute pancreatitis to explore its possible mechanism. Methods 48 rats were randomly divided into severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) model group, Emodin treatment group and the blank group . In 6h and 12h after models were established , the contents of serum amylase ( Amy) , creatinine ( Cr) , tumor necrosis factor ( TNF - a) were determined , and the changes of renal histology were ob - served. Results Compared with that in model group , the contents of serum TNF - a, Amy, Cr were obviously decreased in Emodin treatment group , and the scores of renal histologic injury were decreased too . Conclusion Emodin can reduce the release of inflammatory mediator TNF - a in the SAP rats, thereby relieve kidney injury.

  3. Early postnatal hypotension is not associated with indicators of white matter damage or cerebral palsy in extremely low gestational age newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J W; O'Shea, T M; Allred, E N; Laughon, M M; Bose, C L; Dammann, O; Batton, D G; Kuban, K C; Paneth, N; Leviton, A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate, in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs), relationships between indicators of early postnatal hypotension and cranial ultrasound indicators of cerebral white matter damage imaged in the nursery and cerebral palsy diagnoses at 24 months follow-up. The 1041 infants in this prospective study were born at treatment with a vasopressor; and (3) blood pressure lability, defined as the upper quartile of the difference between each infant's lowest and highest MAP. Outcomes included indicators of cerebral white matter damage, that is, moderate/severe ventriculomegaly or an echolucent lesion on cranial ultrasound and cerebral palsy diagnoses at 24 months gestation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate relationships among hypotension indicators and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Twenty-one percent of surviving infants had a lowest blood pressure in the lowest quartile for gestational age, 24% were treated with vasopressors and 24% had labile blood pressure. Among infants with these hypotension indicators, 10% percent developed ventriculomegaly and 7% developed an echolucent lesion. At 24 months follow-up, 6% had developed quadriparesis, 4% diparesis and 2% hemiparesis. After adjusting for confounders, we found no association between indicators of hypotension, and indicators of cerebral white matter damage or a cerebral palsy diagnosis. The absence of an association between indicators of hypotension and cerebral white matter damage and or cerebral palsy suggests that early hypotension may not be important in the pathogenesis of brain injury in ELGANs.

  4. Circulating FGF21 levels are progressively increased from the early to end stages of chronic kidney diseases and are associated with renal function in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofeng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hepatic hormone involved in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. This study aims to test the hypothesis that elevated FGF21 concentrations are associated with the change of renal function and the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in the different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 240 subjects including 200 CKD patients (146 outpatients and 54 long-term hemodialytic patients and 40 healthy control subjects were recruited. All CKD subjects underwent echocardiograms to assess left ventricular mass index. Plasma FGF21 levels and other clinical and biochemical parameters in all subjects were obtained based on standard clinical examination methods. Plasma FGF21 levels were significantly increased with the development of CKD from early- and end-stage (P<0.001 for trend, and significantly higher in CKD subjects than those in healthy subjects (P<0.001. Plasma FGF21 levels in CKD patients with LVH were higher than those in patients without LVH (P = 0.001. Furthermore, plasma FGF21 level correlated positively with creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, β2 microglobulin, systolic pressure, adiponectin, phosphate, proteinuria, CRP and triglyceride, but negatively with creatinine clearance rate (CCR, estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR, HDL-c, LDL-c, albumin and LVH after adjusting for BMI, gender, age and the presence of diabetes mellitus. Multiple stepwise regression analyses indicated that FGF21 was independently associated with BUN, Phosphate, LVMI and β2 microglobulin (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Plasma FGF21 levels are significantly increased with the development of early- to end-stage CKD and are independently associated with renal function and adverse lipid profiles in Chinese population. Understanding whether increased FGF21 is associated with myocardial hypertrophy in CKD requires further study.

  5. 农药高效氯氰菊酯对小鼠肾细胞氧化损伤的研究%Study on the oxidative damage of mouse kidney cells induced by pesticide beta-cypermethrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马萍; 丁书茂; 秦龙娟; 张亚然; 杜娟; 杨旭

    2011-01-01

    为了研究农药高效氯氰菊酯对生物体的氧化损伤,以昆明小鼠为受试体,高效氯氰菊酯按10、20和40mg/kg 3个剂量水平,灌胃染毒小鼠7d,以肾匀浆测定ROS和GSH,以肾细胞测定DPC系数.实验结果表明:随着高效氯氰菊酯染毒剂量的升高,ROS和DPC系数逐渐上升,GSH含量逐渐降低,各指标呈一定的剂量效应关系.染毒剂量≥20mg/kg时,ROS和DPC系数有显著差异(p<0.05),GSH有极显著差异(p<0.01),说明较高剂量的高效氯氰菊酯可造成小鼠肾脏的氧化损伤.%This study aims at the oxidative stress effects of pesticide beta-cypermethrin on organisms. Kunming mice were orally administrated with beta-cypermethrin for seven days at the concentration of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg respectively , the contents of ROS and GSH in the kidney homogenate and DPC coefficients in the kidney cells were measured to indicate the oxidative damages. The experimental results showed that the contents of ROS and DPC coefficients increased gradually while GSH content decreased with the increasing exposure dose, all the biomarkers were in the exposure dose-response manner. When exposure dose was over 20 mg/kg, ROS content and DPC coefficient were significantly higher than the control group (p< 0. 05) , and GSH contents had extremely significant differences (p< 0.01). These experimental results demonstrate that beta-cypermethrin can increase the oxidative stress in mouse kidney at higher dose.

  6. Effect of valsartan combined with beraprost sodium on renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury in patients with hypertension and early renal damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of valsartan combined with beraprost sodium on renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury in patients with hypertension and early renal damage.Method:A total of 200 patients with hypertension and early renal damage were divided into observation group (n=97) (received valsartan combined with beraprost sodium therapy) and control group (n=103) (received valsartan therapy alone) according to different treatment methods. Differences in renal function, blood coagulation function and endothelial injury index levels were compared between the two groups after treatment. Results: Eight weeks after treatment, CysC,β2-MG, Fib, D-D, MPV contents in plasma and UACR,α1-MG, NAG contents in urine of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, ATIII contents in plasma were significantly higher than that of control group; lower limb artery Vmax value of observation group was significantly higher than those of control group, carotid artery IMT value lower limb artery RI, FMD and NMD value were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions: Valsartan combined with beraprost sodium can protect the renal function and avoid further disease progression in patients with hypertension and early renal damage, and it is an ideal solution to disease treatment.

  7. HBV cccDNA in patients′ sera as an indicator for HBV reactivation and an early signal of liver damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Chen; Johnny Sze; Ming-Liang He

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the covalently closed circle DNA (cccDNA)level of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients′ liver and sera.METHODS: HBV DNA was isolated from patients′liver biopsies and sera. A sensitive real-time PCR method, which is capable of differentiation of HBV viral genomic DNA and cccDNA, was used to quantify the total HBV cccDNA. The total HBV viral DNA was quantitated by real-time PCR using a HBV diagnostic kit (PG Biotech, LTD, Shenzhen, China)described previously.RESULTS: For the first time, we measured the level of HBV DNA and cccDNA isolated from ten HBV patients′liver biopsies and sera. In the liver biopsies, cccDNA was detected from all the biopsy samples. The copy number of cccDNA ranged from from 0.03 to 173.1 per cell, the copy number of total HBV DNA ranged from 0.08 to 3 717 per cell. The ratio of total HBV DNA to cccDNA ranged from 1 to 3 406. In the sera,cccDNA was only detected from six samples whereas HBV viral DNA was detected from all ten samples. The ratio of cccDNA to total HBV DNA ranged from 0 to 1.77%. To further investigate the reason why cccDNA could only be detected in some patients′sera, we performed longitudinal studies. The cccDNA was detected from the patients′sera with HBV reactivation but not from the patients′sera without HBV reactivation. The level of cccDNA in the sera was correlated with ALT and viral load in the HBV reactivation patients.CONCLUSION: HBV cccDNA is actively transcribed and replicated in some patients′hepatocytes, which is reflected by a high ratio of HBV total DNA vs cccDNA. Detection of cccDNA in the liver biopsy will provide an end-point for the anti-HBV therapy. The occurrence of cccDNA in the sera is an early signal of liver damage, which may be another important clinical parameter.

  8. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  9. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  10. Administration of bone marrow-derived stem cells suppresses cellular necrosis and apoptosis induced by reperfusion of ischaemic kidneys in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ischaemic reperfusion injury (IRI) is a crucial element in the pathogenesis of acute ischaemic renal failure and influences the early functional recovery and even long term survival of a transplanted kidneyIt is generally thought that renal repair following IRI requires the replacement or regeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells that are detached or damaged.

