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Sample records for early infancy weight

  1. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  2. Rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood is related to higher anthropometric measurements in preadolescence.

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    Nanri, H; Shirasawa, T; Ochiai, H; Nomoto, S; Hoshino, H; Kokaze, A

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between rapid weight gain during infancy and/or early childhood and anthropometric measurements [body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in preadolescence by sex. Subjects were fourth-grade school children (aged 9 to 10 years) from elementary schools in Ina-town, Japan, in 2010. Measurements of height, weight, %BF and WC were conducted for each subject. We obtained data on height and weight of subjects at birth, age 1.5 years and age 3 years from the Maternal and Child Health handbook. Rapid weight gain was defined as a change in weight-for-age standard deviation score greater than 0.67 from birth to age 1.5 years (infancy) or from age 1.5 to 3 years (early childhood). All anthropometric variables (BMI, %BF, WC and WHtR) at age 9 to 10 years were significantly higher in the rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood period group than in the no rapid weight gain group, regardless of sex. When compared with the no rapid weight gain group, rapid weight gain during early childhood period had significantly higher BMI and WC in boys and BMI, %BF and WC in girls. Compared with the no rapid weight gain group, the rapid weight gain during infancy group had a significantly higher WC in boys and significantly higher BMI and WC in girls. Rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood was related to higher anthropometric measurements, including WHtR, among Japanese preadolescents, regardless of sex. This study suggests that rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood may be a risk factor for general/abdominal obesity later in life. © 2017 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth.

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    Cathy E Elks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies have identified several common genetic variants that are robustly associated with adult obesity risk. Exploration of these genotype associations in children may provide insights into the timing of weight changes leading to adult obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC birth cohort were genotyped for ten genetic variants previously associated with adult BMI. Eight variants that showed individual associations with childhood BMI (in/near: FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, and ETV5 were used to derive an "obesity-risk-allele score" comprising the total number of risk alleles (range: 2-15 alleles in each child with complete genotype data (n = 7,146. Repeated measurements of weight, length/height, and body mass index from birth to age 11 years were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS. Early infancy was defined as birth to age 6 weeks, and early infancy failure to thrive was defined as weight gain between below the 5th centile, adjusted for birth weight. The obesity-risk-allele score showed little association with birth weight (regression coefficient: 0.01 SDS per allele; 95% CI 0.00-0.02, but had an apparently much larger positive effect on early infancy weight gain (0.119 SDS/allele/year; 0.023-0.216 than on subsequent childhood weight gain (0.004 SDS/allele/year; 0.004-0.005. The obesity-risk-allele score was also positively associated with early infancy length gain (0.158 SDS/allele/year; 0.032-0.284 and with reduced risk of early infancy failure to thrive (odds ratio = 0.92 per allele; 0.86-0.98; p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: The use of robust genetic markers identified greater early infancy gains in weight and length as being on the pathway to adult obesity risk in a contemporary birth cohort.

  4. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on offspring overweight in early infancy.

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    Nan Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, health care records of 38,539 pregnant women had been collected, and their children had been measured body weight and length at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The independent and joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with anthropometry in the offspring were examined using General Linear Model and Logistic Regression. RESULTS: Prepregnancy BMI and maternal GWG were positively associated with Z-scores for birth weight-for-gestational age, birth length-for-gestational age, and birth weight-for-length. Infants born to mothers with excessive GWG had the greatest changes in Z-scores for weight-for-age from birth to Month 3, and from Month 6 to Month 12, and the greatest changes in Z-scores for length-for-age from birth to months 3 and 12 compared with infants born to mothers with adequate GWG. Excessive GWG was associated with an increased risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 12 months old in all BMI categories except underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater weight gain and length gain of offspring in early infancy. Excessive GWG was associated with increased infancy overweight and obesity risk.

  5. Migrant background and weight gain in early infancy: results from the German study sample of the IDEFICS study.

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    Anna Reeske

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine variations in infant weight gain between children of parents with and without migrant background and to investigate how these differences are explained by pre- and perinatal factors. METHODS: We used data on birth weight and weight at six months from well-child check-up books that were collected from a population-based German sample of children in the IDEFICS study (n = 1,287. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted means for weight z-scores at birth and six months later. We applied linear regression for change in weight z-score and we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for rapid weight gain by logistic regression, adjusted for biological, social and behavioural factors. RESULTS: Weight z-scores for migrants and Germans differed slightly at birth, but were markedly increased for Turkish and Eastern European infants at age six months. Turkish infants showed the highest change in weight z-score during the first 6 months (ß = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.56 and an increased probability of rapid weight gain compared with German infants. Examination of the joint effect of migrant and socioeconomic status (SES showed the greatest change in weight z-scores in Turkish infants from middle SES families (ß = 0.77; 95% CI 0.40-1.14 and infants of parents from Eastern European countries with high SES (ß = 0.72; 95% CI 0.13-1.32. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that migrant background is an independent risk factor for infant weight gain and suggest that the onset of health inequalities in overweight starts in early infancy.

  6. Salivary and serum cortisol and relation to blood pressure in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants.

