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Sample records for early kamakura japan

  1. Dynamic characteristics of Great Bronze Buddha of Kamakura using microtremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y; Saita, J.; Tachibana, M.; Sato, T.

    2015-01-01

    The second largest bronze Buddha in Japan built in around 1250AD at Kamakura immediately above the focal region of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. Great Buddha of Kamakura has still remained basically its original shape, though it has been suffered several natural disasters as losing its hall. Especially, although the 1703 and 1923 Kanto earthquakes caused settlement and sliding of the basement over 0.3 m., the body has been not suffered serious damage. This statue was casted in order from the bottom with many joints. The joint between the head and the body was noticed because it is reinforced by FRP, Fiber Reinforced Plastic, at the time of the last major repair in 1961. And ingenuity was exercised to fence off the earthquake motion over 400 Gal with sliding the body on the basement, to reduce the load for the neck during earthquake. This is the first example of the earthquake isolation system for cultural properties in Japan. Over 50 years passed after the during earthquake motion, microtremor measurement was conducted. As a result of the primary investigation in 2009, the surrounding ground was estimated that liquefaction was occurred at the front and right sides of the basement and the basement suffered damage as settlement. However, it is considered that the propagation of the earthquake motion for the statue was interrupted because of the liquefaction. Thus, it seems that the damage for the statue itself was prevented because of namely the natural isolation system. Additional y in 2013 microtremor of the statue itself was measured for making clear the connection status between the body and the head.

  2. The Early Overseas Activities of IBM in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    吉沢, 正広; 田中, 雅章; Masahiro, YOSHIZAWA; Masaaki, TANAKA; 愛知学院大学; 鈴鹿短期大学; / SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how IBM entered into prewar Japan and ran its wholly-owned subsidiary thereafter. Before examining something noted above, this paper surveys the process of formation of IBM and then traces its early overseas activities. Turning to the initial contacts between Japan and IBM, at first IBM carried out its mere export trade to Japan through Morimura and then Kurosawa. IBM then established its wholly-owned subsidiary, Japan Watson,in Japan to expand the busi...

  3. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  4. Nationwide epidemiological survey of early chronic pancreatitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Nabeshima, Tatsuhide; Nakano, Eriko; Hirota, Morihisa; Kanno, Atsushi; Kume, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Shin; Ito, Tetsuhide; Fujita, Motokazu; Irisawa, Atsushi; Nakashima, Masanori; Hanada, Keiji; Eguchi, Takaaki; Kato, Ryusuke; Inatomi, Osamu; Shirane, Akio; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-08-01

    The world's first diagnostic criteria for early CP were proposed in 2009 in Japan. This study aimed to clarify the clinico-epidemiological features of early CP in Japan. Patients with early CP who were diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria for early CP and had visited the selected hospitals in 2011 were surveyed. The study consisted of two-stage surveys: the number of patients with early CP was estimated by the first questionnaire and their clinical features were assessed by the second questionnaire. The estimated number of early CP patients was 5410 (95% confidence interval 3675-6945), with an overall prevalence of 4.2 per 100,000 persons. The number of patients who were newly diagnosed with early CP was estimated to be 1330 (95% confidence interval 1058-1602), with an annual incidence of 1.0 per 100,000 persons. Detailed clinical information was obtained in 151 patients in the second survey. The male-to-female sex ratio was 1.32:1. The mean age was 60.4 and the mean age at disease onset was 55.4. Idiopathic (47.7%) and alcoholic (45.0%) were the two most common etiologies. Proportions of female and idiopathic cases were higher in early CP than in definite CP. Hyperechoic foci without shadowing and stranding were the most common findings on endoscopic ultrasonography. The clinical profiles of early CP patients who showed lobularity with honeycombing on endoscopic ultrasonography or previous episodes of acute pancreatitis were similar to those of definite CP patients. We clarified the current status of early CP in Japan.

  5. [The origination of surgery (Kinso treatment) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    From the Nara period through to the end of the Heian and early Kamakura periods, the population of Japan grew by 50% thanks to increases in rice cultivation. Such expanded food production resulted in changes in the social structure providing opportunities to those in control of armed forces to become local feudal lords. Many wars fought in the process necessitated the development of treatment methods for Kinso (wounds caused by swords, spears, and similar weapons), to which Jinsoes (Buddhist monks/doctors that accompanied troops) attended, making extensive use of herbal medicine that had been developed by the people of the time. Many war commanders brought Jinsoes to battle fields, which became a custom during the Sengoku (warring) period. As many of the Jinsoes were well educated, they also served as entertainers to the commanders through their knowledge in Go or Renga (a game involving popular poetical verses). Their talents and training eventually resulted in many of the so called traditional arts including Noh, Kabuki, tea ceremony and earthenware production.

  6. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  7. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  8. Waste reduction and recycling initiatives in Japanese cities: lessons from Yokohama and Kamakura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yasuhiko; Aoki-Suzuki, Chika

    2014-09-01

    Waste reduction and recycling at the city level will acquire greater significance in the near future due to rising global volumes of waste. This paper seeks to identify policy-relevant drivers for successful promotion of waste reduction and recycling. Factors influencing the success of waste reduction and recycling campaigns are identified. Two case study cities in Japan which depict the successful use of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle) at the municipal level are presented. In these cases, the existence of incinerators, which are generally considered as disincentives for recycling, was not functioning as a disincentive but rather as an incentive for waste reduction. Owing to the high cost of incineration facilities, the movement to close incinerators has become a strong incentive for waste reduction and recycling in these two cities. The study suggests that careful consideration is necessary when making decisions concerning high-cost waste treatment facilities with high installation, maintenance and renewal outlays. In addition, intensive source separation and other municipal recycling initiatives have a high potential for producing positive results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  10. Constraining the Samurai: Rebellion and Taxation in Early Modern Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steele, A.; Paik, C.; Tanaka, S.

    On the eve of the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the nearly 300 semi-autonomous domains across Japan had widely varying tax rates. Some handed over 70 percent of their rice yield to the samurai ruler of the domain, while others provided 15 percent. This variation existed in spite of the similar fiscal

  11. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG) [de

  12. Parental Expectation of Early Childhood Education: Comparison between China, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aibao; Ma, Xiaofeng; Hajime, Aoyagi

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates 727 parents from China, Japan, and Korea by a self-devised scale and compares the differences in their expectation of early childhood education in cross-cultural backgrounds. The result shows that parents from the three countries have a positive attitude toward their children's development. The main effect of nations on…

  13. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttner, Kevin; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1987-01-01

    The Japanese nuclear power programme began with reactors imported from the United States. A natural uranium heavy water reactor using domestic materials was started in 1958. Subsequent progress was with light water reactors imported from the United States. Domestic reactor development was of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor. By March 1986 there were 32 commercial power plants in operation which produced approximately 23% of the electricity consumed in Japan. Ten more are under construction and six more are planned. Their location and comparative generating cost are tabulated. Energy demand and targets for nuclear power generation are discussed. The FBR advanced thermal reactor and high temperature reactor programmes are summarized. The Japanese nuclear fuel cycle - uranium prospecting, enrichment, reprocessing, the development of mixed oxide fuels, thermal recycling and radioactive waste management is also discussed. (U.K.)

  14. A new Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal from the Sasayama Group, Hyogo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuhashi, Nao; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Saegusa, Haruo; Horie, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadahiro; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki

    2013-05-22

    We here describe a new Early Cretaceous (early Albian) eutherian mammal, Sasayamamylos kawaii gen. et sp. nov., from the 'Lower Formation' of the Sasayama Group, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Sasayamamylos kawaii is characterized by a robust dentary, a distinct angle on the ventral margin of the dentary at the posterior end of the mandibular symphysis, a lower dental formula of 3-4 : 1 : 4 : 3, a robust lower canine, a non-molariform lower ultimate premolar, and a secondarily reduced entoconid on the molars. To date, S. kawaii is the earliest known eutherian mammal possessing only four premolars, which demonstrates that the reduction in the premolar count in eutherians started in the late Early Cretaceous. The occurrence of S. kawaii implies that the relatively rapid diversification of eutherians in the mid-Cretaceous had already started by the early Albian.

  15. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain

    2017-07-01

    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  16. Assessing Australian Attitudes to Japan in the Early Twentieth Century – A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben McInnes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After living in Japan for almost seventeen years, and being constantly intrigued by the attitudes of the Japanese to Australia, upon my return I was naturally interested to learn about Australian attitudes to Japan. The paucity of news concerning Japan in the press suggested that it was not of major interest to the Australian public, and one tends to presume that, wartime apart, this had always been the case.

  17. Techniques for nothingness: Debate over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen in early-twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores a debate that took place in Japan in the early twentieth century over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen. The debate was among the first exchanges between psychology and Buddhism in Japan, and it cast doubt on previous assumptions that a clear boundary existed between the two fields. In the debate, we find that contemporaries readily incorporated ideas from psychology and Buddhism to reconstruct the experiences and concepts of hypnosis and Buddhist nothingness. The resulting new theories and techniques of nothingness were fruits of a fairly fluid boundary between the two fields. The debate, moreover, reveals that psychology tried to address the challenges and possibilities posed by religious introspective meditation and intuitive experiences in a positive way. In the end, however, psychology no longer regarded them as viable experimental or psychotherapeutic tools but merely as particular subjective experiences to be investigated and explained.

  18. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Yamada,1,2 Ko Matsudaira,3,4 Eizaburo Tanaka,1,5 Hiroyuki Oka,3 Junji Katsuhira,3,6 Hiroyasu Iso1 1Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Center for Pain Management, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, 3Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japan Labour Health & Welfare Organization, Tokyo, 5Hyogo Institute for Traumatic Stress, Kobe, 6Department of Prosthetics & Orthotics and Assistive Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan Background: Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the ­sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods: We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1 chronic pain prevalence, 2 multisite pain (≥3 sites prevalence, and 3 multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results: The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01 in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01 in women. Among women with chronic pain, early

  19. The stars and the state: Astronomy, astrology, and the politics of natural knowledge in early medieval Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Kristina Mairi

    This dissertation examines the social factors involved in the practices of observational astrology (Ch. tianwen, Jp. tenmon ) and calendrical astronomy (Ch. lifa, Jp. rekihō) at the Japanese court. The production and monopolization of astrological and astronomical knowledge had, from the time of the Han Dynasty in China, been part of the state bureaucracy and one of the signs of legitimate rule. In the seventh century, Japan too had imported and implemented these state sciences of the Chinese-style imperium. However, by the twelfth century, while state control of astronomical knowledge continued to operate at a surface level, within the Japanese court bureaucracy dissent and debate reigned. A number of lineages and factions cooperated or competed over astronomical and astrological facts, which resulted in a situation where there was no unified "truth" about the stars accepted by the majority of elite members of the court. The political fragmentation and factionalism that characterized the early medieval Japanese state was also to be found in knowledge about the natural world circulating at court. The major reason for this fragmentation of knowledge was the diversity of the population that produced this same knowledge, a population that did not share either a common identity or definition of practice. Astrological and astronomical knowledge was no longer produced solely by the technical bureaucrats whose offices had been established in the eighth-century Chinese-style law codes (Jp. ritsuryō)—instead, these officials contested with other legitimate but non-official purveyors of natural knowledge: Buddhist monks and court scholars and mathematicians prominent among them. Furthermore, the statements of fact produced by all three of these factions were subject to critique and revision by members of the top echelon of the court bureaucracy, the elite nobility. Clearly there were no independent professional fields of astrology or astronomy in late classical or early

  20. Transition Systems and Non-Standard Employment in Early Career: Comparing Japan and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdorf, Christian; Helbling, Laura Alexandra; Inui, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Even though Japan and Switzerland are characterised by comparatively low youth unemployment rates, non-standard forms of employment are on the rise, posing a risk to the stable integration of young labour market entrants. Drawing on the French approach of societal analysis, this paper investigates how country-specific school-to-work transition…

  1. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  2. Early-onset group B streptococcal disease following culture-based screening in Japan: a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Akane; Takahashi, Hironori; Kubo, Takahiko; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Tsukamoto, Keiko; Ito, Yushi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2012-08-01

    We investigated trends in early-onset group B streptococcal disease (EOD) after the introduction of culture-based screening in Japan. A retrospective cohort study examined EOD trends in 9506 pregnancies and 10 715 neonates at our center from 2002 to 2009. EOD occurred in four neonates (4/7332: 0.55/1000 live births). The EOD incidence among infants born to women positive for GBS by screening was 0.90 cases per 1000 live births (1/1107). In contrast, the EOD incidence among infants negative by GBS screening was 0.48 cases per 1000 live births (3/6225). Thus, of the four affected neonates, three had mothers who tested negative on antepartum GBS screening. Two neonates had symptoms of infection during labor and intrapartum antibiotic agents were administered. The other two neonates received no antibiotics because deliveries were uneventful and they were negative on GBS screening. The incidence of EOD is 0.90 cases per 1000 live births among GBS-positive women and 0.48 cases per 1000 live births among GBS-negative women. The results of our study implied that EOD can develop regardless of GBS screening and intrapartum clinical course, although the method of sample collection, indications for antibiotic prophylaxis, and the antibiotics regimen should be considered. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Conceptual developments of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics in the early days of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Masakazu

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the research in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics made in Japan in the period between 1930 and 1960. Nearly thirty years have passed since the discovery of the exact formula for the electrical conductivity. With the rise of the linear response theory, the methods and results of which are quickly grasped by anyone, its rationale was pushed aside and even at the stage where the formulation was still incomplete some authors hurried to make physical applications. Such an attitude robbed it of most of its interest for the average physicist, who would approach an understanding of some basic concept, not through abstract and logical analysis but by simply increasing his technical experiences with the concept. The purpose of this review is to rescue the linear response theory from being labeled a mathematical tool and to show that it has considerable physical content. Many key papers, originally written in Japanese, are reproduced.

  4. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  5. Leadership Tasks in Early Childhood Education in Finland, Japan, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujala, Eeva; Eskelinen, Mervi; Keskinen, Soili; Chen, Christine; Inoue, Chika; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawase, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Leadership research in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a relatively new undertaking. It combines leadership concepts from school research as well as from business. There are common aspects in the leadership profession, but the context and the mission define the content of leadership tasks and responsibilities. Data in this…

  6. Infant Motor Delay and Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Yuhei; Kotani, Haruko; Yasumitsu-Lovell, Kahoko; Suzuki, Keita; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of early motor development have been reported in autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual developmental disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and other Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations (ESSENCE). However, few studies have been conducted with a view to following up a clinically representative cohort of children coming for assessment of motor delay before age two years. We performed a prospective clinical cohort study to examine whether or not early motor delay is often an indication of ESSENCE. The sample comprised a one-year cohort of all children who came to a Japanese neurodevelopmental center before their second birthday because of delayed or abnormal gross motor development. The children were followed up from the ESSENCE viewpoint. Of the 30 children, 28 (18 boys and 10 girls) (93%) were given diagnoses subsumed under the ESSENCE umbrella. Of the 15 children with an identified or strongly suspected etiology, 13 (8 boys and 5 girls) (87%) had ESSENCE disorders or symptoms. Of the 15 children without a known etiology, all had ESSENCE disorders or symptoms. This study indicated that the vast majority of children with motor delay or abnormality in the first two years of life meet criteria for a disorder within the group of ESSENCE at follow-up; this means that young children, presenting with motor problems always need a broad clinical assessment, not just related to motor function, and systematic follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical predictors of in-hospital death and early surgery for infective endocarditis: results of CArdiac Disease REgistration (CADRE), a nation-wide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Takahiro; Nakatani, Satoshi; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Haruko; Mitsutake, Kotaro; Hanai, Sotaro

    2013-09-10

    The benefit of early surgery for IE is yet to be determined in non-Western countries. We conducted this study to evaluate the role of early surgery in infective endocarditis (IE) in Japan. IE admissions in Japan were prospectively registered using a nation-wide WEB-based registration system (CArdiac Disease REgistration, CADRE). The impact of early surgery on in-hospital mortality was assessed in native valve endocarditis (NVE) and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). Risk factors for in-hospital death were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. The propensity score for early surgery was calculated to adjust the impact of early surgery. From September 2006 to May 2009, 348 NVE and 81 PVE were registered. In NVE, early surgery was preferable in every quartile stratified with the propensity score and the summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.12 (0.05-0.31). The predictors of in-hospital death were Staphylococcus aureus infection (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.26-9.7), heart failure (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.43-18.7) and early surgery (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.03-0.2). In PVE, the predictors of in-hospital death were age (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.18), S. aureus infection (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.4-24.01) and heart failure (OR 7.44, 95% CI 1.81-30.67), whereas early surgery was not (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.12-2.16). Early surgery for NVE is associated with improved survival in a wide range of clinical subgroups in Japan. In PVE a survival benefit of early surgery is not clear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in Japan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing concern that maternal employment could have adverse or beneficial effects on children's health. Although recent studies demonstrated that maternal employment was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight, the evidence remains sparse in Asian countries. We sought to examine the relationship between maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in a rural town in Okayama Prefecture. In February 2008, questionnaires were sent to parents of all preschool children aged ≥3 yr in the town to assess maternal working status (working hours and form of employment), children's body mass index, and potential confounders. Childhood overweight was defined following the age and sex-specific criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for childhood overweight were estimated in a logistic regression. We used generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation matrix, considering the correlation between siblings. We analyzed 364 preschool children. Adjusting for each child's characteristics (age, sex), mother's characteristics (age, obesity, educational attainment, smoking status, and social participation), and family's characteristics (number of siblings), children whose mothers work working mothers, whereas the relationship was less pronounced among children whose mothers work ≥8 h/day (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.19, 2.68). We observed similar patterns in a stratified analysis by the form of maternal employment. Short maternal working hours are associated with a lower odds of early childhood overweight.

  9. Orbital time scale records of Asian eolian dust from the Sea of Japan since the early Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfang; De Vleeschouwer, David; Shen, Ji; Zhang, Zeke; Zeng, Lin

    2018-05-01

    A high-resolution potassium content record of sediments from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1422 drilled in the northern Sea of Japan was employed to yield an astronomical timescale for this ∼205 m thick sedimentary archive. The K content was quantified using the natural gamma radiation (NGR) data routinely measured on DV JOIDES Resolution. The U1422 K (wt.%) series shows an increasing trend with time, which parallels the growth of North Hemisphere ice sheets since ∼4 Ma, as revealed by the global benthic foraminifer's oxygen isotope stack (LR04). We propose that K content variations reflect changes in the relative contributions of Asian eolian dust and volcanic weathering products, in response to changes in global ice volume. Using the shipboard age model, constrained by palaeomagnetism and nanofossils datums, we tuned the U1422 K content variations to the LR04 stack. Our tuned age model for site U1422 goes back to 3.9 Ma. The studied record indicates that Asian dust generation is enhanced during periods of global cooling. The synchronous variations between the U1422 K record and the LR04 stack also suggest that global cooling played a dominant role in promoting the central Asian aridification since ∼3.9 Ma, while the uplift of Tibetan Plateau plays a secondary role, considering many disagreements still exists between the timing and amplitude of the Qinghai-Tibetan uplift and the evolution of central Asian aridity since the early Pliocene.

  10. The efficacy of support vector machines (SVM) in robust determination of earthquake early warning magnitudes in central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ramakrushna; Nair, Rajesh R.

    2013-10-01

    This work deals with a methodology applied to seismic early warning systems which are designed to provide real-time estimation of the magnitude of an event. We will reappraise the work of Simons et al. (2006), who on the basis of wavelet approach predicted a magnitude error of ±1. We will verify and improve upon the methodology of Simons et al. (2006) by applying an SVM statistical learning machine on the time-scale wavelet decomposition methods. We used the data of 108 events in central Japan with magnitude ranging from 3 to 7.4 recorded at KiK-net network stations, for a source-receiver distance of up to 150 km during the period 1998-2011. We applied a wavelet transform on the seismogram data and calculating scale-dependent threshold wavelet coefficients. These coefficients were then classified into low magnitude and high magnitude events by constructing a maximum margin hyperplane between the two classes, which forms the essence of SVMs. Further, the classified events from both the classes were picked up and linear regressions were plotted to determine the relationship between wavelet coefficient magnitude and earthquake magnitude, which in turn helped us to estimate the earthquake magnitude of an event given its threshold wavelet coefficient. At wavelet scale number 7, we predicted the earthquake magnitude of an event within 2.7 seconds. This means that a magnitude determination is available within 2.7 s after the initial onset of the P-wave. These results shed light on the application of SVM as a way to choose the optimal regression function to estimate the magnitude from a few seconds of an incoming seismogram. This would improve the approaches from Simons et al. (2006) which use an average of the two regression functions to estimate the magnitude.

  11. [Historical research of cinchona cultivation in Japan (Part 2). Useful tropical plants introduced from Java and India in the early Meiji era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagumo, Seiji; Sasaki, Yohei; Takido, Michio

    2010-01-01

    In the early Meiji era, Takeaki Enomoto made a proposal to the government that cinchona and coffee seedlings be introduced to Japan. In response, the Meiji government dispatched Masatsugu Takeda of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to Java and India from March to August 1878 for the purpose of investigating useful plants of tropical origin and introducing them to Japan. This paper clarifies the route to those destinations and the plants obtained locally. Using the seeds obtained from India during his travels, the cultivation of cinchona was attempted in 1882 for the first time in Japan. In Ogasawara, coffee cultivation was conducted, again for the first time in Japan, using coffee seeds brought back from Java. The cultivation of coffee was successful and served as the foundation of the Ogasawara coffee that exists to this day. Takeda also introduced a number of books and materials related to useful tropical plants available as a result of his travels, which contributed to the promotion of new industries and businesses in the Meiji era.

  12. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  13. Transitional changes in microfossil assemblages in the Japan Sea from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene related to global climatic and local tectonic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaki, Takuya

    2016-12-01

    Many micropaleontological studies based on data from on-land sections, oil wells, and deep-sea drilling cores have provided important information about environmental changes in the Japan Sea that are related to the global climate and the local tectonics of the Japanese Islands. Here, major changes in the microfossil assemblages during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene are reviewed. Late Pliocene (3.5-2.7 Ma) surface-water assemblages were characterized mainly by cold-temperate planktonic flora and fauna (nannofossils, diatoms, radiolarians, and planktonic foraminifera), suggesting that nutrient-rich North Pacific surface waters entered the Japan Sea via northern straits. The common occurrence of Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians during this period also suggests that deep water from the North Pacific entered the Japan Sea via the northern straits, indicating a sill depth >500 m. A weak warm-water influence is recognized along the Japanese coast, suggesting a small inflow of warm water via a southern strait. Nannofossil and sublittoral ostracod assemblages record an abrupt cooling event at 2.75 Ma that correlates with the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Subsequently, cold intermediate- and deep-water assemblages of ostracods and radiolarians increased in abundance, suggesting active ventilation and the formation of the Japan Sea Proper Water, associated with a strengthened winter monsoon. Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians also disappeared around 2.75 Ma, which is attributed to the intermittent occurrence of deep anoxic environments and limited migration from the North Pacific, resulting from the near-closure or shallowing of the northern strait by a eustatic fall in sea level and tectonic uplift of northeastern Japan. A notable reduction in primary productivity from 2.3 to 1.3 Ma also suggests that the nutrient supply from the North Pacific was restricted by the near-closure of the northern strait. An increase in the abundance of subtropical

  14. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  15. The Relation Between the View on the Language and Educational Ideology in the Early Meiji Period in Japan Through the Discourse of Regionalism

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    Yufuko ICHIMIYA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Japanese language situation in early Meiji period will be analysed from the viewpoint of the provinces. In concrete terms, the origin of the idea that "an opaque language yields an unlcear ideology" – we can often find such a discourse through Meiji, Taisho and early Showa period – will be searched for by using primary sources in northern Kyushu, the southern part of Japan. This kind of idea can be seen in the writings of teachers and professors. Consequently, educational theories and teaching methods which had spread over the country in that period will be clues to analyse this subject. Moreover, I will try to compare the concept of "opaque language" in the Taisho period, during which dialects were considered as the representative example of such a language, with what was considered "opaque language" in the early Meiji period, when the definition of dialect and the concrete form of the standard language were still vague.

  16. Biomass Accumulation and Net Primary Production during the Early Stage of Secondary Succession after a Severe Forest Disturbance in Northern Japan

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    Tomotsugu Yazaki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of biomass accumulation after disturbances in forests are crucially important for elucidating and predicting forest carbon dynamics in order to understand the carbon sink/source activities. During early secondary succession, understory vegetation often affects sapling growth. However, reports on biomass recovery in naturally-regenerating sites are limited in Japan. Therefore, we traced annual or biennial changes in plant species, biomass, and net primary production (NPP in a naturally regenerating site in Japan after windthrow and salvage-logging plantation for nine years. The catastrophic disturbance depleted the aboveground biomass (AGB from 90.6 to 2.7 Mg·ha−1, changing understory dominant species from Dryopteris spp. to Rubus idaeus. The mean understory AGB recovered to 4.7 Mg·ha−1 in seven years with the dominant species changing to invasive Solidago gigantea. Subsequently, patches of deciduous trees (mainly Betula spp. recovered whereas the understory AGB decreased. Mean understory NPP increased to 272 g·C·m−2·year−1 within seven years after the disturbance, but decreased thereafter to 189 g·C·m−2·year−1. Total NPP stagnated despite increasing overstory NPP. The biomass accumulation is similar to that of naturally regenerating sites without increase of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Dense ground vegetation and low water and nutrient availability of the soil in the study site restrict the recovery of canopy-forming trees and eventually influence the biomass accumulation.

  17. Divorce in early modern rural Japan: household and individual life course in northeastern villages, 1716-1870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Satomi

    2011-01-01

    Drawing data from the local population registers in two northeastern agricultural villages, this study examines the patterns and factors associated with divorce in preindustrial Japan. Divorce was easy and common during this period. More than two thirds of first marriages dissolved in divorce before individuals reached age fifty. Discrete-time event history analysis is applied to demonstrate how economic condition and household context influenced the likelihood of divorce for females. Risk of divorce was extremely high in the first three years and among uxorilocal marriages. Propensity of divorce increased upon economic stress in the community and among households of lower social status. Presence of parents, siblings, and children had strong bearings on marriage to continue.

  18. Emerging inequality in effort: A longitudinal investigation of parental involvement and early elementary school-aged children's learning time in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Inui, Tomohiko

    2015-11-01

    While studies on effort (e.g., Carbonaro, 2005; Kariya, 2000, 2013) have revealed relationships among students' effort (e.g., self-reported learning time), socioeconomic status, and school-related factors (e.g., tracking) through secondary education data, whether and how the effort gap emerges and widens in the early years of compulsory education have not been researched. This study investigates the beginning of inequality in effort by using four waves (from first- to fourth-grade students) of the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, collected in Japan. The results indicate that college-educated parents tend to employ parenting practices that directly and indirectly shape children's learning time; inequality in effort exists, and it becomes exacerbated partly because of parenting differences in a society with a relatively equal elementary education system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of…

  20. Accounting for the Early Labour Market Destinations of 19/20-Year-Olds in England and Wales and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Andy; Inui, Akio; Nishimura, Takayuki; Kojima, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    In most advanced countries, young people are now expected to remain in education until the age of 18 and, in a context of poor opportunities for those who leave at an early stage, there are concerns about those who are being left behind. In this paper we use comparable survey data to focus on the destinations of young people in two contrasting…

  1. Macrosomic Neonates Carry Increased Risk of Dental Caries in Early Childhood: Findings from a Cohort Study, the Okinawa Child Health Study, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    Full Text Available Although many studies have discussed health risks in neonates with a low birth weight, few studies have focused on the risks in neonates with a high birth weight. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the incidence of dental caries in early childhood are associated with birth weight status.A total of 117,175 children born in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan from 1997 to 2007 were included in this study. Medical professionals collected information about birth records, growth and development, parental child-rearing practices and dental health at 3 months, 18 months and 3 years of age. The risk of dental caries among neonates with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g was compared with that among neonates with normal weight (2500-3999 g. Sensitivity analyses included 'large for gestational age' (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, which was relative to 'appropriate for gestational age' (birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles. Relative risks and relative risk increases were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression.At 3 years of age, the relative risk increases for dental caries after adjusting for confounding factors were 19% [95% confidence interval (CI, 11%-28%, P < 0.001] for macrosomic neonates and 12% (95% CI, 9%-16%, P < 0.001 for LGA neonates.Macrosomia and LGA were associated with an increased risk of dental caries in early childhood. Particular attention should be paid to abnormally large neonates.

  2. Analysis of early bacterial communities on volcanic deposits on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan: a 6-year study at a fixed site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial colonization on new terrestrial substrates represents the initiation of new soil ecosystem formation. In this study, we analyzed early bacterial communities growing on volcanic ash deposits derived from the 2000 Mount Oyama eruption on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. A site was established in an unvegetated area near the summit and investigated over a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Collected samples were acidic (pH 3.0-3.6), did not utilize any organic substrates in ECO microplate assays (Biolog), and harbored around 106 cells (g dry weight)(-1) of autotrophic Fe(II) oxidizers by most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and the Leptospirillum groups I, II and III were found to be abundant in the deposits by clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The numerical dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also supported by analysis of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Comparing the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from samples differing in age, shifts in Fe(II)-oxidizing populations seemed to occur with deposit aging. The detection of known 16S rRNA gene sequences from Fe(III)-reducing acidophiles promoted us to propose the acidity-driven iron cycle for the early microbial ecosystem on the deposit.

  3. Records of auroral candidates and sunspots in Rikkokushi, chronicles of ancient Japan from early 7th century to 887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Isobe, Hiroaki; Namiki, Katsuko; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of the surveys on sunspots and auroral candidates in Rikkokushi, Japanese official histories from the early 7th century to 887, to review the solar and auroral activities. In total, we found one sunspot record and 13 auroral candidates in Rikkokushi. We then examine the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates, compare the auroral candidates with the lunar phase to estimate their reliability, and compare the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates with the contemporary total solar irradiance reconstructed from radioisotope data. We also identify the locations of the observational sites to review possible equatorward expansion of the auroral oval. These discussions suggest a major gap in auroral candidates from the late 7th to early 9th centuries, which includes the candidate of the grand minimum reconstructed from the radioisotope data, a similar tendency as the distributions of sunspot records in contemporary China, and a relatively high magnetic latitude of observational sites with a higher potential for observing aurorae more frequently than at present.

  4. Effect of water temperature on survival of early-life stages of marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kodama, Keita; Oyama, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2017-07-01

    We investigated factors that might have disturbed the stock recovery of marbled flounder in Tokyo Bay by focusing on the early life stages. Field surveys in Tokyo Bay from 2006 to 2011 revealed that mature adult biomass increased from 2006 to 2008 and decreased thereafter. Meanwhile, larval and juvenile densities were high in 2006 and 2008 but low in other years. Discrepancies in the yearly trends of these parameters suggest that mortality during life stages between spawning and early larval phases might have affected the abundance of the subsequent life stages. Monthly mean water temperature between January and February, in which hatching and pelagic larvae occur in the bay, was lower in 2006 (8.6 °C) and 2008 (9.6 °C) than was observed in other years (10.4-11.4 °C). Significant negative correlation between water temperature and larval density implies that mortality during pre- and post-larval stages would be higher in warmer winter years (>10 °C). To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of water temperature on mortality and development in egg and larval stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Hatching rate was high in a water temperature range of 9.2-12.7 °C (66.6-82.5%), whereas it decreased in cooler (3.7% at 5.9 °C) or warmer (33.9% at 14.8 °C) conditions. Meanwhile, days from fertilization to hatching, size of larvae at hatching and survival rate of larvae after 18 d from hatching were monotonically and significantly decreased as water temperature was elevated. Combined evidence of the field and laboratory studies suggests that a warmer reproductive season (>10 °C) might induce mortalities of marbled flounder larvae in Tokyo Bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extreme air pollution events in Hokkaido, Japan, traced back to early snowmelt and large-scale wildfires over East Eurasia: Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J; Kim, Kyu-Myong; da Silva, Arlindo M; Hayasaki, Masamitsu; Akiyama, Masayuki; Murao, Naoto

    2018-04-25

    To identify the unusual climate conditions and their connections to air pollutions in a remote area due to wildfires, we examine three anomalous large-scale wildfires in May 2003, April 2008, and July 2014 over East Eurasia, as well as how products of those wildfires reached an urban city, Sapporo, in the northern part of Japan (Hokkaido), significantly affecting the air quality. NASA's MERRA-2 (the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2) aerosol re-analysis data closely reproduced the PM 2.5 variations in Sapporo for the case of smoke arrival in July 2014. Results show that all three cases featured unusually early snowmelt in East Eurasia, accompanied by warmer and drier surface conditions in the months leading to the fires, inducing long-lasting soil dryness and producing climate and environmental conditions conducive to active wildfires. Due to prevailing anomalous synoptic-scale atmospheric motions, smoke from those fires eventually reached a remote area, Hokkaido, and worsened the air quality in Sapporo. In future studies, continuous monitoring of the timing of Eurasian snowmelt and the air quality from the source regions to remote regions, coupled with the analysis of atmospheric and surface conditions, may be essential in more accurately predicting the effects of wildfires on air quality.