  11. 合并肾脏病变的类风湿关节炎临床表现分析%Clinical study of kidney damage with rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建; 李雯

    2012-01-01

    complications as control group form 2006 - 2008 in inpatient in hospital and prospective study the clinical data including the first symptoms, the course of the clinical features, laboratory tests and kidney biopsy. [Results] ( 1 ) Fever and fatigue as the first symptom had a higher incidence in patient with renal lesion than in patient with non - renal lesion. Compared with RA patients without renal injury, the number of painful and swollen in RA patients with renal injury were significantly higher ( P < 0. 05 ). Two groups of patients with ESR, CRP, WBC, IgG, IgM, IgA and the RF were (85 ±32) mm/h and (75 ±36) mm/h; (59 ±34)mg/L and (48 ± 25)mg/L;(10.3±2.9) xlO'/Land (9.3 ±3.0) x 10'/L; (11.1 ±3.0)g/L and (10 ±2.1) g/L;(2. 1 ±1.00)g/L and (1.6±0.98)g/L; (32 ±2. 10)g/L and (29 ±0.98)g/L; (35 ± 15) U/mL and (41 ±21) U/mL, respectively, before treatment. In patients with renal injury, the level of CRP, IgM and IgA were higher than those in RA patients without renal injury (P <0. 05). (2) Five hematuria and eight proteinuria patients changed negative 2 months after therapy, 24 h urine protein level after treatment was significant decreased than those before treatment in RA patients with renal injury (P <0.05), ESR, CRP, WBC, IgM, IgA in Nephropathy group compared before and after treatment, the difference was statistically significant (P <0. 05 ). (3) Kidney biopsy in five patients found two cases of mesangial proliferative glomerulo-nephritis, one case of membranous nephropathy, one cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis, one case of membrano - proliferative glomerulonephritis. [Conclusion] Difference in clinical feature and the first symptoms were found in RA patient with or without renal lesion. Kidney injury is mediated by an immunological inflammation and by nephrotoxic effects of numerous drugs usually used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Suspected causal drug should be removed from the treatment. Renal biopsy should be performed if necessary.

  12. Dual kidney transplantation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidas, Zeljko; Kocman, Branislav; Knotek, Mladen; Skegro, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    Chronic shortage of kidney transplants worldwide has led to the use of organs from so called marginal or borderline donors, now termed "expanded-criteria donors". There has been an emerging practice of dual kidney transplantation (DKT) to compensate for sub optimal nephron mass of such kidneys. We performed DKT in "Merkur" University Hospital in August 2005. The donor was a 72-year old female with a history of long-term hypertension, aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery, cerebrovascular insult (CVI), and with normal creatinine values and kidney function at the time of explantation. Initial biopsy of donor kidneys revealed acute tubular damage, with connective changes in 22% and 11% of glomeruli in the left and the right kidney, respectively. The recipient was a 60-year old male diagnosed with the IgA nephropathy on the last biopsy in 1999, and on dialysis since November 2003. Postoperative course was uneventful without any surgical complications. A triple immunosuppressive protocol was used. On follow-up ultrasonography 4 years posttransplantation both kidneys appeared of normal size and parenchymal pattern and with no signs of dilatation of the canal system, and color Doppler examination demonstrated normal flow in both kidneys. In conclusion, the use of DKT ie. donors by the expanded-criteria will continue to increase, and further studies of the results will, with no doubt, support this method.

  13. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no lon

  14. Protective effect and mechanism of action of saponins isolated from the seeds of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) against cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kiwon; Lee, Dahae; Yu, Jae Sik; Namgung, Hojin; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the renoprotective effect and mechanism of Momordicae Semen, gac seeds, against the cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. In order to identify the active components, three major saponins were isolated from extract of the gac seed, gypsogenin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1), quillaic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and momordica saponin I (3). Compounds 1 and 2 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity up to 80% of the control value at both 5 and 25μM. Phosphorylation of MAPKs was decreased along cisplatin treatment after treatment with compounds 1 and 2. These results show that blocking the MAPKs signaling cascade plays a critical role in mediating the renoprotective effect of Momordicae Semen extract and compounds 1 and 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adult stem-like cells in kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keiichi Hishikawa; Osamu Takase; Masahiro Yoshikawa; Taro Tsujimura; Masaomi Nangaku; Tsuyoshi Takato

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatmentfor kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivationof kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidneytissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lowervertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephronsafter tubular damages is commonly observed after renalinjury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitorcell or system is reportedly presents suggesting thatadult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinicaltargets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclearif kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. Ingeneral, stemness is defined by several factors suchas self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency andcharacteristic gene expression profiles. The definiteuse of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidneyregeneration, and here we describe the recent broadfindings of kidney regeneration and the cells thatcontribute regeneration.

  16. Fgfr1 and the IIIc isoform of Fgfr2 play critical roles in the metanephric mesenchyme mediating early inductive events in kidney development

    OpenAIRE

    Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Cusack, Brian; Baust, Jeffrey; Eswarakumar, Veraragavan P.; Masatoshi, Hagiwara; Takeuchi, Akihide; Bates, Carlton M.

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) have critical roles in kidney development. FgfrIIIb is thought to act in epithelium, while FgfrIIIc functions in mesenchyme. We aimed to determine roles of Fgfr2IIIc in kidney development. Mice with deletion of Fgfr2IIIc (Fgfr2IIIc−/−) had normal kidneys. Combination of Fgfr2IIIc−/− with conditional deletion of Fgfr1 in metanephric mesenchyme (MM) (Fgfr1Mes−/−Fgfr2IIIc−/−) had small but identifiable MM at E10.5, expressing mesenchymal markers includi...

  17. Early predictors of acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial infection: urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cardiac output as reliable tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rafael O.; Farias, Alberto Q.; Helou, Claudia M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic abnormalities and acute kidney injury (AKI) are often present in infected cirrhotic patients. Hence, an early diagnosis of AKI is necessary, which might require the validation of new predictors as the determinations of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and cardiac output. Methods We evaluated 18 infected cirrhotic patients subdivided into two groups at admission (0 hours). In Group I, we collected urine samples at 0 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours for uNGAL and fractional excretion of sodium determinations. In Group II, we measured cardiac output using echocardiography. Results The age of patients was 55.0±1.9 years, and 11 patients were males. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 21±1, whereas the Child–Pugh score was C in 11 patients and B in 7 patients. Both patients in Group I and Group II showed similar baseline characteristics. In Group I, we diagnosed AKI in 5 of 9 patients, and the mean time to this diagnosis by measuring serum creatinine was 5.4 days. Patients with AKI showed higher uNGAL levels than those without AKI from 6 hours to 48 hours. The best accuracy using the cutoff values of 68 ng uNGAL/mg creatinine was achieved at 48 hours when we distinguished patients with and without AKI in all cases. In Group II, we diagnosed AKI in 4 of 9 patients, and cardiac output was significantly higher in patients who developed AKI at 0 hours. Conclusion Both uNGAL and cardiac output determinations allow the prediction of AKI in infected cirrhotic patients earlier than increments in serum creatinine. PMID:26484038

  18. Early detection of secondary damage in ipsilateral thalamus after acute infarction at unilateral corona radiata by diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional magnetic resonance (MR imaging can identify abnormal changes in ipsilateral thalamus in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA infarcts. However, it is difficult to demonstrate these early changes quantitatively. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS are potentially sensitive and quantitative methods of detection in examining changes of tissue microstructure and metabolism. In this study, We used both DTI and MRS to examine possible secondary damage of thalamus in patients with corona radiata infarction. Methods Twelve patients with unilateral corona radiata infarction underwent MR imaging including DTI and MRS at one week (W1, four weeks (W4, and twelve weeks (W12 after onset of stroke. Twelve age-matched controls were imaged. Mean diffusivity (MD, fractional anisotropy (FA, N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline(Cho, and creatine(Cr were measured in thalami. Results T1-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR, T2-weighted, and T2-FLAIR imaging showed an infarct at unilateral corona radiate but no other lesion in each patient brain. In patients, MD was significantly increased at W12, compared to W1 and W4 (all PP Conclusions These findings indicate that DTI and MRS can detect the early changes indicating secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus after unilateral corona radiata infarction. MRS may reveal the progressive course of damage in the ipsilateral thalamus over time.

  19. Assessment of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness as an Early Marker Of Vascular Damage In Hypertensive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Baroncini, Camila Varotto; Pecoits, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    The increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with the presence of atherosclerosis in adults and describes vascular abnormalities in both hypertensive children and adolescents. To assess CIMT as an early marker of atherosclerosis and vascular damage in hypertensive children and adolescents compared with non-hypertensive controls and to evaluate the influence of gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) on CIMT on each group. Observational cohort study. A total of 133 hypertensive subjects (male, n = 69; mean age, 10.5 ± 4 years) underwent carotid ultrasound exam for assessment of CIMT. One hundred and twenty-one non-hypertensive subjects (male, n = 64; mean age, 9.8 ± 4.1 years) were selected as controls for gender, age (± 1 year), and BMI (± 10%). There were no significant difference regarding gender (p = 0.954) and age (p = 0.067) between groups. Hypertensive subjects had higher BMI when compared to control group (p = 0.004), although within the established range of 10%. Subjects in the hypertensive group had higher CIMT values when compared to control group (0.46 ± 0.05 versus 0.42 ± 0.05 mm, respectively, p sexo, idade e índice de massa corporal (IMC) sobre a EMIC em cada grupo. Estudo observacional de coorte. Um total de 133 indivíduos hipertensos (sexo masculino, n = 69; idade média 10.5 ± 4 anos) foi submetido à ultrassonografia das artérias carótidas para avaliação da EMIC. Cento e vinte e um indivíduos saudáveis (sexo masculino, n = 64; idade média, 9.8 ± 4.1 anos) foram selecionados como controles para as seguintes características: sexo, idade (± 1ano) e IMC (±10%). Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao sexo (p = 0,954) e idade (p = 0,067). Os indivíduos hipertensos apresentaram maior IMC (p = 0,004), porém dentro da faixa estabelecida de até 10%. Os indivíduos hipertensos apresentaram maiores valores de EMIC quando comparados ao grupo-controle (0,46 ± 0,05 versus 0,42 ± 0,05 mm