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    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M

    2015-10-01

    Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis possibly explains the relation between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and/or preterm birth and elevated blood pressure in later life. Very-low-birth-weight infants (birth weight blood pressure, already in early childhood. We investigated cortisol levels, relation to blood pressure and reliability of salivary cortisol in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants. We included 41 children, participating in the randomized controlled Neonatal Insulin Replacement Therapy in Europe (NIRTURE) trial. Serum and salivary samples for cortisol measurement (immunoassay) were taken simultaneously at 6 mo and separately at 2 y corrected age. Blood pressure was measured at 2 y corrected age. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys and in the early-insulin treated group. At 2 y corrected age serum cortisol was significantly higher in the early-insulin group compared to the standard care group. At 6 mo corrected age salivary cortisol was significantly correlated to serum cortisol. In very-low-birth-weight boys, the positive correlation between cortisol and blood pressure is present at 2 y corrected age. Early insulin therapy could affect programming of the HPA axis. Salivary cortisol mirrors serum levels at 6 mo corrected age.

  7. IGF-I and relation to growth in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term born infants

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    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In very-low-birth-weight infants IGF-I plays an important role in postnatal growth restriction and is probably also involved in growth restriction in childhood. We compared IGF-I and its relation to growth in early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term appropriate for gestational age born infants. Methods We included 41 very-low-birth-weight and 64 term infants. Anthropometry was performed at all visits to the outpatient clinic. IGF-I and insulin were measured in blood samples taken at 6 months and 2 years corrected age (very-low-birth-weight children) and at 3 months, 1 and 2 years (term children). Results Over the first 2 years of life growth parameters are lower in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children, but the difference in length decreases significantly. During the first 2 years of life IGF-I is higher in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children. In both groups there is a significant relationship between IGF-I and (change in) length and weight over the first 2 years of life and between insulin and change in total body fat. Conclusions Considering the relation of IGF-I to growth and the decrease in difference in length, higher IGF-I levels in very-low-birth-weight infants in early childhood probably have an important role in catch-up growth in length. PMID:28182752

  8. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

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    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  9. Syndromic (phenotypic diarrhea in early infancy

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    Bodemer Christine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD, also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN. To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorphism including prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism. Hairs are woolly, easily removed and poorly pigmented. Severe and persistent diarrhea starts within the first 6 months of life (≤ 1 month in most cases and is accompanied by severe malabsorption leading to early and relentless protein energy malnutrition with failure to thrive. Liver disease affects about half of patients with extensive fibrosis or cirrhosis. There is currently no specific biochemical profile, though a functional T-cell immune deficiency with defective antibody production was reported. Microscopic analysis of the hair show twisted hair (pili torti, aniso- and poilkilotrichosis, and trichorrhexis nodosa. Histopathological analysis of small intestine biopsy shows non-specific villous atrophy with low or no mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and no specific histological abnormalities involving the epithelium. The etiology remains unknown. The frequent association of the disorder with parental consanguinity and/or affected siblings suggests a genetic origin with an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. Early management consists of total PN. Some infants have a rather milder phenotype with partial PN dependency or require only enteral feeding. Prognosis of this syndrome is poor, but most patients now survive, and about half of the patients may be weaned from PN at adolescence, but experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Disease name

  10. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001547.htm Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Reactive attachment disorder is a problem in which a child is ...

  11. Syndromic (phenotypic) diarrhea in early infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodemer Christine; Brousse Nicole; Roquelaure Bertrand; Vinson Christine; Goulet Olivier; Cézard Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD), also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD) or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE), is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN). To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorph...

  12. Syndromic (phenotypic) diarrhea in early infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodemer Christine; Brousse Nicole; Roquelaure Bertrand; Vinson Christine; Goulet Olivier; Cézard Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD), also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD) or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE), is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN). To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorph...

  13. Stiff-person syndrome with early onset in infancy

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    S. A. Malmberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of stiff-person syndrome with benign course in 16-years old patient is presented. The initial clinical signs of the disease were observed in infancy with retarded development of motor functions and skeleton muscle lumps. The diagnosis was made using generally accepted clinical and electromyographical criteria. Aspects of differential diagnosis, pathogenesis and clinical course polymorphism in early-onset cases of the disease are discussed.

  14. Rhesus isoimmunization: increased hemolysis during early infancy.

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    Hayde, M; Widness, J A; Pollak, A; Kohlhauser-Vollmuth, C; Vreman, H J; Stevenson, D K

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether whole blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and plasma bilirubin, two indicators of hemolysis, are elevated in infants with severe Rh isoimmune hemolytic disease during the first months of life. Beginning at 2 wk of age and continuing monthly for 3 mo, serial blood samples were obtained for COHb, plasma bilirubin, Hb, reticulocyte count, plasma erythropoietin, plasma enzymes, and plasma iron. Because control infants (n = 13) and infants with ABO hemolytic disease (n = 5) did not differ from one another in any of the study parameters, these two groups were combined and compared with infants with the Rh isoimmunization. Infants with severe Rh isoimmune hemolytic disease (n = 13) were found to have significantly lower Hb and significantly higher bilirubin, the COHb fraction divided by the Hb concentration (COHb/Hb), and plasma erythropoietin levels at 2 and 6 wk of age, and reticulocyte counts at 6 wk. The remaining parameters were not different between the control-ABO group and Rh-isoimmune group at any of the study intervals. The study's two primary indicators of hemolysis, plasma bilirubin and COHb/Hb, were significantly correlated with one another in the Rh-immunized group (r = 0.66, p isoimmunization demonstrated a mean half-life of 14.3 d. We speculate that, among infants with severe Rh isoimmune hemolytic disease, elevated total bilirubin levels and COHb/Hb ratios identified in the early weeks of life indicate continuing hemolysis due to persistence of maternal Rh antibodies.