  6. The Effect of Aromatherapy Treatment on Fatigue and Relaxation for Mothers during the Early Puerperal Period in Japan: A Pilot Study

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    Kyoko Asazawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early in the postpartum period, mothers are often nervous and tired from the delivery, breast-feeding and caring for a new-born. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process and outcome of using aromatherapy treatments to increase relaxation and decrease fatigue for mothers during the first to the seventh day of the postpartum period. Methods: This non-randomized controlled study with a quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate scores in relaxation and fatigue before and after the intervention. Aromatherapy hand treatments were performed on a purposive sample of 34 postpartum mothers in Tokyo, Japan, from May to July 2016. The single treatment included a choice of one of five essential aroma oils through hand and forearm massage. Relaxation and fatigue were measured by self-administered valid and reliable questionnaires. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to analyze the data before and after the intervention. The software programs SPSS, v. 23.0 (SPSS, Tokyo, was used to analyze the data, with the significance level set at 5%. Results: Valid responses were obtained from 29 participants. A comparison of the scores before and after aroma treatment intervention indicated that the participants’ relaxation scores increased significantly (P<0.001 and fatigue scores were significantly reduced (P<0.001. The majority of participants (77.8% were satisfied with the treatment. Conclusion: The aroma treatments significantly improved relaxation and reduced fatigue for mothers in the early puerperal period and were well received. Therefore, a larger study using a pretest-posttest random control trial is recommended.

  7. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  8. Petrogenesis of an Early Cretaceous lamprophyre dike from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan: Implications for the generation of high-Nb basalt magmas in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Mariko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Kamei, Atsushi; Yagi, Koshi; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Kiji, Michio

    2017-10-01

    We studied a 107 Ma vogesite (a kind of lamprophyre with alkali-feldspar > plagioclase, and hornblende ± clinopyroxene ± biotite) dike in the Kinki district of the Tamba Belt, Kyoto Prefecture, SW Japan, using petrography, mineralogy, K-Ar ages, and geochemistry to evaluate its petrogenesis and tectonic implications. The dike has the very specific geochemical characteristics of a primitive high-Mg basalt, with 48-50 wt.% SiO2 (anhydrous basis), high values of Mg# (67.3-72.4), and high Cr ( 431 ppm), Ni ( 371 ppm), and Co ( 52 ppm) contents. The vogesite is alkaline and ne-normative with high concentrations of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Sr = 1270-2200 ppm, Ba = 3910-26,900 ppm), light rare earth elements (LREEs) [(La/Yb)n = 58-62), and high field strength elements (HFSEs: TiO2 = 1.5-1.8 wt.%, Nb = 24-33 ppm, Zr = 171-251 ppm), and the vogesite can be classified as a high-Nb basalt (HNB). The vogesite was formed by the lowest degree of melting of metasomatized mantle in the garnet stability field, and it may also have been formed at higher melting pressures than other Kyoto lamprophyres. The low degree of melting is the primary reason for the high-Nb content of the vogesite, not mantle metasomatism, and a higher degree of melting would have changed the primary magma composition from a HNB to a Nb-enriched basalt (NEB). The vogesite magma was contaminated at an early stage of its development by melts derived from sediments drawn down a subduction zone, as indicated by some geochemical indices and the initial Nd isotope ratios. The vogesite exhibits positive correlations between εSr(107 Ma) values (5.4-50.9) and its high Ba and Sr concentrations, and it has a limited range of εNd(107 Ma) values (+ 0.97 to + 2.4). The fact that the vogesite contains centimeter-sized xenoliths of chert, which are composed of polycrystalline quartz, calcite, barite, pyrite, and magnetite, indicates that the barium contamination took place during the ascent of the

  9. Assessment of border control measures and community containment measures used in Japan during the early stages of Pandemic (H1N1 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sakaguchi

    Full Text Available In the early stages of Pandemic (H1N1 2009, border control measures were taken by quarantine stations to block the entry of infected individuals into Japan and community containment measures were implemented to prevent the spreading. The objectives of this study were to describe these measures and the characteristics of infected individuals, and to assess the measures' effectiveness.Border control and community containment measures implemented from April to June (Period I: April 28-May 21, Period II: May 22-June 18 2009 were described. Number of individuals identified and disease characteristics were analyzed. For entry screening, a health declaration form and an infrared thermoscanner were used to detect symptomatic passengers. Passengers indicated for the rapid influenza test underwent the test followed by RT-PCR. Patients positive for H1N1 were isolated, and close contacts were quarantined. Entry cards were handed out to all asymptomatic passengers informing them about how to contact a health center in case they developed symptoms. Nine individuals were identified by entry screening and 1 during quarantine to have Pandemic (H1N1 2009. Health monitoring by health centers was performed in period I for passengers arriving from affected countries and in period II for those who had come into contact with the individuals identified by entry screening. Health monitoring identified 3 infected individuals among 129,546 in Period I and 5 among 746 in Period II. Enhanced surveillance, which included mandatory reporting of details of the infected individuals, identified 812 individuals, 141 (18% of whom had a history of international travel. Twenty-four of these 141 passengers picked up by enhanced surveillance had been developing symptoms on entry and were missed at screening.Symptomatic passengers were detected by the various entry screening measures put in place. Enhanced surveillance provided data for the improvement of public health measures in

  10. Location of early aftershocks of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake (M = 6.8) in central Japan using seismogram envelopes as templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuga, M.

    2013-12-01

    The location of early aftershocks is very important to obtain information of mainshock fault, however, it is often difficult due to the long-lasting coda wave of mainshock and successive occurrence of afterrshocks. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a method of location using seismogram envelopes as templates, and applied the method to the early aftershock sequence of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture (Chuetsu) Earthquake (M = 6.8) in central Japan. The location method composes of three processes. The first process is the calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between a continuous (target) and template envelopes. We prepare envelopes by taking the logarithm of root-mean-squared amplitude of band-pass filtered seismograms. We perform the calculation by shifting the time window to obtain a set of cross-correlation values for each template. The second process is the event detection (selection of template) and magnitude estimate. We search for the events in descending order of cross-correlation in a time window excluding the dead times around the previously detected events. Magnitude is calculated by the amplitude ratio of target and template envelopes. The third process is the relative event location to the selected template. We applied this method to the Chuetsu earthquake, a large inland earthquake with extensive aftershock activity. The number of detected events depends on the number of templates, frequency range, and the threshold value of cross-correlation. We set the threshold as 0.5 by referring to the histogram of cross-correlation. During a period of one-hour from the mainshock, we could detect more events than the JMA catalog. The location of events is generally near the catalog location. Though we should improve the methods of relative location and magnitude estimate, we conclude that the proposed method works adequately even just after the mainshock of large inland earthquake. Acknowledgement: We thank JMA, NIED, and the University of Tokyo for

  11. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  12. Systemic corticosteroids and early administration of antiviral agents for pneumonia with acute wheezing due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Kudo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia patients with wheezing due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 were frequently treated with systemic corticosteroids in Japan although systemic corticosteroid for critically ill patients with pneumonia caused by influenza A(H1N1pdm09 has been controversial. Applicability of systemic corticosteroid treatment needs to be evaluated. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively reviewed 89 subjects who were diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 and admitted to a national hospital, Tokyo during the pandemic period. The median age of subjects (45 males was 8 years (range, 0-71. All subjects were treated with antiviral agents and the median time from symptom onset to initiation of antiviral agents was 2 days (range, 0-7. Subjects were classified into four groups: upper respiratory tract infection, wheezing illness, pneumonia with wheezing, and pneumonia without wheezing. The characteristics of each group was evaluated. A history of asthma was found more frequently in the wheezing illness (55.6% and pneumonia with wheezing (43.3% groups than in the other two groups (p = 0.017. Corticosteroid treatment was assessed among subjects with pneumonia. Oxygen saturation was lower in subjects receiving corticosteroids (steroid group than in subjects not receiving corticosteroids (no-steroid group (p<0.001. The steroid group required greater oxygen supply than the no-steroid group (p<0.001. No significant difference was found by the Kaplan-Meier method between the steroid and the no-steroid groups in hours to fever alleviation from the initiation of antiviral agents and hospitalization days. In logistic regression analysis, wheezing, pneumonia and oxygen saturation were independent factors associated with using systemic corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: Patients with wheezing and a history of asthma were frequently found in the study subjects. Systemic corticosteroids together with early administration of antiviral agents to pneumonia with wheezing and

  13. Early Detection and Treatment of Neuroblastic Tumor with Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Improve Neurological Outcome: A Review of Five Cases at a Single Institution in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takama, Yuichi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Nakaoka, Tatsuo; Higashio, Atsushi; Santo, Kenji; Kuki, Ichiro; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Hara, Junichi

    2016-02-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a paraneoplastic neurological disorder associated with neuroblastic tumor (NT) in childhood. Half of patients have neurological sequelae after the neurological and oncological treatment. We reviewed the neurological and oncological outcomes of NT with OMS, and discussed whether the treatment of NT would contribute to improving the neurological prognosis. We retrospectively assessed NT patients with OMS from January 2001 to December 2013 at a single institution in Japan. Demographic data, neurological and oncological status, histopathology, treatments, prognosis, and diagnosis and treatment timing were retrospectively reviewed from the records. The timings assessed were the interval between OMS onset and NT detection, initial NT therapy, and initial OMS therapy, the interval between NT therapy and OMS remission, and duration of OMS. A total of 73 patients with NT were treated during the study period, and 5 of 73 patients were diagnosed as having NT with OMS. The median age at onset of OMS was 22 months (range, 18-30 months). The median age at detection of NT was 29 months (range, 21-33 months). Three of five cases showed no uptake on meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. The tumor histopathology was neuroblastoma in two patients, ganglioneuroblastoma in two patients, and ganglioneuroma in one patient. Primary resection was performed in three cases. All patients survived. Two of five cases presented with atypical neurological symptoms without opsoclonus. The initial neurological therapy was started within a mean of 20 days (range, 3-76 days) from the onset of OMS in all cases. Four patients received intravenous immunoglobulin, and one with persistent neurological problems received rituximab. Neurological symptoms resolved in three cases. The mean interval between the onset of OMS and the detection of NT in case without neurological sequelae was 57 days (range, 25-113 days), while in case with neurological sequelae it was 365

  14. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  15. In vitro fertilization in JapanEarly days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology —

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUZUKI, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world’s first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe.1) In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine.2,3) IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient’s uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  16. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  17. Proto-Industrialization in Tokugawa Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the process of early capitalism in Japanese history. Generally it is thought that capitalism developed in the years leading to the Meiji Restoration. Like European models of early capitalist development in handicraft and cottage industries, Japan went through a similar process. Development of rural trade and small-scale capitalism sowed the seeds that broke feudal bonds and resulted in the mass factory system that made modern capitalist Japan.

  18. Folk og røvere i Kamakura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the networks of the so-called akuto are analyzed and it is argued that they rarely constituted marginalized groups but often were integrated parts of local village associations and wider social networks.......In this article, the networks of the so-called akuto are analyzed and it is argued that they rarely constituted marginalized groups but often were integrated parts of local village associations and wider social networks....

  19. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  20. Exposure to air pollutants during the early weeks of pregnancy, and placenta praevia and placenta accreta in the western part of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikawa, Takehiro; Morokuma, Seiichi; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Placenta praevia is an obstetric complication involving placental implantation in the lower uterine segment. Given the suggested aetiology of placenta praevia, adverse biological effects of air pollutants, such as plasma viscosity increment, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic inflammation, have the potential to induce low implantation. We explored the association between exposure to air pollutants during the pregnancy period up to implantation, and placenta praevia, in pregnant Japanese women. The outcome also included placenta accreta, which often exists in combination with placenta praevia. From the Japan Perinatal Registry Network database, we obtained data on 40,573 singleton pregnant women in western Japan (Kyushu-Okinawa Districts) between 2005 and 2010. We assigned pollutant concentrations (suspended particulate matter [SPM], ozone, nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and sulphur dioxide [SO2]), measured at the nearest monitoring station to the respective delivery hospital of each woman. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for several covariates. The odds ratios (ORs) of placenta praevia per 10 units increase were 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.23) for SPM over 0-4weeks of gestation, and 1.08 (1.00-1.16) for ozone. The association between exposure to NO2 and SO2, and praevia, was in the direction of increased risk. SPM exposure during 0-4weeks was associated with placenta accreta without praevia (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.07-1.66). We found no association with exposure to air pollutants during 5-12weeks and the second trimester. Exposure to air pollutants through to implantation was positively associated with placenta praevia and accreta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The graying of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L G

    1989-07-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women.

  2. Awareness of early warning signs and help-seeking behaviours among patients with schizophrenia who utilize social rehabilitation facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichi, R; Miyamoto, Y; Akiyama, M; Takamura, S

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between early warning signs (EWS) and early help-seeking behaviours (HSB) and to identify the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia who sought early help. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2004 using a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were recruited from social rehabilitation facilities for the mentally ill; 224 subjects participated, 170 of whom had schizophrenia. The survey included questions about demographic characteristics, self-care behaviours (HSB, recognition of EWS and others) and current service utilization and satisfaction. Fisher's exact test and Student's t-test were used to compare the characteristics of study participants. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between recognition of EWS and early HSB.We found that 96 (56.5%) of 170 patients with schizophrenia reported at least one occasion of early HSB during their deterioration. Early HSB were related to the following factors: recognition of EWS, consultation with non-professional and professional support persons during deterioration, consulting with public mental health workers and living with family. Care and support should be offered to patients with schizophrenia to enable them to recognize their own mental deterioration.

  3. The impact of industry environment on early market entry decisions by B2B managers in the U.S. and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calantone, R.J.; Benedetto, Di A.C.; Song, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Managers form simplified mental models to cope with market environment uncertainties and to process information. A critical decision is whether to enter a high-potential market early. Large innovation and development investments involved in this decision increase uncertainty. We examine the

  4. Childbirth in aristocratic households of Heian Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on childbirth in Japan's aristocratic households during the Heian period (794-1185). Drawing on various sources, including court diaries, visual sources, literary records, and Japan's first medical collection, with its assortment of gynaecological and obstetric prescriptions, as well as Buddhist and other ritual texts, this short excursion into the cultural history of childbirth offers an insight into how childbirth was experienced and managed in Heian Japan. In particular, it addresses the variety of ideas, knowledge systems and professionals involved in framing and supporting the process of childbirth in elite households. In so doing, it casts light on the complex background of early Japanese medicine and healthcare for women.

  5. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now re...

  6. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  7. Leu72Met408 Polymorphism of the Ghrelin Gene Is Associated With Early Phase of Gastric Emptying in the Patients With Functional Dyspepsia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Futagami, Seiji; Shimpuku, Mayumi; Shindo, Tomotaka; Maruki, Yuuta; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Sato, Hitomi; Gudis, Katya; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2015-01-01

    There are no available data about the relationship between ghrelin gene genotypes and early phase of gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia (FD) as defined by Rome III classification. We enrolled 74 patients presenting with typical symptoms of FD and 64 healthy volunteers. Gastric motility was evaluated using the 13C-acetate breath test. We used Rome III criteria to evaluate upper abdominal symptoms and self-rating questionnaires for depression (SRQ-D) scores to determine status of depression. The Arg51Gln (346G->A), preproghrelin (3056T->C), Leu72Met (408C->A), Gln90Leu (3412T->A) and G-protein 3 (825C->T) polymorphisms were analyzed in the DNA from blood samples of enrolled subjects. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. There was a significant relationship between the Gln90Leu3412 genotype and SRQ-D score in FD patients (P = 0.009). Area under the curve at 15 minutes (AUC15) value was significantly associated with the Leu72Met408 genotype (P = 0.015) but not with entire gastric emptying. The Leu72Met (408C->A) single nucleotide polymorphism was significantly associated with early phase of gastric emptying in FD patients. Further studies will be necessary to clarify the association between ghrelin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and early phase of gastric emptying in FD patients.

  8. Early CT findings to predict early death in patients with traumatic brain injury: Marshall and Rotterdam CT scoring systems compared in the major academic tertiary care hospital in northeastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Mbemba, Daddy; Mugikura, Shunji; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Murata, Takaki; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Li, Li; Takase, Kei; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Takahashi, Shoki

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) plays a crucial role in early assessment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Marshall and Rotterdam are the mostly used scoring systems, in which CT findings are grouped differently. We sought to determine the scoring system and initial CT findings predicting the death at hospital discharge (early death) in patients with TBI. We included 245 consecutive adult patients with mild-to-severe TBI. Their initial CT and status at hospital discharge (dead or alive) were reviewed, and both CT scores were calculated. We examined whether each score was related to early death; compared the two scoring systems' performance in predicting early death, and identified the CT findings that are independent predictors of early death. More deaths occurred among patients with higher Marshall and Rotterdam scores (both P death (Marshall, AUC = 0. 85 vs. Rotterdam, AUC = 0.85). Basal cistern absence (odds ratio [OR] = 771.5, P death. Both Marshall and Rotterdam scoring systems can be used to predict early death in patients with TBI. The performance of the Marshall score is at least equal to that of the Rotterdam score. Thus, although older, the Marshall score remains useful in predicting patients' prognosis. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic basis of early-onset, MODY-like diabetes in Japan and features of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes: dominance of maternal inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Tohru; Higuchi, Shinji; Kawakita, Rie; Hosokawa, Yuki; Aoyama, Takane; Murakami, Akiko; Kawae, Yoshiko; Hatake, Kazue; Nagasaka, Hironori; Tamagawa, Nobuyoshi

    2018-06-21

    Causative mutations cannot be identified in the majority of Asian patients with suspected maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). To elucidate the genetic basis of Japanese patients with MODY-like diabetes and gain insight into the etiology of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes. 263 Japanese patients with early-onset, nonobese, MODY-like diabetes mellitus referred to Osaka City General Hospital for diagnosis. Mutational analysis of the four major MODY genes (GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B) by Sanger sequencing. Mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients were further analyzed for clinical features. Mutations were identified in 103 (39.2%) patients; 57 mutations in GCK; 29, HNF1A; 7, HNF4A; and 10, HNF1B. Contrary to conventional diagnostic criteria, 18.4% of mutation-positive patients did not have affected parents and 8.2% were in the overweight range (BMI >85 th percentile). HOMA-IR at diagnosis was elevated (>2) in 15 of 66 (22.7%) mutation-positive patients. Compared with mutation-positive patients, mutation-negative patients were significantly older (p = 0.003), and had higher BMI percentile at diagnosis (p = 0.0006). Interestingly, maternal inheritance of diabetes was significantly more common in mutation-negative patients (p = 0.0332) and these patients had significantly higher BMI percentile as compared with mutation-negative patients with paternal inheritance (p = 0.0106). Contrary to the conventional diagnostic criteria, de novo diabetes, overweight, and insulin-resistance are common in Japanese patients with mutation-positive MODY. A significant fraction of mutation-negative patients had features of early-onset type 2 diabetes common in Japanese, and non-Mendelian inheritance needs to be considered for these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.

  11. Media Education in Japan (Retrospect and Present Trends).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This overview of the development of media education in Japan begins with a discussion of the motion picture as entertainment and the public attitude toward film in Japan during the early years of the century. The introduction of film education into the schools in the 1920s--both teaching by film and teaching about film--is then described together…

  12. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  13. IRBA SERIES : Accounting In Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kiyomitsu

    1994-01-01

    Preface / Legal and Conceptual Framework of Accounting in Japan / Setting Accounting Standards in Japan - The American Influence and The Present Status / Accounting Education and Profession in Japan / The International Harmonization of Accounting Standards / The Accounting Standard Setting in Japan and Its Responses to International Accounting Standards / Selected Bibliography for Accounting in Japan

  14. Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

  15. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  16. Japan and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    About 20 million metric tonnes of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are consumed each year in Japan, of which 14,5 million metric tonnes are imported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. This paper presents LPG industry in Japan and gives informations on the present status: supply and demand, imports, market, distribution

  17. A randomized controlled trial of comprehensive early intervention care in patients with first-episode psychosis in Japan: 1.5-year outcomes from the J-CAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Ando, Shuntaro; Yamasaki, Syudo; Koike, Shinsuke; Ichihashi, Kayo; Miyakoshi, Yuji; Maekawa, Sanae; Nakamura, Tomohisa; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Ichikawa, Eriko; Ishigami, Hiroki; Sato, Kojiro; Matsunaga, Asami; Smith, Jo; French, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Kishi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Izumi; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji

    2018-04-08

    The first episode of psychosis represents a critical period wherein comprehensive early intervention in psychosis (EIP) may alter the course of illness. However, evidence from randomized controlled trials that have examined the impact of comprehensive EIP care on clinical and functional recovery assessed by independent blinded raters is limited. The objective of this study was to conduct a single-blinded multicenter trial comparing comprehensive EIP care and standard care in young patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) in Japan (J-CAP Study). A total of 77 participants with FEP (aged 15-35 years) were randomized to receive standard care or specialized comprehensive EIP care and were followed up for 1.5 years (trial no.: UMIN000005092). Function (measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning) and clinical remission (defined by internationally standardized criteria proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group) were evaluated by independent raters who were blinded to group assignment. Dropout rate and other secondary outcomes were also examined. The specialized EIP care group had a higher clinical remission rate (odds ratio, 6.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-37.9) and lower treatment dropout rate (odds ratio, 0.038; 95% confidence interval, 0.002-0.923) than the standard care group, even after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Functional improvement in the specialized EIP care group was slightly higher than that in the standard care group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.195). From the results, we conclude that comprehensive EIP care may provide advantages over standard care in patients with FEP. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Microelectronics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  19. Kirishima, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  20. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  1. In Defense of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-03

    potential addition of F-35B STOVL aircraft to their Izumo class helicopter destroyers is a good example. Japan’s conduct during World War II remain locked ...antiwar and antinuclear identity . But after sixty years, Japan’s neighbors still see bayoneted babies. Relations between Japan and its former victims...and the world order Robert Cooper defines Japan as the lone post-modern country surrounded by states firmly locked into an earlier age and that if

  2. Industrial lasers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  3. APWR - Mitsubishi, Japan/Westinghouse, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeba, Y.; Weiss, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power generated by light water reactors accounts for approximately 1/3 of Japan's power supply. Development of the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) was initiated by five PWR electric power companies (Hokkaido, Kansai, Shikoku, Kyushu and Japan Atomic Power), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Westinghouse, with a view to providing a nuclear power source to meet future energy demand in Japan. The APWR was developed based on the results of the Improvement and Standardization Program, promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, with reconsideration of the needs of age, such as construction cost reduction, enhanced safety and increased reliability. One of the important concepts of the APWR is its large power rating that decreases the construction cost per unit of electric generation capacity. Though the electric output was lower at the early stage of basic design than it is now, uprating to approximately 1530 MW is achieved based on the results of design progress and high efficiency improvements to the steam turbine and reactor coolant pumps. Furthermore, the APWR remarkably enhances reliability, safety operability and maintainability by introducing new technologies that include a radial reflector and advanced accumulators. The first APWR is planned to be built at Tsuruga No. 3 and No. 4 by the Japan Atomic Power Company and will be the largest commercial operation plant in the early 21st century. (author)

  4. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  5. Japan's nuclear juggernaut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richner, S.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of nuclear energy in Japan is presented. Nuclear energy provides 17% of Japan's electricity but could provide much more. 25 more reactors (to add to the existing 27) are planned by 1995. The cooperation between Japanese government and industry and the economic assistance in building new plants means that these are not likely to be cancelled. Public acceptance of new plants has often been obtained by large cash employment inducements. Now, however, there is growing disillusionment when short-term well paid employment building the reactors is followed by unemployment when the reactor is in operation. Also there is a growing opposition to the storage of the nuclear waste. To maintain the growth of its nuclear industry Japan needs to export to provide a steady flow of big orders. (U.K.)

  6. Japan's advanced medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform.

  7. The internationalization of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    There are growing tensions and frictions between the U.S. and Japan. Among them are science and technology issues that relate to the development of superconductor technology, as well as economic, trade and agricultural issues. The structure of this friction is very complex. There are many interconnected issues that cannot be resolved one by one. This article focuses on the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. Some of the complexities behind the issues are discussed by defining different notions of internationalization and by presenting the positive and negative aspects of the Japanese approach that affects the future cooperation and competition between our nations in the area of superconductivity

  8. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  9. Status of SCRF cavity and ADS development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    SCRF cavity technology has progressed with high-energy particle accelerator programs in Japan. It was first applied for TRISTAN program at KEK, in early 1980s, and it is expected to be a key technology to realize the next energy-frontier lepton collider such as ILC, and/or intensity-frontier proton accelerators hopefully to be realized in Japan. The JPARC project as a joint program between JAEA and KEK is scoping to realize ADS program with the linac upgrade using a superconducting cavity system, as a future program. The talk will cover an overview of the SCRF cavity development and the ADS development in Japan. (author)

  10. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  11. Language Testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  12. Dutch surgery in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, Thomas M.; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of

  13. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  14. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  15. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  16. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  17. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy situation in Japan and Japan's strategy for stable supply of energy are discussed. Benefits of nuclear power in comparison with other energy sources is considered. History of nuclear power development in Japan, modern status and future trends are described. 6 figs

  18. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  19. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  20. Future accelerators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toge, Nobu

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the present status of future accelerator projects at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Japan. The KEK laboratory has been successfully operating the TRISTAN accelerator complex since 1986. It consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linac, an 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR) and a 29 GeV Main Ring (MR). Concurrently with this operation, in response to recommendations by the Japanese High Energy Physics Committee, survey studies have been continued on new accelerator facilities at KEK. They have two major future projects, namely, the asymmetric e + e - B-factory based on TRISTAN (TRISTAN-II) and the Japan Linear Collider (JLC). The purpose of this paper is to outline those research activities and to present an update on their status

  1. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  2. Japan Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  3. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-11-15

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation.

  4. Nuclear situation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  5. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Youth in Japan: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikuma, Toshinori; Matsuda, Osamu; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Japan, as well as current practices and future directions. The history of intelligence test use in Japan began in the early 20th century. Since the 21st century, three major intelligence tests, namely, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, the Kaufman…

  8. Semiplanus (Productida, Brachiopoda) from the Carboniferous limestone of Kotaki, Niigata Prefecture, central Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ibaraki, Yousuke; Sato, Kiichi

    2013-01-01

    An Early Carboniferous large–sized productid brachiopod species, Semiplanus semiplanus (Schwetzow, 1922), is described from the Tsuchikurazawa Limestone (upper Visean–Serpukhovian), a limestone block within a Permian accretionary complex, distributed in the Kotaki area, Itoigawa City, Niigata Prefecture, central Japan. This is the first record of Semipanus species from Japan.

  9. A Chrysanthemum in the Garden: A Christian Kindergarten in the Empire of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yukiyo

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the contribution of Christian missionaries to kindergarten education in the Empire of Japan. The study concerns an American Missionary woman, Annie L. Howe (1852-1943) and her kindergarten in Kobe, Japan. Annie L. Howe had a great impact on the history of early childhood education and is still remembered as the "Mother of…

  10. Skiing research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K

    1981-01-01

    Skiing and skiing techniques were introduced by the Austrians to Japanese soldiers in 1911. After that, skiing spread beyond the original purpose and recently produced the ski sciences. From a sports biomechanical aspect, the development of the study of ski jumping, alpine skiing, and the basic movement in skiing is introduced in this paper. One of the characteristic points of these studies in Japan was that the ski sciences were supported not only by biomechanists and physiologists, but also basically by physicists and engineers. The fundamental research and studies from divergent fields are supporting each other and being integrated into ski science.

  11. Nuclear services for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) became AEA Technology in April 1990. The commercial interests are focussed through 4 business units: AEA Reactor Services, with whom several contracts have been won from Japanese customers for high resolution Field Emission Gun Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (FEGSTEM); AEA Fuel Services, a contract is being negotiated with an existing Japanese customer; AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, with whom further development of an alternative approach to evaporation of liquid waste effluent for specific application in Japan is in progress; AEA Fusion. 1 fig

  12. Nyheder i Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Kan man stole på, hvad folk siger, når man ikke ved, hvem de er? Forholdet mellem kildeanonymitet og troværdighed er forskelligt i mediesystemer rundt om i verden. Troværdighed er ingen universel størrelse, men en retorisk effekt der opstår på baggrund af faktorer som er kulturelt og systemisk in...... indlejret. I Japan har seriøse nyhedsmedier et specielt forhold til udsagn fra anonyme kilder, og udstrakt brug af uidentificerede informanter står ikke i modsætning til journalistisk kvalitet og pålidelighed....

  13. Japan country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production

  14. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices...... that act as significant barriers to the entry of foreign skilled professionals. The paper brings out the source and pattern of foreign professionals and students in Japan as a proxy for talent. Though India’s presence in Japan is currently limited, its share of technical professionals to the total number....... For Japan, it means access to technical professionals and managed interfacing with the global economy....

  15. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  16. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  17. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  18. Food Irradiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-09-15

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, 'kamaboko' (fish-paste products), 'Vienna' sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given 'unconditional acceptance' for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  19. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying. The paper attempts to integrate the research strengths of Japan with this new trend in bullying research, with the view of incorporating 'non-western' research traditions into mainstream discourse on bullying. It introduces a typology of school bullying: Types I and II, and discusses 1 hierarchical relationships in schools, focusing on corporal punishment and teacher-student bullying, and 2 group dynamics surrounding bullying. The paper illustrates how bullying among students is entwined with various aspects of schools as social institutions. It argues that school bullying may represent a state of anomie in both formal and informal power structures in schools, which have become dysfunctional communities unable to deal with bullying, while at the same time it can be students' way of compensating their sense of alienation and disconnectedness from school.

  20. English education for healthcare professionals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moross, Janelle; Seki, Naoko; Morio, Ikuko

    2017-11-01

    In a global environment, education for healthcare professionals should include cultivating human resources who have the necessary skills to work in an international arena. This article will review the current status of English education for dental healthcare professionals in Japan. After conducting a literature search using the keywords: English education, Japan, and dental, only a few studies were found that investigated and proposed suggestions for dental professional English education. Even so, these were still in the early stages with outcomes yet to be fully evaluated. Even though English is thought indispensable for global professionals, and that increasing chances for communication skills is necessary, little attention has been addressed to English education for dental professionals or the implementation of such education in the Japanese undergraduate dental curricula. With the current reality of field expansion in dentistry, the need for not only improved English communication skills for Japanese dentists, but also the acquisition of essential expertise, psychomotor, teambuilding, critical thinking, and creative thinking skills in English as well as Japanese, is a definite probability. In order to reach this level of knowledge, further efforts and research would be necessary for the advancement and development of dental professional English education in Japan.

  1. Research on energy supply, demand and economy forecasting in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Kamezaki, Hiroshi; Yuyama, Tomonori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    1999-10-01

    This project aims to do research on forecasts of energy demand structure and electricity generation cost in each power plant in Japan in the 21st century, considering constructing successful FBR scenario. During the process of doing research on forecasts of energy demand structure in Japan, documents published from organizations in inside and outside of Japan were collected. These documents include prospects of economic growth rate, forecasts of amount for energy supply and demand, the maximum amount of introducing new energy resources, CO2 regulation, and evaluation of energy best mixture. Organizations in Japan such as Economic Council and Japan Energy Economic Research Institute have provided long-term forecasts until the early 21st century. Meanwhile, organizations overseas have provided forecasts of economic structure, and demand and supply for energy in OECD and East Asia including Japan. In connection with forecasts of electricity generation cost in each power plant, views on the ultimate reserves and cost of resources are reviewed in this report. According to some views on oil reserves, making assumptions based on reserves/production ratio, the maximum length of the time that oil reserves will last is 150 years. In addition, this report provides summaries of cost and potential role of various resources, including solar energy and wind energy; and views on waste, safety, energy security-related externality cost, and the price of transferring CO2 emission right. (author)

  2. Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

    2002-10-01

    THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868.