  20. Symptoms of kidney damage in mercury poisoning patients%汞中毒患者肾脏损伤症状调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾军杰; 陈新

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者不适症状,分析汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者的有关症状及指标。方法选取河南省职业病防治研究院2010年至2015年汞中毒住院患者93例,依据肾脏损伤入选标准分为肾脏损伤组和无肾脏损伤组,询问两组患者症状、体格检查指标进行相关统计学分析,有统计学差异的指标为汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者阳性指标。结果肾脏损伤组与无肾脏损伤组进行比较,头痛(χ2=4.86,P ﹤0.05)、精神性格改变(χ2=4.31,P ﹤0.05)、尿量增多(χ2=5.56,P ﹤0.05)、水肿(χ2=5.17,P ﹤0.05)差异均有统计学意义;头晕(χ2=0.52,P ﹥0.05)、记忆力减退(χ2=0.01,P ﹥0.05)、肌肉疼痛(χ2=1.394,P ﹥0.05)、失眠(χ2=2.54,P ﹥0.05)、眼颤(χ2=0.65,P ﹥0.05)、手颤(χ2=1.10,P ﹥0.05)、舌颤(χ2=1.53,P ﹥0.05)差异均未见统计学意义,提示头痛、精神性格改变、尿量改变、水肿为汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者有意义的指标。结论头痛、精神性格改变、尿量改变、水肿为汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者阳性症状。%Objective To investigate and analyze the signs and symptoms of renal injury patients with mercury poisoning. Methods From 2010 to 2015,93 patients with mercury intoxication in Henan institute of occupational disease prevention and control were selected. According to kidney injury,the participants were divided into renal injury group and non renal injury group. Statistical analysis was em-ployed to detect positive indicators with symptoms,physical examination indicators between different uri-nary mercury concentration groups. Results There was no significant difference in dizziness,the memo-ry loss,muscle pain,insomnia,nystagmus,hand-trembling,tongue-trembling between the two groups. There were significant differences in headache(χ2 = 4. 86,P ﹤ 0. 05),changes of spirit and

  1. Ionizing radiation-induced damage on developing cerebellar granule cells cultures can be prevented by an early amifostine post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelman, Laura Ruth; Cabana, Javier Ignacio; del Luján Pagotto, Romina María; Zieher, Luis María

    2005-02-01

    Developing central nervous system (CNS) is highly sensitive to ionizing radiation due, in part, to reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. A variety of compounds able to protect brain cells essentially by decreasing ROS production have been widely used to confirm ROS participation in different mechanisms of brain injury, as well as to evaluate them as therapeutic tools. To test if ionizing radiation-induced damage on immature cerebellar granule cells is mainly mediated by ROS accumulation, a free radical scavenger--amifostine (amf)--was used in an in vitro model. Moreover, the amf therapeutic effect was investigated. Results show that only an early (20-30 min) post-treatment with amf, acting through an antioxidant mechanism, has been effective in preventing cerebellar granule cell loss observed after ionizing radiation exposure in vitro. These data suggest that immature cerebellar granule cells grown in vitro are highly vulnerable to ROS damage and that a therapeutic intervention could be effective in a narrow temporal window. Moreover, radiation-induced cell death can be partially prevented by a complete limitation of ROS generation, suggesting that other mechanisms besides oxidative stress would also be responsible for the cellular damage found in this model.

  2. Early Biomarkers of Renal Damage in Relation to Arterial Stiffness and Inflammation in Male Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaido Paapstel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 have emerged as promising biomarkers for both acute and chronic kidney injury that also provide prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to evaluate their relationships with arterial stiffness and inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD patients and in clinically healthy controls. Methods: We studied 52 patients with CAD (age 63.2 ± 9.2 years and 41 healthy controls (age 60.1 ± 7.2 years. Urinary L-FABP and KIM-1 as well as serum NGAL, adiponectin and resistin levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The technique of applanation tonometry was used for non-invasive pulse wave analysis and pulse wave velocity assessments. Results: Urinary L-FABP and KIM-1 were independent determinants of cf-PWV for the CAD patients (R2=0.584, Pr=0.31, P=0.028 only for the patients, while NGAL correlated with WBC count (rho=0.29, P=0.038; r=0.35, P=0.029 and resistin (rho=0.60, PConclusion: Our findings suggest that urinary L-FABP and KIM-1 may be independently associated with aortic stiffness in individuals with CAD.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  4. Blood levels of histone-complexed DNA fragments are associated with coagulopathy, inflammation and endothelial damage early after trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Windeløv, Nis A; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2013-01-01

    Tissue injury increases blood levels of extracellular histones and nucleic acids, and these may influence hemostasis, promote inflammation and damage the endothelium. Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) may result from an endogenous response to the injury that involves the neurohumoral, inflammatory...

  5. Kidneys and How They Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How They Work Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  6. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  7. The effect of ciprofloxacin on sperm DNA damage, fertility potential and early embryonic development in NMRI mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zobeiri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Side effects of ciprofloxacin (CPFX, a widely used broad spectrum antibiotic with fluoroquinolone core, have been reported in different organs. In the present study we sought to elucidate the impact of ciprofloxacin on sperm chromatin integrity and sperm DNA damage using Aniline Blue and Acridine Orange technique, respectively. The fertility potential in male mice was also evaluated. NMRI male mice of 8-week old were included in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was received low dose (LD of ciprofloxacin (206 mg kg-1, PO and the second was treated with high dose (HD of ciprofloxacin (412 mg kg-1, PO for 45 consecutive days. The control mice were only treated with oral carboxymethyl cellulose for 45 consecutive days. Sperm cells were removed from cauda epididymis and analyzed for chromatin integrity and DNA damage. In addition, the rate of fertilization, two cell embryos, blastocysts, arrested embryos and their types was examined using zygotes cultured in human tubal fluid - bovine serum albumin (HTF-BSA medium. Concomitant significant increase in DNA damage and protamine deficiency of the sperm cells in ciprofloxacin treated mice were observed (P < 0.05. In addition, the fertilization rate and embryonic development in treated mice were significantly lower than that of control mice, but the embryo arrest rate in treated mice was significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.001. In conclusion CPFX was able to induce DNA damage and chromatin abnormalities of sperm cells which could be contributed in the observed low fertilization rate and retarded embryonic development.

  8. Disease activity and damage accrual during the early disease course in a multinational inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, J.; Kiss, Adrian Emil; Rozman, B.

    2010-01-01

    An inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from 14 European centres was followed for up to 5 years in order to describe the current early disease course. At inclusion patients (n = 200, 89% female, mean age 35 years, 97% Caucasian, mean SLEDAI 12.2) fulfilled a mean of 6.......5 ACR classification criteria. The most prevalent criteria were antinuclear Ab presence (97%) followed by anti-dsDNA Ab (74%), arthritis (69%), leukocytopenia (54%) and malar rash (53%), antiphospholipid Ab (48%) and anti-synovial membrane Ab (21.6%). Clinical signs of lupus nephritis (LN) were present...... for disease flare and damage development is, however, still substantial, especially in patients not entering an early remission. Lupus (2010) 19, 949-956...

  9. Pre-transplant donor-specific T-cell alloreactivity is strongly associated with early acute cellular rejection in kidney transplant recipients not receiving T-cell depleting induction therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Crespo

    Full Text Available Preformed T-cell immune-sensitization should most likely impact allograft outcome during the initial period after kidney transplantation, since donor-specific memory T-cells may rapidly recognize alloantigens and activate the effector immune response, which leads to allograft rejection. However, the precise time-frame in which acute rejection is fundamentally triggered by preformed donor-specific memory T cells rather than by de novo activated naïve T cells is still to be established. Here, preformed donor-specific alloreactive T-cell responses were evaluated using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay in a large consecutive cohort of kidney transplant patients (n = 90, to assess the main clinical variables associated with cellular sensitization and its predominant time-frame impact on allograft outcome, and was further validated in an independent new set of kidney transplant recipients (n = 67. We found that most highly T-cell sensitized patients were elderly patients with particularly poor HLA class-I matching, without any clinically recognizable sensitizing events. While one-year incidence of all types of biopsy-proven acute rejection did not differ between T-cell alloreactive and non-alloreactive patients, Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis indicated the first two months after transplantation as the highest risk time period for acute cellular rejection associated with baseline T-cell sensitization. This effect was particularly evident in young and highly alloreactive individuals that did not receive T-cell depletion immunosuppression. Multivariate analysis confirmed preformed T-cell sensitization as an independent predictor of early acute cellular rejection. In summary, monitoring anti-donor T-cell sensitization before transplantation may help to identify patients at increased risk of acute cellular rejection, particularly in the early phases after kidney transplantation, and thus guide decision-making regarding the use of induction

  10. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney/Pancreas Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish- ... the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. The pancreas is a five to six inch gland located ...

  11. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Kidneys are remarkable organs. Inside them ... resulting in kidney disease. How Does Diabetes Cause Kidney Disease? When our bodies digest the protein we ...

  12. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited). The 2 inherited forms of PKD are autosomal dominant ...