  15. Clinical disturbances of attachment in infancy and early childhood.

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    Boris, N W; Zeanah, C H

    1998-08-01

    The development of the attachment behavioral system in infancy has been the focus of a wide range of research in the past 30 years. The clinical significance of disturbances in this area of development is currently a major focus for this research. Research on patterns of attachment in infancy has informed understanding of the development of psychopathology in later childhood; insecure-disorganized attachment is recognized as an important risk factor in this regard. The clinical features of reactive attachment disorder in early childhood are also becoming more clear. Finally, knowledge about the intersection between attachment and various risk conditions is growing and should inform clinical judgement about infants and young children requiring intervention. Primary care physicians can use these findings to identify children in need of intervention.

  16. TREATMENT OF STATUS EPILEPTICUS IN INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD

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    А. А. Kholin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of status epilepticus (SE in infancy and early childhood is very important due to a high occurrence of SE, serious consequences of prolonged seizures for the child's developing brain, atypical variants of SE accompanying specific age-dependant forms of epilepsy in the first year of life (infantile epileptic encephalopathies, high rate of pharmacoresistant forms and severe disability of patients. Out of the total of 407 pediatric patients with revealed cases of SE 267 children had the SE onset before 3 years of age (65,6%, and 147 patients (36,1% had SE onset in infancy. In the structure of ES at infancy and early childhood 38,6% of cases were represented by epileptic encephalopathies, 27% — by focal forms of epilepsy, 15,7% — hereditary neurodegenerations, 14,2% — acute symptomatic SE and 4,5% — isolated febrile SE. SE in infancy was treated with benzodiasepines — diazepam (0,5 mg/kg per rectum, i. m. or i. v., midazolam (0,15–0,4 mg/kg i. v. in bolus, supporting infusion — 1–3 µg/kg/min, and valproates (convulex in the initial dose of 10–25 mg/kg followed by a supporting infusion of 1–4 mg/kg/hour. The refractory cases of SE were treated with sodium oxybate (100–150 mg/kg with the speed of 400 mg/min, propofol (3 mg/kg i. v. in bolus followed by a supporting infusion — 100 µg/kg/min, sodium thiopental (4 mg/kg followed after 2 minutes by an infusion of 0,2 mg/kg/min.

  17. Prenatal organochlorine compound exposure, rapid weight gain, and overweight in infancy.

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    Mendez, Michelle A; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Mónica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goñi, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-02-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ≥ the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed.

  18. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset.

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    Olsen, Else M; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight and gestational age, with single parenthood and with mother having smoked during pregnancy. Onset between 2 weeks and 4 months was associated with congenital disorders and serious somatic illness, and with deviant mother-child relationship, whereas, onset between 4 and 8 months seemed to represent a group of children with feeding problems arising de novo in otherwise healthy children. In conclusion, weight faltering in infancy is clearly associated with contemporary measured feeding problems, but the risk mechanisms involved differ in early vs. late onset.

  19. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth...... of children with feeding problems arising de novo in otherwise healthy children. In conclusion, weight faltering in infancy is clearly associated with contemporary measured feeding problems, but the risk mechanisms involved differ in early vs. late onset....... cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless...... of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight...

  20. Stability of food neophobia from infancy through early childhood.

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    Moding, Kameron J; Stifter, Cynthia A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether rejection of novel foods during infancy predicted child behavioral and parent-reported neophobia at 4.5 years of age. Data for the present study were drawn from a longitudinal study following individuals (n = 82) from infancy through early childhood. At 6 and 12 months of age, the infants tasted a novel food (green beans, hummus, or cottage cheese) and their reactions were coded for rejection of the food (i.e. crying, force outs, or refusals). The children returned to the laboratory at 4.5 years of age and participated in a behavioral neophobia task where they were offered three novel foods (lychee, nori, and haw jelly) and the number of novel foods they tasted was recorded. Mothers also reported their own and their children's levels of food neophobia. Regression analyses revealed that rejection of novel foods at 6 months interacted with maternal neophobia to predict parent-rated child neophobia. Infants who exhibited low levels of rejection at 6 months showed higher levels of parent-rated neophobia when their mothers also showed high compared to low levels of neophobia. At 12 months of age, however, infants who exhibited high levels of rejection tended to have high levels of parent-rated neophobia regardless of their mothers' levels of neophobia. These results provide preliminary evidence that rejection of novel foods during infancy does predict neophobia during early childhood, but the results vary depending on when rejection of new foods is measured.

  1. Use of Chlorothiazide in the Management of Central Diabetes Insipidus in Early Infancy

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    Manish Raisingani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of central diabetes insipidus in infancy is challenging. The various forms of desmopressin, oral, subcutaneous, and intranasal, have variability in the duration of action. Infants consume most of their calories as liquids which with desmopressin puts them at risk for hyponatremia and seizures. There are few cases reporting chlorothiazide as a temporizing measure for central diabetes insipidus in infancy. A male infant presented on day of life 30 with holoprosencephaly, cleft lip and palate, and poor weight gain to endocrine clinic. Biochemical tests and urine output were consistent with central diabetes insipidus. The patient required approximately 2.5 times the normal fluid intake to keep up with the urine output. Patient was started on low renal solute load formula and oral chlorothiazide. There were normalization of serum sodium, decrease in fluid intake close to 1.3 times the normal, and improved urine output. There were no episodes of hyponatremia/hypernatremia inpatient. The patient had 2 episodes of hypernatremia in the first year of life resolving with few hours of hydration. Oral chlorothiazide is a potential bridging agent for treatment of central DI along with low renal solute load formula in early infancy. It can help achieve adequate control of DI without wide serum sodium fluctuations.