  3. Recent developments: Japan and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear industry in Japan and Australia are briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include: the world energy situation; and nuclear power generation trends and completion the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Recent events that suggest possible policy changes in Australia are briefly discussed

  4. [Beginning Knowledge of Transfusion in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazda, Toshio; Shimizu, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Blood components and plasma derivatives are two of the most useful tools in modern medicine. When the Portuguese opened the maritime routes to the Far East in the 16th century. Western medicine traveled to Japan on the trading vessels that carried physicians and barber-surgeons to care for the body and Christian missionaries to care for the soul. Skilled interpreters such as Kōgyū Yoshio translated and studied Dutch editions of early medical books, like Lorenz Heister's "Chirurgie" (Nürnberg, 1719), that illustrate the concept of transfusion. The oldest description of transfusion originating in Japan is a handwritten manuscript entitled "Bansui Sensi Chojutsu Shomoku" by Masamichi Nishijima, a student of Bansui Otsuki. It is a list of Otsuki's translated works. He described book names and chapter names in the manuscript, and when he finished translation of a chapter, he marked a circle on the chapter name. The transfusion chapter had a circle. That dates the earliest writing on transfusion in Japanese to 1804, shortly after the death of Kōgyū. Unfortunately, the manuscript translation no longer exists. In 1814, Shunzō Yoshio, grandson of Kōgyū, and in 1820, Tokki Koshimura, translated the figure legends of "Chirurgie." Soon afterwards, after the first report of transfusion from human-to-human by James Blundell in London in 1818, Western medical books published on the subject began to arrive. The works of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Georg Friedrich Most and Carl Canstatt all mentioning transfusion, albeit without details, were translated by Kōan Ogata and Shinryō Tsuboi. During the Edo period, Japan was a closed country; only open to the Dutch through a tiny island in Nagasaki. But Japanese doctors in the Edo period learned about blood transfusion through Dutch-translated versions of Western medical Books. Transfusion began being practiced in Japan in 1919, almost exactly 100 years after the concept was introduced

  5. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  6. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  7. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  8. Japan and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.S.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  9. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits...... in the legal frame work (the Fundamental Law on Education was revised in 2006) and the ministerial guidelines and policies (new curriculum guidelines have been issued after the law change, and new proposals for strengthening the position of moral education come on a regular basis) have reflected the increased......What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...

  10. Will Japan Rearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-10

    Faculty Accepte d th is _________ day of~~~U)~4 l977~c~y.11 -~~~~~~~~~~~~D i rector , Master of Militar y Art Science . The opinions and...j~ s’ri : ‘~~~~ ~ IC . _ __~~~~~~ i 1~~~~~n Unhi ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 150 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ L~ MASTER OF MILITARY ART ... SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate Joseph Bertrand Berger, Jr. Major, Air Defense Artillery T it le of Thes i s W i l l Japan Rearm

  11. Typhoon Chataan off Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Slowly winding its way down, Typhoon Chataan had dropped to tropical storm status by Thursday, July 11, 2002, when this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was captured. In the image, the storm is located off the east coast of central Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The storm is much less organized than it was in the previous day's image. Through a gap in the clouds to the southwest of the storm's eye, Tokyo can be seen as a grayish cluster of pixels surrounding a small bay or inlet that protrudes into the island of Honshu. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  12. Dosimetry studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Hashizume, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba estimated the radiation doses in air from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by using some building materials exposed to the nuclear explosions in both cities. These estimated doses were in good agreement with the doses estimated on the basis of the Ichiban project by the research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which were the basis for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission's tentative 1965 radiation dose (T65D). Recently the radiation doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been reevaluated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In Japan a new research group was started last August, with the intention of making new estimates of doses from the atomic bombs in cooperation with US research groups

  13. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  14. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  15. SCWR Concepts in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    Two SCWR concepts are being developed in Japan, one corresponding to the thermal spectrum reactor and the other to the fast spectrum reactor. Yamada et al. described the thermal-spectrum reactor concept referred to as the Japan SCWR (or JSCWR). This concept was developed under the financial support of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The basic philosophy of the JSCWR development is to utilize proven light water reactor and supercritical fossil-fired power plant technologies as much as possible to minimize the R&D cost, time and risks. Therefore, the JSCWR is designed as a thermal neutron spectrum reactor using light water as moderator and reactor coolant. The JSCWR plant consists of a pressure-vessel type, once-through reactor and a direct Rankine cycle system. Reactor coolant fed through inlet nozzles is heated up in the core and flows through outlet nozzles with no recirculation in the vessel. Other options to the JSCWR core design are being investigated at the University of Tokyo. The electric output of the JSCWR is assumed to range from 600 MWe to 1700 MWe class to fulfill user’s requirements as much as possible. In this section, the reference value is selected to 1725 MWe, which corresponds to a reactor thermal output of 4039 MWth. Nakatsuka et al. described the core design for the fast-spectrum reactor, which is based on a similar plant system compared to that of the thermal-spectrum reactor. The fast-spectrum reactor, however, would produce higher power rating than the thermal-spectrum one of the same reactor pressure-vessel size. Since the fast-spectrum reactor does not require the moderator, its unit capital cost would be lower than the thermal-spectrum reactor.

  16. Social Goal Orientations, Interpersonal Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescents in Japan: A Test of the Diathesis-Stress Model Using the Trichotomous Framework of Social Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether depression among early adolescents (aged 12-14 years, N = 116; 65 girls) can be predicted by interactions between social goal orientations and interpersonal stress. Based on Kuroda and Sakurai (2001), this study applied Elliot and Harackiewicz's (1996) trichotomous framework of achievement goals to…

  17. The genus Stactobia McLachlan (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomiko

    2017-11-17

    The caddisfly genus Stactobia McLachlan (Hydroptilidae) is revised for Japan. Males are redescribed for 6 known species, Stactobia japonica Iwata, S. makartschenkoi Botosaneanu & Levanidova, S. inexpectata Botosaneanu & Nozaki, S. hattorii Botosaneanu & Nozaki, S. nishimotoi Botosaneanu & Nozaki, and S. distinguenda Botosaneanu & Nozaki. Six new species are described, also based on males: S. kanagawa, S. gunma, S. chichibu, S. yona, S. urauchi, and S. campire. A Taiwanese species, S. semele Malicky & Chantaramongkol, is recorded from Japan for the first time. Final instar larvae and their cases of 8 species and early instar larvae of 2 species are also described.

  18. Improvement of nuclear power plant operation and maintenance in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazushige Hamazaki

    1987-01-01

    Following the inauguration of commercial nuclear power generation in Japan in 1966, capacity factors were held in the relatively low level until around 1975 due to initial-period troubles. With subsequent improvement, however, capacity factors have climbed steadily and recently been sustaining more than 70%. To obtain this successful result, a various kind of improvement have been made not only for the operation management area but also for the maintenance management area in conjunction with the successive effort to reflect the operating experiences to the early stage design. Nowadays nuclear generation has assumed increasing importance for Japan's electrical power needs, and is making a great contribution to stabilizing power supply costs. (author)

  19. The Cogema group in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The partnership between the Cogema group and Japan in the domain of fuel cycle started about 20 years ago and the 10 Japanese nuclear operators are all clients of the Cogema group. The 1997 turnover realized with Japan reached 3.6 billions of francs (11% of the total turnover of the group). This short paper presents briefly the nuclear program of Japan (nuclear park, spent fuels reprocessing-recycling strategy) and the contracts between Cogema and the Japanese nuclear operators (natural uranium, uranium conversion and enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium recycle and MOX fuel production markets). (J.S.)

  20. A novel early risk assessment tool for detecting clinical outcomes in patients with heat-related illness (J-ERATO score: Development and validation in independent cohorts in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Hayashida

    Full Text Available We sought to develop a novel risk assessment tool to predict the clinical outcomes after heat-related illness.Prospective, multicenter observational study. Patients who transferred to emergency hospitals in Japan with heat-related illness were registered. The sample was divided into two parts: 60% to construct the score and 40% to validate it. A binary logistic regression model was used to predict hospital admission as a primary outcome. The resulting model was transformed into a scoring system.A total of 3,001 eligible patients were analyzed. There was no difference in variables between development and validation cohorts. Based on the result of a logistic regression model in the development phase (n = 1,805, the J-ERATO score was defined as the sum of the six binary components in the prehospital setting (respiratory rate≥22 /min, Glasgow coma scale0.2 by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The observed proportion of hospital admission increased with increasing J-ERATO score (score = 0, 5.0%; score = 1, 15.0%; score = 2, 24.6%; score = 3, 38.6%; score = 4, 68.0%; score = 5, 85.2%; score = 6, 96.4%. Multivariate analyses showed that the J-ERATO score was an independent positive predictor of hospital admission (adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.06-2.87; P<0.001, intensive care unit (ICU admission (3.73; 2.95-4.72; P<0.001 and in-hospital mortality (1.65; 1.18-2.32; P = 0.004.The J-ERATO score is simply assessed and can facilitate the identification of patients with higher risk of heat-related hospitalization. This scoring system is also significantly associated with the higher likelihood of ICU admission and in-hospital mortality after heat-related hospitalization.

  1. Whistleblowing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anne J; Konishi, Emiko

    2007-03-01

    This article, written from research data, focuses on the possible meaning of the data rather than on detailed statistical reporting. It defines whistleblowing as an act of the international nursing ethical ideal of advocacy, and places it in the larger context of professional responsibility. The experiences, actions, and ethical positions of 24 Japanese nurses regarding whistleblowing or reporting a colleague for wrongdoing provide the data. Of these respondents, similar in age, educational level and clinical experience, 10 had previously reported another nurse and 12 had reported a physician for a wrongful act. These data raise questions about overt actions to expose a colleague in a culture that values group loyalty and saving face. Additional research is needed for an in-depth understanding of whistleblowing, patient advocacy and professional responsibility across cultures, especially those that value group loyalty, saving face and similar concepts to the Japanese Ishin Denshin, where the value is on implicit understanding requiring indirect communication. Usually, being direct and openly discussing sensitive topics is not valued in Japan because such behavior disrupts the most fundamental value, harmony (wa).

  2. Outage planning in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedderman, John.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators in Japan are constrained to keep refuelling and maintenance outages to a minimum by the regulation limiting operating cycles to no longer than 13 months. Outage planning by two contrasting operators is described. Hokkaido Electric, which operates only one plant, Tomari, with two PWRs, plans to reduce outage time from the present 65 days in two stages. Detailed review of previous outage schedules has shown that a reduction to 59 days should be achievable by careful planning without any fundamental changes. The second reduction to 49 days will require such measures as relaxing water purity standards, rescheduling fuel unloading and loading shifts and speeding up eddy current testing of primary equipment by using steam generator nozzle dams. Kansai Electric, operating 11 PWRs at three plants, has scope for reducing outages at all of its units using a range of measures. Steam generator replacement in the seven oldest reactors, completed in July 1997, is by far the most significant of these and is expected to save 64 days repair time in a previous average outage time of 131 days. (UK)

  3. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  4. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    The energy situation in Japan is briefly outlined. Vulnerability in energy structure of the country is shown by a comparison of primary energy supply patterns of Japan and Western countries. Japan's energy policy consists in reducing dependence on oil, promoting efficient use of energy and increasing use of non-fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a core of alternative energy for petroleum because of stable supply of nuclear fuel, low detrimental emissions and less dependence on the fuel. A short historical review of nuclear power development in Japan is presented. Some future issues as development of entire nuclear fuel cycle, social acceptance, reactor safety and nuclear power economics are also discussed. 6 figs. (R.T.)

  5. Japan Sports Arbitration Agency (JSAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Rusakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.

  6. The photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, O.

    2005-07-01

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  7. Japan's approach to monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni P. Olivei

    2002-01-01

    The goal of monetary policy as conducted by the Bank of Japan is to contribute to the sound development of the national economy through the pursuit of price stability. The objective of price stability, however, is not precisely defined as it has been for other central banks. Following the implementation of the new Bank of Japan Law in 1998, the monetary policy framework is characterized by central bank independence, the primacy of the price stability objective, instrument independence, and po...

  8. Nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

  9. Nuclear power in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, J [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-07-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations.

  10. 2016 Guidelines for the management of thyroid storm from The Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society (First edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsurou; Isozaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Wakino, Shu; Iburi, Tadao; Tsuboi, Kumiko; Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Otani, Hajime; Furukawa, Yasushi; Teramukai, Satoshi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-12-30

    Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency which is characterized by multiple organ failure due to severe thyrotoxicosis, often associated with triggering illnesses. Early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and intensive treatment will improve survival in thyroid storm patients. Because of its rarity and high mortality, prospective intervention studies for the treatment of thyroid storm are difficult to carry out. We, the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society taskforce committee, previously developed new diagnostic criteria and conducted nationwide surveys for thyroid storm in Japan. Detailed analyses of clinical data from 356 patients revealed that the mortality in Japan was still high (∼11%) and that multiple organ failure and acute heart failure were common causes of death. In addition, multimodal treatment with antithyroid drugs, inorganic iodide, corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic antagonists has been suggested to improve mortality of these patients. Based on the evidence obtained by nationwide surveys and additional literature searches, we herein established clinical guidelines for the management of thyroid storm. The present guideline includes 15 recommendations for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and organ failure in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and hepato-gastrointestinal tract, admission criteria for the intensive care unit, and prognostic evaluation. We also proposed preventive approaches to thyroid storm, roles of definitive therapy, and future prospective trial plans for the treatment of thyroid storm. We hope that this guideline will be useful for many physicians all over the world as well as in Japan in the management of thyroid storm and the improvement of its outcome.

  11. STUDY ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE RINZAI ZEN SECT BUDDHIST MONASTERIES IN KYÔTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antariksa Antariksa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 14th century, the Five Temples or Five Mountains (Gozan of Rinzai Zen sect were developed rapidly in the city of Kyôto. The ranking system of officially sponsored by Zen Buddhist monasteries were created by the Kamakura and Muromachi government. The Gozan system originally included three monasteries in Kyôto and three in Kamakura, but immediately spread to five monasteries in several cities. While the two great monasteries, are not members of the Gozan group, which belonged to the Rinka group of Rinzai Zen sect temples. The system, which corresponds to a Chinese hierarchical model, was established in Japan during the Kamakura period. The purpose of this study is to attempt to clarify the history and architecture of Rinzai Zen sect Buddhist monastery. The central functioning building of the Zen Buddhist monastery reflects the repetition, consistency, persistence, and order of the monastic ritual.

  12. Roadmap to eliminate gastric cancer with Helicobacter pylori eradication and consecutive surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Masahiro; Kato, Mototsugu; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, the annual number of deaths from gastric cancer is approximately 50,000 and there has been no change over the last 50 years. So far, all efforts have been directed toward improving the detection of early gastric cancer by barium X-ray and endoscopy, since early cancer has a good prognosis, resulting in Japan having the best diagnostic capability for early gastric cancer worldwide. The 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer patients exceeds 60 % in Japan and is much higher than that in Europe and the US (20 %) because of this superior diagnosis of early gastric cancer. In February 2013, national health insurance coverage for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to treat H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis became available in Japan. H. pylori-associated gastritis leads to development of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric polyps. Therefore, providing treatment for gastritis is likely to substantially decrease the prevalence of both gastric and duodenal ulcers and polyps. Because treatment for H. pylori-associated gastritis, which leads to atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, is now covered by health insurance in Japan, a strategy to eliminate gastric cancer-related deaths by taking advantage of this innovation was planned. According to this strategy, patients with gastritis will be investigated for H. pylori infection and those who are positive will receive eradication therapy followed by periodic surveillance. If this strategy is implemented, deaths from gastric cancer in Japan will decrease dramatically after 10-20 years.

  13. Historical review of radiation research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, F.

    1979-01-01

    The outline of the history of radiation research in Japan is written in connection with the names of researchers. Yoshio Nishina was a pioneer, who derived the Klein-Nishina formula for the scattering of hard X-ray by free electrons. In 1935, the first nuclear experiment laboratory was constructed in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Two cyclotrons, 26 in and 60 in pole face diameter, and a high voltage Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator were installed. Irradiation of insects and plants with fast neutrons was attempted to examine the biological effect. In August, 1945, atomic bombs exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1950, radioisotopes were available. In early March, 1954, Bikini accident occurred. One fishing vessel was contaminated by radioactive fallout, and to investigate the effect of radioactivity, a committee consisted of investigators of physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, fisheries and geophysics was organized. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was established in June, 1956. Several institutions for the peaceful use of atomic energy were established. The hybrid spark chamber to image the distribution of β-emitting isotopes on a plane surface was constructed in Nagoya University. As for the national project on food irradiation, one laboratory has played the role in irradiation techniques. Researches on radiation chemistry in universities, governmental and commercial organizations have been progressing steadily, and the machines for nanosecond to picosecond pulse radiolysis are working. (Yamashita, S.)

  14. Japan`s civil use of foreign military plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Quantum Engineering and Systems Sciences

    1995-12-31

    This paper is intended to propose one of the MOX options of international cooperation for safer and more secured management of excess military plutonium. The proposal was made with special reference to the Japanese public`s view. Owing to the domestic plutonium shortage anticipated soon after the 200 in Japan, some specific reactors will be available to get rid of foreign excess weapon plutonium. According to the Japan AEC`s new long-term programme, the shortage will be approximately 0.5 tonne of plutonium per annum, which is a sort of the least amount that Japan can buy from a certain external source. With international requests for a more positive Japanese contribution, however, the amount of Japanese purchase would be increased. It follows from the preliminary estimate shown in this paper that roughly 2 tonnes of plutonium can be burned annually in the reactors without any major modifications concerning safe reactor operation. (author) 10 refs.

  15. In the Wake of TICAD V: Japan-Africa Relations Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarrósy István

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at how Japan, one of the major donors of African countries, has been redefining its positions on the African continent in terms of bilateral aid and business opportunities, triangular collaboration and multilateral development projects in an increasingly ‘interpolar’ world of international relations. The discussion includes China's expanding presence all over Africa as an important ‘reference point’ for the Japanese public at large and how that may influence Japanese pragmatic foreign policy towards the continent and Japan's involvement in African development. What are Japan's priorities in the wake of hosting the fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD V early in June 2013 in Yokohama? How does Japan go along with its confident manner of inclusive development and ownership in African societies when at the same time it is challenged by China and other emerging actors? What are the items on Japan's agenda for a re-intensified Africa policy?

  16. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  17. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, W.; Otani, H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

  18. Advanced USC technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Masafumi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

    2010-07-01

    The 600deg-C class Ultra Super-Critical(USC) steam condition technology was mainly developed through projects led by J-Power in the '80s and 90s'. In 2001, the project was successfully finished with newly developed 9-12% chromium steels. These materials were selected for the major parts of the USC power plants in Japan and almost half of the coal power plants have the USC steam condition today. However, aged plants, which were built in the '70s and early '80s will reach the point where they will need to be rebuilt or refurbished in the near future. The steam temperatures of the older plants are 538 deg-C or 566deg-C. We did a case study, retrofitting these plants with the USC and an advanced USC technology that takes a 700deg-C class steam temperature to increase thermal efficiency and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study showed that the advanced USC Technology(A-USC) is suitable for the retrofitting of aged plants and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 15%. The Japanese government launched the ''Cool Earth-Innovative Energy Technology Program'' in 2008 March to promote international cooperation and actively contribute to substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions. 21 technologies that will contribute to substantial reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions by efficiency improvement and low carbonization were selected. The A-USC that aims at 46% (net, HHV) thermal efficiency of coal power generation is included in the technologies. We started a large-scale development project of the A-USC technology in 2008 August. 700deg-C class boiler, turbine and valve technologies, which include high temperature material technology, will be developed. Some candidate materials for boilers are being tested. Turbine rotor and casing materials are being developed and tested, as well. Two years from the beginning of the project, we have obtained some useful test results regarding the candidate materials. (orig.)

  19. Status of the HTTR project in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanokawa, K.

    1989-01-01

    In June 1987, the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission issued the revision of the Long-Term Program for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy, recommending that Japan should proceed with the development of more advanced new technologies for the future, parallel to the existing nuclear systems. It also emphasizes that the HTGR is one of the most promising reactors with high efficiency and inherent safety, therefore it should be explored for the broader use of nuclear energy, not only for power production. Then the early construction of a High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) by JAERI was proposed. Based on this program, JAERI has changed the ''VHTR program'' for ''HTTR program'' to establish the HTGR technology basis and upgrade them. The permission of the HTTR construction was made by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in February 1989. 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. The educational system in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  1. Datafile: [nuclear power in] Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Japan is third after the USA and France in terms of the Western World's installed nuclear capacity, but it has by far the largest forward programme. Great effort is also being put into the fuel cycle and advanced reactors. There is close co-operation between the government, utilities and manufacturers, but Japan has not sought to export reactors. The government has responded to the growing public opposition to nuclear power with a massive increase in its budget for public relations. Details of the nuclear power programme are given. (author)

  2. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  3. Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study: study design, methods, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Toyama, Tadashi; Koya, Daisuke; Koshino, Yoshitaka; Abe, Hideharu; Mori, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Masahito; Iwano, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Okuda, Seiya; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Haneda, Masakazu; Makino, Hirofumi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy. The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data. We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR. There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

  4. The Development and Current Status of Library and Information Science Education in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-hua Chen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Library and information science (LIS education of Japan has been established in the early 20th century, but destroyed during the World War II. Thanks to the help provided by the United States, the LIS education revived. However, it influenced a lot, especially the thoughts of public librarianship in the Library Law of Japan. At present, 8 universities offer formal LIS degree program and over 200 universities or colleges offer LIS courses as qualifications for public librarians. This article will introduce the curriculum designs, full-time faculty, and program characteristics of Library and Information Science in Japan. [Article content in Chinese

  5. JPRS Report, East Asia, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-02

    May 87) 17 Amada Technical Center 17 Punch-press Production in France, by Andreas Gandow 17 Study on Dynamics of Foreign Exchange Rates (Kenichi...468 20 ECONOMIC STUDY ON DYNAMICS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES Tokyo THE JAPAN TIMES in English 29 Jul 87 pp 7-9 (Article by Kenichi Ohmae] [Text

  6. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  7. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of

  8. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb 3 Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting μ meson channel and π meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration

  9. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  10. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-06

    Sought ( Nobuaki Teraoka; PUROMETEUSU, Nov 87) 62 IPCR Molecular Laser Uranium Enrichment Method Discussed (GENSHIRYOKU IINKAI GEPPO, Nov 87... Kobayashi ) Investigation of Tokyo University character of winter (Professor Tatsuo thunder on Japan Kawamura, Sea side by new Assistant...PUROMETEUSU in Japanese Nov 87 pp 78-81 [Article by Nobuaki Teraoka, Technology Development Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency

  12. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  13. U.S. Forces Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinawa Fri, 25 May 2018 02:07:00 GMT Scuba Savior: 3d MLG Marine saves life in Okinawa Fri, 25 May 2018 by @USForcesJapan Facebook Facebook Followers, We hope you've brushed up on your USFJ knowledge over the weekend, b... Followers, We hope you've brushed up on your USFJ knowledge over the weekend

  14. July 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  15. Japan's new basic energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.; Woodall, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the Japanese cabinet adopted a new Basic Energy Plan (BEP). This was the third such plan that the government has approved since the passage of the Basic Act on Energy Policy in 2002, and it represents the most significant statement of Japanese energy policy in more than four years, since the publication of the New National Energy Strategy (NNES) in 2006. Perhaps more than its predecessors, moreover, the new plan establishes a number of ambitious targets as well as more detailed measures for achieving those targets. Among the targets are a doubling of Japan's 'energy independence ratio,' a doubling of the percentage of electricity generated by renewable sources and nuclear power, and a 30 percent reduction in energy-related CO 2 emissions, all by 2030. This paper explains the origins of the 2010 BEP and why it was adopted. It then describes the content of the plan and how it differs from the NNES. A third section analyzes the appropriateness of the new goals and targets contained in the BEP and their feasibility, finding that achievement of many of the targets was likely to be quite challenging even before the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. - Highlights: → Origins of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Content of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Feasibility of achieving the targets in Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Impact of 2011 earthquake and tsunami on Japanese energy policy.

  16. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  17. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  18. Urban and spatial planning in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Tominaga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  19. The Development of Astronomy and Emergence of Astrophysics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    This chapter overviews the emergence and development phases of modern astronomy and astrophysics in Japan, mainly before WWII. In the beginning of the nineteenth century under the samurai regime of the Tokugawa Shogunate, shogunal astronomers started to learn Western astronomy through a Dutch translation of the book Astronomie by J.J. Lalande. After the Meiji Restoration (1868) the new government founded the University of Tokyo (1877), the first modern university in Japan, in which Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) also started in 1888. Terao Hisashi, who had gone to Paris to study the modern astronomy, became the first Director of TAO in 1888. The astronomy introduced by Terao into Japan was so-called classical astronomy. Two of Terao's early students made Japan's first internationally recognized achievements in astronomy, the discovery of the Z-term in the polar motion of the Earth by Kimura (Astronomische Nachrichten, 158, 234-240, 1902) and the discovery of asteroid families by Hirayama (Astronomical Journal, 31, 185-188, 1918).

  20. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, Wataru; Otani, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

  1. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  2. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  3. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the Nordic region of Asia’s increased interest in the Arctic region and Arctic affairs, including in relation to Greenland. However, with the possible exception of China, there has been little Western scholarly work to analyze exactly why Asian countries...... are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with the development of other foreign policy objectives, is a complex mix of national, bureaucratic...... and group interests. For Greenlandic and Danish policymakers, it may be useful to understand the genesis of Japan and Singapore’s Arctic policies and that their interest is complex and multi-faceted....

  4. Another Neolithic in Holocene Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nishida

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Japanese Islands, small sedentary villages sustained by hunting, gathering, fish- ing and cultivation emerged around 10 000 years ago. This life style of the Jomon people continued for around 7000 years without any drastic changes in material culture, subsistence strategy and vil- lage size until the diffusion of continental civilization into Japan approximately 2500 years ago. This indicates that the incipient sedentary society of the Jomon Period was very stable, a state which is not indicative of civilized society after that time. After the prehistoric situation in Japan, we are able to classify sedentary society into two phases; sedentism with stability and sedentism with instability (civilized society. Therefore it is possible to say that the emergence of sedentism and cultivation are not direct factors which promote the emergence of civilization.

  5. WDC Activities in Japan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the activities of the International Council for Science (ICSU World Data Centers (WDCs in Japan at a time of great change in the data and information structures of the ICSU ? the creation of the World Data System (WDS in 2009. Seven WDCs are currently operating in Japan: the WDC for Airglow, the WDC for Cosmic Rays, the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, the WDC for Ionosphere, the WDC for Solar Radio Emission, and the WDC for Space Science Satellites. Although these WDCs are highly active, along-term support system must be established to ensure the stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community.

  6. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  7. The japan a nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumin, D.; Joubert, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  8. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  9. Japan's Trade Policy with Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shujiro Urata

    2014-01-01

    Japan's economic relations with Asian countries have rapidly become increasingly close in recent years, mainly through trade and direct investment. In Asia, Japanese companies have pursued a gfragmentation strategy, h which refers to breaking down production processes and assigning each process, through direct investment, to the country or region suited to implement it most efficiently. As a result, when a certain product is manufactured, its intermediate materials and parts are actively trad...

  10. Supply of radiopharmaceuticals in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genka, Tsuguo

    2006-01-01

    Detailed statistics of the application of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine in Japan are summarized. They are the amount of supply in terms of monetary value and radioactivity, categorized usages of in vivo and in vitro, number of facilities using the radiopharmaceuticals for the time span of 5 years (1998-2002). Obvious tendency of decrease for in vitro use can be seen while the total amount of radiopharmaceuticals is almost unchanged. (author)

  11. Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is the next accelerator project proposed at KEK to promote exciting sciences by utilising high-intensity proton beams. The project is characterised by three unique features: hadronic beams of the world's highest intensity; a variety of beams from one accelerator complex; frontier sciences to cover a broad research area including nuclear physics, particle physics, material sciences and life sciences by utilising a common accelerator complex. (author)

  12. Reactor construction programme in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    In September last year, the Japanese Government requested the International Atomic Energy Agency to supply three tons of natural uranium for a research reactor, and the Agency has now arranged for its sale to Japan. The metal will be supplied in ingot form and after fabrication it will be used as fuel in a reactor of the natural uranium, heavy water type. The uranium will be obtained from Canada and sold to Japan by IAEA. The Agency had invited tenders for its supply, and after considering the tenders received, the Agency's Board of Governors decided that the Canadian offer to the Agency of three tons of natural uranium free of charge should be accepted and that the selling price to Japan should be US $35. 50 per kilogramme. The price takes into account Article XIV/E of the Agency's Statute which says that the Agency shall establish a scale of charges (including those for storage and handling) for materials furnished to Member States, and that the scale shall be designed to produce revenues to meet expenses in connexion with materials acquired by the Agency and costs of materials and services provided by it under agreements with one or more members. This is the first operation of its kind to be undertaken by the Agency, and the reactor for which the supply is being made will be the first in Japan to be constructed by Japanese scientists and technicians. IAEA's Board of Governors has given the necessary approval to the reactor project for which the Agency is providing assistance

  13. Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ryōtarō. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it refle...

  14. Japan Report - Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-17

    Stock of Bacillus Subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a relative of bacillus natto that has been in use in Japan from the ancient times. It is safe and...addition to the advantages of this combination of personal styles, the two had great confidence in each other. Chairman Kaneo is the so-called "fair...sixth year of his presidency. That has been just the right age for a president, and given these advantages Sunagane has a good chance of becoming

  15. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  16. Japan in Maritime Asia: Security, Commerce, and Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Thai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Catherine L. Phipps, Empires on the Waterfront: Japan’s Ports and Power, 1858–1899. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 308 pp. $39.95 (cloth. Noell Wilson, Defensive Positions: The Politics of Maritime Security in Tokugawa Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 258 pp. $39.95 (cloth. Historiography on Japan’s place within the world of maritime Asia has undergone dramatic reinterpretation in recent decades. Scholars of the early modern era have thoroughly demolished the shibboleth of sakoku (“closed country”, the supposed isolation of Tokugawa Japan before the sudden arrival of Western gunboats in the 1850s. The active pursuit of diplomatic and commercial ties by shogun and daimyo alike embedded Japan firmly within global circuits of exchange (e.g., Hellyer 2010; Toby 1984. Scholars of the modern era, for their part, have been inspired by the “imperial turn” to put overseas empires at the heart of national narratives. Bookending the Tokugawa and Meiji periods, the two studies under review here push the frontiers of this research agenda further. Noell Wilson’s political history focuses on the buildup of domainal defense on the coast and the devolution of shogunal monopoly on violence. At the heart of this dialectical relationship was the “Nagasaki system”—the security arrangements that originated in the eponymous port and were eventually implemented throughout Japan. Catherine Phipps’s economic history examines the commercial expansion of Meiji Japan by tracing maritime networks of exchange, transportation, and information at multiple spatial scales. Forged in the crucible of Western imperialism, such ties simultaneously compromised the sovereignty of the nation while laying the foundations for empire. Both works offer compelling cases for the centrality of maritime relations in understanding core issues in Japanese history...

  17. Recent Progress of Seismic Observation Networks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Before the occurrence of disastrous Kobe earthquake in 1995, the number of high sensitivity seismograph stations operated in Japan was nearly 550 and was concentrated in the Kanto and Tokai districts, central Japan. In the wake of the Kobe earthquake, Japanese government has newly established the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion and started the reconstruction of seismic networks to evenly cover the whole Japan. The basic network is composed of three seismographs, i.e. high sensitivity seismograph (Hi-net), broadband seismograph (F-net), and strong motion seismograph (K-NET). A large majority of Hi-net stations are also equipped with a pair of strong motion sensors at the bottom of borehole and the ground surface (KiK-net). A plenty of high quality data obtained from these networks are circulated at once and is producing several new seismological findings as well as providing the basis for the Earthquake Early Warning system. In March 11, 2011, "Off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake" was generated with magnitude 9.0, which records the largest in the history of seismic observation in Japan. The greatest disaster on record was brought by huge tsunami with nearly 20 thousand killed or missing people. We are again noticed that seismic observation system is quite poor in the oceanic region compared to the richness of it in the inland region. In 2012, NIED has started the construction of ocean bottom seismic and tsunami observation network along the Japan Trench. It is planned to layout 154 stations with an average spacing of 30km, each of which is equipped with an accelerometer for seismic observation and a water pressure gauge for tsunami observation. We are expecting that more rapid and accurate warning of earthquake and tsunami becomes possible by this observing network.