  13. Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  14. Research progress on oxidative damage of liver and kidney exposed to arsenic%砷暴露对肝脏、肾脏氧化损害的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟源霞; 孙文长

    2013-01-01

    砷污染广泛存在于水、土壤和空气中,全球70个国家230多个地区遭受砷污染.砷主要通过污染饮用水的方式进入人体,全球5 000多万人口的饮用水砷浓度超过50 μg/L,1亿4 000万人口饮用水的砷浓度超过10 μg/L.砷暴露诱导活性氧的产生增加,同时降低抗氧化酶、抗氧化物的水平,导致DNA突变、脂质过氧化和蛋白质羰基化增加.因此,砷的毒性机理目前认为是砷诱导机体产生氧化应激.砷暴露可以引起机体多脏器的损害,包括肝脏和肾脏,其机制与线粒体氧化损伤、细胞色素c的释放、诱导靶细胞凋亡有关.某些转录因子起保护作用,如Nrf2,其基因敲除小鼠在砷暴露后表现出明显的肝坏死及炎性细胞浸润.砷中毒的防治主要有螯合剂疗法和抗氧化剂疗法.%Arsenic contamination is widespread in water, soil and air, influences 70 countries over 230 regions and has resulted in the global human health hazards. More than 50 million people drink water with arsenic concentrations exceeding 50μg/L, and more than 140 million population exceeding 10 μg/L. Arsenic increases the production of reactive oxygen species, while reducing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant, leading to DNA mutations, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Arsenic exposure can results in multi - organ damages, including liver and kidney. The mechanism is associated with mitochondrial oxidative damage, cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Some transcription factors, such as Nrf2, play a protective role, and the knockout mice of it showed significant liver necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. The major preventions and treatments of arsenic poisoning are chelating agents and antioxidants.

  15. 三聚氰胺(酸)对肾脏毒性的实验研究%Study the toxicology damage of melamine(cyanuric acid)to rats kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明灯; 袁心刚; 吴盛德; 魏光辉

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究三聚氰胺(酸)对肾脏的毒理损害.方法:将新生鼠和成年鼠分别分为三聚氰胺高剂量组(NM,M),三聚氰胺低剂量组(Nm,m),三聚氰酸高剂量组(NA,A),三聚氰酸低剂量组(Na,a),三聚氰胺-三聚氰酸高剂量组(NMA,MA),三聚氰胺-三聚氰酸低剂量组(Nma,ma)和正常对照组(NN,N).给予相应剂量三聚氰胺(酸)灌胃持续两月,于灌胃3、15、60 d随机处死各组大鼠,称取体重、肾重,检测血液常规生化指标;观测肾脏组织细胞形态和超微结构变化.结果:NMA组及Nma组体重先增加,然后减少.MA组及ma组体重持续减轻.各给药组随着灌胃时间延长,肾脏晶体不断增加.电镜显示含结石肾小管微绒毛减少或消失,粒细胞浸润等炎性反应.各给药组随着灌胃时间的延长,肾体重比、尿素氮、肌酐、尿酸值增加.结论:三聚氰胺(酸)可以在大鼠肾脏形成晶体样结石;三聚氰胺(酸)成年鼠的肾毒性大于新生鼠;三聚氰胺(酸)混合物毒性大于单体;三聚氰胺(酸)形成晶体数量与时间、剂量呈正相关;三聚氰胺(酸)毒性存在个体及窝别差异.%Objective: Study the toxicology damage of melamine (cyanuric acid) to rats' kidney. Methods:Divided the newborn rats and adult rats into high dose group of melamine (NM, M), low dose group of melamine (Nm, m), high dose group of oyanuric acid (NA, A), low dose group of cyanuric acid (Na,a),high dose group of melamine-cyanuric acid (NMA,MA),Iow dose group of melamine-cyanuric acid (Nma,ma) and normal control group (NN,N). The corresponding dose of melamine (cyanuric acid) was given by oral gavage and lasted two months. Rats were killed at 3 day, 15 day and 60 day. The body weight and kidney weight were collected. Renal function was detected and the microscopic and ultra-microscopic renal histology structural changes were observed. Results: The body weight of NMA group and Nma group increased first,and then reduced. The body weight of MA

  16. PCR real time assays for the early detection of BKV-DNA in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Katia; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Gaffi, Gianni; Trappolini, Silvia; Leoni, Pietro; Paggi, Alessandra Mataloni; Della Vittoria, Agnese; Scalise, Giorgio; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele; Menzo, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Testing for viral BKV-DNA in urine is a non-invasive early detection and monitoring tool in the diagnostic of BKV-related pathologies: quantitative analysis by Real-Time PCR can provide useful information in addition to cytologic analysis, although our study suggests that high BKV viruria is not necessarily associated with kidney or bladder damage.

  17. Use of urinary metabolomics to evaluate the effect of hyperuricemia on the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Lou, Bih-Show; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Hou, Chia-Chung

    2014-12-01

    Clinical studies show that hyperuricemia is a risk factor in the progression and development of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Elevated serum levels of uric acid induce renal injury via an inflammation response, but the detailed mechanism is still under study. To better understand the effect of hyperuricemia on the kidney, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to investigate the role of uric acid in the mouse kidney. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis revealed significant differences between control and hyperuricemia groups in urine metabolic profiles. We identified 33 metabolites from 76 highly reproducible peaks and found abnormal uric acid levels related to comprehensive kidney injury, including excretive function and energy metabolism. Additionally, inflammation induced by the interleukin 6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway participated in hyperuricemia-induced kidney injury. This study helps understand the relationship between hyperuricemia and kidney injury. Metabolomics may be a useful strategy for early diagnosis of kidney damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DSB repair model for mammalian cells in early S and G1 phases of the cell cycle: application to damage induced by ionizing radiation of different quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleei, Reza; Girard, Peter M; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the hypothesis that kinetics of double strand breaks (DSB) repair is governed by complexity of DSB. To test the hypothesis we used our recent published mechanistic mathematical model of DSB repair for DSB induced by selected protons, deuterons, and helium ions of different energies representing radiations of different qualities. In light of recent advances in experimental and computational techniques, the most appropriate method to study cellular responses in radiation therapy, and exposures to low doses of ionizing radiations is using mechanistic approaches. To this end, we proposed a 'bottom-up' approach to study cellular response that starts with the DNA damage. Monte Carlo track structure method was employed to simulate initial damage induced in the genomic DNA by direct and indirect effects. Among the different types of DNA damage, DSB are known to be induced in simple and complex forms. The DSB repair model in G1 and early S phases of the cell cycle was employed to calculate the repair kinetics. The model considers the repair of simple and complex DSB, and the DSB produced in the heterochromatin. The inverse sampling method was used to calculate the repair kinetics for each individual DSB. The overall repair kinetics for 500 DSB induced by single tracks of the radiation under test were compared with experimental results. The results show that the model is capable of predicting the repair kinetics for the DSB induced by radiations of different qualities within an accepted range of uncertainty.

  19. Kidney pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  20. Nitrate reductase-mediated early nitric oxide burst alleviates oxidative damage induced by aluminum through enhancement of antioxidant defenses in roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Wenjing; Yu, Yan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2014-03-01

    • Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in the physiological processes of plants. The role of NO release in the tolerance strategies of roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under aluminum (Al) stress was investigated using two genotypes with different Al resistances. • An early NO burst at 3 h was observed in the root tips of the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864, whereas the Al-sensitive genotype Yang-5 showed no NO accumulation at 3 h but an extremely high NO concentration after 12 h. Stimulating NO production at 3 h in the root tips of Yang-5 with the NO donor relieved Al-induced root inhibition and callose production, as well as oxidative damage and ROS accumulation, while elimination of the early NO burst by NO scavenger aggravated root inhibition in Jian-864. • Synthesis of early NO in roots of Jian-864 was mediated through nitrate reductase (NR) but not through NO synthase. Elevated antioxidant enzyme activities were induced by Al stress in both wheat genotypes and significantly enhanced by NO donor, but suppressed by NO scavenger or NR inhibitor. • These results suggest that an NR-mediated early NO burst plays an important role in Al resistance of wheat through modulating enhanced antioxidant defense to adapt to Al stress.

  1. The potential use of biomarkers in predicting contrast-induced acute kidney injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Riccio, Eleonora; Sabbatini, Massimo; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a problem associated with the use of iodinated contrast media, causing kidney dysfunction in patients with preexisting renal failure. It accounts for 12% of all hospital-acquired kidney failure and increases the length of hospitalization, a situation that is worsening with increasing numbers of patients with comorbidities, including those requiring cardiovascular interventional procedures. So far, its diagnosis has relied upon the rise in creatinine levels, which is a late marker of kidney damage and is believed to be inadequate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for biomarkers that can detect CI-AKI sooner and more reliably. In recent years, many new biomarkers have been characterized for AKI, and these are discussed particularly with their use in known CI-AKI models and studies and include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cystatin C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1, interleukin-18, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). The potential of miRNA and metabolomic technology is also mentioned. Early detection of CI-AKI may lead to early intervention and therefore improve patient outcome, and in future any one or a combination of several of these markers together with development in technology for their analysis may prove effective in this respect. PMID:27672338

  2. Exploring the relationship between white matter and gray matter damage in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis: an in vivo study with TBSS and VBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Benedetta; Khaleeli, Zhaleh; Cercignani, Mara; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between the damage occurring in the brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in the gray matter (GM) in patients with early Primary Progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. Thirty-five patients with early PPMS underwent diffusion tensor and conventional imaging and were clinically assessed. TBSS and VBM were employed to localize regions of lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and lower GM volume in patients compared with controls. Areas of anatomical and quantitative correlation between NAWM and GM damage were detected. Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate whether NAWM FA or GM volume of regions correlated with clinical scores independently from the other and from age and gender. In patients, we found 11 brain regions that showed an anatomical correspondence between reduced NAWM FA and GM atrophy; of these, four showed a quantitative correlation (i.e., the right sensory motor region with the adjacent corticospinal tract, the left and right thalamus with the corresponding thalamic radiations and the left insula with the adjacent WM). Either the NAWM FA or the GM volume in each of these regions correlated with disability. These results demonstrate a link between the pathological processes occurring in the NAWM and in the GM in PPMS in specific, clinically relevant brain areas. Longitudinal studies will determine whether the GM atrophy precedes or follows the NAWM damage. The methodology that we described may be useful to investigate other neurological disorders affecting both the WM and the GM.