  2. Associations between prenatal and infancy weight gain and BMI, fat mass, and fat distribution in young adulthood: A prospective cohort study in males and females born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, A.M.; Finken, M.J.J.; Keijzer-Veen, M.G.; Hille, E.T.M.; Wit, J.M.; Dekker, F.W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence indicates that adult body composition is associated with prenatal and infancy weight gain, but the relative importance of different time periods has not been elucidated. Objective: The objective was to study the association between prenatal, early postnatal, and late

  3. Determinants of rapid weight gain during infancy: baseline results from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial

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    Mihrshahi Seema

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life. Methods Subjects were healthy infants enrolled in NOURISH, a randomised, controlled trial evaluating an intervention to promote positive early feeding practices. This analysis used the birth and baseline data for NOURISH. Birthweight was collected from hospital records and infants were also weighed at baseline assessment when they were aged 4-7 months and before randomisation. Infant feeding practices and demographic variables were collected from the mother using a self administered questionnaire. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z-score (using WHO standards above 0.67 SD from birth to baseline assessment, which is interpreted clinically as crossing centile lines on a growth chart. Variables associated with rapid weight gain were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Complete data were available for 612 infants (88% of the total sample recruited with a mean (SD age of 4.3 (1.0 months at baseline assessment. After adjusting for mother's age, smoking in pregnancy, BMI, and education and infant birthweight, age, gender and introduction of solid foods, the only two modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain to attain statistical significance were formula feeding [OR = 1.72 (95%CI 1.01-2.94, P = 0.047] and feeding on schedule [OR = 2.29 (95%CI 1.14-4.61, P = 0.020]. Male gender and lower birthweight were non-modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain. Conclusions This analysis supports the contention that there is an association between formula feeding, feeding to schedule and weight gain in the first months of life. Mechanisms may include the actual content of formula milk (e.g. higher protein intake or differences in feeding styles, such as feeding to schedule

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy

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    Jan, W.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V.; Simon, E.M.; Haselgrove, J. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas. (orig.)

  5. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

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    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity.

  6. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Infancy Interact to Predict Executive Functioning in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function…

  7. Preterm Children at Early Adolescence and Continuity and Discontinuity in Maternal Responsiveness from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Leila; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Children whose mothers were consistently more responsive during the children's infancy and early adolescence achieved higher IQ and arithmetic scores, had more positive self-esteem, and were reported by teachers to exhibit fewer behavior problems than children of mothers who were consistently less responsive. (BC)

  8. Consideraciones sobre la Ansiedad en la Primera Infancia (Considerations Concerning Anxiety in Early Infancy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Elsa

    The results of an experience obtained while working with children in the early stages of infancy are presented. They are basically observations taken of a child's reaction to sudden changes, particularly separation from its mother. Anxiety was observed in these infants in diverse circumstances; in some cases it was at a normal level and in others…

  9. Parenting Behaviours and Children's Development from Infancy to Early Childhood: Changes, Continuities and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Feinstein, Leon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of parenting behaviours and children's development from infancy to early childhood, associations between parenting behaviours and children's development and how these associations vary according to socioeconomic indicators. Mothers and children were examined from an ongoing longitudinal study of families…

  10. Mothers’ conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Sarubbi Junior, Vicente; Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Bertoli, Ciro João; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive®). RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children. PMID:27652830

  11. Mothers’ conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Paula Costa da Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive¯. RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children.

  12. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Khuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n=357, accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates including gender, birth weight, and socioeconomic status. Results. Participants were approximately half male (51%, born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3.5 kg, and 48% were exclusively breastfed for ≥90 days. Factors independently associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescence were faster weight gain in the first 3 months of life (B=0.16, P<0.05 and male gender (B=0.24, P<0.05. Breastfeeding as the sole source of milk for ≥90 days was associated with significantly decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (B=−0.16. Conclusion. This study adds to current knowledge about early infant growth and breastfeeding and their long-term health effects.

  13. Birth weight, early life weight gain and age at menarche: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, F; Chang, V W; Brar, P; Parekh, N

    2017-11-01

    Adiposity in pre- and postnatal life may influence menarcheal age. Existing evidence is primarily cross-sectional, failing to address temporality, for which the role of adiposity in early life remains unclear. The current study sought to systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating the associations between birth weight and infant/childhood weight status/weight gain in relation to menarcheal age. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health (Ovid) and CINAHL were systematically searched. Selected studies were limited to English-language articles presenting multi-variable analyses. Seventeen studies reporting risk estimates for birth weight (n = 3), infant/childhood weight gain/weight status (n = 4) or both (n = 10), in relation to menarcheal age were included. Lower vs. higher birth weight was associated with earlier menarche in nine studies and later menarche in one study, while three studies reported a null association. Greater BMI or weight gain over time and greater childhood weight were significantly associated with earlier menarche in nine of nine and six of seven studies, respectively. Studies suggested that lower birth weight and higher body weight and weight gain in infancy and childhood may increase the risk of early menarche. The pre- and postnatal period may thus be an opportune time for weight control interventions to prevent early menarche, and its subsequent consequences. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Khuc; Estela Blanco; Raquel Burrows; Marcela Reyes; Marcela Castillo; Betsy Lozoff; Sheila Gahagan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n = 357), accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates in...