  18. Recent Progress of Seismic Observation Networks in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Y

    2013-01-01

    Before the occurrence of disastrous Kobe earthquake in 1995, the number of high sensitivity seismograph stations operated in Japan was nearly 550 and was concentrated in the Kanto and Tokai districts, central Japan. In the wake of the Kobe earthquake, Japanese government has newly established the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion and started the reconstruction of seismic networks to evenly cover the whole Japan. The basic network is composed of three seismographs, i.e. high sensitivity seismograph (Hi-net), broadband seismograph (F-net), and strong motion seismograph (K-NET). A large majority of Hi-net stations are also equipped with a pair of strong motion sensors at the bottom of borehole and the ground surface (KiK-net). A plenty of high quality data obtained from these networks are circulated at once and is producing several new seismological findings as well as providing the basis for the Earthquake Early Warning system. In March 11, 2011, 'Off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake' was generated with magnitude 9.0, which records the largest in the history of seismic observation in Japan. The greatest disaster on record was brought by huge tsunami with nearly 20 thousand killed or missing people. We are again noticed that seismic observation system is quite poor in the oceanic region compared to the richness of it in the inland region. In 2012, NIED has started the construction of ocean bottom seismic and tsunami observation network along the Japan Trench. It is planned to layout 154 stations with an average spacing of 30km, each of which is equipped with an accelerometer for seismic observation and a water pressure gauge for tsunami observation. We are expecting that more rapid and accurate warning of earthquake and tsunami becomes possible by this observing network.

  19. Japan: 45 Years of INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    I would like to congratulate INIS on its 45th anniversary. Japan is a founding member of this international cooperation program, and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (formerly, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute — JAERI) was appointed as the national center of INIS by the Japanese government. We have contributed to the collection, classification, indexing, abstracting and submission of nuclear literature published in our country, as well as promoted the INIS database within our country. I have been engaged in INIS activities for many years and have a lot of experience with INIS. On the occasion of INIS’ 45th anniversary, I would like to look back on this experience. I started my career at JAERI in 1984. The first regional training seminar for the Far East was held in Tokyo in October 1984. I was assigned to the Library Division of JAERI, but I worked as support staff for the regional training seminar. During the seminar, I had an opportunity to attend the technical tour with the seminar participants to the University of Library and Information Science, research laboratories, etc., in Tsukuba Science City. This was my first involvement with INIS. It was a very impressive and interesting experience

  20. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishitoya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP. The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term ''eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'' (ECRS was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001.ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States. KEY WORDS: chronic rhinosinusitis, clinical feature, diagnosis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophils

  1. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  2. A Review of the Methane Hydrate Program in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Oyama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methane hydrate R&D in Japan was examined in the context of Japan’s evolving energy policies. Methane hydrates have been studied extensively in Japanese national R&D programs since 1993, with the goal of utilizing them as an energy resource. Currently, the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH 21 is in the third phase of a project that began in early 2002. Based on publicly available reports and other publications, and presentations made at the ten International Workshops for Methane Hydrate Research and Development, we have attempted to provide a timeline and a succinct summary of the major technical accomplishments of MH 21 during project Phases 1, 2, and 3.

  3. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  4. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  5. Institutionalisation of Japan Identity Construction Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadvornaya Elena S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the modern politics of identity construction in Japan, which actively refers to the practice of designing self-image in international relations. This trend dates back to the 19th century, when there was the end of Sakoku (Japan’s policy of isolation. It is now possible to talk about the institutionalization of the identity construction policy to organized structures and regulations. Enhanced efforts in the field of Japanese traditional and popular culture, education and creative content has led to a number of institutions appearance (like Japan Foundation Fund, Japan Creative Agency, Japan Culture Fund, Agency for Cultural Affairs, Cool Japan Fund, Japan brand Fund and changing idea about the role of culture in foreign policy realization (it is fixed the documents of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, as well as a number of projects (Cool Japan, Visit Japan, Japan Culture Power, Japan Manga Awards, Kawaii Ambassadors, Cosplay International Fest and etc.. These efforts are aimed at forming Japan identity abroad to solve a number of foreign policy challenges of the future and the development of economic cooperation. The Japanese government nearest plans is to increase funding in order to create a positive image of Japan in the region of East Asia. All of these allows us to speak about the policy of the Japanese construction of identity as an institutionalized process in which there was clearance of organizations and regulatory activities.

  6. Public information activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijima, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the public information (PI) activities in Japan. At present in Japan 51 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation contributing with a capacity of about 440 G We, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity is produced by nuclear power. An investigation conducted by Advisory Committee for Energy resulted in the following guidelines in the advancing the Nuclear Power Policy: - maintain transparency in determining policy and reflect the voice of people, making information available to the public; - promote mutual understanding between areas that produce electricity by nuclear power and those that consume electricity; - cultivate an awareness of energy issues amongst the public to encourage them to take issues regarding Japan's energy policy to heart. Concerning the current PI, the following actions are undertaken at a nationwide scale: - for all people, supplying information by mass media, internet and holding lecture meetings and panel discussions etc; - for women, advertisements in journals; - for youth, educational materials, exhibition of energy etc; - for teachers, seminars; for opinion leaders, sending newsletters on nuclear energy. In areas for planned or constructed nuclear plants the PI actions are addressed to all people, women, fishermen, farmers and opinion leaders. There are given the responses to the following three questions addressed to the public concerning the nuclear power: - do you think whether we need nuclear power plants? - do you think whether nuclear power plants are safe? - what mechanism do you think generates energy during the production of nuclear power. A discussion of the results is presented. As future objectives of PI activities the following are in view: to cultivate reliability, to aware of information about nuclear power, to promote awareness of nuclear power, to promote mutual understanding of nuclear power. In conclusion, the need is stressed to make the PI activities more effective, to find

  7. Children in Japan and multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimauchi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia.

  8. Bone marrow transplantation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaoka, Tohru

    1989-01-01

    BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

  9. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  10. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  11. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  12. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoto, Shunji

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Transcultural, Resistant, Everyday: New Photographic Histories of China and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana J. Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Luke Gartlan and Roberta Wue, eds. Portraiture and Early Studio Photography in China and Japan. New York: Routledge, 2017. 252 pp. $150 (cloth. David Odo. The Journey of “A Good Type”: From Artistry to Ethnography in Early Japanese Studies. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum Press, Harvard University, 2015. 144 pp. $45 (cloth. Kerry Ross. Photography for Everyone: The Cultural Lives of Cameras and Consumers in Early Twentieth-Century Japan. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2015. 256 pp. $85.00 (cloth, $25 (paper/e-book. These three books shed light on how much there is to celebrate in the trajectory from the Western-dominated photography of the mid-nineteenth century to the much more diffuse, diverse, and democratized photography of the twentieth. Not all photographers, or photographs, are benign. Just because an image is more similar to a selfie than an ethnographic type does not eliminate the potential for abuse. But few technologies have tied the world together so closely in our ability to imagine ourselves in affirming ways, as well as to preserve and complement others. Despite very dark chapters in the technology’s past, sometimes we take pictures because we like what we see...

  14. Neutrinos herald possible new physics in Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    There’s an embarrassment of choice for my message this week. Firstly, it was great to see a press release from the Japanese T2K (Tokai to Kamioka) experiment on 15 June, signalling not only potentially great physics, but also that the Japanese physics community is getting back on its feet after the earthquake and tsunami. Back home, the LHC is running beautifully...    Crossing the inverse femtobarn threshold so early into this years run is wonderful achievement, and augurs well for the summer conferences. We’ve now reached the stage where a single LHC fill is delivering as much data as the entire 2010 run. And finally, when Council met this week, I was pleased to announce that CERN has received formal confirmation from all five applicants for membership, opening the way to CERN welcoming new members soon. A busy two weeks, then, but what I’d like to focus on is the new result from Japan.   Simply stated, the T2K result shows the first indication of...

  15. Air pollution. [Japan; man; biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Air pollution levels in Japan are reported along with some resultant health effects. Photochemical smog first occurred in Tokyo during 1967. On July 18, 1970, more than 40 students at the Rissei Girl's High School were treated for eye irritation and throat pain caused by photochemical smog; during July 18 to August 5 of the same year, more than 10,000 injuries were reported. The proportion of the population in Yokkaichi with chronic bronchitis was extraordinarily high among those residents 40 yr or older. The 1-hour sulfur dioxide concentration was as high as 2.5 ppM in the early 1960's in the city. The carbon monoxide concentrations at busy intersections in Tokyo were 10 to 15 ppM. The average CO concentration at the Tokyo Municipal Office in 1969 was 10.6 ppM, and more than 50% of the measurements were higher than the environmental standard (1-hour average) of 10 ppM for 24 consecutive hr. Lead poisoning occurred at the Ushigome ward in Tokyo during the late 1960's and promoted the issuing of new regulations for lead-containing gasoline. (auth)

  16. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  17. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  18. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  19. Thorium research activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Toshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear energy policy in Japan is based on the Uranium-Plutonium fuel cycle with Light Water Reactors (LWR) and Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). After the accident at Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Japanese government recognizes the importance to ensure the flexibility for future nuclear power generation and then, it was specified in the latest Japanese strategic energy plan. Two research groups related to thorium fuelled nuclear systems and fuel cycle was set up in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan in 2013. One is a 'Research Committee on Nuclear Applications of Molten Salt'. The committee was established to discuss the current molten-salt technology including molten-salt cooled reactor, molten-salt fuelled reactor, accelerator driven system, fusion reactor blankets and dry reprocessing processes. Throughout two years discussion, the committee summarizes a current state of the art and issues of molten-salt application systems. Committee also discussed the handling technologies for molten-salt reactors especially in China and United Kingdom, issues of molten-salt application to fusion reactor, dry reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, and non-nuclear application of molten-salt. Term of the committee will be extended for further research activities

  20. Laser precision microfabrication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

    2000-11-01

    Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

  1. Food irradiation development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-01-01

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  2. Medical facility statistics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Hasebe, Ryo; Myat Cho, Su; Khaing, Moe; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Mon Saw, Yu; Yamamoto, Eiko

    2017-11-01

    Medical facility statistics provide essential information to policymakers, administrators, academics, and practitioners in the field of health services. In Japan, the Health Statistics Office of the Director-General for Statistics and Information Policy at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is generating these statistics. Although the statistics are widely available in both Japanese and English, the methodology described in the technical reports are primarily in Japanese, and are not fully described in English. This article aimed to describe these processes for readers in the English-speaking world. The Health Statistics Office routinely conduct two surveys called the Hospital Report and the Survey of Medical Institutions. The subjects of the former are all the hospitals and clinics with long-term care beds in Japan. It comprises a Patient Questionnaire focusing on the numbers of inpatients, admissions, discharges, and outpatients in one month, and an Employee Questionnaire, which asks about the number of employees as of October 1. The Survey of Medical Institutions consists of the Dynamic Survey, which focuses on the opening and closing of facilities every month, and the Static Survey, which focuses on staff, facilities, and services as of October 1, as well as the number of inpatients as of September 30 and the total number of outpatients during September. All hospitals, clinics, and dental clinics are requested to submit the Static Survey questionnaire every three years. These surveys are useful tools for collecting essential information, as well as providing occasions to implicitly inform facilities of the movements of government policy.

  3. The electronuclear program of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhisa

    1978-01-01

    Japan, depending on imports for 80% of its energy supply, introduced a nuclear power program, which now comprises 14 reactors in operation (8,000 MW., that is 8% of its electricity production), and 15 reactors (14,000MW) under construction or being investigated. The objective for 1985 is from 26,000 to 33,000 MW. Japanese industry committed the error of placing too much confidence in its American licensers and not undertaking enough of its own research. This resulted in having a too small number of nuclear stations available, approximately 50%. Japan secured its uranium supply (Niger), its enrichment facilities (U.S.A. and Eurodif), while studying the centrifugation process, and facilities for reprocessing irradiated fuels (France and U.K.) while, at the same time, seeking national independence regarding its entire fuel cycle. The siting of nuclear power stations comes up against local opposition, which is being overcome by a taxation on electricity used to subsidize local collectivities favorable to the construction of a power station, whether hydro-electric, thermal or nuclear [fr

  4. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishiro, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the advantages of nuclear energy for Japan. In 1997 the composition of the total primary energy supply (TPES) was oil 52.7%, coal 16.5%, nuclear 16.1% and natural gas 10.7%. Nuclear power has a significant role to play in contributing to 3 national interests: i) energy security, ii) economic growth and iii) environmental protection. Energy security is assured because a stable supply of uranium fuel can be reasonably expected in spite of dependence on import from abroad. Economic growth implies the reduction of energy costs. As nuclear power is capital intensive, the power generation cost is less affected by the fuel cost, therefore nuclear power can realize low cost by favoring high capacity utilization factor. Fossil fuels have substantial impacts on environment such as global warming and acid rain by releasing massive quantities of CO 2 , so nuclear power is a major option for meeting the Kyoto limitations. In Japan, in 2010 nuclear power is expected to reach 17% of TPES and 45% of electricity generated. (A.C.)

  5. Fusion tritium program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Fusion Council, Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, has started to review the nuclear fusion R and D plan for the next stage, post JT-60. The council launched a subcommittee on fundamental issues in the nuclear fusion development in 1985, for review of the basic strategy of a development plan. The subcommittee presented an interim report in Feb. 1986 after 6 months discussion and the report was approved by the Nuclear Fusion Council. Two major R and D programs described in the interim report are the development of a Tokamak type large facility and the comprehensive development of the fusion reactor technology. The latter means to promote the reactor technologies which will be essential in the future to construct not only a D/T burning but also a DEMO reactor. The Nuclear Fusion Development Program in Japan is shown. The interim report recommended to organize two subcommittees to establish an integrated national R and D plan; one was for the design of the next step large facility and the other was for the R and program of the fusion technology. The subcommittee for the latter consisted of 7 working groups; one of them was organized for the tritium technology

  6. The Education of a Librarian and Educator: Professor Satoru Takeuchi of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert V.

    2015-01-01

    The early life and professional career of Dr. Satoru Takeuchi, a noted Japanese librarian, educator, and author, are explored here within the context of Japanese library education since World War II. Professor Takeuchi, now retired from the University of Library and Information Science (ULIS) in Tsukuba, Japan, has been an influential educator,…

  7. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  8. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-11-09

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies.

  9. Profile of tuberculosis among the foreign-born population in Japan, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, Lisa; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Ohkado, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of foreign-born people among the newly notified tuberculosis (TB) patients has been increasing in recent years and potentially poses a new challenge to TB control in Japan. In this report, we analysed the data from the Japan TB surveillance system between 2007 and 2014 to gain an overview of the trends and characteristics of foreign-born TB patients in Japan. We found that the proportion of foreign-born TB patients was especially high among the younger age groups - 44.1% among the 20-29 years age group in 2014. The largest groups of foreign-born patients were from China and the Philippines; however, the number of those from Nepal and Viet Nam was on the rise. Students comprised the second largest professional category group for TB after regular workers, and its proportion increased over the study period. Compared to Japan-born TB patients, foreign-born patients were more likely to be diagnosed through routine medical check-ups. Treatment successes and patients still on treatment were significantly lower among foreign-born patients than their Japan-born counterparts; and transferred-out and unknown outcomes were higher. Our results indicated that distinctive subgroups within the foreign-born population in Japan, especially students and regular workers, might have a higher risk of developing TB. Measures to ensure early diagnosis and treatment adherence should be adapted to such populations.

  10. Profile of tuberculosis among the foreign-born population in Japan, 2007–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Ohkado, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of foreign-born people among the newly notified tuberculosis (TB) patients has been increasing in recent years and potentially poses a new challenge to TB control in Japan. In this report, we analysed the data from the Japan TB surveillance system between 2007 and 2014 to gain an overview of the trends and characteristics of foreign-born TB patients in Japan. We found that the proportion of foreign-born TB patients was especially high among the younger age groups – 44.1% among the 20–29 years age group in 2014. The largest groups of foreign-born patients were from China and the Philippines; however, the number of those from Nepal and Viet Nam was on the rise. Students comprised the second largest professional category group for TB after regular workers, and its proportion increased over the study period. Compared to Japan-born TB patients, foreign-born patients were more likely to be diagnosed through routine medical check-ups. Treatment successes and patients still on treatment were significantly lower among foreign-born patients than their Japan-born counterparts; and transferred-out and unknown outcomes were higher. Our results indicated that distinctive subgroups within the foreign-born population in Japan, especially students and regular workers, might have a higher risk of developing TB. Measures to ensure early diagnosis and treatment adherence should be adapted to such populations. PMID:27508086

  11. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.

    2003-12-01

    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  12. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  13. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  14. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  15. Internet Ethics Issues and Actions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    江澤, 義典

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Internet Ethics 2012 was planned and organized by the Korea Internet Security Agency and was held in September 2012 at the Lotte Hotel World in Seoul. This note relates to the presentation in Japan, it outlines current Internet ethics issues and actions in Japan. Moreover, four aspects of Japanese civilization were introduced as the bases of these ethics issues.

  16. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is

  17. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  18. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.)

  19. Bias in spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Matsuda

    Full Text Available Attitudes of healthcare professionals regarding spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in Japan are not well known, and Japan's unique system of surveillance, called early post-marketing phase vigilance (EPPV, may affect these reporting attitudes. Our objectives were to describe potential effects of EPPV and to test whether ADR seriousness, prominence, and frequency are related to changes in reporting over time.A manufacturer's database of spontaneous ADR reports was used to extract data from individual case safety reports for 5 drugs subject to EPPV. The trend of reporting and the time lag between ADR onset and reporting to the manufacturer were examined. The following indices for ADRs occurring with each drug were calculated and analyzed to assess reporting trends: Serious:Non-serious ratio, High prominence:Low prominence ratio, and High frequency:Low frequency ratio.For all 5 drugs, the time lag between ADR onset and reporting to the manufacturer was shorter in the EPPV period than in the post-EPPV period. All drugs showed higher Serious:Non-serious ratios in the post-EPPV period. No specific patterns were observed for the High prominence:Low prominence ratio. The High frequency:Low frequency ratio for peginterferon alpha-2a and sevelamer hydrochloride decreased steadily throughout the study period.Healthcare professionals may be more likely to report serious ADRs than to report non-serious ADRs, but the effect of event prominence on reporting trends is still unclear. Factors associated with ADR reporting attitude in Japan might be different from those in other countries because of EPPV and the involvement of medical representatives in the spontaneous reporting process. Pharmacovigilance specialists should therefore be cautious when comparing data between different time periods or different countries. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of spontaneous ADR reporting in Japan.

  20. Japan's oil situation and relationship with the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Japan's energy supply structure and the demand for energy in the country. It focuses on oil relations between Japan and the Middle Eastern oil countries, and Japan's attempt to enhance energy supply-security policy measures

  1. Silk, porcelain and lacquer : China and Japan and their trade with Western Europe and the New World, 1500-1644. A survey of documentary and material evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llorens Planella, Maria Teresa (Teresa Canepa)

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the prolific early European trade and consumption of three Asian manufactured goods: Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese lacquer in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and has shown how the material cultures of late Ming China and Momoyama/early Edo Japan

  2. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  3. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  4. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  5. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  6. Application of EB in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  7. The gas industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    2000-01-01

    Though oil is the most widely used primary energy in Japan, its market share is decreasing steadily in favour of other energies such as natural gas. Around 80 % of the gas consumed in Japan is imported in the form of LNG, with locally produced natural gas accounting for 5 % and LPG 12%. Annual LNG supplies now total 48 million tons (720 TWh) and are forecast to rise to 57 million tons over the next ten years. However, only on third of the total volume of LNG, i.e., 242 TWh, is distributed to final consumers. The rest is imported directly by power companies to produce electricity. The 245 gas distribution companies, 70 in the public sector and 175 in the private sector (including three large firms: Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas) carry the gas through their own non-interconnected networks to around 25 million customers, though the gas supply area covers only 5 % of the country. This small percentage can be explained partly by Japan's topography: 80 % of the land is covered by mountains. This means that only 20 % of the country is suitable for industrial and residential development. Populations living outside the gas supply areas mainly use LPG. The number of LPG customers totals around 25 million, a similar number to those using mains gas. However, the share of mains gas is increasing each year due to the population increase in urban zones. Though gas represents only 11 % of the energy consumed in Japan, it is nevertheless present on practically all markets and holds the leading position for domestic hot water and cooking in the residential sector. However, for heating, it lags well behind oil. In industry, mains gas covers only 5% of energy needs. However, with the expansion of the pipeline network and market liberalization, the share of gas is set to increase. The price of gas for the residential sector is 2 to 3 times higher than in western countries. This can be attributed to the following factors: most natural gas is imported LNG; unit consumption in the

  8. Japan - From Hiroshima to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Philippe; Guillain, Robert; Pedroletti, Brice; Bouc, Alain; Vichney, Nicolas; Izraelewicz, Erik; Mesmer, Philippe; Fenoglio, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of articles published by Le Monde and which addressed some important events of the history of the Japanese society since the destruction of Hiroshima by the first atomic bomb until the Fukushima accident. The addressed facts and events are: the destruction of Hiroshima, the surrender of Japan, the end of the peculiar status of the emperor, the strong growth period from the 1950's to the 1980's (the revival of Japanese trusts, industrial pollution in Minamata, the activists of Zengakuren, the Osaka exhibition, Mishima's suicide, nuclear and data processing are defined as national priorities), the lost decades 1990-2010 (a new emperor, the Kobe earthquake, the increasing gap between the society and the political class, life and death in Toyota, demographic decline, etc.). The last articles address the Fukushima accident, and propose some photos and an interview with the Japanese Prime Minister

  9. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade... Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum...

  10. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  11. Yoshio Nishina father of modern physics in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2007-01-01

    Yoshio Nishina not only made a great contribution to the emergence of a research network that produced two Nobel prize winners, but he also raised the overall level of physics in Japan. Focusing on his roles as researcher, teacher, and statesman of science, Yoshio Nishina: Father of Modern Physics in Japan analyzes Nishina''s position in and his contributions to the Japanese physics community.After a concise biographical introduction, the book examines Nishina''s family, his early studies, the creation of RIKEN, and the greater Japanese physics community in the early twentieth century. It then focuses on Nishina''s work at the Cavendish Laboratory and at the University of Göttingen as well as his more fruitful research at Niels Bohr''s Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen. The book also describes the establishment of the Nishina Laboratory at RIKEN, the collaboration between its experimentalists and theoreticians, and the cosmic ray research of its scientists. The last two chapters discuss Nishina'...

  12. Detection of red tide events in the Ariake Sound, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Joji

    2003-05-01

    High resolution SeaWiFS data was used to detect a red tide event occurred in the Ariake Sound, Japan, in winter of 2000 to 2001. The area is small embayment surrounding by tidal flat, and it is known as one of the most productive areas in coast of Japan. The red tide event damaged to seaweed (Nori) culture, and the relation to the reclamation at the Isahaya Bay in the Sound has been discussed. SeaWiFS chlorophyll data showed the red tide started early December 2000, from the Isahaya Bay, although direct relationship to the reclamation was not clear. The red tide persisted to the end of February. Monthly average of SeaWiFS data from May 1998 to December 2001 indicated that the chlorophyll increased twice a year, early summer and fall after the rain. The red tide event was part of the fall bloom which started later and continued longer than other years. Ocean color is useful to detect the red tide; however, it is required to improve the algorithms to accurately estimate chlorophyll in high turbid water and to discriminate toxic flagellates.

  13. Advance purex process for the new reprocessing plants in France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the early Eighties, Japanese utilities formed the Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co (JNFS), which is in charge of the construction and the operation of the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan to be erected in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture. Following a thorough worldwide examination of available processes and technologies, JNFS selected the French technology developed for UP3 and UP2 800 for the plants' main facilities. For these three new plants, the 40-year old PUREX process which is used worldwide for spent fuel reprocessing, has been significantly improved. This paper describes some of the innovative features of the selected processes

  14. Successful Collaborations with Dr. S. Raman in Research on Nuclear Data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, Dr. Raman visited Japan many times and established a good and fruitful relationship with many scientists from universities and institutions in Japan. Many Japanese scientists, in particular young researchers, also worked together with him at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through this successful collaboration, we made various achievements in the nuclear data and nuclear physics fields. Japanese researchers all remember Dr. Raman as a very active and warmhearted person. In this paper, some of the results that Dr. Raman established by collaborating with Japanese scientists will be presented

  15. Japan's new energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Japan's energy policy is undergoing fundamental changes. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant questions the future contribution of nuclear power in the national energy mix. Growing imports of fossil fuels to replace the lost nuclear capacity inflated energy prices and raise economic and energy security challenges. At the same time, the US shale gas and oil revolution is reshaping the global energy scene. Japan expects to take advantage of the trend to eliminate the 'Asian premium' on natural gas prices and expand cheaper natural gas consumption. These developments have driven the Government of Japan to review its energy policy from scratch and adopt a new Strategic Energy Plan. This new policy has far reaching implications for gas and coal development in Japan but also for the international markets as Japan is the world's largest LNG importer and the second largest coal importer. This document summarizes the key findings of a new report by CEDIGAZ 'Japan's new energy policy: In search for stable and competitive energy supply'. The report analyzes the current changes taking place on the gas and coal markets in Japan, in light of the new energy policy adopted in April 2014, and in particular the decision to restart safe nuclear power plants and push forward electricity market reforms

  16. [Building epilepsy care network in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Taisuke

    2012-01-01

    Number of epilepsy patient in Japan officially surveyed by our government in 2008 is 219,000, which is only 0.17% of the total population and less than one third of the prevalence rate reported in Western countries. Number of epilepsy surgery per year in Japan is also low and less than half of other countries such as US, UK and Korea. These numbers may suggest that epilepsy care in Japan is not sufficient to cover all hidden medical needs of people with epilepsy at present. To solve this issue, our research group funded by the government have started to build an epilepsy care network among primary care physicians, secondary care neurology specialists and tertiary care epilepsy centers by utilizing a web site: Epilepsy Care Network-Japan (http://www.ecn-japan.com/) from July 2012. We are also proposing an epilepsy care algorithm suitable for our complex medical community consisted with various neurology specialists such as pediatric and adult neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. Building Epilepsy Care Network in Japan may facilitate better medical and social support for people with epilepsy in Japan.

  17. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    1993-01-01

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  18. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  19. Meteorological factors affecting scrub typhus occurrence: a retrospective study of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 1984-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, J; Suzuki, Y; Nakao, R; Otani, K; Yahagi, K; Mizuta, K

    2017-02-01

    Climate change, by its influence on the ecology of vectors might affect the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. This study examines the effects of meteorological factors in Japan on the occurrence of scrub typhus, a mite-borne zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Using negative binomial regression, we analysed the relationships between meteorological factors (including temperature, rainfall, snowfall) and spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, during 1984-2014. The average temperature in July and August of the previous year, cumulative rainfall in September of the previous year, snowfall throughout the winter, and maximum depth of snow cover in January and February were positively correlated with the number of scrub typhus cases. By contrast, cumulative rainfall in July of the previous year showed a negative relationship to the number of cases. These associations can be explained by the life-cycle of Leptotrombidium pallidum, a predominant vector of spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in northern Japan. Our findings show that several meteorological factors are useful to estimate the number of scrub typhus cases before the endemic period. They are applicable to establish an early warning system for scrub typhus in northern Japan.

  20. Fukushima accident: the consequences in Japan, France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.; Sorin, F.

    2011-01-01

    This document begins with a description of the Fukushima accident, the second article reviews the main consequences in Japan of the accident: setting of a forbidden zone around the plant, restriction of the exports of food products, or the shutdown of the Hamaoka plant. The third article is the reporting of an interview of L. Oursel, deputy general director of the Areva group, this interview deals mainly with the safety standard of the EPR and with the issue of passive safety systems. The last part of the document is dedicated to the consequences in France (null sanitary impact, cooperation between Areva, EdF, CEA and the Japanese plant operator Tepco...) and in the rest of the world: the organization of resistance tests in the nuclear power plants operating in the European Union, the decision about the agreement of EPR and AP1000 reactor has been delayed in United-Kingdom, acceleration of the German program for abandoning nuclear energy, Italy suspends its nuclear program, China orders a general overhaul of the safety standard of its nuclear power plants, Poland and Romania reaffirm their trust in nuclear energy, France wishes a 'mechanism' allowing a quick international intervention in case of major nuclear accident, Russia proposes measures to improve nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  1. The scale of biomass production in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima-shi 739-8527 (Japan); Inoue, Takashi; Fukuda, Katsura [Global Warming Research Department, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., 2-3-6 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8141 (Japan); Komoto, Keiichi; Hada, Kenichiro [Renewable energy Team, Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division, Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Inc., 2-3 Kanda-nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8443 (Japan); Hirata, Satoshi [Technical Institute, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Kawasakicho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Recycle Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced and Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro, Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiromi [Socioeconomic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1-6-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8126 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    Policymakers working to introduce and promote the use of bioenergy in Japan require detailed information on the scales of the different types of biomass resources generated. In this research, the first of its type in Japan, the investigators reviewed various statistical resources to quantify the scale distribution of forest residues, waste wood from manufacturing, waste wood from construction, cattle manure, sewage sludge, night soil, household garbage, and waste food oil. As a result, the scale of biomass generation in Japan was found to be relatively small, on the average is no more than several tons in dry weight per day. (author)

  2. [Study on the history of exchange in pharmaceutical science between Japan and Korea after the Modern period: focus on Korean students sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Chang-Koo; Son, Il-Sun; Choi, Eung-Chil; Nam, Young-Hee; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2009-01-01

    According to an old historical text, Nihonshoki [Chinese and Korean characters: see text]), there are records of medical doctors ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) and herbal pharmacists ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) being dispatched to Japan as early as 554 A.D. ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]). More recently, a clinic ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) for Japanese residents in Pusan was established in 1877. Advanced modern pharmacy from Japan began to be introduced to Korea after 1909. Based on an agreement between the Korean and Japanese governments, Korean students sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government became a systematic program after 1965. As a result, Koreans who earned Ph.D.s from Japanese universities became a majority in the faculties of Korean schools of pharmacy. However, this trend drastically shifted in the years after 1990, at which time the primary nation for earning Ph.D.s became the United States; the number of students studying in Japan has become very low recently. In this study, six ex-students who studied in Japan were interviewed and the results were analyzed. Furthermore, the past, present and future perspectives of Korean students in Japan were discussed while focusing on the system of Korean students being sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government.

  3. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  4. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  5. From the Jura to Japan...

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a week-long school for physicists took place in Saint Cergue, in the Jura mountains not far from CERN. Its focus was on using emulsion techniques, but its legacy was much more far reaching. Last week I was in Fukuoka, Japan, on the last day of a direct descendent – the first Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP).   That first small school in 1962 was the precursor to the annual European Schools of High-Energy Physics, which are organised jointly by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in countries that are a member state of either (or both) of the organisations. They led in turn to the CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, first held in Brazil in 2001. The aim of these schools is not only to give young particle physicists the opportunity to learn from leading experts in the field, but also to nurture from the start communication among researchers from different regions. CERN and JI...

  6. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  7. Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ryōtarō. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it reflects their ‘philosophies of the age’, which may be discovered by examining popular heroes with their subsequent replications. This article will identify why Shinsengumi is appealing by comparing Shiba’s hero in Moeyo ken with its twenty-first century reincarnation in Gintama, a popular manga series, and by discerning reader response to Moeyo ken from customer reviews on Amazon.co.jp. It will be demonstrated from these studies that a likely reason for the Japanese public’s romanticisation of Shinsengumi in recent years could be their attraction to autonomous, self-determining heroes who also appreciate the value of community.

  8. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  9. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia

  10. United States - Japan - European Union probe data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S., Japan, and Europe have a long : history of sharing information on ITS : activities. These efforts include both bilateral : and trilateral relationships. International : coordination is underway in several areas, : including: : 1. Internatio...