  3. CELLULAR-DAMAGE AND EARLY METABOLIC FUNCTION OF TRANSPLANTED LIVERS STORED IN EUROCOLLINS OR UNIVERSITY-OF-WISCONSIN SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRUIM, J; TENVERGERT, EM; KLOMPMAKER, IJ; SLOOFF, MJH

    1991-01-01

    In a clinical setting, the effect of Eurocollins (EC) and University of Wisconsin solution (UW) on liver grafts were studied in the early reperfusion phase of liver transplantation. Blood samples were drawn before and after declamping of the portal vein in a group of 11 transplants with EC-perfused

  4. CELLULAR-DAMAGE AND EARLY METABOLIC FUNCTION OF TRANSPLANTED LIVERS STORED IN EUROCOLLINS OR UNIVERSITY-OF-WISCONSIN SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRUIM, J; TENVERGERT, EM; KLOMPMAKER, IJ; SLOOFF, MJH

    1991-01-01

    In a clinical setting, the effect of Eurocollins (EC) and University of Wisconsin solution (UW) on liver grafts were studied in the early reperfusion phase of liver transplantation. Blood samples were drawn before and after declamping of the portal vein in a group of 11 transplants with EC-perfused

  5. The relationship between chemical-induced kidney weight increases and kidney histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Evisabel A; Yan, Zhongyu; Zhao, Q Jay

    2015-07-01

    The kidney is a major site of chemical excretion, which results in its propensity to exhibit chemically-induced toxicological effects at a higher rate than most other organs. Although the kidneys are often weighed in animal toxicity studies, the manner in which these kidney weight measurements are interpreted and the value of this information in predicting renal damage remains controversial. In this study we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between chemically-induced kidney weight changes and renal histopathological alterations. We also examined the relative utility of absolute and relative (kidney-to-body weight ratio) kidney weight in the prediction of renal toxicity. For this, data extracted from oral chemical exposure studies in rats performed by the National Toxicology Program were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Our analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between absolute, but not relative, kidney weight and renal histopathology in chemically-treated rats. This positive correlation between absolute kidney weight and histopathology was observed even with compounds that statistically decreased terminal body weight. Also, changes in absolute kidney weight, which occurred at subchronic exposures, were able to predict the presence or absence of kidney histopathology at both subchronic and chronic exposures. Furthermore, most increases in absolute kidney weight reaching statistical significance (irrespective of the magnitude of change) were found to be relevant for the prediction of histopathological changes. Hence, our findings demonstrate that the evaluation of absolute kidney weight is a useful method for identifying potential renal toxicants.

  6. Relationship between time-integrated disease activity estimated by DAS28-CRP and radiographic progression of anatomical damage in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippucci Emilio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between persistent disease activity and radiographic progression of joint damage in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA. Methods Forty-eight patients with active ERA was assessed every 3 months for disease activity for 3 years. Radiographic damage was measured by the Sharp/van der Heijde method (SHS. The cumulative inflammatory burden was estimated by the time-integrated values (area under the curve-AUC of Disease Activity Score 28 joint based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP in rapid progressors versus non-progressors. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement method were used to estimate the smallest detectable difference (SDD of radiographic progression. The relationship between clinical and laboratory predictors of radiographic progression and their interactions with time was analysed by logistic regression model. Results After 3-years of follow-up, radiographic progression was observed in 54.2% (95%CI: 39.8% to 67.5% of patients and SDD was 9.5 for total SHS. The percentage of patients with erosive disease increased from 33.3% at baseline to 76% at 36 months. The total SHS of the progressors worsened from a median (interquartile range of 18.5 (15-20 at baseline to 38.5 (34-42 after 3 years (p Conclusions These data indicate that the level of disease activity, as measured by time-integrated DAS28-CRP, anti-CCP and IgM-RF positivity and a high baseline joint damage, affects subsequent progression of radiographic damage in ERA.

  7. Tubular kidney function in patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus, microalbuminuria and proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatković Vlastimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes melitus (DM and hypertension are the most frequent causes of kidney function damage. Many different tests are developed to detect reversible functional kidney changes (detection of microalbuminuria and selective urinary enzymes. Objective The aim of our study was to examine tubular kidney function in type 2 DM patients with different proteinuria levels, and to compare these results with healthy people. Method The patients with type 2 DM and creatinine clearance >80 ml/min were included in the study. According to the levels of proteinuria, the patients were classified in three groups: group I - patients with proteinuria <300 mg/24 h, and no microalbuminuria; group II - the patients with proteinuria <300 mg/24 h and microalbuminuria >20 mg/24 h; and group III- the patients with proteinuria >300 mg/24 h. The control group consisted of healthy subjects. Results The study revealed that in type 2 DM patients and normal global kidney function, fractional excretions of sodium, potassium, and phosphates as well as renal phosphate concentrations were not adequately sensitive markers to detect damage in tubular kidney function in DM. There were some changes of urate fractional excretion in these patients: this value was significantly lower in patients with microalbuminuria compared with those with proteinuria >300 mg/24 h, as well as in the control group (p<0.05. Hormone dependent tubular kidney activity, urinary osmolarity, and urea fractional excretion in all patients were within normal ranges. Conclusion It is evident that routine laboratory analyses are not sensitive markers to detect early changes of kidney function in type 2 DM.

  8. For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language URL Español For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease Page Content Make ... I be checked for kidney disease? Diabetes and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys and lead to kidney ...

  9. Past Kidney Damage Linked to Pregnancy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology . "Our goal in future studies is to address ... findings. SOURCE: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology , news release, Dec. 22, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

  10. Relationship between damage clustering and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus in early and late stages of the disease: cluster analyses in a large cohort from the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pego-Reigosa, José María; Lois-Iglesias, Ana; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; Galindo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanessa; Ibáñez Ruan, Jesús; Olivé, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Gómez, Manuel; Fernández Nebro, Antonio; Andrés, Mariano; Erausquin, Celia; Tomero, Eva; Horcada Rubio, Loreto; Uriarte Isacelaya, Esther; Freire, Mercedes; Montilla, Carlos; Sánchez-Atrio, Ana I; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Zea, Antonio; Díez, Elvira; Narváez, Javier; Blanco-Alonso, Ricardo; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Ruiz-Lucea, María Esther; Fernández-Castro, Mónica; Hernández-Beriain, José Ángel; Gantes-Mora, Marian; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Pérez-Venegas, José; Pecondón-Español, Ángela; Marras Fernández-Cid, Carlos; Ibáñez-Barcelo, Mónica; Bonilla, Gema; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Castellví, Iván; Alegre, Juan José; Calvet, Joan; Marenco de la Fuente, José Luis; Raya, Enrique; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás Ramón; Quevedo-Vila, Víctor; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Otón, Teresa; Rahman, Anisur; López-Longo, Francisco Javier

    2016-07-01

    To identify patterns (clusters) of damage manifestations within a large cohort of SLE patients and evaluate the potential association of these clusters with a higher risk of mortality. This is a multicentre, descriptive, cross-sectional study of a cohort of 3656 SLE patients from the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry. Organ damage was ascertained using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index. Using cluster analysis, groups of patients with similar patterns of damage manifestations were identified. Then, overall clusters were compared as well as the subgroup of patients within every cluster with disease duration shorter than 5 years. Three damage clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (80.6% of patients) presented a lower amount of individuals with damage (23.2 vs 100% in clusters 2 and 3, P Cluster 2 (11.4% of patients) was characterized by musculoskeletal damage in all patients. Cluster 3 (8.0% of patients) was the only group with cardiovascular damage, and this was present in all patients. The overall mortality rate of patients in clusters 2 and 3 was higher than that in cluster 1 (P clusters. Both in early and late stages of the disease, there was a significant association of these clusters with an increased risk of mortality. Physicians should pay special attention to the early prevention of damage in these two systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Piñón, Silvia; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Paniagua-Sierra, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome caused by complex and interrelated causes. The early markers of this syndrome are often present even before the blood pressure (BP) elevation; therefore, SAH cannot only be classified by the BP elevation threshold, which sometimes is discreet. Its progression is strongly associated with structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities, which lead to end-organ damage (heart, kidney, brain, blood vessels and other organs), and cause premature morbidity and death. In this sense, the BP is only a biomarker of this cardiovascular syndrome, which is why it is more useful to consider individual BP patterns of the ill patient rather than a single BP threshold. The study and treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has made some progresses, especially in patients requiring dialysis. The use of non-invasive technology to register the BP has reconfigured health care of patients in regards to the diagnosis, circadian pattern, clinical surveillance, pharmacological prescription, prognosis, and risk of cardiovascular events (as well as mortality). The opportunity in the diagnosis and treatment means a delay in the onset of complications and, also, of dialysis. The blockade of the renin-aldotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), a regular monitoring of the dry weight of the population in dialysis, and non-pharmacological interventions to modify lifestyle are the maneuvers with greater impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients.