  15. Treatment with long-acting lanreotide autogel in early infancy in patients with severe neonatal hyperinsulinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, Heike; Kummer, Sebastian; Welters, Alena; Teig, Norbert; Klee, Dirk; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas

    2017-06-02

    Treatment of severe diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) without sufficient response to diazoxide is complicated by the lack of approved drugs. Therefore, patients are often hospitalized long-term or have to undergo pancreatic surgery if episodes of severe hypoglycaemia cannot be prevented. A long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, has been reported to be an effective treatment option that prevents severe hypoglycaemia in children with CHI, and its off-label use is common in CHI. However, octreotide requires continuous i.v. or s.c. infusion or multiple daily injections. Here, we report our experiences with the use of a monthly application of a long-acting somatostatin analogue, lanreotide autogel® (LAN-ATG), in early infancy. The mean blood glucose concentration within 7 days before the first LAN-ATG administration were compared to 7 days after the first LAN-ATG administration and increased by 0.75 mmol/L (range 0.39-1.19 mmol/L). In the following weeks intravenous glucose infusions, octreotide, and glucagon treatment could be successfully stopped in all patients 3-20 days after the first LAN-ATG injection without substantial worsening of the hypoglycaemia rate. Increased carbohydrate requirements could be normalized with an average reduction in the carbohydrate-intake of 7 g/kg body weight/d (range 1.75-12.8 g/kg body weight/d). Over a total of 52 treatment months, no serious adverse effects occurred. Long-term LAN-ATG treatment improved blood glucose concentrations, lowered the frequency of hypoglycaemia or allowed for normalization of oral carbohydrate intake in infants with CHI younger than 6 months of age. No severe side effects were observed. LAN-ATG might be an alternative treatment option in infants with severe CHI who lack risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis and are not responding to current treatment regimens as an alternative to surgery after careful individual evaluation.

  16. From infancy to pregnancy: birth weight, body mass index, and the risk of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Hanson, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for gestational diabetes, whereas the role of the mother's birth weight is more uncertain. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of mothers' birth-weight-for-gestational-age and early pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) in relation to risk of gestational diabetes. Between 1973 and 2006, we identified a cohort of 323,083 women included in the Swedish Medical Birth Register both as infants and as mothers. Main exposures were mothers' birth-weight-for-gestational-age (categorized into five groups according to deviation from national mean birth weight) and early pregnancy BMI (classified according to WHO). Rates of gestational diabetes increased with adult BMI, independently of birth-weight-for-gestational-age. However, compared to women with appropriate birth-weight-for-gestational-age [appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA); -1 to +1 SD] and BMI (born small-for-gestational-age [small for gestational age (SGA); born large-for-gestational-age [large-for-gestational-age (LGA); >2SD], and OR = 10.4 (95 % CI 8.4-13.0) if born AGA. Risk of gestational diabetes is not only increased among obese women, but also among women born SGA and LGA. Severely obese women born with a low or a high birth-weight-for-gestational-age seem more vulnerable to the development of gestational diabetes compared to normal weight women. Normal pre-pregnancy BMI diminishes the increased risk birth size may confer in terms of gestational diabetes. Therefore, the importance of keeping a healthy weight cannot be overemphasized.

  17. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth...... cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless...... of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight...

  18. Technology-aided assessment of sensori-motor function in early infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro G Allievi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for new techniques capable of providing accurate information about sensori-motor function during the first 2 years of childhood. Here we review current clinical methods and challenges for assessing motor function in early infancy, and discuss the potential benefits of applying technology-assisted methods. We also describe how the use of these tools with neuroimaging, and in particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, can shed new light on the intra-cerebral processes underlying neurodevelopmental impairment. This knowledge is of particular relevance in the early infant brain which has an increased capacity for compensatory neural plasticity. Such tools could bring a wealth of knowledge about the underlying pathophysiological processes of diseases such as cerebral palsy; act as biomarkers to monitor the effects of possible therapeutic interventions; and provide clinicians with much needed early diagnostic information.

  19. A developmental change of the visual behavior of the face recognition in the early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Okubo, Kensuke; Kato, Ikuko; Ijichi, Sonoko; Nishida, Tomoko; Kusaka, Takashi; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu; Kato, Masaharu; Konishi, Yukuo

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine developmental changes in visuocognitive function, particularly face recognition, in early infancy. In this study, we measured eye movement in healthy infants with a preference gaze problem, particularly eye movement between two face stimulations. We used the eye tracker system (Tobii1750, Tobii Technologies, Sweden) to measure eye movement in infants. Subjects were 17 3-month-old infants and 16 4-month-old infants. The subjects looked two types of face stimulation (upright face/scrambled face) at the same time and we measured their visual behavior (preference/looking/eye movement). Our results showed that 4-month-old infants looked at an upright face longer than 3-month infants, and exploratory behavior while comparing two face stimulations significantly increased. In this study, 4-month-old infants showed a preference towards an upright face. The numbers of eye movements between two face stimuli significantly increased in 4-month-old infants. These results suggest that eye movements may be an important index in face cognitive function during early infancy. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anticipatory eye movements and long-term memory in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Kee-You, Audrey M B; Adler, Scott A