  11. Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan is a collection of data summarizing daily weather observations taken at Misawa Naval Air Station, near the north end...

  12. Remilitarization of Japan - Prospects and Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yee, Tay

    1997-01-01

    ...? Also, there have always been concerns, especially among older Southeast Asians, who still have vivid memories of Japanese military atrocities during the Japanese Occupation, that Japan may trend towards militarism...

  13. Japan's System of Official Development Assistance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, and since 1989, Japan is the largest donor of ODA in the world. ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network ... (RRF) for Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks will fund social science, population and ...

  14. May 1983 Akita, Honshu, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The tsunami generated by a magnitude 7.9 (Mw) earthquake destroyed 700 boats and 59 houses for a total of $800 million in property damage in Japan (1983 dollars)....

  15. Pulse radiolysis facilities and activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, M.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis studies in Japan have been reviewed in special reference to the facilities and the people who have engaged in the experiments. Main achievement is summarized with the list of selected publications. (author)

  16. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    This thesis evaluates Japanese geopolitical change in the post-Cold War era. It does so by analyzing Japan's history, its foreign policy since 1945, its reasons for becoming a normal country, and the impact of its normalization...

  17. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  18. ITER on display at Yokohama, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    1998-01-01

    During the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, held in Yokohama, Japan, from 19-24 October 1998, the ITER Project exhibited a display, primarily of the research and development which has taken place to support the design of ITER

  19. Japan's contribution to nuclear medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Sakamoto, Junichi; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the degree of Japan's contribution to the nuclear medical research in the last decade. Articles published in 1991-2000 in highly reputed nuclear medical journals were accessed through the MEDLINE database. The number of articles having affiliation with a Japanese institution was counted along with publication year. In addition, shares of top-ranking countries were determined along with their trends over time. Of the total number of articles (7,788), Japan's share of articles in selected nuclear medical journals was 11.4% (889 articles) and ranked 2nd in the world after the USA (2,645 articles). The recent increase in the share was statistically significant for Japan (p=0.02, test for trend). Japan's share in nuclear medical research output is much higher than that in other biomedical fields. (author)

  20. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackard, W G; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L R

    1964-03-12

    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Explaining Meiji Japans Top Down Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction...Modernization in Japanese Culture, ed. Donald H. Shively (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971), 93–97. 24 David J. Lu, Japan: A Documentary ...but also took advantage of international developments. Japan managed to alter the unequal treaties with his oversight. The Japanese began to study an

  2. Revitalizing US electronics lessons from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Sprague, John

    1993-01-01

    Written by one of the few executives who have extensive experience in the electronics industry in both the US and Japan, this book compares market research, design, and manufacturing techniques as used in both countries. Unlike other books on theJapanese business culture, Sprague gives specific advice and recommendations about what companies can do now to compete with Japan, clearly pointing out what is and what is not adaptable from the Japanese approach to business.

  3. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    particularly the United States. This was significant because a soured economic relationship would undoubtedly affect the U.S.-Japan security...around the world, has sometimes soured its image as a serious international player.136 This is because many of the world’s great powers have extended...for International Exchange, 2005. Beer , Lawrence W. “Japan Turning the Corner.” Asian Survey 11, no. 1 (January 1971): 74 – 85. Bueno de Mesquita

  4. Explaining Meiji Japan's top-down revolution

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Kendra M.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Meiji Japanese leaders consisted of an oligarchy that strived to overcome Western imperialist pressures in Asia. They did so by overturning some deeply rooted Tokugawa-Era traditions in Japanese society and replaced them with Western ones. They understood that Western norms dictated world affairs, so they sought to make Japan strong along Western norms. Modeling the West provided enough traction for Japan to meet Western threats and ma...

  5. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ihori, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  6. The disappointments for nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Several dysfunctions are reported in this paper: A reactor (Onagawa) closed after a nitrogen leakage; a small leakage of radioactive water in the nuclear power plant of Mihama assessment raised to five deaths, the operator stops its nuclear power plants for inspection, the Japan face to its ageing nuclear power plants, the truth about the cost of M.O.X., the seven reactors of Japan closed for inspection after cracks and leaks hidden to authorities, Tokai MURA accident. (N.C.)

  7. Self-regulation of recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroyuki; Nukaga, Yoshio; Saeki, Koji; Akabayashi, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Recombinant DNA technology was developed in the United States in the early 1970s. Leading scientists held an international Asilomar Conference in 1975 to examine the self regulation of recombinant DNA technology, followed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health drafting the Recombinant DNA Research Guidelines in 1976. The result of this conference significantly affected many nations, including Japan. However, there have been few historical studies on the self-regulation of recombinant technologies conducted by scientists and government officials in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the Science Council of Japan, the Ministry of Education, Science adn Culture, and the Science and Technology Agency developed self-regulation policies for recombinant DNA technology in Japan in the 1970s. Groups of molecular biologist and geneticists played a key role in establishing guidelines in cooperation with government officials. Our findings suggest that self-regulation policies on recombinant DNA technology have influenced safety management for the life sciences and establishment of institutions for review in Japan.

  8. Future Accelerators Seminar in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    ICFA, the International Committee for Future Accelerators, was set up by the Particles and Fields Commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in 1976. Its mandate was 'To organize workshops for the study of problems related to an international super-high energy accelerator complex (VBA) and to elaborate the framework of its construction and of its use. To organize meetings for the exchange of information on future plans of regional facilities and for the formulation of advice on joint studies and uses.' In the seven years of its existence (it first met in August 1977), ICFA has organized three workshops on the first topic — t w o on 'Possibilities and Limitations of Accelerators and Detectors' (Fermilab, 1978 and Les Diablerets, 1979) and one on 'Possibilities and Limitations for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets' (Protvino, 1981). At an ICFA meeting at Fermilab in August 1983, it was realized that the second topic had been somewhat neglected. It was therefore decided to postpone a fourth workshop scheduled at the Japanese National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) and to organize instead a Seminar on 'Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics' similar to that held in New Orleans in 1975, which had in fact led to the creation of ICFA.The Seminar (jointly hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Study of Tokyo University and KEK, with support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Yamada Science Foundation and the Nishina Memorial Foundation) took place from 14-20 May. There were about a hundred participants, mostly senior scientists from Western and Eastern Europe, USA, USSR and Japan (including the Directors of almost all the major high energy physics Laboratories) and representatives from Australia, Canada, China, India, Mexico, South Korea and Vietnam

  9. Future Accelerators Seminar in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    ICFA, the International Committee for Future Accelerators, was set up by the Particles and Fields Commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in 1976. Its mandate was 'To organize workshops for the study of problems related to an international super-high energy accelerator complex (VBA) and to elaborate the framework of its construction and of its use. To organize meetings for the exchange of information on future plans of regional facilities and for the formulation of advice on joint studies and uses.' In the seven years of its existence (it first met in August 1977), ICFA has organized three workshops on the first topic — t w o on 'Possibilities and Limitations of Accelerators and Detectors' (Fermilab, 1978 and Les Diablerets, 1979) and one on 'Possibilities and Limitations for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets' (Protvino, 1981). At an ICFA meeting at Fermilab in August 1983, it was realized that the second topic had been somewhat neglected. It was therefore decided to postpone a fourth workshop scheduled at the Japanese National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) and to organize instead a Seminar on 'Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics' similar to that held in New Orleans in 1975, which had in fact led to the creation of ICFA.The Seminar (jointly hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Study of Tokyo University and KEK, with support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Yamada Science Foundation and the Nishina Memorial Foundation) took place from 14-20 May. There were about a hundred participants, mostly senior scientists from Western and Eastern Europe, USA, USSR and Japan (including the Directors of almost all the major high energy physics Laboratories) and representatives from Australia, Canada, China, India, Mexico, South Korea and Vietnam.

  10. Research of fault activity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Takeda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Six hundreds and eighty earthquakes causing significant damage have been recorded since the 7. century in Japan. It is important to recognize faults that will or are expected to be active in future in order to help reduce earthquake damage, estimate earthquake damage insurance and siting of nuclear facilities. Such faults are called 'active faults' in Japan, the definition of which is a fault that has moved intermittently for at least several hundred thousand years and is expected to continue to do so in future. Scientific research of active faults has been ongoing since the 1930's. Many results indicated that major earthquakes and fault movements in shallow crustal regions in Japan occurred repeatedly at existing active fault zones during the past. After the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, 98 active fault zones were selected for fundamental survey, with the purpose of efficiently conducting an active fault survey in 'Plans for Fundamental Seismic Survey and Observation' by the headquarters for earthquake research promotion, which was attached to the Prime Minister's office of Japan. Forty two administrative divisions for earthquake disaster prevention have investigated the distribution and history of fault activity of 80 active fault zones. Although earthquake prediction is difficult, the behaviour of major active faults in Japan is being recognised. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) submitted a report titled 'H12: Project to Establish the. Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan' to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan for official review W. The Guidelines, which were defined by AEC, require the H12 Project to confirm the basic technical feasibility of safe HLW disposal in Japan. In this report the important issues relating to fault activity were described that are to understand the characteristics of current fault movements and the spatial extent and magnitude of the effects caused by these movements, and to

  11. Facts about the Eastern Japan Great Earthquake of March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 great earthquake was a magnitude 9.0 Mw undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred early morning UTC on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 38.9 metres that struck Tohoku Japan, in some cases traveling up to 10 km inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 1,5457 deaths, 5,389 injured, and 7,676 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. JAXA carried out ALOS emergency observation just after the earthquake occured, and acquired more than 400 scenes over the disaster area. The coseismic interferogram by InSAR analysis cleary showing the epicenter of the earthquake and land surface deformation over Tohoku area. By comparison of before and after satellite images, the large scale damaged area by tunami are extracted. These images and data can access via JAXA website and also GEO Tohoku oki event supersite website.

  12. Cultural Expectations and Parental Involvement in Early Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Stephens; Richard, Blight

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the involvement of parents in early literacy in Japanese and Australian primary schools. While both schools valued support from parents in the education process, different cultural expectations are evident in each system. A number of significant areas are discussed, including traditional domestic situations in Japan, changing work cultures in Australia, education and maternal duties, higher expectations in Japan, parents supporting homework activities, parents supporti...

  13. Reconsidering Japan's underperformance in pharmaceuticals: evidence from Japan's anticancer drug sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Maki

    2010-01-01

    Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Current status of superficial pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikitake, Ryoko; Ando, Mizuo; Saito, Yuki; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Higashi, Takahiro

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the status and treatment of superficial pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. We analyzed all cases diagnosed between 2011 and 2013, as recorded in the national database of hospital-based cancer registries. We extracted data on patient sex, age, tumor locations, histology, presentation routes, initial treatments, and TNM stages. Additionally, we compared the characteristics of pharyngeal carcinoma to those of esophageal cancer. A total of 16,521 oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers from 409 institutions were included. Diagnosis of Tis tumors was infrequent, and both cancers were likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage (n = 866, 5.3%). Tis diseases were the most commonly detected during follow-up examinations for other diseases (n = 608, 70%). While more oropharyngeal Tis patients were men compared to T1-4 patients (88 vs 82%, respectively), hypopharyngeal cancer patients comprised an equally high proportion of men (94 vs 92%, respectively). The most common location of oropharyngeal Tis tumors was the posterior wall (32%), whereas T1-4 tumors were most commonly found on the lateral wall (36%). In hypopharyngeal cancer, both Tis and T1-4 were most commonly located in the pyriform sinus (62%). The proportion of Tis tumors diagnosed at individual institutions showed a positive correlation with the number of endoscopic treatments (r = 0.32, P squamous cell carcinoma patients in Japan. Further improvements in early diagnosis and standardized treatments are warranted.

  15. Physics in Australia and Japan to 1914: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home, R. W.; Watanabe, Masao

    Physics first became established in Australia and Japan at the same period, during the final quarter of the nineteenth and the first years of the twentieth century. A comparison of the processes by which this happened in these two developing countries on the Pacific rim shows that, despite the great cultural differences that existed, and that might have been expected to have been a source of major differences in national receptiveness to the new science, there were in fact many parallels between the patterns of development in the two cases. Identifying these enables us to draw attention to a number of significant features of the physics discipline more generally at this period. Such differences as emerge in the early history of physics in the two countries seem to have arisen more from the different political situations that prevailed than from anything else; in particular they reflect the fact that Australia was a part of the British Empire while Japan was an independent political power.

  16. Management of a typhoon-induced landslide in Otomura (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Kazunori; Marcato, Gianluca; Nomura, Yasuhiro; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    Late in January 2004 slope instability evidence such as cracks and subsidence appeared on a retaining wall along National Highway 168, near Otomura (Nara Prefecture, Japan). This road plays a strategic role as a long distance route for passenger vehicles and trucks, therefore detailed investigations and constant surveillance have to be carried out in order to manage the induced risk situations. Six months later, on August 10th, a large landslide occurred due to heavy rainfalls related to typhoons #10 and #11 that hit Japan on the first week of August. Field and aerial surveys of the site were carried out soon after the appearance of the first geomorphologic evidence of landslide movements, and a monitoring system was immediately set up. Landslide displacements have been measured since the early stage of movement and road traffic was strictly controlled in order to minimize possible damage. This paper illustrates the effects of landslide activation and the investigations carried out in order to assess landslide hazard and predict the time of failure. Suitable methods for risk management oriented to increase the public safety and including risk control and crisis mitigation acts are also discussed.

  17. Historical overview of the synchrotron radiation research in Japan. From the view point of creative works in the development of light sources and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsubo, Hiromichi

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation research in Japan started in early 1960's when the first electron synchrotron was commissioned at the Institute of Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo (UT). This review covers the parasite use of the INS electron synchrotron and research works done at the light sources in Japan such as SOR-RING, Photon Factory (KEK-PF) Accumulator Ring (KEK-AR), and SPring-8. History of synchrotron radiation research in Japan was overviewed by paying attention to the creative works in the development of light sources and related technology, as well as the pioneering works on the development of experimental techniques and methods. At present there are more than ten synchrotron radiation sources are in operation and the number of their users, especially users from industries in Japan is increasing very rapidly and the research fields of users are also developing. Accordingly the synchrotron radiation facility becomes more and more indispensable facility in the society in Japan. (author)

  18. The great East Japan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-06-15

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this

  19. The great East Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  20. Japan/India. Towards a nuclear cooperation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajon, Celine

    2011-10-01

    As diplomatic, economic and strategic relationships between Japan and India have been intensively developed for a decade, the author aims at discussing the very sensitive approach to a nuclear cooperation between these two countries as Japan, while taking benefit of the American nuclear umbrella, is a strong defender of nuclear disarmament and non proliferation, and India has been developing its own civilian and military nuclear programme outside of the international regime which it considers as discriminative. The author first discusses factors which incited Japan to build up a strategic partnership with India in front of the evolution of the political context, of the powerful upswing of China, and of the new American orientation with respect to Delhi. She comments the economic and political stakes of the currently negotiated Japan-India nuclear cooperation agreement which not only concerns the relationships between these both countries, but also French and American industrial groups which are present on the Indian market. She also notices that the Fukushima accident which has put Japan energy choices into question again, is a new deal which is to be taken into account

  1. Male acceptance of condoms in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Y

    1981-01-01

    Current surveys indicate that more than 70% of married couples in Japan use condoms as their primary contraceptive method. The popularity of condoms is due to the oral contraceptive (OC) pills not being recognized as safe forms of contraception and IUDs not being legalized by the government until 1974. The history of condom use in Japan goes back to 1872 when condoms of thin leather were imported into Japan from England and France. Manufacturing of condoms in Japan began in 1909, mainly as a method for venereal disease prevention. The condom and induced abortion are now the major methods of contraception. 60% of the distribution of condoms is through pharmacies and cosmetic stores; 50% of the buyers are women. Since 1955, teams of family planning workers have distributed condoms by selling on a door-to-door basis, especially to lower middle class couples. Between 1969-75, 75% of contraceptive users were using condoms. Currently there are 81% users. The rhythm method ranks second in popularity at 30% between 1969-75. OCs have gradually increased recently to 3% users, but side effects have deterred people from selecting them. The proportion of IUD users has remained at a consistently low level for the past several years. Japan accounts for 1/3 of the total world production of condoms.

  2. Middle term prospects for Japan's safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    Japan has responded to IAEA requirements on reinforced safeguard regulations. The IAEA additional protocol entered in force in Japan on December 1999. Japan submitted a preliminary information report to IAEA on June 2000 after joint works with the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) of Japan. The first annual report was submitted to IAEA on May 2001. Another activity for the additional protocol is complementary accesses. The total 36 accesses to facilities have been done from November 2000 to September 2001. Procedures of access to managements are under discussion. MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) has been constructing the Rokkasho Safeguards On-Site Laboratory from 1997, and the Rokkasho Safeguards Center from 2000. The Design Information Verification (DIV) is now ongoing. Much more personal resources will be needed for future inspections. Therefore, the budget for safeguards is increasing in contrast to the flat base budget for the total atomic energy. As for future activity, a MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuels) fuel processing plant is one of the issues for discussion. The construction of the MOX processing plant is supposed to begin on around 2004. The conclusion of additional protocol will be given by IAEA until end of 2002. Shift to integrated safeguards are under discussions by MEXT, NMCC and utilities of Japan parallel with IAEA. Key issues of discussion are cost saving for safeguards, development of personal resources for inspectors and the role of NMCC. (Y. Tanaka)

  3. Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

  4. Research and development of bellows for LMFBR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Mukai, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    Bellows are employed as useful mechanical elements with their flexibility and imperviousness to liquid and gas in the system in which such chemically active substances as sodium are handled. Since the early time of development of Japanese LMFBR, bellows have been used e.g. for the shaft seal of small sodium valves. Bellows are employed in the fast experimental reactor JOYO which is now in operation and the fast prototype reactor MONJU whose design program is in final stage at the following parts: control rod drive mechanism; intermediate heat exchanger; small valve; mechanical penetration assembly of the containment boundary; outer piping of the double-walled primary system (for JOYO only). In addition, the application of bellows as thermal expansion joint to the main piping system is under consideration for future FBRs. This paper outlines the research and development work on bellows for FBR use in Japan. (author)

  5. Research and development of bellows for LMFBR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tadao; Mukai, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Ken.

    1979-11-01

    The bellows is employed as a useful mechanical element with its flexibility and imperviousness to liquid and gas in the system in which such chemically active substance as sodium is handled. Since the early time of development of Japanese LMFBR, bellows have been used e.g. for the shaft seal of small sodium valves. Bellows are employed in the fast experimental reactor JOYO which is now in operation and the fast prototype reactor MONJU whose design program is in final stage at the following parts: - control rod drive mechanism, - intermediate heat exchanger, - small valve, - mechanical penetration assembly of the containment boundary, - outer piping of the double-walled primary system (for JOYO only). In addition, the application of bellows as thermal expansion joint to the main piping system is under consideration for future FBRs. This paper outlines the research and development work on bellows for the FBR use in Japan. (author)

  6. L-Band RFI in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldo, Yan; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Le Vine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, three instruments have been launched into orbit with the aim of producing global maps of sea surface salinity and soil moisture using the 1400-1427 MHz band: SMOS, Aquarius and SMAP. Although this frequency band is allocated to passive measurements only, RFI (Radio-Frequency Interference) is present in the data of all three missions. On a global scale, the three sensors have observed approximately the same distribution of RFI. Japan is an important exception that has implications for the design of RFI detection algorithms. RFI in Japan is caused by a large number of emitters belonging to the same system (TV receivers) and for this reason some traditional RFI detection strategies detect little to no RFI over Japan. The study of this case has led to an improvement of the approach to detect RFI in Aquarius data.

  7. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  8. Japan's Ambivalent Diplomacy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajon, C.

    2010-01-01

    Japan often pictures itself as an environmental leader. While many examples of Japan's actions against climate change are in line with global climate change norms, others can be in opposition to them. This study, based on first hand interviews with Japanese policy makers and actors from the private and civil society sector, gives an informed perspective on the process through which Japan came to integrate and implement, at the domestic level, the international objective of climate change prevention, pointing out the discrepancies, tensions or synergies that emerged. As the current governance on climate change, and particularly after the Copenhagen conference, tends to reassert the importance of the national level against the global one, the Japanese case can serve as an example of tools and strategies that fully integrate the domestic level

  9. Insights into software development in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  10. Introduction of nuclear medicine research in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inubushi, Masayuki [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Higashi, Tatsuya [National Institutes of Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba (Japan); Kuji, Ichiei [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hidaka-shi, Saitama (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Dokkyo University School of Medicine, PET Center, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    There were many interesting presentations of unique studies at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, although there were fewer attendees from Europe than expected. These presentations included research on diseases that are more frequent in Japan and Asia than in Europe, synthesis of original radiopharmaceuticals, and development of imaging devices and methods with novel ideas especially by Japanese manufacturers. In this review, we introduce recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan in the five categories of Oncology, Neurology, Cardiology, Radiopharmaceuticals and Technology. It is our hope that this article will encourage the participation of researchers from all over the world, in particular from Europe, in scientific meetings on nuclear medicine held in Japan. (orig.)

  11. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  12. Situation of nuclear industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This document is a reprint of a note published by the nuclear service of the French embassy in Japan. It evokes the present day situation of nuclear facilities in Japan, the public acceptance and its attitude in front of accidents, the national energy program, the deregulation and competitiveness of nuclear power, the carrying out of the nuclear program, the future reactors, the fast neutron reactors, the dismantling activities, the fuel enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuels, the use of MOX fuel, the off-site storage, the vitrified and radiological wastes, the geological disposal of wastes, the prospects of the nuclear program, the companies involved in the Japan nuclear industry, the French-Japanese bilateral cooperation, and the ITER project in the domain of nuclear fusion. (J.S.)

  13. Current trends in rehabilitation engineering in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnabe, Hisaichi

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the elderly generation comprised 20% of the Japanese population. This percentage will grow to approximately 30% in 2030, meaning that nearly one in three people in Japan will be 65 years of age or older. Japan is the first nation in the world to face this situation. This article uses the context of Japanese society to give an overview of the elderly and people with disabilities; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model; rehabilitation engineering-related policy; and education. In addition, we examine how governmental programs and Japanese law regarding technical aids may evolve by 2030. Partner robots, intelligent powered wheelchairs, nursing robots, and other technologies are introduced as examples of rehabilitation engineering and assistive technology. We also discuss the volunteer activities of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of Japan (RESJA) in response to the Asian tsunami disaster and the achievements of a group of students from a Japanese senior high school of industry.

  14. Know-how of experts of the VYZ impressed of Japan experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koever, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper author give a short review of the course for radiation safety and radioactive waste processing which was organised in the frame of the Program for international co-operation in the scope of management in nuclear energetics. This course proceeds as early as five years and it is covered by Japan Electric Power Information Center, Inc. (JEPIC). Author there has presented know-how of the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center (VYZ, Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.)

  15. The initiation of EBIS/T-based HCI research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews early EBIS/T-based HCI research in Japan designed to understand atomic processes of highly charged impurity ions in plasmas. In particular the work of the NICE (Naked Ion Collision Experiments) project is discussed. The NICE experiment showed for the first time that translational energy spectroscopy would give useful information about the intermediate multiple-excited states in the transfer ionization processes, and therefore it would be a powerful method for spectroscopy of so-called hollow atoms

  16. Status report of shielding investigation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, M.

    1964-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was established in 1954, and immediately proceeded with the construction of a research reactor. The first symposium in Japan on nuclear energy was held in 1957. Most of the papers presented in the field of reactor shielding were limited to shielding materials and their fabrication. In the first stage of our investigations, our efforts were devoted to practical design studies of reactor shielding. As a result of these studies, it was found that the formulae at hand for calculations were inadequate, but at that time no electronic computer was available in Japan nor were theoretical calculations very actively undertaken. Problems on nuclear ship shielding had been investigated at the Ship Research Institute, since 1956 and many fruitful results had been obtained. About that time the Japan Atomic Industry Forum started activities and took the initiative in organizing shielding research. Research workers in the shipbuilding industry in particular have been seriously studying shielding problems. Few years after the first symposium, problems concerning more fundamental studies were treated by many research workers. Shielding experiments using radioisotopes were carried out and many fruitful results were obtained. They are described in the this paper. Medium size electronic computers became available in Japan, permitting a theoretical study group to make an active contribution. They produced some codes, and their results are also described in the following sections. This constituted the second stage of our investigations. A swimming-pool reactor, JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor-4), has been under construction at JAERI since 1962 and will become critical in autumn 1964. After characteristic tests it will be a very powerful tool for the shielding investigations. This id the beginning of the third stage of investigations

  17. Toward freedom from cancer pain in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kuniko; Yasuhara, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Life expectancy in Japan is highest in the world. Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in Japan, accounting for about 30 percent of all deaths. Many Japanese cancer patients experience severe pain although they and their families hope to be pain free at the end of their lives. Toward that end, the consumption of morphine in Japan has increased markedly since 1989. The amount of morphine hydrochloride and morphine sulfate consumed in 2001 was 6.1 times that used in Japan in 1989. However, the amount of morphine consumed in Japan is still less than in other developed nations, and was only one-sixth of the amount used in Australia in 2001. As a result, many Japanese cancer patients experience potentially manageable cancer pain, largely because the amount of the drug used by doctors is insufficient for pain control. An increasing number of Japanese doctors now understand that their patients' quality of life is most important in end-of-life care and how to use the three step analgesic ladder of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, other doctors do not understand these issues sufficiently causing some patients to die without good pain control. Both the general population and some medical professionals misunderstand and have prejudice against the use of morphine. Patients often do not participate in decision making about medical treatment because of remaining paternalism in the relationship between Japanese doctors and patients. Thus, cancer pain management in Japan is not as effective as it can be and not all Japanese cancer patients receive appropriate management for their cancer pain. To improve outcomes for Japanese patients, it is necessary for health professional and social work students and practicing professionals to receive contemporary education including an introduction to palliative care and ethics.

  18. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-07

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of claims in the management of septic arthritis in Japan: Retrospective analyses of judicial precedents and closed claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Otaki

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: It is important to pay particular attention to SA following sepsis in newborns and to monitor for any signs of SA after joint injection to ensure early diagnosis. Analysis of both malpractice claims and accident and incident reports is essential to ensure a full understanding of the situation in Japan.

  20. Outline of geothermal power generation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, Y

    1960-01-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy in electrical power generation throughout the world is described. Details of generating capacity and cost are given for Larderello, Italy; Wairakei, New Zealand: and the Geysers, USA. In Japan three types of conversion systems are used. These include the direct use of steam, direct use of hot water and binary fluid type systems. The history of Japanese investigation and exploitation of geothermal energy is reviewed and the status of the Matsukawa, Hakone, Otake and Takenoyu geothermal power plants is discussed. It is recommended that laws be enacted in Japan to encourage the development of this form of energy conversion.

  1. Operational experiences of INES in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Japan has introduced IAEA's INES in August, 1992. As of September, 1997, the total number of domestic nuclear events which have evaluated by using the INES system has amounted 119. In Japan, when a nuclear event occurs at a nuclear power plant, a provisional evaluation is performed immediately by Nuclear Power Operation Administration Office, MITI. The final evaluation of events is implemented a few months after event occurrence by the Evaluation Committee on Incidents and Failures of Nuclear Power Plant which holds a neutral position. The results of the evaluation are transmitted to IAEA according to the INES reporting criteria

  2. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...

  3. Status of LMFBR development project in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagane, G.; Akebi, M.; Matsuno, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Initiation of the LMFBR development project in Japan was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan in 1966. In 1967, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) was established to realize the project as a part of its tasks of a wide scope covering all the reseatch and development activities concerning fuel cycle. In the present paper the status of experimental fast reactor (Joyo), which is the first milestone of the LMFBR project, prototype fast reactor (Monju) and R and D activities supporting the project including that for larger LMFBRs in the future is described. (author)

  4. Control of radiation sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, S.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the regulations for radioactive material in force in Japan, and to the organizations with responsibilities for regulating radiation sources. An outline of the law regulating the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials is provided, including its scope, types of radiation sources under control, exemptions and the system of notification, authorization and inspection. The experience of Japan with orphan sources is presented in three different cases, and the measures carried out to store the orphan sources in safe conditions. (author)

  5. Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I concisely summarized the current indoor air quality of Japan.

  6. Japan's telecommunications - New initiatives in space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, T.

    1992-04-01

    Despite recent advances in optical transmission technology, intensive R&D work in the field of satellite communications is now being undertaken in Japan. It is believed that satellites offer advantages in several important areas, including wide coverage broadcasting, immediacy of service, suitability for the implementation of HDTV, and advantages in disaster communications and other social services. Here, some experimental projects in the field of satellite communications planned in Japan for the 1990s are summarized. In particular, attention is given to broadcast satellite development, intersatellite links, advanced mobile communication concepts, large antenna assembly experiment, small satellite R&D, and Pan-Pacific information network experiment.

  7. Human rights in Japan: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Muñoz González

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the improvements and challenges that Japan has been facing between 1983 and 2007. The paper explores the interaction among the different stakeholders –i.e. the Japanese Government, international organizations and civil society- to advance full access to citizenship regarding gender equality, the elimination of social and physical barriers for the inclusion of people with disabilities and elderly persons; ethnic minorities –specifically the situation of the Ainu people and the Buraku community – and the persons considered as “foreigners” living in Japan.

  8. Diagnosis of early stomach cancer (Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Problems concerning diagnosis of early stomach cancer using X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are stated. Classification of early stomach cancer suggested by the Japan Endoscopy Society and division system of early stomach cancer into two main foms: depth (erosive-ulcerous) one and elevated (polypoid) one-is presented X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are shown to be high efficiency concerning revealingation of stomach mucous variations using biopsy, which allow to determine for certain whother the process is benign or malignant one

  9. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  10. The history of ironware in Japan revealed by the AMS-carbon 14 age method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujio, Shin'ichirou

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence what the AMS-carbon 14 age method attains to the history of the iron in the Japanese Islands. The research team in National Museum of Japanese History makes a clear that the Yayoi period began in 10 Cen. cal BC. However, there was a problem in this. It is iron. If the Yayoi period has started in the 10th Cen. BC, it means that the ironware in Japanese Islands had spread early rather than it spreads in China. The research team reexamined the ironware excavated from Magarita site in the Fukuoka Pref. considered to be the oldest ironware in Japan. Consequently, the excavation situation was indefinite and it turned out that we cannot specify the time to belong. Furthermore, 36 ironwares in the initial and early Yayoi were also already found by that time cannot be specified except for two points. Therefore, it turned out that Japanese ironware appeared in the 3rd century of B.C. What does this mean? Although it had been thought that the beginning of agriculture in Japan and the appearance of ironware were simultaneous, it turned out that agriculture has appeared early about in 700 years. Therefore, it became clear that agriculture of Japan started at the Stone Age. (author)

  11. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five... revocation of the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely...

  12. Phylogeography of the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus along the Sea of Japan: Paleogeographical signatures of cryptic regional divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshitake; Sakuma, Kay; Fujii, Tetsuo; Kojima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings of genetic breaks within apparently continuous marine populations challenge the traditional vicariance paradigm in population genetics. Such "invisible" boundaries are sometimes associated with potential geographic barriers that have forced divergence of an ancestral population, habitat discontinuities, biogeographic disjunctions due to environmental gradients, or a combination of these factors. To explore the factors that influence the genetic population structure of apparently continuous populations along the Sea of Japan, the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus was examined. We sampled a total of 300 individuals of H. japonicus from the coast of Japan, and obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene. The sequences from 19 local populations were clustered into five groups (Northwestern Pacific, Northern, Central, Southern Sea of Japan, and East China Sea) based on a spatial genetic mixture analysis and a minimum-spanning network. AMOVA and pairwise Fst tests further supported the significant divergence of the five groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the relationship among the haplotypes of H. japonicus and outgroups, which inferred the northward range expansion of the species. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis inferred the early-to middle-Pleistocene divergence of the populations. Among the five clusters, the Central Sea of Japan showed the highest values for genetic diversity indices indicating the existence of a relatively stable and large population there. The hypothesis is also supported by Bayesian Skyline Plots that showed sudden population expansion for all the clusters except for Central Sea of Japan. The present study shows genetic boundaries between the Sea of Japan and the neighboring seas, probably due to geographic isolation during the Pleistocene glacial periods. We further found divergence between the populations along the apparently continuous coast of the Sea of Japan. Historical changes in the

  13. Area Handbook Series: Japan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    special decorations, eating noodles on New Year’s Eve to show continuity into the new year, and playing a poetry card game are among the more...transmitted by satellite for instant replay after the government, in 1979, set up the Communications and Broadcasting Satellite Or- ganization. Japan’s first

  14. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  15. Characteristics of primary sclerosing cholangitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Hajime

    2007-10-01

    At a workshop on primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) held during Digestive Disease Week - Japan 2003, 388 PSC cases in Japan were analyzed. Two peaks in the age distribution were also observed in this survey. Jaundice and itching, major symptoms in PSC patients included in the diagnostic criteria, were observed in only 28% and 16%, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase levels were less than twofold of the upper limit of the normal range in 35%. In this regard, the diagnostic criteria in 2003 from the Mayo Clinic, including cholestatic symptoms and two- to threefold increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, should be modified in Japan. Inflammatory bowel diseases were complicated in 37%, and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in 7.2%. PSC cases with inflammatory bowel diseases were younger than the average, creating the firstpeak in age distribution, and have similar characteristics compared to patients with PSC in foreign countries. In addition, even after the exclusion of cases of sclerosing cholangitis complicated with AIP, the second peak in the age distribution was clearly evident. Recently, a concept of immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis has been postulated, which has a similar pathogenesis to AIP but without apparent pancreatic lesions. PSC patients without apparent involvement of the pancreas may be present in older patients and seem to be specific to Japan.