  12. Relationship of serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage in patients with early diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yang; Ji Zhang; Li-Ping Tang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship of serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage in patients with early diabetic nephropathy.Methods: A total of 76 patients with early diabetic nephropathy were included in observation group and 80 healthy subjects were included in control group. Differences in retinol-binding protein (RBP), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and chemokine Fractalkine (FKN) content in serum as well as urinary protein excretion indexes and glomerular filtration function indexes were compared between the two groups immediately after admission, and the correlation of RBP, NEFA and FKN content with the disease was further analyzed.Results:Serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content of observation group were higher than those of control group; 24 h total urine volume, 24 h urinary albumin and urinary albumin excretion rate as well as urine-specific proteins Kim-1, NGAL, L-FABP and CysC content of observation group were higher than those of control group and positively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content; GFR level of observation group was lower than that of control group and negatively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content while serum Cr, BUN, VF, LP-a,β2-MG and HA content were higher than those of control group and positively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content.Conclusions:Serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content significantly increase in patients with early diabetic nephropathy and are correlated with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage.

  13. Early and aggressive treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients affects the association of HLA class II antigens with progression of joint damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lard, L R; Boers, M; Verhoeven, A; Vos, K; Visser, H; Hazes, J M W; Zwinderman, A H; Schreuder, G M T; Breedveld, F C; De Vries, R R P; van der Linden, S; Zanelli, E; Huizinga, T W J

    2002-04-01

    The presence of certain HLA class II antigens is strongly associated with the progression of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Such antigens may be more effective than other class II antigens in inducing the formation of autoreactive T cells after presentation of (auto)antigens. We investigated whether early and aggressive treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could modify this relationship. We analyzed data from 2 studies of patients with early RA treated according to different strategies. The first study consisted of 2 cohorts, one (n = 109; median disease duration before treatment 4 months) was treated according to the pyramid strategy (initial nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, followed by chloroquine [CQ] or sulfasalazine [SSZ] when necessary), and the other (n = 97; median disease duration before treatment 2 weeks) was immediately treated with CQ or SSZ. The second study comprised 155 patients (median disease duration 4 months) from the Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial, in which patients were randomly assigned to combination treatment with step-down prednisolone, methotrexate (MTX), and SSZ (n = 76) or with SSZ alone (n = 79). Prednisolone and MTX dosages were tapered and stopped after 28 and 40 weeks, respectively. The extent of joint damage was measured by the modified Sharp method. In the pyramid treatment cohort, the median increase in Sharp score after 2 years was 12 in patients positive for the shared epitope (SE) and 1 in SE- patients. In the immediate treatment cohort, the median increase was 3 in SE+ patients and 2 in SE- patients. In the SSZ group of the COBRA study, the median increase in Sharp score after 1 year was 11 in DR4+ patients and 3 in DR4- patients. In the combination treatment group, the median increase was 4 in DR4+ patients and 2 in DR4- patients. Significance was confirmed by multiple regression using log-transformed scores. Early and aggressive antirheumatic drug treatment

  14. Use of dual section mRNA in situ hybridisation/immunohistochemistry to clarify gene expression patterns during the early stages of nephron development in the embryo and in the mature nephron of the adult mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Kylie; Rumballe, Bree; Wilkinson, Lorine; Chiu, Han Sheng; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Gilbert, Thierry; Little, Melissa H

    2008-11-01

    The kidney is the most complex organ within the urogenital system. The adult mouse kidney contains in excess of 8,000 mature nephrons, each of which can be subdivided into a renal corpuscle and 14 distinct tubular segments. The histological complexity of this organ can make the clarification of the site of gene expression by in situ hybridisation difficult. We have defined a panel of seven antibodies capable of identifying the six stages of early nephron development, the tubular nephron segments and the components of the renal corpuscle within the embryonic and adult mouse kidney. We have analysed in detail the protein expression of Wt1, Calb1 Aqp1, Aqp2 and Umod using these antibodies. We have then coupled immunohistochemistry with RNA in situ hybridisation in order to precisely identify the expression pattern of different genes, including Wnt4, Umod and Spp1. This technique will be invaluable for examining at high resolution, the structure of both the developing and mature nephron where standard in situ hybridisation and histological techniques are insufficient. The use of this technique will enhance the expression analyses of genes which may be involved in nephron formation and the function of the mature nephron in the mouse.

  15. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years.

  16. Microelectrophoretic study of environmentally induced DNA damage in fish and its use for early toxicity screening of freshwater bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Bilal; Sultana, Tayyaba; Sultana, Salma; Al-Ghanim, K A; Masood, Shahreef; Ali, Muhammad; Mahboob, Shahid

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the potential of the comet and micronucleus assays of fish DNA as a means of screening the toxicity of aquatic environments. Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala collected from the River Chenab in Pakistan were used as a case study for the application of comet and micronucleus techniques. Comet and micronucleus assays were used to compare DNA damage in C. catla and C. mrigala collected from polluted areas of the River Chenab and farmed fish. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed an acute level of toxicity from Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Sn, and Hg in river water. Comet assay showed significant (p river. Tail moment was observed as 10.06 ± 2.71, 3.11 ± 0.74, and 14.70 ± 1.89, while olive moment was 8.85 ± 1.84, 3.83 ± 0.76, and 7.11 ± 0.73, respectively. Highly significant (p < 0.01) damage was reported in C. mrigala as 37.29 ± 2.51, 34.96 ± 2.53, and 38.80 ± 2.42% DNA in comet tail, tail moment was 23.48 ± 3.90, 19.78 ± 4.26, and 14.30 ± 1.82, and olive moment was 16.22 ± 2.04, 13.83 ± 1.96, and10.99 ± 0.90. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed in genotoxicity between farmed and polluted area fish. Micronucleus assay showed a similar picture of significant difference in respect to single and double micronucleus induction: i.e., 23.20 ± 4.19 and 2.80 ± 1.07‰ in C. catla and 44.80 ± 3.73 and 06.20 ± 0.97‰, respectively, in C. mrigala. Nuclear abnormalities were found as 6.00 ± 0.84 and 09.60 ± 1.72/thousand cells, respectively, in both species. The results of this study suggest that these novel fish DNA damage assays can be used as an expedient toxicity screening for aquatic environments.

  17. Toxic mechanisms of copper oxide nanoparticles in epithelial kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Selck, Henriette; Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    2015-01-01

    CuO NPs have previously been reported as toxic to a range of cell cultures including kidney epithelial cells from the frog, Xenopus laevis (A6). Here we examine the molecular mechanisms affecting toxicity of Cu in different forms and particle sizes. A6 cells were exposed to ionic Cu (Cu2+) or Cu......O particles of three different sizes: CuO NPs of 6 nm (NP6), larger Poly-dispersed CuO NPs of toxic than NP6, Micro and Cu2+ to A6 cells, causing DNA damage, decreased cell viability...... and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and eventually cell death. We show that ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) generation plays a key role and occurs early in Poly toxicity as Poly-induced DNA damage and cell death could be mitigated by the antioxidant NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine). Here we propose a model...

  18. P2 receptors in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M A; Hillman, K A; Unwin, R J

    2000-07-01

    Our understanding of the actions of extracellular ATP in controlling kidney function via stimulation of P2 receptors is still at an early stage. Recently, several groups, including our own, have begun to address this subject: in this brief review, we discuss some of these effects and speculate on likely function of extracellular nucleotides in the kidney.

  19. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  20. Chagas cardiomyopathy: the potential of diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide in the early identification of cardiac damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a major cause of mortality in several countries of Latin America and has become a potential public health problem in non-endemic countries as a result of migration flows. Cardiac involvement represents the main cause of mortality, but its diagnosis is still based on nonspecific criteria with poor sensitivity. Early identification of patients with cardiac involvement is desirable, since early treatment may improve prognosis. This study aimed to assess the role of diastolic dysfunction, abnormal myocardial strain and elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in the early identification of cardiac involvement in Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-four patients divided into 3 groups--group 1 (undetermined form: positive serology without ECG or 2D-echocardiographic abnormalities; N = 32, group 2 (typical ECG abnormalities of Chagas disease but normal 2D-echocardiography; N = 14, and group 3 (regional wall motion abnormalities, left ventricular [LV] end-diastolic diameter >55 mm or LV ejection fraction 37 pg/ml were noted in 0%, 13%, 29% and 63% in controls and groups 1 to 3, respectively. Half of patients in the undetermined form had impaired relaxation patterns, whereas half of patients with ECG abnormalities suggestive of Chagas cardiomyopathy had normal diastolic function. In group 1, BNP levels were statistically higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction as compared to those with normal diastolic function (27 ± 26 vs. 11 ± 8 pg/ml, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the combination of diastolic function and BNP measurement adds important information that could help to better stratify patients with Chagas disease.

  1. Significance of serum cystatin C in vancomycin-induced early kidney injury%血清胱抑素C测定在监测万古霉素致早期肾损害中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向波; 郑君德; 姜顺军; 李宁; 杨羚; 肖洪广

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of serum cystatin C in vancomycin-induced early kidney injury.Methods Sixty patients receiving vancomycin therapy in The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College were enrolled in this study. None of these patients had a clinical history of kidney diseases. The levels of serum vancomycin concentration in these patients were monitored and analyzed for the correlation with the levels of serum eystatin C (CysC),blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre). Results Elevation of serum Cys C(63.3%) and BUN (47.5%) was noted in patients with vancomycin-induced early kidney injury. A medium to low degree of correlation between serum vancomycin concentrations and CysC/BUN was observed. There was no correlation between the level of vancomycin and Cre. Furthermore,a significant difference in the CysC level was seen in patients with high (>15 mg/L) or low (<15 mg/L) concentration of serum vancomycin. Conclusion CysC may be a good serum marker for the diagnosis of vancomycin-induced early kidney injury.%目的 探讨血清胱抑素C(CyaC)测定在监测万古霉素致早期肾损害中的意义.方法 既往无肾脏疾病、在广州医学院第一附属医院接受万古霉素治疗的患者60例,检测患者万古霉素血药浓度的同时检测CysC、血尿素氮(BUN)、血肌酐(Cre),分析其与血药浓度的相关性.结果 60例患者中CysC、BUN、Cre升高率分别为63.3%、47.5%和0;CysC与BUN或Cre对万古霉素所致肾损伤检测的阳性率差异有统计学意义(P15 mg/L的患者,其CysC水平差异有统计学意义.结论 CysC是一项优于BUN和Cre的用于监测万古霉素所致早期肾损害的良好指标.