    2016-11-01

    Advances in our understanding of long-term memory in early infancy have been made possible by studies that have used the Rovee-Collier's mobile conjugate reinforcement paradigm and its variants. One function that has been attributed to long-term memory is the formation of expectations (Rovee-Collier & Hayne, 1987); consequently, a long-term memory representation should be established during expectation formation. To examine this prediction and potentially open the door on a new paradigm for exploring infants' long-term memory, using the Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988), 3-month-old infants were trained to form an expectation for predictable color and spatial information of picture events and emit anticipatory eye movements to those events. One day later, infants' anticipatory eye movements decreased in number relative to the end of training when the predictable colors were changed but not when the spatial location of the predictable color events was changed. These findings confirm that information encoded during expectation formation are stored in long-term memory, as hypothesized by Rovee-Collier and colleagues. Further, this research suggests that eye movements are potentially viable measures of long-term memory in infancy, providing confirmatory evidence for early mnemonic processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Renal sonographic findings of type I glycogen storage disease in infancy and early childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Lin, Shuan-Pei [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan); Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Lee, Hung-Chang [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan); Taipei Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-08-01

    Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD-I) is an inherited disorder affecting glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The characteristic manifestations are hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlacticacidemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperlipidemia. Renal disease is regarded as a long-term complication and is reported mainly in older patients. We report the renal manifestations and renal ultrasonographic findings of GSD-I in infancy and early childhood in order to assess the role of renal sonography in the diagnosis of GSD-I. We retrospectively reviewed our hospital's database for patients with GSD-I from January 1993 to September 2004. The records of five patients were reviewed for this study. These five patients were diagnosed when they were younger than 3 years old. Data extracted from the charts included the initial extrarenal and renal manifestations, laboratory data, and imaging studies. We analyzed the indications for, and results of, renal sonography. In addition to the clinical presentations and laboratory abnormalities, all five children had nephromegaly and increased echogenicity on ultrasonography on their first visit, although only a minor degree of tubular dysfunction was noted clinically. Three of these five patients had nephrocalcinosis or renal stones or both. Hyperechoic large kidneys, nephrocalcinosis, and renal stones are common in GSD-I. They can be present in early infancy. Abnormalities on renal sonography might suggest GSD-I in a patient with suspected inborn errors of metabolism. (orig.)

  2. [Relationship between developmental prognosis and changing picture of postural findings in early infancy among early treated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuge, M; Yamori, Y; Kanda, T; Ando, R

    1992-09-01

    We followed 93 infants prospectively who were treated because of moderate and severe grades of cerebral coordination disturbances since less than 6 months of age. They were divided into 3 groups according to developmental prognosis at 4 years of age; normal 44, mental retardation 18, and cerebral palsy 31. We compared the postural findings in supine and prone position, and 7 postural reactions at the first examination with those at discharge about 50 days after the first examination. We assessed the changing pictures of postural findings as improved, not changed or worsened. We analyzed the relationship between the changing pictures of postural findings during the short period in early infancy and the developmental prognosis among the 3 groups. The normal group showed improvement in a larger number of items than the other two groups. The findings of cerebral palsied children showed poor improvement, and more postural reactions changed to be more pathologic than those in the other two groups. Among the cerebral palsied children, ambulatory cases showed better improvement than those who could not crawl. But we found no significant difference between ambulatory and crawling children. This study demonstrated that assessment of changing pictures of postural findings in early infancy was helpful to predict developmental prognosis.

  3. Preference for language in early infancy: the human language bias is not speech specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Ursula C; Corina, David P

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental to infants' acquisition of their native language is an inherent interest in the language spoken around them over non-linguistic environmental sounds. The following studies explored whether the bias for linguistic signals in hearing infants is specific to speech, or reflects a general bias for all human language, spoken and signed. Results indicate that 6-month-old infants prefer an unfamiliar, visual-gestural language (American Sign Language) over non-linguistic pantomime, but 10-month-olds do not. These data provide evidence against a speech-specific bias in early infancy and provide insights into those properties of human languages that may underlie this language-general attentional bias.

  4. Pattern and Characteristics of Growth Faltering in Early Infancy in an Urban Sub-Saharan African Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolajoko O. Olusanya

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: Many infants are likely to exhibit individual nutritional changes at variance with the overall/summary trend. Those whose nutritional status is likely to deteriorate or remain poor require timely intervention to minimize the risk of subsequent developmental delays/deficits from early infancy.