  16. ASYLUM SEEKERS IN JAPAN: A HARD ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Japan has ratified the 1951 Convention regarding the status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees since 1981 and 1982, yet Japan only accepted an exceptionally low number of refugees in the course 30 years since it ratified the Convention. Japan needs to closely revise and align its national policies with international agreements that it is signatory to. The main framework with which Japan’s government still tackles the issue of refugees is tightly restrained by its overall controlling immigration policies in an attempt to remain a homogenous nation. Japan has a long way to go in order to fully comply with the spirit of the Convention, the Protocol, and international instruments relating to the Status of Refugees. Jepang telah meratifikasi Konvensi Mengenai Status Pengungsi 1951 dan Protokol tentang Kedudukan Pengungsi 1967 sejak tahun 1981 dan 1982, namun Jepang hanya menerima sejumlah kecil pengungsi dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun sejak diratifikasinya konvensi tersebut. Jepang harus meninjau kembali dan memastikan bahwa kebijakan-kebijakan nasional negaranya telah sesuai dengan perjanjian internasional yang telah ditandatangani Jepang. Kerangka kerja pemerintah Jepang dalam menangani isu pengungsi sangat dibatasi oleh berbagai pengetatan kebijakan imigrasi yang dikeluarkan dalam semangat mempertahankan homogenitas bangsa. Jepang memiliki banyak pekerjaan rumah yang harus dilakukan agar dapat memenuhi semangat konvensi, protokol, dan berbagai instrumen internasional terkait status pengungsi.

  17. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  18. On Being There: Korean in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, John C.; Kawanishi, Yumiko

    1995-01-01

    Examines the experiences of ethnic Koreans and the Korean language in Japan since 1945, focusing on Japanese attitudes toward Koreans and the Korean language, provisions for Korean and bilingual education, and the increasing influence of Koreans in Japanese society. (18 references) (MDM)

  19. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  20. Development of nuclear powered ship in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The development of nuclear merchant ship in Japan was started in 1955 by the establishment of Nuclear Ship Study Group, and since then, the investigation, test and research on nuclear ships have been continued. As a result, a nuclear ocean observation and supply ship was designed for trial. Researches were carried out also in JAERI and Institute for Technical Research of Ships. Meanwhile, the nuclear icebreaker Lenin was completed in Soviet Union in 1959, the nuclear ship Savannah set out for maiden voyage in U.S. in 1962, and the construction of the nuclear ore carrier Otto Hahn was prepared in FRG. Japan Nuclear Ship Development Corp. was established in 1963, and started the design and construction of the first nuclear ship in Japan, Mutsu. The basic policy in the construction is the improvement of nuclear ship technology, the securing of safety, and the use of domestic technologies as far as possible. The progress of the design, construction and test of the Mutsu is described. Owing to the problem of radiation leak, the development of nuclear ships stagnated for a while, but the nuclear plant of the Mutsu demonstrated the expected performance in the functional test, land criticality test and zero output test, and it is expected that the bud of the independent development brought up so far can bear valuable fruit. The independent development of marine nuclear reactors should be continued by selecting the way most suitable to Japan. (Kako, I.)

  1. Multicultural and Multiethnic Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the Ainu people have been living mainly in Hokkaido and many Koreans continue to live since the end of the World War Two. Since 1990's, the number of migrant workers has increased rapidly. In this sense, Japanese society has been multicultural and multiethnic. However, those minority groups have been strictly discriminated against in…

  2. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  3. Role of fast breeders in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, A.; Tomabechi, K.

    1978-09-01

    To meet increasing future energy demand in Japan utilization of fission energy should be promoted. In particular it is of vital importance to develop and utilize FBRs as soon as possible in order to save the natural uranium needed. If one considers the commercial introduction of FBRs in the mid-1990s in Japan, a delay of only one year will eventually result in an additional demand for natural uranium of more than 20,000 tons, because several LWRs will have to be installed instead. Ten years have passed since the development of FBRs in Japan was initiated as a national project with the highest priority and now the experimental fast reactor JOYO is successfully being operated at 50MW and the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has reached the stage of proceeding to construction with a schedule of operation in the mid-1980s. Following operation of MONJU, construction of a large demonstration reactor of 1000 - 15000 MW(e) will be undertaken. Some 2 - 3 years after the construction of the demonstration reactor, a series of reactors will be constructed similar in size and design to promote commercialization of LMFBRs. Strong efforts will be made to put this programme into practice. It is expected that LMFBRs will play an important role in mitigating the serious problem of energy supply in Japan foreseeable around the turn of the century

  4. X-Ray Lithography In Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    electrons hitting the walls of the ring is not in the direct line of sight of a tilted beamline. A translating mirror is then used to expand the...34 Remarch Peromnnel and Facilities for Resist R&D T. Nakayama TOK, 1590 Tabata , Samukawa-cho, Kohza-gun, Kanagawa-ken 253-01 Japan M. Sasago Matsushita

  5. Entomological journals and publishing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema

    Here I present an overview of entomological journals and publishing in Japan, thereby providing a convenient portal to the valuable scientific resources for the world's entomological researchers and scientific communities. Currently, except for several international journals published fully in English such as Applied Entomology and Zoology and Entomological Science , many entomological and entomology-related journals in Japan are not indexed by major scientific databases like Web of Science, and therefore they are neither conveniently recognizable nor accessible for the world's entomological communities. However, I point out that many of the contents of such journals are freely available via Japan's public platforms for electronic scientific literature, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic (J-stage) or Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics (CiNii). Here I list 32 entomological and entomology-related societies and their 45 journals, the majority of which belong to either the Union of Japanese Societies for Insect Sciences (UJSIS), the Union of the Japanese Societies for Systematic Biology (UJSSB), the Union of Japanese Societies for Natural History (UJSNH), or the Union of Japanese Societies for Biological Science (UJSBS), with their respective URL and open-access availability.

  6. Japan's System of Official Development Assistance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... is a founding principle of the “IDRC approach” to development assistance. ...... Given the structure and practices of the Government of Japan, it is very difficult to ...... The recipient country must provide their housing and tax exemptions on ...... involving 11 Japanese corporations for the afforestation of land in Malaysia.

  7. Current asthma deaths among adults in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugio Nakazawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent asthma deaths were examined from yearly reports of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan and from reports published by the Japan Asthma Death Investigation Committee on 811 deaths over the period 1992–2000. The rate and number of recent asthma deaths in Japan have been decreasing rapidly. Most asthma deaths were of patients aged 70–90 years and there has been a marked trend for increased asthma deaths in the elderly. As for the circumstances surrounding the deaths, sudden death, unstable sudden aggravation and intermittent aggravation were mainly noted. Respiratory infections, fatigue and stress were the major courses of fatal attacks contributing to deaths due to asthma. Many of the patients who died from asthma had been diagnosed as having as moderate to severe asthma and many had non-atopic asthma. There are some reports that suggest that the recent decrease in asthma deaths in Japan is correlated with the use of inhaled cortico- steroids.

  8. Urbanization and Changing Funerals in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 淑江; Toshie, Kurihara

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, the 'death problem' has become a big topic of discussion in Japan. In the past, Japanese people did not like to talk about such an ominous matter as death. However, issues surrounding death, such as euthanasia, brain death, terminal care,

  9. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

  10. The Japan white book about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    We find here a partial translation of the white book on nuclear energy published by Japan. In this document are the following themes: the safety of nuclear energy, research and development (JAERI), international cooperation, financing distribution, administrative chart of principal authorities and state agencies, budget for 1996 of nuclear energy and situation of the Japanese nuclear park. (N.C.)

  11. With a Little Help from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  12. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  13. Policy of Japan of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, A.

    1989-01-01

    Development and utilization of nuclear power has been steadily pursued in Japan in order to secure a stable source of energy over a long-term period. According to the author, nuclear power plants are operated carefully and safely and have been generating electricity for more than twenty years. In fact, it now accounts for approximately 30% of total electricity generated, and has become an integral part of the energy supply in Japan. The benefits of nuclear technology are now enjoyed not only in the electricity production, but also in the fields such as medicine and other industries. Under such circumstances, radioactive waste management generated in nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants as well as in industrial and medical uses of radiation, is an important part of the nuclear energy policy, and there is also a strong public interest in this field. The government is active in formulating waste management policies based on the basic policies indicated by Japan ATomic Energy Commission (JAEC). This presentation will touch upon the future perspective of radioactive waste management policy in Japan

  14. Identity, gender and teaching English in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Nagatomo, Diane Hawley

    2016-01-01

    How do teachers, who have chosen to settle down in one country, manage the difficulties of living and teaching English in that country? This book answers this question by investigating the personal and professional identity development of ten Western women with Japanese spouses who teach English in various educational contexts in Japan.

  15. Application of neutron radiography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Wada, N.; Sekita, J.; Sanno-cho, Ota-ku, Tokyo, Japan)

    1983-01-01

    The history and the present state of neutron radiography in Japan are reviewed. Three types of neutron sources, namely nuclear reactors, accelerators and radioisotopes are now used. The interests on the application on neutron radiography become greater and greater in the industries, such as atomic energy, aeronautics and space etc. (Auth.)

  16. Megastock'97 Kongres, Juni, 1997, Sapporo, Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Report on experiences, contacts and novelties in the technics of energy storage made at the Megastock'97 konference in Sapporo, Japan, seen from a Danish point of view.A number of methods and technics for energy storgare are discussed and recommendations to the Ministery of Environment and Energy...

  17. U.S.-Japan Quake Prediction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl; Mikumo, Takeshi; Kanamori, Hiroo

    For the seventh time since 1964, a seminar on earthquake prediction has been convened under the U.S.-Japan Cooperation in Science Program. The purpose of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the two countries to share recent progress and future plans in the continuing effort to develop the scientific basis for predicting earthquakes and practical means for implementing prediction technology as it emerges. Thirty-six contributors, 15 from Japan and 21 from the U.S., met in Morro Bay, Calif.September 12-14. The following day they traveled to nearby sections of the San Andreas fault, including the site of the Parkfield prediction experiment. The conveners of the seminar were Hiroo Kanamori, Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), for the U.S., and Takeshi Mikumo, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, for Japan . Funding for the participants came from the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Japan Society forthe Promotion of Science, supplemented by other agencies in both countries.

  18. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  19. Japan, new agenda for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrisstoffels, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    The author argues that the Japanese government will actively seek to strengthen security of supply. Japan has almost no domestic energy reserves. It is Asia's leading energy importer, but it faces increasing competition for resources from China and India. This has led to growing concern among Japanese policy makers. In the spring of 2007 a new Basic Energy Law was drafted that offers a strategic change of direction, away from a policy emphasis on free (energy) trade promotion and liberalisation of domestic energy markets. Japan will boost energy diplomacy towards energy producing countries and increase financial guarantees to Japanese oil and gas development companies. At the same time, Japan will raise efforts to lower its dependency on foreign oil and gas. To this end, it has set ambitious targets for further nuclear power development and the promotion of bio-trade. The author points at a multitude of complexities that may impede the success of these policies, Still, EU policy makers should be aware that Japan's energy policy has changed, driven by the conviction that markets alone cannot be relied upon to guarantee a secure supply of energy. [nl

  20. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

  2. IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant reported to have elevated levels of radiation. The IAEA dispatched the mission to Japan on 7 October following a request from the country's Government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several Ministries and institutions. ''The meetings held and visits made by the team over the last eight days gave us a first-hand appreciation of the extraordinary efforts and dedication on the part of Japanese people in their effort to remediate the areas affected by elevated levels of radiation in the Fukushima Prefecture,'' says Mr. Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. ''As Japan continues its current remediation efforts, it is our belief that this work will bring relief to the populations who are affected by the consequences of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.'' In a Preliminary Summary Report delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of conclusions including, though not limited to, the following: - Japan developed an efficient program for remediation - allocating the necessary legal, financial and technological resources to bring relief to the people affected by the accident, with priority being given to children. The Team was impressed with the strong commitment to the remediation effort from all institutions and parties involved, including the public; - Japan has also taken practical measures to inform the public and involve residents and local institutions in the process of defining its remediation strategy; - Japan is advised to avoid

  3. Japan’s National Interests in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the existential recognition of the power asymmetry at the core of the issue. C. PRC POWER ASYMMETRY: “COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL POWER” Dealing with a...technological strength. Japan needs a grand strategy consonant with its self-image as a humanistic , democratic and peaceful nation, and a strategy able

  4. Military aspect of nuclear policy of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Military aspect of nuclear policy of Japan was outlined. In 1952 Prime Minister Yoshida asked to prepare production of weapons for rearmament and to establish Science and Technology Agency such as to overcome lack of science research budget and inefficiency of research and cooperation. Kaya and Fushimi proposed establishment of Atomic Energy Commission as recommendation of Science Council of Japan. In 1954 Nakasone proposed budget for nuclear energy with yen 235 million to construct reactor. In 1955 Japanese delegation participated in international conference on peaceful use of nuclear energy at Geneva and nonpartisan members proposed Atomic Energy Basic Law, which limited the use of nuclear technology to peaceful purposes, ensured three principles - democratic methods, independent management, and transparency - as the basis of nuclear research and promoted international co-operation. In 1956 Atomic Energy Commission and Science and Technology Agency were established with other organizations under this law. According to internal report in the age of Prime Minister Sato, nuclear policy in Japan would be (1) no holding nuclear weapon for the time being, (2) maintaining economic and technical potential of nuclear weapon production and (3) considering no restraint for this policy whether Japan participated in NPT or not. Fuel cycle program of Monju reactor and reprocessing for power production seemed to be deployed corresponding to (3) above. Irradiated blanket of Monju reactor could be reprocessed to produce highly purified plutonium suited for nuclear bombs. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  6. Brasil-Japan collaboration experiment at Chacaltaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The historical aspects on the beginning of the Brazil-Japan Collaboration on cosmic ray experiments at Chacaltaya-Bolivia are introduced. The physical aspects concerning with this subject are presented. Some well-Known results are briefly discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Japan's international peace operations in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-20

    Nov 20, 2016 ... the new mission was based on the Peace and Security Legislation enacted by the Abe government in .... Japan's commitment to human security and peacekeeping operations in. South Sudan. On the basis of ..... cameras on their helmets in order to prove that their shootings were legally justifiable (Mainichi ...

  8. Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F. Cargill

    2006-01-01

    This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.

  9. Memento. Maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan represents the last of the 3 steps of transport of the nuclear fuel reprocessing-recycling program settled between ORC (Japan), BNFL (UK) and Cogema (France). This document summarizes the different aspects of this program: the companies concerned, the physical protection measures, the US-Japan agreements (accompanying warship), the in-depth safety, the handling of MOX fuels (containers and ships), and the Japan MOX fuel needs. (J.S.)

  10. The cost of schizophrenia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuhiro Sado,1 Ataru Inagaki,2 Akihiro Koreki,1 Martin Knapp,3 Lee Andrew Kissane,4 Masaru Mimura,1 Kimio Yoshimura4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, 2Center for Clinical Psychopharmacology, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Schizophrenia is a disorder that produces considerable burdens due to its often relapsing/remitting or chronic longitudinal course. This burden is felt not only by patients themselves, but also by their families and health care systems. Although the societal burden caused by this disorder has been evaluated in several countries, the magnitude of the societal cost of schizophrenia in Japan has never been estimated. The aim of this study is to clarify the societal burden of schizophrenia by estimating the cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008. Methods: A human capital approach was adopted to estimate the cost of schizophrenia. The total cost of schizophrenia was calculated as the sum of the direct, morbidity, and mortality costs. Schizophrenia was defined as disorders coded as F20.0–F20.9 according to the International Classification of Diseases-10. The data required to estimate the total cost was collected from publicly available statistics or previously reported studies. Results: The total cost of schizophrenia in Japan in 2008 was JPY 2.77 trillion (USD 23.8 billion. While the direct cost was JPY 0.770 trillion (USD 6.59 billion, the morbidity and mortality costs were JPY 1.85 trillion (USD 15.8 billion and JPY 0.155 trillion (USD 1.33 billion, respectively. Conclusion: The societal burden caused by schizophrenia is tremendous in Japan, similar to that in other developed countries where published data exist. Compared with other disorders, such as depression or anxiety disorders

  11. Japan and atomic co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Japan, which is host country for the Ninth Regular Session of the Agency General Conference, has an important programme of nuclear power development to meet future needs. In addition, Japan is active in other applications of atomic energy and is building up a domestic nuclear engineering industry. Japan has profited by the Agency as a channel of international cooperation, and was a party to the first bilateral agreement in which the responsibility for administering safeguards against the diversion of materials to military purposes, was transferred to the Agency. Japan has also lent support to Agency programmes by gifts, training courses, research, and the loan of experts. In 1961, the Japan Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) formulated the 'Long-Range Programme for Development and Utilization of Atomic Energy', on the basis of the economic prospects of nuclear power generation, and the conditions necessary to meet the ever-increasing domestic energy demands. According to this programme, in the light of power reactor development trends overseas, it is expected that nuclear power costs will compete with those of oil burning stations by 1970. On this basis, total nuclear power generating capacity of 1000 MW(e) will be attained by 1970, and 7000 - 9 500M(e) by 1980. As a prelude to the above programme the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO) began construction in 1959 of a graphite-moderated gas-cooled nuclear power station (Improved Calder Hall type) of 165 MW(e) gross capacity. This is now progressing smoothly, and reached criticality in May 1965; it is expected to supply commercial power by the end of this year. The second nuclear power station will be built by the same company on the coast of the Japan Sea, with a light water-moderated reactor of 250 - 300 MW(e) capacity. The construction plan i s currently being pushed forward for completion in 1970. Thereafter three private utility companies - Tokyo, Kansai and Chubu Electric Companies - are doing preparatory work for

  12. International development of Japan's Nuclear Industry. Indispensable Japan-U.S. cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigo, Masao

    2006-01-01

    It is significant to internationally develop the nuclear power plants technology that has been fostered by Japan's nuclear industry. It is also important to work with taking the degree of development of nuclear power plants of the recipient country into consideration. ''Forum on International Development of Nuclear Industry'' organized by the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) proposed it would be indispensable for a Japan's nuclear industry to establish a Japan-U.S. Cooperation with the support of Government in order to develop the nuclear technology internationally. In November 2005, the investigating team including utilities and nuclear industry visited U.S. and exchanged opinions on its possibility. Investigating results and their evaluation were described. (T.Tanaka)

  13. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...)] Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for in subheadings 2933.69... (LTFV) from Japan and subsidized by the Government of China.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2...

  14. 77 FR 60380 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... December 3, 2012 in Tokyo in conjunction with the U.S.-Japan Energy Policy Dialogue. The U.S. Department of... roundtable and other related events will be held in Japan the week of December 3-7, 2012. Participants must...

  15. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  16. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan. SUMMARY... order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  17. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Revised... conjunction with the U.S.-Japan Energy Policy Dialogue. The U.S. Department of Energy--the lead U.S. agency... more about the policy and regulatory landscape for renewable energy developing in Japan at this time...

  18. Clinical statistics of gynecologic cancers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, have both high morbidity and mortality among the gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. The present study was conducted using both the population-based cancer registry and the gynecologic cancer registry to elucidate the characteristics of gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. Based on nationwide estimates from the population-based cancer registry in Japan, the morbidities and mortality of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were obtained and used for analysis. Clinicopathologic factors for cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, including age, clinical stage, postsurgical stage, histological type, therapeutic strategy, and prognosis were retrieved from the gynecologic cancer registry published by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and used for analysis. The morbidities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 10,908, 13,606, and 9,384 women in 2012, respectively. The prevalence of endometrial cancer has significantly and consistently been increasing and represents the most common gynecologic malignant tumor in Japan. The mortalities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 2.1, 1.3, and 3.2 per 100,000 in 2012, respectively. In 2014, 52.2% of cervical cancer patients were classified as stage I, 22.5% as stage II, 10.2% as stage III, and 11.2% as stage IV. In addition, 71.9% of endometrial cancer patients were classified as stage I, 6.0% as stage II, 13.3% as stage III, and 7.5% as stage IV. Finally, 43.2% of ovarian cancer patients were classified as stage I, 9.1% as stage II, 27.6% as stage III, and 7.2% as stage IV. Twelve-point six percent of ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28198168

  19. Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    A goal of the 21. century is for society to pursue 'sustainable economic development and prosperous life by recycling resources', thus rejecting 'development based on the waste of resources'. For Japan, which has limited energy resources, it is important to secure safe, inexpensive, environmentally friendly energy resources having long-term availability. To contribute to long-term energy security and solve global environmental issues, and to create advanced competitive science and technology, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established by integrating the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in October 2005. JAEA is endeavoring to establish nuclear fuel cycles, to contribute to social improvement through hydrogen production initiated by atomic energy, and to pursue research and development of thermonuclear fusion and quantum beam technology. This paper reviews the main R and D activities of JAEA. The structure of the paper is the following: 1. Introduction; 2. Japan Atomic Energy Agency; 3. Efforts to Commercialize the Fast Reactor Cycle; 4. Monju Progress; 5. Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste R and D; 6. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor System R and D; 7. Fusion Research and Development; 8. LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing Technology; 9. Quantum Beam Technologies; 10. Nuclear Safety Research and Regulatory Applications; 11. Basic Science and Engineering Research; 12. Contribution to the Enhanced International Nonproliferation Regimes; 13. Conclusions. To summarize, JAEA will promote the above R and D activities, addressing the following commitments: - On problems that atomic energy faces, we shall extend technical assistance in response to the government and the industrial sectors. - We shall produce technical options to attain political goals to secure medium to long-term stable energy supplies and to solve global environmental issues. - With the high potentials of atomic

  20. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Project Promotion Office; Kotake, Shoji [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  1. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  2. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  3. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  4. Longterm and spatial variability of Aerosol optical properties measured by sky radiometer in Japan sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols and cloud play an important role in the climate change. We started the long-term monitoring of aerosol and cloud optical properties since 1990's by using sky radiometer (POM-01, 02; Prede Co. Ltd., Japan). We provide the information, in this presentation, on the aerosol optical properties with respect to their temporal and spatial variability in Japan site (ex. Sapporo, Toyama, Kasuga and etc). The global distributions of aerosols have been derived from earth observation satellite and have been simulated in numerical models, which assume optical parameters. However, these distributions are difficult to derive because of variability in time and space. Therefore, Aerosol optical properties were investigated using the measurements from ground-based and ship-borne sky radiometer. The sky radiometer is an automatic instrument that takes observations only in daytime under the clear sky conditions. Observation of diffuse solar intensity interval was made every ten or five minutes by once. The aerosol optical properties were computed using the SKYRAD.pack version 4.2. The obtained Aerosol optical properties (Aerosol optical thickness, Ångström exponent, Single scattering albedo, and etc.) and size distribution volume clearly showed spatial and temporal variability in Japan area. In this study, we present the temporal and spatial variability of Aerosol optical properties at several Japan sites, applied to validation of satellite and numerical models. This project is validation satellite of GCOM-C, JAXA. The GCOM-C satellite scheduled to be launched in early 2017.

  5. Shirataki obsidian exploitation and circulation in prehistoric northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yakushige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the total number of archaeological obsidian sources in Japan is more than 80, and among them, 21 are in Hokkaido, northern part of the Japanese archipelago (Izuho and Sato 2007. Obsidian was the dominant of lithic raw material in the Upper Paleolithic Hokkaido (35-10 ka cal BP. Out of 21 archaeological obsidian sources in Hokkaido, 4 sources: Shirataki, Oketo, Tokachi, and Akaigawa are the major obsidian sources and the others are minor sources. Shirataki is one of the largest obsidian sources in Northeast Asia and it is well known that Shirataki obsidian was transported outside Hokkaido to Sakhalin and the Paleo-Honshu Island from the Late Upper Paleolithic period.We compiled data of obsidian source analyses conducted to artefacts from Paleolithic sites in Hokkaido, and it became clear that the ratio of Shirataki obsidian in all analyzed materials is more than half (Sato and Yakushige in press.We examined how far Shirataki obsidian was transported in each period: the Early Upper Paleolithic (35-25 ka cal BP and the Late Upper Paleolithic (25-10 ka cal BP. The Late Upper Paleolithic is divided into three stage, the early Early Microblade Industry (Stage 1: 25-21 ka cal BP, the late Early Microblade Industry (Stage 2: 19-16 ka cal BP, and the Late Microblade Industry (Stage 3: 16-10 ka cal BP. As a result, it is revealed that the distribution areas of Shirataki obsidian did not expand gradually over time, but are different in different lithic industries. In the background of this situation lay the difference of ecological adaptation strategies adopted by the prehistoric people of the time and their movement behavioral strategies.

  6. Proceedings of the Japan-USA Collaborative Workshops on the History of Particle Theory in Japan, 1935-1960

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabe, Rokuo; Konuma, Michiji; Elementary particle theory in Japan, 1935-1960 : Japan-USA collaboration, second phase

    1988-01-01

    This volume consists mainly of papers presented at five "workshop", each of two or three days duration, held at various locations in Japan and the United States during 1984-5 by a USA-Japan collaboration for the study of the history of particle physics in Japan, together with some of the discussions and additional interviews.

  7. Silk, porcelain and lacquer: China and Japan and their trade with Western Europe and the New World, 1500-1644. A survey of documentary and material evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens Planella, Maria Teresa (Teresa Canepa)

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the prolific early European trade and consumption of three Asian manufactured goods: Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese lacquer in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and has shown how the material cultures of late Ming China and Momoyama/early Edo Japan became inextricably linked with the West. Multiple sources provided new and unexpected documentary and material evidence of this trade by the Iberian Kingdoms of Portugal and Spain, and the tradin...

  8. An overview of work, retirement, and pensions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, S A

    1996-01-01

    Work to retirement in Japan is a sequential transition for the most part, and Japan permits mandatory retirement by firms at age 60. But many older people work beyond the age of 60, many more than in other industrialized countries. A number of hypotheses are examined, having to do with pensions, health, opportunity, interest in working, cultural attitudes (including the concept of ikigai), and public policy initiatives (such as employment policy and the Silver Human Resource Centers). Japan's cultural attitudes and existing policies appear to have set Japan on a unique course in considering the aging of its population. To what extent should other nations emulate Japan?

  9. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  10. Status of Recent Developments in the Technical Standards of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Ahn, Sang-Kyu; Koh, Jae-Dong; Kim, Chang-Bum

    2006-01-01

    Japan has systematically revamped its technical standards for nuclear reactor facilities by formulating various performance regulations. Being part of a trend toward deregulation, such efforts toward social regulation is aimed at effectively operating administrative procedural laws to keep pace with global trends and enhance the benefits of deregulation under the principle of self-responsibility. Based on the collection of public opinions in February and March 2005, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency(NISA) presented its position that it was required to promptly perform a flexible assessment of the technical feasibility of formulated society and association standards. Current, pressing issues are summarized as an early revision of technical standards regarding nuclear facilities for power generation, use of society and association standards, and the overhaul of nuclear safety regulations subject to performance regulations. Subjecting technical standards to performance regulations means stipulating the qualitative aspects of performance and the targets that certain facilities must achieve, which are not specific standards, but general compulsory standards. This study examines the early revision of technical standards on nuclear facilities for power generation and the status of the use of society and association standards, as well as introducing the details of revisions in the concrete containment vessel standards as specific examples

  11. Time and space variations of trophosherive carbon dioxide over Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Nakazawa, T.; Aoki, S.

    Aircraft measurements of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration over Japan, initiated in January 1979, have been continued to the present. The average seasonal variation of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ showed maximum concentration early in April and early in May, and minimum concentration in mid-August and mid-September for the lower-most and the upper-most layers of the troposphere, respectively. The peak-to-peak amplitudes of the seasonal variation were 14.5, 9.0 and 7.8 ppmv for the lower, middle and upper tropospheres, respectively. The average rate of annual increase of the CO/sub 2/ concentration over the last 6 years was about 1.3 ppmv yr/sup -1/ with considerable variation with time. The vertical profile of the annual mean value of the CO/sub 2/ concentration was almost the same from year to year; the CO/sub 2/ concentrations decreased gradually with height and the concentration difference between the lowest and highest layers of the troposphere was about 2 ppmv. (authors).

  12. Historical development of modern anatomy education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools at the beginning of Meiji era were diverse, both in regard to their founders and their methods of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organize medical education at the medical school of the University of Tokyo. The anatomical education at the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei, who returned from the study in Germany. At the first meeting of Japanese Association ofAnatomists in 1893 [Meiji 26], the Japanese anatomy teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the University of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomy department. Before 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationalities were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books based on the lectures by German teachers at the University of Tokyo were published. The anatomy books after 1887 [Meiji 20] were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 [Meiji 38], the original Japanese anatomy books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. In the Meiji 10s the anatomy teachers and anatomy textbooks spread from the University of Tokyo to the medical schools in Japan as the number of medical schools increased temporally. In the Meiji 20s the five national and three public medical schools in addition to the University of Tokyo provided substantial anatomy education including dissection course. Even in the early Meiji 20s these medical schools supplied only half of the newly licensed doctors, and the others were supplied through the national examination after preparatory education at private medical schools without opportunity of substantial anatomy education including dissection course.

  13. Forty years of mutation breeding in Japan. Research and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isao

    2003-01-01

    The radiation source used for breeding in the early years was mainly X rays. After the 2nd World War, gamma ray sources such as 60 Co and 137 Cs came to take a leading role in radiation breeding. The institute of Radiation Breeding (IRB) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) was established on April 16, 1960. A gamma field with 2000Ci of a 60 Co source, the main irradiation facility of the IRB, was installed to study the genetically responses of crop plants to chronic exposures of ionizing radiation and their practical application to plant breeding. This paper consisted of 'forty years of research on radiobiology and mutation breeding in Japan', 'topics of mutation breeding research in IRB', 'outline of released varieties by mutation breeding' and 'future of mutation breeding'. The number of varieties released by the direct use of induced mutation in Japan amounts to 163 as of November 2001. Crops in which mutant varieties have been released range widely: rice and other cereals, industrial crops, forage crops, vegetables, ornamentals, mushrooms and fruit trees, the number of which reaches 48. The number of mutant varieties is highest (31) in chrysanthemum, followed by 22 in rice and 13 in soybean. By the indirect use of mutants, a total of 15 varieties of wheat, barley, soybean, mat rush and tomato have been registered by MAFF. Recent advances in biotechnological techniques have made it possible to determine DNA sequences of mutant genes. Accumulating information of DNA sequences and other molecular aspects of many mutant genes will throw light on the mechanisms of mutation induction and develop a new field of mutation breeding. (S.Y.)