  2. Iron-hepcidin dysmetabolism, anemia and renal hypoxia, inflammation and fibrosis in the remnant kidney rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Garrido

    Full Text Available Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD that develops early and its severity increases as renal function declines. It is mainly due to a reduced production of erythropoietin (EPO by the kidneys; however, there are evidences that iron metabolism disturbances increase as CKD progresses. Our aim was to study the mechanisms underlying the development of anemia of CKD, as well as renal damage, in the remnant kidney rat model of CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. This model of CKD presented a sustained degree of renal dysfunction, with mild and advanced glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions. Anemia developed 3 weeks after nephrectomy and persisted throughout the protocol. The remnant kidney was still able to produce EPO and the liver showed an increased EPO gene expression. In spite of the increased EPO blood levels, anemia persisted and was linked to low serum iron and transferrin levels, while serum interleukin (IL-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels showed the absence of systemic inflammation. The increased expression of duodenal ferroportin favours iron absorption; however, serum iron is reduced which might be due to iron leakage through advanced kidney lesions, as showed by tubular iron accumulation. Our data suggest that the persistence of anemia may result from disturbances in iron metabolism and by an altered activity/function of EPO as a result of kidney cell damage and a local inflammatory milieu, as showed by the increased gene expression of different inflammatory proteins in the remnant kidney. In addition, this anemia and the associated kidney hypoxia favour the development of fibrosis, angiogenesis and inflammation that may underlie a resistance to EPO stimuli and reduced iron availability. These findings might contribute to open new windows to identify putative therapeutic targets for this condition, as well as for recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO resistance, which occurs in a considerable

  3. Fetal polycystic kidney disease: Pathological overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic kidney disease is a rare developmental anomaly inherited as autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. It is characterized by cystic dilatation of the collecting ducts frequently associated with hepatic involvement and progression to renal failure. It is included in the differential diagnosis of cystic diseases of the kidney. We report a case of polycystic kidney disease, in 22 weeks fetus incidentally detected on routine antenatal ultrasonography and confirmed by fetal autopsy. This report elucidates the importance of early diagnosis and intervention in cystic kidney diseases.

  4. Up-regulation of Serum MiR-130b-3p Level is Associated with Renal Damage in Early Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Mou, Shan; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Fang, Wei; Lu, Renhua; Qi, Chaojun; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Wang, Qin; Fang, Yan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common but severe autoimmune systemic inflammatory disease. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a serious complication of SLE,affecting up to 70% of SLE patients. Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are emerging as biomarkers for pathological conditions and play significant roles in intercellular communication. In present research, serum samples from healthy control, early and late stage LN patients were used to analyze the expression profile of miRNAs by microarray. Subsequent study demonstrated that miR-130b-3p in serum of patients with early stage LN were significantly up-regulated when compared with healthy controls. In addition,we have also observed that the expression of a large amount of circulating microRNAs significantly decreased in patients with late stage LN. The further analysis found that the expression of serum miR-130b-3p was positively correlated with 24-hour proteinuria and renal chronicity index in patients with early stage LN.Transfection of renal tubular cellline(HK-2)with miR-130b-3p mimics can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The opposite effects were observed when transfected with miR-130b-3p inhibitors. MiR-130b-3p negatively regulated ERBB2IP expression by directly targeting the 3‧-UTR of ERBB2IP The circulating miR-130b-3p might serve as a biomarker and play an important role in renal damage in early stage LN patients.

  5. Exposure time to caffeine affects heartbeat and cell damage-related gene expression of zebrafish Danio rerio embryos at early developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Chang, Seo-Na; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Song, Juha; Kim, Dong Su; Park, Jae-Hak

    2013-11-01

    Caffeine is white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that is naturally found in some plants and can be produced synthetically. It has various biological effects, especially during pregnancy and lactation. We studied the effect of caffeine on heartbeat, survival and the expression of cell damage related genes, including oxidative stress (HSP70), mitochondrial metabolism (Cyclin G1) and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl2), at early developmental stages of zebrafish embryos. We used 100 µm concentration based on the absence of locomotor effects. Neither significant mortality nor morphological changes were detected. We monitored hatching at 48 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf. At 60 and 72 hpf, hatching decreased significantly (P caffeine treatment with no significant difference (P > 0.05). Heartbeats per minute were 110, 110 and 112 in control at 48, 72 and 96 hpf, respectively. Caffeine significantly increased heartbeat - 122 and 136 at 72 and 96 hpf, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR showed significant up-regulation after caffeine exposure in HSP70 at 72 hpf; in Cyclin G1 at 24, 48 and 72 hpf; and in Bax at 48 and 72 hpf. Significant down-regulation was found in Bcl2 at 48 and 72 hpf. The Bax/Bcl2 ratio increased significantly at 48 and 72 hpf. We conclude that increasing exposure time to caffeine stimulates oxidative stress and may trigger apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Also caffeine increases heartbeat from early phases of development without affecting the morphology and survival but delays hatching. Use of caffeine during pregnancy and lactation may harm the fetus by affecting the expression of cell-damage related genes.

  6. Inhibitory effects of myricitrin on oxidative stress-induced endothelial damage and early atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Qin, Meng [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China); Ye, Jing-xue [Jilin Agricultural University, No. 2888, Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130118 Jilin (China); Pan, Rui-le; Meng, Xiang-bao; Wang, Min; Luo, Yun; Li, Zong-yang [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China); Wang, Hong-wei, E-mail: hwang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Translational Medicine and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sunsubmit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-15

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in vascular walls. Oxidative stress-induced vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury is a major factor in the pathogenesis of AS. Myricitrin, a natural flavonoid isolated from the root bark of Myrica cerifera, was recently found to have a strong antioxidative effect. However, its use for treating cardiovascular diseases, especially AS is still unreported. Consequently, we evaluated the cytoprotective effect of myricitrin on AS by assessing oxidative stress-induced VEC damage. The in vivo study using an ApoE −/− mouse model of AS demonstrated that myricitrin treatment protects against VEC damage and inhibits early AS plaque formation. This effect is associated with the antioxidative effect of myricitrin, as observed in a hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced rat model of artery endothelial injury and primary cultured human VECs. Myricitrin treatment also prevents and attenuates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced endothelial injury. Further investigation of the cytoprotective effects of myricitrin demonstrated that myricitrin exerts its function by scavenging for reactive oxygen species, as well as reducing lipid peroxidation, blocking NO release, and maintaining mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Myricitrin treatment also significantly decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis in VECs, which was associated with significant inhibition of p53 gene expression, activation of caspase-3 and the MAPK signaling pathway, and alteration of the patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression. The resulting significantly increased bcl-2/bax ratio indicates that myricitrin may prevent the apoptosis induced by oxidative stress injury. - Highlights: • Myricitrin prevents early atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. • Myricitrin protects endothelial cell from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced injury in rat and HUVECs. • Myricitrin enhanced NO release and up

  7. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD ... as polycystic kidney disease (PKD), another disease that causes the kidneys to ... chronic kidney disease (CKD)—a condition that develops over many years ...

  8. Assessment standards: comparing histopathology, digital image analysis, and stereology for early detection of experimental cisplatin-induced kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Katherine; Stewart, Sharron; Rouse, Rodney

    2014-08-01

    Histopathology generally represents the reference standard for performance evaluation of nonclinical biomarkers used to inform regulatory decision making. This study uses drug-induced nephrotoxicity in rats to evaluate histopathology methods utilized in biomarker performance assessments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of cisplatin (0.5-5.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) to produce mild renal injury. Animals were euthanized 72 hr postdose and perfusion fixed. Kidneys were processed for histology and stereology procedures. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was measured in urine and in kidney tissue. Digital slide images were generated and analyzed by pathologists after collaborating on a training set of glass slides and digital images. Image analysis identified immunohistochemistry (IHC)-defined tubular injury. Stereology methods yielded estimations of proximal tubular cell number and volume. Statistical relationships among data sets were determined using correlation coefficients. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses determined the effect of method on biomarker assessment. Urinary Kim-1 was strongly correlated with digital image analysis and secondarily to histopathology evaluations. Stereology demonstrated weak or no correlation to pathology and urinary Kim-1. In ROC analyses, semiquantitative evaluations determined higher values for urinary Kim-1 performance than did IHC-based qualitative digital analyses. Semiquantitative evaluation as used in this study was most predictive of urinary Kim-1 values.