  5. Anger and Positive Reactivity in Infancy: Effects on Maternal Report of Surgency and Attention Focusing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Hane, Amie Ashley; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Henderson, Heather A.; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined two aspects of temperamental approach in early infancy, positive reactivity and anger, and their unique and combined influences on maternal reports of child surgency and attention focusing at 4 years of age. One hundred and fourteen infants were observed for their positive reactions to novel stimuli at 4 months, and their anger…

  6. Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, T R; Jakobsson, H E; Andersson, A F; Björkstén, B; Engstrand, L; Jenmalm, M C

    2014-06-01

    Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first year of life is associated with allergic diseases in infancy, but little is known how early microbial diversity is related to allergic disease later in school age. To assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to the prevalence of different allergic diseases in school age, such as asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and eczema. The microbial diversity and composition was analysed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month and 12 months of age in 47 infants which were subsequently assessed for allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity at 7 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). Children developing asthma (n = 8) had a lower diversity of the total microbiota than non-asthmatic children at 1 week (P = 0.04) and 1 month (P = 0.003) of age, whereas allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (n = 13), eczema (n = 12) and positive skin prick reactivity (n = 14) at 7 years of age did not associate with the gut microbiota diversity. Neither was asthma associated with the microbiota composition later in infancy (at 12 months). Children having IgE-associated eczema in infancy and subsequently developing asthma had lower microbial diversity than those that did not. There were no significant differences, however, in relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera between children with or without allergic disease. Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first month of life was associated with asthma but not ARC in children at 7 years of age. Measures affecting microbial colonization of the infant during the first month of life may impact asthma development in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Lower systolic blood pressure at age 7 y in low-birth-weight children who received iron supplements in infancy: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Josefine; Norman, Mikael; Westrup, Björn; Domellöf, Magnus; Berglund, Staffan K

    2017-08-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) (≤2500 g) is associated with iron deficiency in infancy and high blood pressure (BP) later in life.Objective: We investigated the effect of iron supplementation that was given to LBW infants on midchildhood BP.Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial that included 285 marginally LBW (2000-2500-g) infants at 2 Swedish centers between May 2004 and November 2007. The infants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) from 6 wk to 6 mo of age. In secondary analyses at the age of 7 y, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the prevalence of children with BP within the hypertensive range (>90th percentile) were compared between the groups.Results: BP was analyzed via intention to treat in 189 children (66%). The mean ± SD SBP was 103 ± 8.1, 101 ± 7.5, and 101 ± 7.8 mm Hg in children who had received the placebo (n = 70), 1 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 54), or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 65), respectively. When the iron-supplemented groups were combined in covariate-adjusted analyses, the mean SBP in LBW children who had received iron supplementation in infancy was 2.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.3, 4.2 mm Hg) lower than in those who were unsupplemented (P = 0.026). Multivariate logistic regression showed that iron supplementation in infancy reduced the odds of having an SBP within the hypertensive range at 7 y of age (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.96). For DBP, there were no significant differences between the intervention groups.Conclusions: LBW children who receive iron supplementation (1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1)) in infancy have lower SBP at 7 y. This (to our knowledge) novel observation suggests that the increased risk of hypertension that is observed in children and adults who are born small might be reduced with early micronutrient interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00558454. © 2017 American Society for

  8. Parenting Supports for Early Vocabulary Development: Specific Effects of Sensitivity and Stimulation through Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire; Mastergeorge, Ann; Foster, Tricia; Decker, Kalli B; Ayoub, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of disparities in early childhood language environments prompt examination of parent-child interactions which support vocabulary. Research links parental sensitivity and cognitive stimulation to child language, but has not explicitly contrasted their effects, nor examined how effects may change over time. We examined maternal sensitivity and stimulation throughout infancy using two observational methods - ratings of parents' interaction qualities, and coding of discrete parenting behaviors - to assess the relative importance of these qualities to child vocabulary over time, and determine whether mothers make related changes in response to children's development. Participants were 146 infants and mothers, assessed when infants were 14, 24, and 36 months. At 14 months, sensitivity had a stronger effect on vocabulary than did stimulation, but the effect of stimulation grew throughout toddlerhood. Mothers' cognitive stimulation grew over time, whereas sensitivity remained stable. While discrete parenting behaviors changed with child age, there was no evidence of trade-offs between sensitive and stimulating behaviors, and no evidence that sensitivity moderated the effect of stimulation on child vocabulary. Findings demonstrate specificity of timing in the link between parenting qualities and child vocabulary which could inform early parent interventions, and supports a reconceptualization of the nature and measurement of parental sensitivity.

  9. DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5: SELECTIVE REVIEWS FROM A NEW NOSOLOGY FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Carter, Alice S; Cohen, Julie; Egger, Helen; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Keren, Miri; Lieberman, Alicia; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Oser, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-5; ZERO TO THREE) is scheduled to be published in 2016. The articles in this section are selective reviews that have been undertaken as part of the process of refining and updating the nosology. They provide the rationales for new disorders, for disorders that had not been included previously in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and for changes in how certain types of disorders are conceptualized. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Body mass index (BMI) trajectories in infancy differ by population ancestry and may presage disparities in early childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sani M; Chesi, Alessandra; Mentch, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Kelly, Andrea; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A; Zemel, Babette S; McCormack, Shana E

    2015-04-01

    No consensus definition exists for excess adiposity during infancy. After age 2 years, high body mass index (BMI) is related to adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Before age 2 years, the utility of BMI as a metric of excess adiposity is unknown. The objective of the study was to characterize infant BMI trajectories in a diverse, longitudinal cohort and investigate the relationship between the infancy BMI trajectory and childhood obesity. Healthy, nonpreterm infants (n = 2114) in the Genetic Causes for Complex Pediatric Disorders study (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) with six or more BMI measurements in the first 13.5 months participated in the study. For each infant, the BMI trajectory was modeled using polynomial regression. Independent effects of clinical factors on magnitude and timing of peak BMI were assessed. The relationship between infancy BMI and early childhood BMI (age 4 y) was examined (n = 1075). The cohort was 53% male and 61% African-American. Peak BMI was 18.6 ± 1.7 kg/m(2) and occurred at 8.6 ± 1.4 months. In multivariate analysis, boys had a higher (0.50 kg/m(2), P BMI than girls. The peak was higher (0.53 kg/m(2), P ≤ .001) and occurred earlier (by 12 d, P BMI. We demonstrate sex- and ancestry-specific differences in infancy BMI and an association of infancy peak BMI with childhood BMI. These findings support the potential utility of infancy BMI to identify children younger than age 2 years with increased risk for later obesity.