  14. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  15. Lifetime comorbidities between phobic disorders and major depression in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hata, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Masayo; Miyake, Yuko; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko; Kessler, Ronald C

    2009-01-01

    Although often considered of minor significance in themselves, evidence exists that early-onset phobic disorders might be predictors of later more serious disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of phobic disorders with the onset of MDD in the community in Japan. Data from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey were analyzed. A total of 2,436 community residents aged 20 and older were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (response rate, 58.4%). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to predict the onset of MDD as a function of prior history of DSM-IV specific phobia, agoraphobia, or social phobia, adjusting for gender, birth-cohort, other anxiety disorders, education, and marital status at survey. Social phobia was strongly associated with the subsequent onset of MDD (hazard ratio [HR]=4.1 [95% CI: 2.0-8.7]) after adjusting for sex, birth cohort, and the number of other anxiety disorders. The association between agoraphobia or specific phobia and MDD was not statistically significant after adjusting for these variables. Social phobia is a powerful predictor of the subsequent first onset of MDD in Japan. Although this finding argues against a simple neurobiological model and in favor of a model in which the cultural meanings of phobia play a part in promoting MDD, an elucidation of causal pathways will require more fine-grained comparative research.

  16. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  17. Applications of shape memory alloys in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, a first application of shape memory TiNi alloy was a moving flap in an air-conditioner which was developed as sensing function of shape memory alloy at Matsushista Electric Industrial Co. Then, shape memory utilized in a coffee maker, an electric rice-cooker, a thermal mixing valve and etc. were commercialized in Japan. And brassiere wires, a guide wire for medical treatment, an antenna for portable telephone and others were commercialized utilizing superelasticity. At the same time with these commercial products, there was not only progress in fabrication technology to effect accurate transformation temperature, but also the discovery of small hysteresis alloy such as R-phase or TiNiCu alloy and low transformation temperature alloy such as TiNiFe, TiNiV and TiNiCo alloys. Therefore the shape memory alloy market has expanded widely to electric appliances, automobile, residence, medical care and other field today. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear power in Japan in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molodtsov, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the development level of nuclear power in Japan as of 1988 beginning are presented. Total registed electric power of 36 nuclear power units under operation constituted 28046 MW. 13 power units with 12268 MW total power are under construction. In 1987 188.4 TWH electric power was generated at the Japanese NPPs, it constituted 31.7% of total electric power generation. About 360 bil. yens were assigned from the state budget to further development of nuclear power engineering. Efforts to create the improved BWR type reactor, as well as, scientific and research efforts on the development of fast breeder reactors, improvement of uranium enrichment and radioactive waste storage are carried out. It is expected that share of nuclear power in electric power generation in Japan will reach 40% to the beginning of the 21-th century

  19. Japan's oil market and refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The present economic situation in Japan is discussed. In particular, the focus is on fluctuations in oil product demand, imports of crude oil, and the refining industry. Throughout the 1990s, Japan was plagued by a volatile economy and the new millennium has shown no improvement. A prolonged recession means that the country now has little confidence in its leaders and its institutions, consumer confidence is low and asset values have deflated. Due to a low birth rate and long life expectancy, the population is aging and this means lower savings rates. The contrast between the present situation and the so-called economic miracle once enjoyed by the Japanese is hard to accept, but despite all this, the Japanese lifestyle and economy are to be envied

  20. Progress of metallic superconductors in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji, E-mail: tacsuper@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1, Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Japanese contributions on the R and D of different metallic superconductors are summarized. ► Nb–Ti wires have been developed for MRI, accelerator, MAGLEV train and other applications. ► Multifilamentary Nb{sub 3}Sn wires with excellent performance have been developed for high-field use. ► Long-length Nb{sub 3}Al wires with promising strain tolerance have been fabricated by a new process. -- Abstract: This article overviews the development of metallic superconductors in Japan covering different kinds of alloys and intermetallic compounds. Metallic superconductors have opened many new application areas in science and technology. Japan has been one of the leading countries in the world, both in the research and development and in large-scale manufacturing of metallic superconductors.

  1. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  2. Marriage and labor market discrimination in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K H; Hill, M A

    1983-04-01

    "Many Japanese firms have engaged in the practice of compulsory retirement upon a female employee's marriage. In 1966, this practice was ruled as being contrary to provisions in Japan's Civil Code. [The authors] have specified and estimated a model of the economic determinants of age at marriage in order to analyze the effect that this discrimination has had on nuptiality in Japan. [The] results indicate that on average, after accounting for an upward trend, women who married after the 1966 court decision married about one year younger than women who married before 1966." It is also found that age at marriage is influenced by several socioeconomic variables, including wife's wage and educational level, husband's income and educational level, and wife's family background. Data are from a 1975 survey of women aged 20-59 who were living in the Tokyo metropolitan area. excerpt

  3. Status reports of supercomputing astrophysics in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nagasawa, Mikio

    1990-01-01

    The Workshop on Supercomputing Astrophysics was held at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK, Tsukuba) from August 31 to September 2, 1989. More than 40 participants of physicists, astronomers were attendant and discussed many topics in the informal atmosphere. The main purpose of this workshop was focused on the theoretical activities in computational astrophysics in Japan. It was also aimed to promote effective collaboration between the numerical experimentists working on supercomputing technique. The various subjects of the presented papers of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, gravitating systems, radiative transfer and general relativity are all stimulating. In fact, these numerical calculations become possible now in Japan owing to the power of Japanese supercomputer such as HITAC S820, Fujitsu VP400E and NEC SX-2. (J.P.N.)

  4. Promotion of food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Shunichi; Tada, Mikitaro; Furuta, Masakazu; Kume, Tamikazu; Hayashi, Toru; Yamamoto, Kazuko

    2007-01-01

    Atomic Energy Commission of Japan has organized special symposia inviting citizens and consumers on food irradiation based on the report presented by expert members meeting discussing about food irradiation in various countries as well as in Japan. This document summarizes the lectures and talks presented at the symposia: usefulness of food irradiation, one of the most effective means of sterilization to ensure sanitary supplies and to prevent loss from spoilage, activities of the subcommittee consisting of experts of this field, a report of the open forum with public participants on food irradiation, present status of detection techniques for the irradiated foods, the role of phyto-sanitary measures in plant protection, and how to realize the consumer's free choices for irradiated foods. (S. Ohno)

  5. Substitute energy resource policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umehara, Katsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Japan depends 88% of energy resources and 99.8% of petroleum on imports. The solution of energy problems is now made internationally. As the means for Japan, there are the substitution of other resources for petroleum and its promotion. However, this involves the considerable funds for the development and utilization, which must be borne by the people in the form of tax. For governmental financing, a special account must be set up for the particular purpose. In the research and development of new energy resources, new institution is required. The following matters are described: petroleum shortage coming even in 1980s, the international need of substitute energy development, the need for establishing measures for substitute energy resources, acquisition of the funds, special-account governmental financing, and an institute of new energy development. (author)

  6. Beyond EFL : Globalizing Education in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to education are not providing students in Japan with the skills necessary to become global human resources. How can skills such as effective communication, problem solving, cultural awareness, and leadership, all necessary in a rapidly globalizing world, be developed and nurtured in Japan’s schools? National public education must begin to play a more prominent role in the development of these important global skills. This paper will describe first year university students’...

  7. Nuclear power in Japan and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The development of the nuclear power industry in Japan and the USA is discussed. The author lists the number of nuclear power plants operating, under construction and planned and considers the contribution made by nuclear power stations to the total electricity generated. The advantages of nuclear power to both countries are outlined and forecasts are made of the role to be played by nuclear power in future years

  8. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  9. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu, E-mail: yamashita.kiyonobu@jaea.go.jp [Visiting Professor, at the Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); General Advisor Nuclear HRD Centre, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, TOKAI-mura, NAKA-gun, IBARAKI-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  10. Current status of VHTR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aochi, A.; Kondo, T.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 950 0 . The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 1000 0 C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

  11. The Programs of Japan in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-07-29

    functions of theI U cii’?rsi:rity in tho follo,:ing way: : ’"The purposo an’d - fanc - tion of th Unive-rsiy o.f ti.e Phil) ippines shall be to provide for...to .. ;i :if Japan co to the P’hilippines very soon tor a, series of genes wv-h.:i t - local- players. The ( loa.ding) teoia is (T" ..:yo. Six - .3

  12. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-01-01

    The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activis...

  13. The Evolving Relations of Japan and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    relations, domestic factors have the same potential. A variety of issues, some of which have no direct bearing on international relations, can and do...ajw.asahi.com/article/asia/around_asia/AJ201309300001. 220 Ibid.; Ankit Panda , “Vietnam to Acquire Japanese Maritime Surveillance Ships,” The Diplomat...Occasion of Official Visit.” 222 Ankit Panda , “India Will Buy 15 Amphibious Aircraft From Japan: So What?,” The Diplomat, January 29, 2014, http

  14. Core Indicators of Japan's Consumer Price Index

    OpenAIRE

    Shigenori Shiratsuka

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the Bank of Japan (BOJ) in conducting monetary policy is to promote sustainable growth by achieving price stability. The price stability that needs to be achieved is regarded as not just short-term and temporary, but sustainable in the medium to long term, which is the common understanding among major central banks. To fulfill this mandate, the BOJ is required to identify the underlying trend of inflation by excluding various idiosyncratic disturbances from measured p...

  15. Energy R and D in Japan; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.J. Dooley

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested$90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at$2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government

  16. Japan’s Emerging World Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-30

    refusal of Japanese fishermen to let Japan’s first nuclear ship , the Mutsu , return to port after it suffered reactor problems on its maiden voyage...producing nuclear ships . The f Japanese Navy is highly trained and, with a one-to-four ratio between officers and enlisted men, is capable of very rapid...1946/3-RR 4 broad rearmament program, especially one including the development of nuclear weapons. Current Japanese economic relations with the PRC and

  17. High-speed railways in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotani, Y.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of conventional railways in Japan, leading up to the Shinkansen line, which at present runs at speeds up to 210km/h, and will in the future be speeded up to 260km/h. It then goes on to review the development of a superconductive, magnetically levitated train, which will constitute the next generation of railways, running at speeds of up to 500km/h. (author)

  18. Education of nuclear engineering in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yasutomo; Yamamuro, Nobuhiro

    1979-01-01

    The research Committee of Nuclear Engineering Education has two working groups. One group has carried out surveyes on the curriculums of nuclear engineering course of universities in Japan and the activities of graduates in the industrial worlds. The other group conducted an investigation on the present status of energy education in senior high schools. This is an interim report on the activity of the research committee. (author)

  19. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

  20. Prospect of heavy ion studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, M.

    1976-01-01

    The status and future developments of heavy ion facilities in Japan are presented. New tandem, linear accelerator and Mumatron for studies of nuclear matter are under construction. Mumatron which provides 500 MeV/nucleon with rather small intensity consists of four parts, namely, Wideroe-type linear accelerator, Alvarez-type linear accelerator, Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and synchrotron. Mumatron is expected not only to open an entirely new field of nuclear physics but for application to the cancer therapy

  1. Japan's prospects in the Shanghai cooperation organization

    OpenAIRE

    Nurgaliev, Marat

    2009-01-01

    At the present stage, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is arousing great interest in the international community. The leading actors in international relations, such as the U.S., Japan, and the European countries, are keeping a careful watch over the organization's development. The interest of these countries is mainly related to the lack of information about the SCO's actual activity and the organization's real essence. The leaders of the SCO member states constantly assure everyo...

  2. Development of emission computed tomography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, E.

    1984-01-01

    Two positron emission computed tomography (PCT) devices developed in Japan are described. One is for head and the other for wholebody. The devices show fairly quantitative images with slight modifications of the existing algorithms because they were developed based on filtered back-projection. The PCT device seems to be better than the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) since it provides adequade compensation for photon attenuation in patients. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys in Japan Toward Improving Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis of national health surveys of the general population is a standard methodology for health metrics and evaluation; it is used to monitor trends in population health over time and benchmark the performance of health systems. In Japan, the government has established electronic databases of individual records from national surveys of the population’s health. However, the number of publications based on these datasets is small considering the scale and coverage of the surveys. There appear to be two major obstacles to the secondary use of Japanese national health survey data: strict data access control under the Statistics Act and an inadequate interdisciplinary research environment for resolving methodological difficulties encountered when dealing with secondary data. The usefulness of secondary analysis of survey data is evident with examples from the author’s previous studies based on vital records and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, which showed that (i) tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases in Japan; (ii) the decrease in mean blood pressure in Japan from the late 1980s to the early 2000s was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medication and reduced dietary salt intake; and (iii) progress in treatment coverage and control of high blood pressure is slower in Japan than in the United States and Britain. National health surveys in Japan are an invaluable asset, and findings from secondary analyses of these surveys would provide important suggestions for improving health in people around the world. PMID:26902170

  4. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takaoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters. Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  5. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  6. Results of operation of BWRs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueki, Kensuke

    1987-01-01

    It is considered that the development of BWR plants in Japan has been advanced relatively smoothly though sometimes there were complications. As of the end of fiscal year 1986, the BWR plants in operation were 16, and the total power output amounted to 12,917 MW, which was equivalent to 8 % of 153 GW of the total power source facilities in Japan. Reflecting the excellent operational result of BWR plants, the generated electric power in fiscal year 1986 reached 85.9 TWh and about 15 % of the total, exceeding hydroelectric power. This means that about 18 million tons of petroleum import was reduced. At the initial stage, BWR plants suffered the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel pipings in the reactor primary system. This trouble was successfully solved by the efforts of the government, electric power companies, plant manufacturers and research institutes. In fiscal year 1983, the capacity factor of all BWR plants in Japan recovered to more than 70 %, and in fiscal year 1986, it has reached 75.9 %. In order to improve the capacity factor further, it is necessary to prevent troubles by the development of diagnostic techniques and preventive maintenance, and to shorten regular inspection period. The change of accidents and troubles, the measures to reduce regular inspection period, the reduction of radiation exposure, and the reduction of wastes are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Surrogacy: donor conception regulation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Yukari; Chang, Chiungfang; Hong, Hyunsoo; Kamisato, Ayako; Kokado, Minori; Muto, Kaori

    2010-09-01

    As of 2008, surrogacy is legal and openly practised in various places; Japan, however, has no regulations or laws regarding surrogacy. This paper reports the situation of surrogacy in Japan and in five other regions (the USA, the UK, Taiwan, Korea and France) to clarify the pros and cons of prohibiting surrogacy, along with the problems and issues relating to surrogacy compensation. Not only in a country such as France that completely prohibits surrogacy within the country, but also in a country such as the UK that allows non-commercial surrogacy, infertile couples travel overseas for the purpose of surrogacy. In addition, some couples might seek underground surrogacy if the government prohibits surrogacy. If an intended parent couple and a surrogate make an agreement among themselves and then a problem occurs, they cannot ask for support from professionals or bring a case to court, as can be observed in South Korea and Taiwan. We also conclude that there is little difference between commercial surrogacy and non-commercial surrogacy in the absence of a clear definition of 'reasonable expenses.' In the UK, the law does not allow surrogates to receive compensation. However, in reality, there may be little difference between the amounts paid to surrogates for profit in the US and those paid to surrogates for reasonable expenses in the UK. We conclude that the issue of surrogacy demands further discussion in Japan.

  8. Virtual laboratory for fusion research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Horiuchi, R.; Ishiguro, S.; Takami, S.

    2008-01-01

    A virtual laboratory system for nuclear fusion research in Japan has been developed using SuperSINET, which is a super high-speed network operated by National Institute of Informatics. Sixteen sites including major Japanese universities, Japan Atomic Energy Agency and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) are mutually connected to SuperSINET with the speed of 1 Gbps by the end of 2006 fiscal year. Collaboration categories in this virtual laboratory are as follows: the large helical device (LHD) remote participation; the remote use of supercomputer system; and the all Japan ST (Spherical Tokamak) research program. This virtual laboratory is a closed network system, and is connected to the Internet through the NIFS firewall in order to keep higher security. Collaborators in a remote station can control their diagnostic devices at LHD and analyze the LHD data as they were at the LHD control room. Researchers in a remote station can use the supercomputer of NIFS in the same environment as NIFS. In this paper, we will describe detail of technologies and the present status of the virtual laboratory. Furthermore, the items that should be developed in the near future are also described

  9. Japan, world leader of photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, F.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970's, the potentialities of photovoltaic energy has been recognized by the Japanese government which has sustained this technology in two ways. First, by the financing of R and D programs, and second, by giving subsidies to citizens for the installation of solar panels. Today, Japan is the world leader of photovoltaic energy, both for the installed power and for the production of solar cells. In 2003, the International Energy Agency was reporting 1.809 GW of worldwide installed capacity among which 48% was in Japan (0.86 GW) with respect to 0.4 GW in Germany, 0.275 GW in the USA and only 20 MW in France. This capacity would have exceeded 1.1 GW at the end of 2004. Half of the solar modules are manufactured in Japan. The ministry of economy, trade and industry (METI) has fixed ambitious goals for 2010: the overall new energy sources much represent 3% of the primary energy (with respect to 1% today) and the installed capacity must reach 4.8 GW. The road-map of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO) foresees 100 GW by 2030. (J.S.)

  10. FBR/VHTR deployment scenarios in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Matt; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Co-deployment of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) and Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) can be used as the nuclear technologies to meet a significant portion of Japan's future energy demands. The FBR provides the fissile fuel for energy security and sustainability, and can be used to provide a significant portion of the electricity demand. The VHTR can provide flexible energy outputs (electricity, hydrogen, and high-temperature heat) with high efficiency, can operate with a wide variety of fuel cycles, and can be sited at locations that have limited availability of cooling water. These features, combined with its passive safety and high degree of proliferation resistance, make the VHTR an ideal complement for co-deployment with the FBR in Japan and also a very low-risk technology of export to foreign countries. In addition to hydrogen production, the high-temperature thermal energy produced by the VHTR fleet can be used for a wide variety of process-heat applications, and the VHTR can play a key role for significantly reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. This paper describes assessments for deploying FBRs and VHTRs in Japan using a closed fuel cycle, with the FBRs supplying the fissile material to sustain the combined FBR/VHTR fleet. (author)

  11. [WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment.

  12. Changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is known as the most important cause of gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, and socioeconomic status. In Japan, H. pylori infection has been highly correlated with the incidence rate of gastric cancer, and a reduction in H. pylori infection is therefore crucial for decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer, especially at the population level. Infection occurs during childhood, commonly before 5 years of age. In Japan, where gastric cancer has ranked as the most common cancer by incidence and mortality for the last several decades, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has dramatically declined by birth cohort effect, mainly due to improvements in the general hygiene environment in childhood. Older generations born before around 1950 show a high prevalence of around 80-90 %, decreasing with age to reach around 10 % or less in those born around the 1990s, and less than 2 % for children born after the year 2000. This change will have generational effects on gastric cancer prevention strategies, both primary and secondary. The risk-stratified approach to gastric cancer prevention should be considered in Japan and other countries which have similarly experienced rapid economic development.

  13. Dynamic axes of informed consent in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker Sullivan, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Scholarship in cross-cultural bioethics routinely frames Japanese informed consent in contrast to informed consent in North America. This contrastive analysis foregrounds cancer diagnosis disclosure and physician paternalism as unique aspects of Japanese informed consent that deviate from American practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 Japanese medical professionals obtained during fieldwork in Japan from 2013 to 15, this article complicates the informed consent discourse beyond East-West comparisons premised on Anglo-American ethical frameworks. It expands professional perspectives to include nurses, medical social workers, clinical psychologists, and ethicists and it addresses informed consent for a broad range of conditions in addition to cancer. The results suggest that division of affective labor is an under-theorized dimension of informed consent that is perceived as at odds with principled demands for universal informed consent. These practical tensions are conceptualized as cultural differences, with Japan identified in terms of omakase as practical and supportive and the United States identified in terms of jiko kettei as principled and self-determining. These results have implications for the methodology of cross-cultural bioethics as well as for theories and practices of informed consent in both Japan and the United States. I conclude that responsible cross-cultural work in bioethics must begin from the ground up, incorporating all relevant stakeholder perspectives, attitudes, and experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Status of cold fusion research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS) works have been centering around the Japan CF-Research Society (JCFRS) established in 1999. Recently, about 10 research groups were actively working in the CMNS field, and have been exchanging information mainly in the annual meetings of JCFRS in addition to the International ICCF conferences. For many years efforts have been exclusively devoted to clarification of the underlying physics of excess heat phenomenon and isotopic composition change. Recently, however, an entrepreneur group, Clean Planet Inc., has entered into the CMNS field in Japan, and joined Mizuno to form the above-mentioned group and made a presentation at the LANR/CF Colloquium, at MIT in March 2014. In their work they used glow discharge to form surface nanostructures on nickel mesh wires that are to be subjected to deuterium exposure. They claimed excess power on the order of kilowatts with a coefficient of performance of 1.9. Confirmation of their claim by third parties is highly expected

  15. The Age at Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Kurasawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No large-scale study of the timing of autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnosis has been performed in Japan to date. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences and annual trends in age at diagnosis of ASD using clinical data. Methods. Clinical data for children aged less than 18 years diagnosed with ASD between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, and in whom follow-up was possible 1 year after diagnosis, were extracted. Results. The mean age at ASD diagnosis was 7.2 ± 4.2 years and the mode age was 3 years. No sex difference was observed for age at diagnosis (p=0.157. An annual trend of earlier diagnosis was observed when fiscal years were compared (p<0.001. Conclusion. This study highlighted the need to develop and provide appropriate early intervention methods and services for ASD children in Japan.

  16. Epidemiology, associated burden, and current clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, William; Ueda, Kaname; Jorgensen, Margaret; Stathis, Shari; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Nakamura, Tomomi

    2018-01-01

    The burden of dementia in Japan is large and growing. With the world's fastest aging population, it is estimated that one in five elderly people will be living with dementia in Japan by 2025. The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), accounting for around two-thirds of dementia cases. A systematic review was conducted to examine the epidemiology and associated burden of AD in Japan and to identify how AD is diagnosed and managed in Japan. English and Japanese language databases were searched for articles published between January 2000 and November 2015. Relevant Japanese sources, clinical practice guideline registers, and reference lists were also searched. Systematic reviews and cohort and case-control studies were eligible for inclusion, with a total of 60 studies included. The most recent national survey conducted in six regions of Japan reported the mean prevalence of dementia in people aged ≥65 years to be 15.75% (95% CI: 12.4, 22.2%), which is much higher than the previous estimated rate of 10% in 2010. AD was confirmed as the predominant type of dementia, accounting for 65.8% of all cases. Advancing age and low education were the most consistently reported risk factors for AD dementia. Japanese guidelines for the management of dementia were released in 2010 providing specific guidance for AD about clinical signs, image findings, biochemical markers, and treatment approaches. Pharmacotherapies and non-pharmacotherapies to relieve cognitive symptoms were introduced, as were recommendations to achieve better patient care. No studies reporting treatment patterns were identified. Due to population aging and growing awareness of AD in Japan, health care expenditure and associated burden are expected to soar. This review highlights the importance of early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of AD as strategies to minimize the impact of AD on society in Japan.

  17. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  18. Overview of Historical Earthquake Document Database in Japan and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A.; Satake, K.

    2014-12-01

    In Japan, damage and disasters from historical large earthquakes have been documented and preserved. Compilation of historical earthquake documents started in the early 20th century and 33 volumes of historical document source books (about 27,000 pages) have been published. However, these source books are not effectively utilized for researchers due to a contamination of low-reliability historical records and a difficulty for keyword searching by characters and dates. To overcome these problems and to promote historical earthquake studies in Japan, construction of text database started in the 21 century. As for historical earthquakes from the beginning of the 7th century to the early 17th century, "Online Database of Historical Documents in Japanese Earthquakes and Eruptions in the Ancient and Medieval Ages" (Ishibashi, 2009) has been already constructed. They investigated the source books or original texts of historical literature, emended the descriptions, and assigned the reliability of each historical document on the basis of written age. Another database compiled the historical documents for seven damaging earthquakes occurred along the Sea of Japan coast in Honshu, central Japan in the Edo period (from the beginning of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century) and constructed text database and seismic intensity data base. These are now publicized on the web (written only in Japanese). However, only about 9 % of the earthquake source books have been digitized so far. Therefore, we plan to digitize all of the remaining historical documents by the research-program which started in 2014. The specification of the data base will be similar for previous ones. We also plan to combine this database with liquefaction traces database, which will be constructed by other research program, by adding the location information described in historical documents. Constructed database would be utilized to estimate the distributions of seismic intensities and tsunami

  19. "Psychogeritechnology" in Japan: Exemplars from a super-aged society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, Iracema; Watanabe, Kentaro; Hird, Nick; Sugihara, Taro

    2018-05-31

    The burgeoning field of gerontechnology, which is the interdisciplinary field of applying technology to ageing issues, has focused primarily on "active ageing" and maintaining independence for older adults. To date, there has been less focus on people who develop dementia. Here, we argue for the field of gerontechnology to have a greater emphasis on clinical applications for dementia. This can be captured under the rubric of "psychogeritechnology," a term we have coined to describe the range of technology approaches to the prevention, prediction, screening, assessment, diagnosis, management, and monitoring of people at risk of, or living with, dementia. Using Japan as the world's leading "super-aged' nation as a paradigm, the purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of the use of innovative technology for the diagnosis, management and support of people at risk of, or living with, dementia. By following the "life course" of dementia, we will use clinical exemplars and case studies of psychogeritechnological applications from a Japanese context, specific to each stage of dementia, from the preclinical to the advanced stage. In the preclinical stage, the focus will be on prevention and early detection of degenerative cognitive-functional trajectories. In the early-stage of dementia, we will outline examples of screening, assessment, diagnosis, and clinical monitoring, as well as the use of technology to support independent living and autonomy. In the moderate stage, examples of safety monitoring systems, and assistive technology to foster independence, quality of life will be outlined. Finally, in the advanced stage of dementia, our focus will be on assistive technology in the care home setting, and the need to foster secure and efficient communication among care providers. We will discuss these applications in terms of the evolution of the "technological roadmap" for dementia, and the need for a theoretical underpinning for the field, a meaningful and

  20. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    prevalence and rate of early discontinuation of different drugs consisting of, in this study, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, antidiabetics and drugs against osteoporosis. Material and methods This was a register study based on prescription data covering a 4-year period...... and consisting of 470,000 citizens. For each practice and group of drug, a 1-year prevalence for 2002 and the rate of early discontinuation among new users in 2002-2003 were estimated. Early discontinuation was defined as no prescriptions during the second half-year following the first prescription....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...

  1. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  2. GRIN1 Mutations in Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Yokohama City University and other medical centers in Israel and Japan reported mutations on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors subunit GRIN1 (GluN1 identified in patients with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy.

  3. Japan-U.S. cooperation in transport of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Japan's effort to utilize plutonium for peaceful purpose since 1950s was caught in a cross fire after the end of the Cold War. Maritime transport of plutonium from France to Japan in 1993, for instance, was criticized by U.S. Congress, nonproliferation specialists and environmental activists. U.S. government, however, compiled with Japan-US Nuclear Cooperation Agreement and cooperated to ship plutonium. This paper focuses on why Washington was supportive for the sealift of plutonium despite of opposition against it. By solving the puzzle, this research will contribute to studies of Japan's plutonium policy and Japan-U.S. nuclear relations. Based on newspaper articles, memoirs and official documents, this paper examines backgrounds and features of controversy surrounding the transport. The analyses show the causes of U.S. cooperation to the transport, such as Japan's efforts toward nuclear nonproliferation. (author)

  4. A review of studies on persuasion in Japan (1)

    OpenAIRE

    深田, 博己; 木村, 堅一; 牧野, 幸志; 樋口, 匡貴; 原田, 耕太郎; 山浦, 一保

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the studies on persuasion in Japan. An examination has been made of 152 persuasion studies published in Japan-141 journal papers and 11 technical books. The present study consists of the following four parts. 1. Overview of persuasion studies in Japan: (1) quantitative characteristics of persuasion studies, (2) change in the number of persuasion studies with the times, (3) viewpoint of the review. 2. General problems of persuasion studies: (1...

  5. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-23

    fields in an area of the East China Sea that both countries claim as their territory. Hu also announced that China would lease two giant pandas to Japan...to replace a recently deceased panda at a Tokyo zoo. Days later, after China was struck by a devastating earthquake, Japan immediately offered...other shipments of U.S. beef from Japan. In May 2007, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) announced that the United States was a “controlled

  6. Impacts of the Japan-Mexico EPA on Bilateral Trade

    OpenAIRE

    ANDO Mitsuyo; URATA Shujiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of the Japan-Mexico EPA on bilateral trade by using two different types of information, trade statistics and the EPA utilization rate. Using trade data, we found that Japan's exports of built-up cars, auto parts, base metals, electrical machinery, precision machinery, and ballpoint pens to Mexico increased sharply. We also found that Japan's imports of live animals and products, leather, and footwear with leather from Mexico increased significantly. These are s...

  7. Gender and the Labour Market: Comparing Austria and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Biffl, Gudrun

    2006-01-01

    Japan and Austria are among the OECD countries with an average labour force participation rate but an above average gender gap as far as employment opportunities and earnings are concerned. In Japan, women in the main working age have a fairly large margin of labour resources not employed in the market economy. In Austria in contrast, the proportion of unused labour resources of mature workers is high, and the gender gap is less pronounced than in Japan, which suggests that a different combin...

  8. Challenge to the enhancement of LWRs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan was way behind western countries in nuclear power development. This is partly because of the defeat in the second world war which bound Japan to the ban on nuclear power development. As a result, Japan was obliged to take the policy of introducing the power reactor, and its technology, from overseas advanced countries in order to promote the development of power reactors for its own country. (orig.)

  9. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal

  10. Present status of Japan materials testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Naohiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Niimi, Motoji; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Masahide; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a light water cooled tank type reactor with first criticality in March 1968. Owing to the connection between the JMTR and hot laboratory by a canal, easy re-irradiation tests can be conducted with safe and quick transportation of irradiated samples. The JMTR has been applied to fuel/material irradiation examinations for LWRs, HTGR, fusion reactor and RI production. However, the JMTR operation was once stopped in August 2006, and check and review on the reoperation had been conducted by internal as well as external committees. As a result of the discussion, the JMTR reoperation was determined, and refurbishment works started from the beginning of JFY 2007. The refurbishment works have finished in March 2011 taking four years from JFY 2007. Unfortunately, at the end of the JFY 2010 on March 11, the Great-Eastern-Japan-Earthquake occurred, and functional tests before the JMTR restart, such as cooling system, reactor control system and so on, were delayed by the earthquake. Moreover, a detail inspection found some damages such as slight deformation of the truss structure at the roof of the JMTR reactor building. Consequently, the restart of the JMTR will be delayed from June to next October, 2012. Now, the safety evaluation after the earthquake disaster is being carried out aiming at the restart of the JMTR. The renewed JMTR will be started from JFY 2012 and operated for a period of about 20 years until around JFY 2030. The usability improvement of the JMTR, e.g. higher reactor availability, shortening turnaround time to get irradiation results, attractive irradiation cost, business confidence, is also discussed with users as the preparations for re-operation. (author)

  11. Present status of Japan materials testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Naohiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Niimi, Motoji; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Masahide; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a light water cooled tank type reactor with first criticality in March 1968. Owing to the connection between the JMTR and hot laboratory by a canal, easy re-irradiation tests can be conducted with safe and quick transportation of irradiated samples. The JMTR has been applied to fuel/material irradiation examinations for LWRs, HTGR, fusion reactor and RI production. However, the JMTR operation was once stopped in August 2006, and check and review on the reoperation had been conducted by internal as well as external committees. As a result of the discussion, the JMTR reoperation was determined, and refurbishment works started from the beginning of JFY 2007. The refurbishment works have finished in March 2011 taking four years from JFY 2007. Unfortunately, at the end of the JFY 2010 on March 11, the Great-Eastern-Japan-Earthquake occurred, and functional tests before the JMTR restart, such as cooling system, reactor control system and so on, were delayed by the earthquake. Moreover, a detail inspection found some damages such as slight deformation of the truss structure at the roof of the JMTR reactor building. Consequently, the restart of the JMTR will be delayed from June to next October, 2012. Now, the safety evaluation after the earthquake disaster is being carried out aiming at the restart of the JMTR. The renewed JMTR will be started from JFY 2012 and operated for a period of about 20 years until around JFY 2030. The usability improvement of the JMTR, e.g. higher reactor availability, shortening turnaround time to get irradiation results, attractive irradiation cost, business confidence, is also discussed with users as the preparations for re-operation. (author)

  12. PV in Japan - improving energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Currently, almost 80% of Japan's primary energy is imported and about 50% of this comes from politically unstable countries. The Japanese are now working hard to improve energy security in a clean and sustainable fashion. Since the wind patterns are not favourable for wind power, the emphasis is on photovoltaics (PVs), and many companies that once manufactured integrated circuits are now working on solar cells where their knowledge and experience of mass production, quality control, sales and marketing stand them in good stead. It is expected that the Japanese will be world leaders in the making and export of solar equipment, as well as one of the world's greatest users

  13. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  14. Alexander Williamson and the modernisation of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alwyn G

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, five students were smuggled out of feudal Japan and came to London to learn Western technology, governance, and economics. They were put into the care of Alexander Williamson, who was Professor of Chemistry at University College London, and when they went back they, and the students who followed them, became the founders of the modern Japanese state. This is the British side of that remarkable story. Williamson's career and chemistry are briefly reviewed, followed by an account of the students' presence in Britain, and then the commemoration of the sesquicentenary of these events.