  9. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric artery in about 40% of cases. Fusion of upper poles instead of the lower poles results in a n inverted horse Shoe Kidney which constitute 5 - 10% of ail Horse - Shoe kidneys , (i.e. in 95% of HSK , fusion is at lower poles. HSK is found more commonly in males by a 2 : 1 margin. AIM OF STUDY : An attempt has been made to know the various anomalies . The study has been taken up with the fond hope of helping the clinician , sonologist , and surgeons during their routine work. To apply this knowledge to the incoming post graduates in their research works. EMBRIOLOGICAL BASIS & KDNEY : The abnormality originates between 4th and 6th weeks of gestation , after the ureteral bud has entered the renal blastema. Boyden (1931 postulated that at the 14mm stage (4.5 weeks the developing metanephric masses lie close to one another , any disturbance in their relationship may result in joining at their inferior poles. A slight alteration in the position of the umbilical or common iliac artery could change the orientation of migrating kidneys thus leading to contact and fusion. In 1941 Dees (Nation 1945 , Bell 1946 , Gleen 1959 , Campbell 1970 described horse - shoe kidney di sease occurrence in 0.25% of the population or about 1 in 400. OBSERVATION : In the present study 176 specimens of kidneys were studied out of which 40 were fetal specimens and the rest were adult specimens consisting of both cadaveric and sonograms. The ad ult specimens from cadavers were 76 and 60 from sonograms. MATERIAL & METHODS : Abdomen is opened ; superficial viscera and

  10. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. II. histoenzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, M.M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. [Dept. of Toxicology, Medical Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, M.; Dziki, M. [Dept. of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice-Ligota (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    Early effects of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the kidney were studied in an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd at the levels of 5 and 50 mg Cd/1 drinking water. The effect of Cd was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Damage to the cellular structures was assessed on the basis of histoenzymatic analyses of the activity and localization of indicator enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, Mg{sup 2+}-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase). The histochemical observations indicate that Cd causes damage to the organization and function of the nephron. Several structures, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, lysosome, cellular and intracellular membrane, as well as their biological functions, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic respiration, transport functions and biochemical processes taking place in the endoplasmic reticulum, were affected. The cytotoxic action of Cd occurs mainly in the tubules and partially also in the glomeruli. The results clearly indicate that Cd damages kidney structurally and functionally even at a relatively low level (5 mg/l) corresponding to human environmental exposure, and they confirm our previous hypothesis that the threshold for the kidney effects of Cd is less than 4.08 {+-} 0.33 {mu}g/g kidney wet weight and higher than 2.40 {+-} 0.15 {mu}g/g. The target for Cd action in the kidney is the tubules (proximal convoluted tubules and straight tubules), and disturbance in their function is the main toxic effect of Cd. Renal glomeruli are also injured, but only partially, whereas in other parts of the nephron the damage is slight. The results, together with observations reported in the first paper of the study, incline us to conclude that humans environmentally exposed to Cd are at risk of tubular damage. (orig.)

  11. [Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Lalev, I

    1990-01-01

    A case of a 22 years old woman with autosomal-recessive form of kidney polycystosis is presented. The diagnosis was made in early childhood. A combination of renal anomaly and hepatic fibrosis with manifestations of portal hypertension was present. No deviations from the other internal organs were found. At the age of 12 she entered into the stage of chronic renal failure. The last five years she is on dialysis treatment. She had survived several acute bleedings from esophageal varices. The authors are of the opinion that the case is of interest since patients with autosomal-recessive renal polycystosis very rarely reach majority.

  12. [Kidney donors and kidney transplantation in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessing, M; Conrad, S; Schönberger, B; Huland, H; Budde, K; Neumayer, H-H; Loening, S A

    2004-08-01

    The likelihood of terminal renal insufficiency escalates with age, increasing the risk of dying as a patient requiring dialysis. In 1999, Eurotransplant initiated the Eurotransplant Senior Programm (ESP), in which the kidneys of old donors (>64 years) are allocated to recipients 64 years and older. Allocation does not take HLA-matching into account and is performed regionally only according to blood-group-compatibility to keep the storage time short. As a consequence of the short ischemic time, and thus reduced non-immunological damage to the anyways susceptible old kidney, graft-function and graft-survival in the ESP are very good. The results of the initial 5 years of this program show that it successfully utilizes more kidneys from old donors and that more old recipients are being transplanted, with a satisfactory graft-function. Increased donor- and/or recipient age require a thorough evaluation to exclude malignant and other diseases. Furthermore, short term controls on the waiting list and following kidney transplantation are prerequisites for successful transplantation in the aged recipient. If this is guaranteed, kidney transplantation in the old recipient-even with old donor organs-is a good alternative to the morbidity of a prolonged dialysis. Nevertheless, the role of HLA-matching should be reconsidered to reduce rejections.

  13. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C

    2004-03-11

    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  14. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and

  15. Optical Coherence Tomography in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter M.; Wierwille, Jeremiah; Chen, Yu

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with both high mortality rates and an enormous economic burden [1]. The preferred treatment option for ESRD that can extend patients' lives and improve their quality of life is kidney transplantation. However, organ shortages continue to pose a major problem in kidney transplantation. Most kidneys for transplantation come from heart-beating cadavers. Although non-heart-beating cadavers represent a potentially large pool of donor kidneys, these kidneys are not often used due to the unknown extent of damage to the renal tubules (i.e., acute tubular necrosis or "ATN") induced by ischemia (i.e., lack of blood flow). Also, ischemic insult suffered by kidneys awaiting transplantation frequently causes ATN that leads to varying degrees of delayed graft function (DGF) after transplantation. Finally, ATN represents a significant risk for eventual graft and patient survival [2, 3] and can be difficult to discern from rejection. In present clinical practice, there is no reliable real-time test to determine the viability of donor kidneys and whether or not donor kidneys might exhibit ATN. Therefore, there is a critical need for an objective and reliable real-time test to predict ATN to use these organs safely and utilize the donor pool optimally. In this review, we provided preliminary data indicating that OCT can be used to predict the post-transplant function of kidneys used in transplantation.

  16. Evaluation of DMSA scintigraphy and urography in assessing both acute and permanent renal damage in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokland, E.; Jacobsson, B. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden).; Hellstroem, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Jodal, U. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Sixt, R. [Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and urography in the detection of renal involvement in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) in order to identify patients with a high risk of developing renal damage. Material and Methods: A total of 157 children (median age 0.4 years, range 5 days to 5.8 years) with first-time symptomatic UTI were examined scintigraphy (with an assessment of renal area involvement) and urography at the time of UTI and 1 year later. All evaluations were made blindly. Results: Of the total 314 kidneys, 80 (25%) were abnormal at initial scintigraphy. Of these 80 kidneys, 44 (55%) had normalized at follow-up. Of the 234 initially normal kidneys, 29 (12%) were abnormal at follow-up. One year after UTI, abnormalities were seen in 59 children at scintigraphy and in 18 children at urography. Renal area involvement was larger and split function abnormalities more common in kidneys that were abnormal at both scintigraphy and urography than in kidneys with only scintigraphic abnormalities. Conclusion: Quantitation of renal area involvement and split renal function at early scintigraphy would seem to be useful in identifying patients at risk of developing renal damage. Urography at 1 year after infection identified mainly those with the most severe scintigraphic abnormalities. The clinical importance of scintigraphic abnormalities that are not confirmed by urography is not known. (orig.)

  17. Effects of AKR1C3 on kidney damage of preeclamptic rats%AKR1C3对子痫前期大鼠肾损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金娅; 孙成娟; 张为远

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨AKR1C3对子痫前期大鼠肾脏损伤的影响及其可能的作用机制.方法 通过腹腔注射亚硝基左旋精氨酸甲酯(L-NAME)建立大鼠子痫前期的模型,治疗组同时采用灌胃的方法口服格列苯脲.40只Wistar雌鼠随机分为子痫前期组(孕鼠+L-NAME)、治疗组(孕鼠+L-NAME+格列苯脲)、未孕组(L-NAME)、对照组(孕鼠+生理盐水),每组10只.通过测血压、24 h尿蛋白和透射电镜观察肾脏结构确认子痫前期大鼠造模成功,采用RT-PCR、免疫印迹检测大鼠肾脏AKR1C3蛋白及mRNA含量,Elisa方法检测超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、丙二醛(MDA)的浓度.结果 造模前各组大鼠的血压值差异无统计学意义;造模后子痫前期组血压明显高于对照组与治疗组[(143.83±9.62)比(120.83±4.31)及(129.43±14.41) mmHg,均P<0.05].造模前各组大鼠的24 h尿蛋白含量无差异;造模后子痫前期组的24h尿蛋白含量明显高于对照组与治疗组.子痫前期组大鼠肾脏中AKR1 C3蛋白及mRNA表达水平明显低于对照组[(0.48±0.09)比(0.98 ±0.27)、(0.05 ±0.02)比(0.87±0.45),均P<0.05].与子痫前期组相比,治疗组AKR1 C3蛋白及mRNA表达水平升高[(0.48±0.09)比(1.05±0.20)、(0.05±0.02)比(0.22 ±0.06),均P<0.05].与对照组相比子痫前期组SOD、CAT、GSH-Px的浓度明显降低,MDA的浓度升高;与子痫前期组相比,治疗组SOD、CAT、GSH-Px的浓度升高,MDA的浓度降低.结论 AKR1C3在子痫前期大鼠肾脏中表达降低,其作用途径可能与氧化应激有关.格列苯脲对子痫前期的治疗有一定的疗效.%Objective To explore the effects of AKR1 C3 on kidney damage of preeclamptic rats and elucidate the possible therapeutic mechanism of glyburide.Methods The rat model of preeclampsia was established by an intraperitoneal injection of Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME).A total of 40 Wistar rats were