  15. Microbiology of Bartholin's Gland Abscess in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kaori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Ninomiya, Mochiyoshi; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current epidemiology concerning the causative organisms for Bartholin's gland abscess in Japan. Microbiological examination of 224 cases showed positive results in 219 cases and negative results in 5 cases. Of all of the bacterial isolates, 307 and 118 were aerobes and anaerobes, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli. Of the anaerobes, the most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides species, followed by Prevotella species. The organisms related to respiratory infectious diseases, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, including resistant bacteria, were sometimes involved between 2000 and 2004. PMID:16081994

  16. High energy physics computing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview of the computing provision for high energy physics in Japan is presented. Most of the computing power for high energy physics is concentrated in KEK. Here there are two large scale systems: one providing a general computing service including vector processing and the other dedicated to TRISTAN experiments. Each university group has a smaller sized mainframe or VAX system to facilitate both their local computing needs and the remote use of the KEK computers through a network. The large computer system for the TRISTAN experiments is described. An overview of a prospective future large facility is also given. (orig.)

  17. 210Pb ingestion in Akita City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Komura, Kazuhisa; Tada, Tetsuo.

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Pb in Akita City, northern Japan was studied with food category samples and total diet samples by means of a low energy photon spectrometry. Results for food category samples revealed that the contribution of marine products to total 210 Pb ingestion was the largest. Mean 210 Pb ingestion of the two total diet samples was found to be 0.19 Bq d -1 , and approximately 1/3 of a previous reported value which was cited in an UNSCEAR report as an example of high 210 Pb ingestion by marine foods consumption. (author)

  18. AESJ: communicating about nuclear issues in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    The AESJ (Atomic Energy Society of Japan) was founded in 1959 to promote the information of the Japanese public about nuclear energy and to develop exchanges between professionals of the sector. AESJ gathers about 7000 professionals and is organized around 8 regional groups and 10 technical sessions. AESJ has been publishing 2 journals: Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology since 1964 and ATOMOΣ since 1959. AESJ also awards several prizes for promoting communication and technical achievements in nuclear activities. AESJ takes part into numerous international events like for instance supporting conferences or organizing student exchanges between research centers or universities. (A.C.)

  19. The first decade of INIS in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Narui, Shigeko; Yokoo, Hiroshi; Komatsubara, Yasutoshi; Hino, Shuji; Shimizu, Akio; Tsuda, Nobuyoshi

    1981-06-01

    Outlined are the operational developments of the JAERI acting as the INIS national center for Japan for ten years from the beginning of the project in 1970. These include preparation of main manuals, establishment of national network, expansion of coverage, improvement of quality, computerization and microfilming for the input as well as machine retrieval on INIS. Subjects of relatively common attention of secondary information societies are also selected from the many studies and examinations published in Japanese during the period. These efforts are summarized on analysis of input processing period, promotion of keyword assignment, search properties of the data base and their evaluation. (author)

  20. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  1. History of controlled nuclear fusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Eisui; Nishio, Shigeko; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    2001-01-01

    A research development of nuclear fusion was divided four periods: the first period as prehistory (until about 1955), the second period as begin of research (1955 to 1969), the third as the growth period (1970 to 1985) and the forth as the large tokamak age. In this paper I explained the second period, because general physicists and young plasma and controlled nuclear fusion researcher did not know about this period. The controlled nuclear fusion research was begun by the experiment of hydrogen bomb by USA and USSR in 1952 and 1953. In Japan, on the basis of many societies, 'The Controlled Nuclear Fusion Meeting' was established as an independent system and KAKEA (Journal of Fusion Research) was published in 1958. Japan government began to make the system by the Nuclear Commission in 1957. The main research devices in 1962 were linear pinch, mirror device, toroidal pinch, helical system, plasma gun and plasma measurement. USSR showed the excellent results of tokamak device in 1968. Ookawa spoke the effect of the average minimum-B, the best report in this period, at the second IAEA meeting, 1965. JAERI constructed JFT-1 and JFT-2, the latter was the first class device in the world and made the first step of Japanese research into the world, for examples, to attain the equilibrium of divertor plasma and to control impurity. Many research centers of controlled fusion were established in many universities in Japan from 1966 to 1980. Cooperation researchs between Japan and USA, USSR and many countries has been carried out after 1978: JIFT (Joint Institute for Fusion Theory) and FPPC (Fusion Power Coordinating Committee). The important results increased in this period. After 1985, the research activities are processing and data increased very fast depend on the larger devices and system, good measurement system and development of information system. JT-60 in JAERI opened to the large tokamak period. It led controlled fusion researchs in the world the same as TFTR (US

  2. Electric-power economy of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrochotov, V.I.; Wolfberg, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    This is a survey on a) development and present capacity of electricity-supply companies in Japan, b) the structural shift in the capacity of power plants which took place from 1966 until 1974, arranged according to thermal, nuclear and hydraulic power stations, c) the structural shift in the use of fossile fuels, also from 1966 until 1974, d) the major thermal and nuclear power stations and pump storage plants under construction and in operation, e) interconnected operation. The survey ends with the development study of the Japanese Government being outlined. (GG/LN) [de

  3. Review of the activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, I.

    1982-01-01

    The fast breeder reactor development project in Japan has been in progress through.operation of the experimental fast reactor JOYO, design of the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU and related R and D works. JOYO began operation in mid-1977, increased power from 50 MWt to 75 MWth in July 1979 and operation cycles at 75 MWth are continued at present. With respect to MONJU, which is a 300 MWe plant, progress toward construction has been made and the safety review are started by the concerned authorities. Conceptual design studies of large demonstration fast breeder reactor are also being made by PNC. It is a 1000 MWe, loop type plant

  4. First LNG deliveries from Qatar to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty five years after the discovery of the giant North Field natural gas deposit, the Qatargas company has delivered its first LNG freight to Japan in December 1996. This paper recalls the history of the company from the discovery of the offshore North Field, its valorization and development, the LNG project with the building of the Ras Laffan harbour and its condensates processing factory and the 3 offshore production platforms. Ten methane-tanker ships will be in operation in the year 2000. Qatar's LNG exports should reach 20 to 25 Mt/year in the next ten years, when all its liquefaction factory projects will be completed. (J.S.)

  5. The development of breeder reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the framework of a global analysis of the various available sources of energy, Japan has reserved a prominent place to the nuclear energy and, in the long-term view, to the breeder reactor which will be due for commercial deployment in 20)10. To achieve these objectives, three stages are envisaged, one of the experimental reactor Joyo (in service), one of the demonstration reactor Monju (its construction has been decided), and one of the pre-commercial reactor (due to be taken in hand at the beginning of the Nineties). Efforts will be made in parallel concerning the fuel cycle [fr

  6. Reacting plasma project at IPP Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, A.; Momota, H.; Hamada, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Akimune, H.

    1981-01-01

    Contributed papers of the seminar on burning plasma held at UCLA are collected. Paper on ''overview of reacting plasma project'' described aim and philosophy of R-Project in Japan. Paper on ''Burning plasma and requirements for design'' gave theoretical aspect of reacting plasma physics while paper on ''plasma container, heating and diagnostics'' treated experimental aspect. Tritium handling is essential for the next step experiment; therefore, paper on ''Tritium problems in burning plasma experiments'' took an important part of this seminar. As appendix, paper on ''a new type of D - ion source using Si-semiconductor'' was added because such an advanced R and D work is essential for R-Project. (author)

  7. Maintaining nuclear competence and expertise in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30 % of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC ( previously PNC ). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present paper

  8. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nanto, Dick K

    2008-01-01

    .... Overcoming the crisis in Japan s banks took a combination of capital injections, new laws and regulations, stronger oversight, a reorganization of the banking sector, moderate economic recovery...

  9. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported “private events”, for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and “private events” on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  10. Research; BOSS Study Trip Japan '09 : Architecture, Urbanism, Real Estate & Housing and Technology in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, R.; Van Beelen, C.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Japan is a land of many faces as we discovered: from seasonal changes, and thereby heavy rainfall, high humidity, tropical cyclones; to a stunning 127,300,000 inhabitants; or what about the only 10% buildable surface of the continent; seismic activity; fast going technological developments like

  11. Advances in food composition tables in Japan-Standard Tables Of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Kawai, Ryoko

    2018-01-01

    The latest version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- comprises the main food composition table (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015-[Seventh revised Edition)) and three supplementary books. The supplementary books are Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Amino Acids -, Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Fatty Acids - and Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Available Carbohydrates, Polyols and Organic Acids-. We believe understanding these food composition tables can give greater insight into Japan's gastronomic culture and changes in eating habits. We expect them to play important roles as part of the East Asia food composition tables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Lunar planetary exploration of Japan; Nippon no tsuki wakusei tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, J. [Research Development Corporation of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes lunar planetary exploration of Japan as a result of success in launching the H-II rocket. Under the cooperation between the Space Chemistry Research Institute (ISAS) of the Ministry of Education and the National Aerospace Development Association (NASDA), discussions have begun on launching an orbital satellite for lunar planetary exploration early in the 2000`s. The objective includes a study on origin and evolution of the moon, feasibility study on moon utilization, and learning the moon surface soft landing technology. Explorations on objects other than moon may be conceived by using such a large rocket as H-II. Exploration on living organisms on Mars may be one of them. Light emitting monitors that operate on the living organism dying identification method could be used on places where living organisms are likely to exist on Mars. Then, samples may be brought back, and it might be possible to pursue the mystery of life origin. A comet has no internal melting by heat as in planets, and keeps composing substances as they have been generated. In other words, it could be said a fossil in the solar system that retains initial substances in the solar system. Samples, if they can be brought back, could be keys to solve the mystery of the solar system formation. The Halley comet is said covered with organic substances. There is a theory that life originating substances on the earth were made on a comet, which were supplied to the earth as a result of collision.

  13. Safety aspect of digital reactor protection system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiso, Zen-Ichi

    1998-01-01

    It was early in 1980's that the digital controllers were first applied to nuclear power plant in japan. After that, their application area had been expanding gradually, reaching to the overall integrated digital system including the safety system in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa units 6 and 7. The software for computer-based systems has been produced using the graphical language ''POL'' in Japanese nuclear power plants. It is the fundamental principle that the reliability of the software should be assured through the properly managed quality assurance. The POL-based system is fitted to this principle. In applying POL-based systems to safety system, the MITI, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, identified the licensing issues as the regulatory body, while the utilities had developed the digital technology feasible to the safety application. Through the activities, a specific industrial design guide for the software important to safety was established and the adequacy of the technology was certified through the demonstration tests of the integrated system. In the safety examination of the digital reactor protection system of K-6/7, the application of POL were approved. The POL-based systems in nuclear power plants were successful design and production process of the POL-based systems. This paper describes the activities in licensing and maintaining the computer-based systems by the utilities and manufacturers as well as the MITI. (author)

  14. Internal medicine board certification and career pathways in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Soichi; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ide, Hiroo; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Shimpo, Masahisa; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-05-08

    Establishing and managing a board certification system is a common concern for many countries. In Japan, the board certification system is under revision. The purpose of this study was to describe present status of internal medicine specialist board certification, to identify factors associated with maintenance of board certification and to investigate changes in area of practice when physicians move from hospital to clinic practice. We analyzed 2010 and 2012 data from the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists. We conducted logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with the maintenance of board certification between 2010 and 2012. We also analyzed data on career transition from hospitals to clinics for hospital physicians with board certification. It was common for physicians seeking board certification to do so in their early career. The odds of maintaining board certification were lower in women and those working in locations other than academic hospitals, and higher in physicians with subspecialty practice areas. Among hospital physicians with board certification who moved to clinics between 2010 and 2012, 95.8% remained in internal medicine or its subspecialty areas and 87.7% maintained board certification but changed their practice from a subspecialty area to more general internal medicine. Revisions of the internal medicine board certification system must consider different physician career pathways including mid-career moves while maintaining certification quality. This will help to secure an adequate number and distribution of specialists. To meet the increasing demand for generalist physicians, it is important to design programs to train specialists in general practice.

  15. The outlook for nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Gaishi

    1987-01-01

    The world economy has entered a new stage of growth--albeit low growth--following painful adjustments in the wake of past oil crises. At the same time, energy demand is expanding at an even slower rate, due to the structural changes in industry and improved efficiency in energy use. Furthermore, progress in the development of alternative energies and technical innovations in both the supply and use of energy have sharpened competition between energy sources. We also aim to improve even further the economy of nuclear power, within the bounds of safety and reliability, to minimize electric power generation costs by optimizing the total system for nuclear power generation including the nuclear fuel cycle. In Japan's long-term strategy for the development of nuclear power, our basic plan is to switch from light-water reactors to fast-breeder reactors (FBR), as the latter use plutonium most efficiently. Every effort is being made to have FBR reactors up and running at an early date. However, given the outlook for the development of their technology and the supply and demand situation for uranium, we estimate that this won't be achieved until 2020 or 2030. With this timetable in mind, it will be important to prepare for the coming age of FBR by mastering the technologies of and establishing the foundation necessary for plutonium utilization. To this end, we plan to expand our use of plutonium to an appropriate scale, at the earliest possible date. (J.P.N.)

  16. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  17. Asian-Pacific leadership: Implications for foreign economic policy of Japan and the US

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemenz, Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, the Western Pacific hemisphere ranging from Japan and the PR China to Australia and New Zealand has remained the growth pole of the world economy. Real per capita incomes of East and Southeast Asian developing economies grew even faster in this decade than in the 1970s [World Bank, 1990: Table 1.3] despite major disturbances in their global environment such as the world-wide recession in the early 1980s, increasing protectionism in the EC and the US, large exchange rate fluctuat...

  18. Hospitalizations Associated with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Asthmatic Children in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toshio Katsunuma; Takehiko Matsui; Tsutomu Iwata; Mitsuhiko Nambu; Naomi Kondo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 [pdm (H1N1) 2009] spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Japan. Since it was suggested early that asthma is a risk factor for an increased severity of the infection, the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) organized a working group for countermeasures, and investigated asthmatic children admitted to the hospitals for pdm (H1N1) 2009 infection. Methods: An appeal was made on the ho...

  19. Development of safety performance indicators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, H.; Tamao, S.; Tanaka, J.; Sawayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of safety regulations of operating nuclear power stations in Japan, the regulatory authorities utilize two types of regulations. One is the direct regulation, such as periodical inspection to inspect the function and performance of equipment important to safety, and the other is the audit type regulation such as preservation inspection to audit the compliance with the safety preservation rules. As performance indicators are expected to be an effective tool to evaluate the activities by audit type regulations, NUPEC is studying a comprehensive set of operational performance indicators to meet the effective evaluation method for the safety preservation activities in the audit type regulations under the frame of current safety regulation system. The study includes the establishment of comprehensive operational performance indicators applicable in Japan, the effective application of performance indicators to the current Japanese regulation, the clarification of the applicable scope of utilization, the possibility of applying the performance indicators. This report describes the present status of our performance indicator studies. After the completion of these studies the regulatory authorities will evaluate if and how the new set of comprehensive performance indicators could be introduced to Japanese regulatory scheme. (author)

  20. Medical preparedness for radiation emergency in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Makoto

    1997-01-01

    Medical preparedness for radiation emergency in Japan is primary for off-site public protection. Many things remains to be discussed about on-site emergency medical problems. On the other hand, each nuclear facility should have a countermeasure plan of radiation emergency including medical measures for the emergency. Disaster countermeasure act and a guideline from NSC entitled 'Off-site emergency planning and preparedness for nuclear power plants' establish the system for countermeasures in radiation emergencies. The guideline also establishes medical plans in radiation emergencies, including care system for the severely contaminated or injured. NIRS is designated by the guideline as the definite care hospital for radiation injuries and is prepared to dispatch medical specialists and to receive the injured. NIRS conducts clinical follow-up studies of the injured, researches of diagnosis and treatments for radiation injuries, and education and training for medical personnel. NIRS has the plans to serve as the reference center for emergency in Japan and also in Asia, if necessary. NIRS would like to serve as a member of WHO Collaborating Center for Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance (REMPAN). Now NIRS is making preparation for providing 24-hours direct or consultative assistance with medical problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and hopefully international incidents. (author)

  1. Citrulline for urea cycle disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Endo, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    The amino acid l-citrulline is used as a therapeutic agent for urea cycle disorders (UCD) including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD), and N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. There are few reports, however, on the use of l-citrulline in Japan and little consensus regarding the effects of l-citrulline. We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing l-citrulline treatment for a UCD to evaluate the current status of this therapy. The survey included patient background, details of l-citrulline treatment, clinical examination data, treatment, frequency of vomiting, and liver transplantation. We retrospectively investigated 43 questionnaire respondents (OTCD, n = 33; CPSD, n = 10). The weight of male OTCD patients improved by +0.79 SD, and the ammonia level decreased by a mean of 44.3 μmol/L in all patients. The protein intake of all patients and of male OTCD patients increased by 0.14 g/kg/day and 0.17 g/kg/day, respectively. l-Citrulline effectively reduced ammonia level, increased protein intake, and improved weight gain in UCD patients. l-Citrulline should be considered a standard therapy in OTCD and CPSD patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, T.

    1994-01-01

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km 2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  3. Suicidal behavior among homeless people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Kae; Morikawa, Suimei; Awata, Shuichi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency and correlates of suicidal behavior among homeless people in Japan. A face-to-face survey was conducted in two districts of Tokyo, Japan, with 423 subjects who resided on streets and riversides and in urban parks and stations (street homeless) or who were residents of shelters, cheap hotels, or welfare homes for homeless people (sheltered homeless). When questioned about suicidal ideation in the previous 2 weeks, 51 subjects (12.2% of valid responses) had a recurring wish to die, 29 (6.9%) had frequent thoughts of suicide, and 22 (5.3%) had made suicide plans. In addition, 11 (2.9%) subjects had attempted suicide in the previous 2 weeks and 74 (17.7%) reported that they had ever attempted suicide. In univariate logistic regression analyses, street homelessness, lack of perceived emotional social support, poor subjective health perception, visual impairment, pain, insomnia, poor mental well-being, and current depression were significantly associated with recurrent thoughts of suicide in the previous 2 weeks. Among these, current depression had the greatest significance. In multivariate logistic regression analyses after controlling for depression, street homelessness and lack of perceived emotional social support were significantly associated with recurrent thoughts of suicide in the previous 2 weeks. Comprehensive interventions including housing and social support as well as mental health services might be crucial as effective strategies for suicide prevention among homeless people.

  4. Response to the Chernobyl accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The worst nuclear accident in history happened at No.4 unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in USSR. Since the Chernobyl accident, a number of measures have been introduced in many countries, including the reconsideration of programs for construction and operation of nuclear power plants. In Japan, the press and television first reported the accident on April 29. The next day, all the relevant governmental agencies began to collect and analyze information in order to prepare possible countermeasures. The Nuclear Safety Commission issued a statement covering three points: 1) the radioactive substances released by the accident will have virtually no influence on the health of people in Japan, 2) a Special Committee on the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station Accident will be established, and 3) the Soviet government must provide all detailed information about the accident as soon as it is available. On April 30, the Committee on Radioactivity decided to increase radioactivity observations by the Science and Technology Agency, the Defence Agency, and the Meteorological Agency. On the same day, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry set up a survey committee for the Chernobyl accident with the responsibility of collecting and analyzing information about the accident. A review is also made in this article as to how the Japanese media reported the accident and how people reacted on reading the newspapers and watching TV on the accident. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Economical scale of radiation applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takeshita, Hidefumi

    2000-01-01

    As a scale to quantify actual state of a thing, person, material and money are used in general, and money or economical scale has been frequently investigated on radiation application. As some investigations on annual sales (economical scale) of tire for car and germination protection of tomato had been tried to estimate in Japan, they were carried out only partially but not in general. On the other hand, in U.S.A. some general investigations were carried out, to report 421 billion dollars for nuclear energy application where its 80% was occupied by radiation application and remained 20 % was energy application (electricity). Therefore, JAERI established a special group (radiation frontier research group) aiming to investigate economical scale of radiation application in Japan to industrial, agricultural and medical field in general under cooperation of universities and private companies by receiving trust of the Science and Technology Agency. Here were described on basic concept on the investigation, its results, and total image on economical scale of radiation application and its comparison with that of energy application. (G.K.)

  6. Monitoring of congenital anomalies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Y.; Konishi, H.

    1992-01-01

    Birth defects monitoring system is one of the most effective strategies to prevent birth defects mainly caused by environmental factors. Six different monitoring systems are working in Japan. Three of them are population-based and the other three hospital-based, both are widely scattered in Japan. Basic methodological designs of all birth defects monitoring systems are same. Therefore, the combination of them seems to be ideal. Total number of births surveyed in all systems are 283,000 annually. Each system has already accumulated relevant baseline data. Birth defects monitoring has another function to test the safety of widely exposed factors such as smoking, alcohol, low dose radiations, etc. Maternal smoking has some adverse effects on morphogenesis of the fetus. However, low dose radiations during or before pregnancy have no significant teratogenic effects on the fetus. The genetic effects of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was studied. The annual effective dose equivalent to Japanese population due to radioactive fallout from the accident was assessed to be 5 μSv/y. No measurable mutagenic effects were recognized in Kanagawa by the analysis of three sentinel anomalies. (author)

  7. Macroeconomic fluctuations and mortality in postwar Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, José A Tapia

    2008-05-01

    Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45-64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility--making up about 41% of total mortality--tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don't show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy.

  8. Energy management in Japan. Consequences for RIs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Japan is eager to host the ILC, the International Linear Collider Project. One of the issues in realizing such a large accelerator facility in Japan would be assuring a satisfactory supply of electrical power. As is well known, after the Tohoku - Pacific Ocean Earthquake in March 11, 2011, most Japanese nuclear power plants have been off-line. Prior to that, up to 30% of the demand on the electrical grid was supplied by nuclear power. While there is no prospect for resumption of reactor operations, a rapid increase of the generation capacity of fossil fuel plants has allowed Japanese industries and domestic life to survive without major disruption, thought it has worsened the trade imbalance. In any case, we must be realistic in preparing an energy management plan for our Research Institutes where large-scale energy consumers are. Already for many years laboratories such as TRISTAN, KEKB and J-PARC have scheduled their operations so that they could contract to draw minimal power during the summer cooling sea...

  9. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R and D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''

  10. Health workers' attitudes toward euthanasia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, K; Satoh, K; Minamisawa, H; Mitoh, T

    1991-01-01

    Despite impressive life-saving medical advancements, diseases for which there are no cure still exist. In the past doctors and health workers in Japan often preferred not to disclose the diagnosis of an incurable disease--particularly cancer--to patients. A 1980 study revealed that only 17% of the Japanese doctors questioned actually had the experience of informing their patients they had cancer, while reportedly in the US 98% of doctors inform patients they have cancer. This attitude in Japan, however, is changing. And with this change such issues as care of the terminally ill after being informed about their diagnosis, human rights problems and other issues have arisen. In fact, euthanasia, although highly criticized when first introduced, is now being increasingly preferred to medical treatment that prolongs life in the presence of severe pain associated with an incurable disease. After reading a 1982 survey that revealed that 84% of the Japanese people interviewed would prefer to die with dignity rather than prolong life with a machine, four researchers decided to examine terminal care more fully, this time from the viewpoint of the medical staff. Below, their study results.

  11. Education Reform and Equal Opportunity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Okada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been concerns that equality of educational opportunity has been lost and that this is leading to the stratification of Japanese society through the widening of income differentials, in a 'gap society'. In such a disparity society, secure full- time jobs are increasingly becoming limited to those who graduate from prestigious universities, and entry into those institutions is becoming connected more clearly with family income and investments. Parental attitudes towards their children taking extra lessons after school, going to cram schools, getting into university, and getting into a relatively highly-ranked university have influenced educational costs. This article examines the historical formation of the concept of equality of opportunity, which has been applied to the educational policy in Japan, particularly from the end of World War II to the new millennium. This paper also expands on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

  12. Database and Related Activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Kato, Masatoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Takako; Ding, Xiaobin; Morita, Shigeru; Kitajima, Masashi; Koike, Fumihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Akira; Skobelev, Igor; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Ulantsev, Artemiy; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Norimasa

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed and made available atomic and molecular (AM) numerical databases on collision processes such as electron-impact excitation and ionization, recombination and charge transfer of atoms and molecules relevant for plasma physics, fusion research, astrophysics, applied-science plasma, and other related areas. The retrievable data is freely accessible via the internet. We also work on atomic data evaluation and constructing collisional-radiative models for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. Recently we have worked on Fe ions and W ions theoretically and experimentally. The atomic data and collisional-radiative models for these ions are examined and applied to laboratory plasmas. A visible M1 transition of W 26+ ion is identified at 389.41 nm by EBIT experiments and theoretical calculations. We have small non-retrievable databases in addition to our main database. Recently we evaluated photo-absorption cross sections for 9 atoms and 23 molecules and we present them as a new database. We established a new association ''Forum of Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications'' to exchange information among AM data producers, data providers and data users in Japan and we hope this will help to encourage AM data activities in Japan.

  13. Japan's nuclear catastrophe; a shocking calamity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiva, Sonu; Gaur, Madhusudan

    2012-01-01

    Japan suffered a massive earthquake which was followed by more disastrous tsunami that led to nuclear crises. The Fukushima nuclear plant faced series of explosions and the water cooling system failed. The nuclear reactor is spreading radioactivity in the atmosphere. This has immensely affected the country's economy and the authorities are still struggling to stop the release of radiation from the quake hit nuclear plant. The professors of various universities are tense with regard to dangerous amount of radiation present in the air. The survivors of the calamity are afraid of cancer and other dire illnesses; who have been exposed to Japan's crippled nuclear plant on march 11, 2011. Though the scientists claim that Tokyo is safe from the radiations but the authorities do not have the sufficient data to prove about its safety. There has been much errors and delay in the proper assessment of the crises and the truth may take 5 to 10 years of time to come out, but this would be too late. This paper is an attempt to delve deep into the reasons of this calamity. It intends to suggest some measures that can be helpful in assessing the damage and improvements that can be taken up with regard to location and design of nuclear power plant so that in such situation of emergency the coping becomes easier and damage minimized. (author)

  14. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, S

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  15. Problems of nuclear fuel reprocessing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Naojiro

    1974-01-01

    The reprocessing capacity of the plant No. 1 of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, which is scheduled to start operation in fiscal year 1975, will be insufficient after fiscal year 1978 for the estimated demand for reprocessing based on Japanese nuclear energy development program. Taking into consideration the results examined by JAIF's study team to Europe and the U.S., it is necessary that Japan builds 2nd reprocessing plant. But there will be a gap from 1978 to 1984 during which Japan must rely on overseas reprocessing services. The establishment of a reprocessing system is a task of national scale, and there are many problems to be solved before it can be done. These include the problems of site and environment, the problem of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, the raising of huge required funds and so on. Therefore, even if a private enterprise is allowed to undertake the task, it will be impossible to achieve the aim without the cooperation and assistance of the government. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Asthma Controller Medications for Children in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Hamada DrPH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment and management strategies for asthma in children are generally consistent internationally, but prescription of antiasthma drugs differs among countries. The objective of this study was to examine the prescribing patterns of antiasthma drugs, particularly controller medications, in children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed in children with asthma using an administrative claims database in Japan. Results. A total of 1149 preschool-age and 3226 school-age children were identified. Leukotriene receptor antagonists were prescribed for about 80% of the children. Long-acting β-agonists were prescribed for 87.6% and 59.6% of preschool-age and school-age children, respectively, whereas prescriptions of inhaled corticosteroids had lower rates of 8.2% and 16.5%, respectively. In an examination of prescriptions at 1-month intervals, a relatively high number of children were prescribed bronchodilators without anti-inflammatory agents. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that asthma care for children in Japan can be improved through changes in drug prescriptions.

  17. Situation of nuclear industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This document presents the situation of nuclear industry in Japan: cooperation with France in the domain of the fuel cycle (in particular the back-end) and of for the industrial R and D about fast reactors and nuclear safety; present day situation characterized by a series of incidents in the domain of nuclear safety and by an administrative reorganization of the research and safety organizations; power of local representatives, results of April 2003 elections, liberalization of the electric power sector, impact of the TEPCO affair (falsification of safety reports) on the nuclear credibility, re-start up of the Monju reactor delayed by judicial procedures, stopping of the program of MOX fuel loading in Tepco's reactors, discovery of weld defects in the newly built Rokkasho-mura reprocessing plant, an ambitious program of reactors construction, the opportunity of Russian weapons dismantling for the re-launching of sodium-cooled fast reactors; the competition between France and Japan for the setting up of ITER reactor and its impact of the French/Japanese partnership. (J.S.)

  18. Recurrent Kawasaki disease: USA and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Ryan A; Holman, Robert C; Uehara, Ritei; Callinan, Laura S; Guest, Jodie L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Belay, Ermias D

    2015-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiologic studies of recurrent and non-recurrent Kawasaki disease (KD) may identify other potentially important differences between these illnesses. Data from the USA and Japan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national KD surveillance(1984-2008) and the 17th Japanese nationwide survey (2001-2002), respectively, were analyzed to examine recurrent KD patients <18 years of age meeting the CDC KD case or atypical KD case definition. These patients were compared with non-recurrent KD patients. Of the 5557 US KD patients <18 years of age during 1984-2008, 97 (1.7%) were identified as having had recurrent KD. Among the US Asian/Pacific Islander KD patients, 3.5% had recurrent KD, which was similar to the percentage identified among KD patients (3.5%) in the Japanese survey. Compared with non-recurrent KD patients, KD patients [with recurrent KD] were more likely to be older, fulfill the atypical KD case definition, and have coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) despite i.v. immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. Differences in the age, race, and frequency of CAA exist between recurrent and non-recurrent KD patients. The increased association of CAA with recurrent KD suggests that more aggressive treatment strategies in conjunction with IVIG may be indicated for the second episode of KD. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Confucianism and gender culture of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Svyatnenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the definition of Confucianism areas of influence on the gender culture of Japanese society has been studied by the author. It has been found by the author that the influence of Confucianism on the gender culture of Japan supported the formation of a gender-servility’s women morality towards men and women enforcement to the behavioural roles, which are based on child-serving and house-wives scenarios. Confucianism has created the grounds for patriarchal sexism, by which woman is seen as an object of serving to masculine-centric hierarchies and must be formatted for the stereotypes of convenience in order to serve men under ordinary and extraordinary circumstances. The key points of the influence are as follows: legalized promiscuity allowance, porno-latrical behavioural model (especially in the aspect of women’s use as prostitutes, as well as the accentuation of gender roles in the biographies of etalon women which are described in Confucian treatises. It has been stated by the author that it is necessary to admit that the impact on the gender culture of Japan was made and is made not so much by Confucianism in its pure form, but by Shintoism Confucianism, which requires separate research in other publications.

  20. Epidemiological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, I.

    1984-04-01

    The study of health problems due to cadmium pollution in Japan originated from an endemic episode of Itai-itai disease in a rural area in north-central Japan after World War II. The disease was defined as osteomalacia with tubular changes in the kidney and considered to be associated with excess intake of cadmium. This episode motivated the Japanese Government to conduct health examinations on the general population in cadmium-polluted and non-polluted areas throughout the country since 1969. Although Itai-itai disease-like bone changes were rarely found, these studies revealed a higher prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction among elderly people in the cadmium-polluted areas. No significant difference was noted in cancer mortality, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes tended to be lower in cadmium-polluted areas. Clinical and pathological studies in man as well as experiments on primates have recently been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of Itai-itai disease and the health effects of cadmium. The lack of knowledge on the ecological and biological complex of cadmium resulted in the impediment of studies on this problem. The lesson from this experience is that basic research is essential for promoting the study of pollutants such as heavy metals, though pollution problems usually require urgent solutions.