  11. The bacterial etiology of conjunctivitis in early infancy. Eye Prophylaxis Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M A; Hillier, S L; Bell, T A; Kronmal, R A; Grayston, J T

    1993-09-01

    The authors conducted this study to determine the etiologic agents of conjunctivitis in early infancy. From 1985 to 1990, 630 infants enrolled in a randomized, controlled, double-masked study of eye prophylaxis were observed for 60 days after delivery for signs of conjunctivitis. The following isolates were categorized as pathogens: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria cinerea, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Using conditional logistic regression for analysis of 97 infant pairs, the authors identified isolates categorized as pathogens almost exclusively among cases (odds ratio (OR) = 18.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-128). Among the microorganisms which have not usually been regarded as pathogens in the etiology of infant conjunctivitis, Streptococcus mitis was the only microorganism associated with an increased risk of conjunctivitis (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8-15.0). The findings concerning the species of bacteria most often associated with conjunctivitis, as well as the finding that method of delivery is unimportant, suggest that bacteria were transmitted to the infants' eyes after birth and not from the birth canal.

  12. Examining Recall Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood Using the Elicited Imitation Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2016-04-28

    The ability to recall the past allows us to report on details of previous experiences, from the everyday to the significant. Because recall memory is commonly assessed using verbal report paradigms in adults, studying the development of this ability in preverbal infants and children proved challenging. Over the past 30 years, researchers have developed a non-verbal means of assessing recall memory known as the elicited or deferred imitation paradigm. In one variant of the procedure, participants are presented with novel three-dimensional stimuli for a brief baseline period before a researcher demonstrates a series of actions that culminate in an end- or goal-state. The participant is allowed to imitate the demonstrated actions immediately, after a delay, or both. Recall performance is then compared to baseline or to performance on novel control sequences presented at the same session; memory can be assessed for the individual target actions and the order in which they were completed. This procedure is an accepted analogue to the verbal report techniques used with adults, and it has served to establish a solid foundation of the nature of recall memory in infancy and early childhood. In addition, the elicited or deferred imitation procedure has been modified and adapted to answer questions relevant to other aspects of cognitive functioning. The broad utility and application of imitation paradigms is discussed, along with limitations of the approach and directions for future research.

  13. Congenital malformations and damage in early infancy of the central nervous system; Fehlbildungen und fruehkindliche Schaedigungen des ZNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Sektion Neuroradiologi; Stephani, U. (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Universitaetskinderklinik - Klinik fuer Neuropaediatrie

    2007-07-01

    Congenital malformations and cerebral damage in early infancy cause complex morphological and clinical changes. Modern imaging techniques, and especially NMR, have provided deeper knowledge of these diseases in the past few years. Based on the neuroradiological findings, the book presents a complete picture of congenital malformations of the central nervous systems and cerebral damage in early infancy; it describes the underlying pathomechanisms, clinical symptoms and therapies. Neurologists and neuropaediatricians are enabled to diagnose malformations correctly and to develop optimal therapy strategies in cooperation with other medical disciplines. Neuroradiologists and radiologists, on the other hand, will find a manual for correct interpretation and differential diagnosis of their findings and a guide for interpreting the findings and deciding further therapeutic or diagnostic interventions. (orig.)

  14. Developmental changes in the corpus callosum from infancy to early adulthood: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka-Arakawa, Megumi M; Matsui, Mie; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uematsu, Akiko; Uda, Satoshi; Miura, Kayoko; Sakai, Tomoko; Noguchi, Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has reported on the development trajectory of the corpus callosum morphology. However, there have been only a few studies that have included data on infants. The goal of the present study was to examine the morphology of the corpus callosum in healthy participants of both sexes, from infancy to early adulthood. We sought to characterize normal development of the corpus callosum and possible sex differences in development. We performed a morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of 114 healthy individuals, aged 1 month to 25 years old, measuring the size of the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum was segmented into seven subareas of the rostrum, genu, rostral body, anterior midbody, posterior midbody, isthmus and splenium. Locally weighted regression analysis (LOESS) indicated significant non-linear age-related changes regardless of sex, particularly during the first few years of life. After this increase, curve slopes gradually became flat during adolescence and adulthood in both sexes. Age of local maximum for each subarea of the corpus callosum differed across the sexes. Ratios of total corpus callosum and genu, posterior midbody, as well as splenium to the whole brain were significantly higher in females compared with males. The present results demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of the corpus callosum during early life in healthy individuals is non-linear and dynamic. This pattern resembles that found for the cerebral cortex, further suggesting that this period plays a very important role in neural and functional development. In addition, developmental trajectories and changes in growth do show some sex differences.

  15. Assessment of chronic diarrhea in early infancy in Tehran Tertiary Care Center; Tehran-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Motamed; Naheid Kazemi; Raheleh Nabavizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diarrhea of infancy is a heterogeneous syndrome that includes several diseases with different etiologies. The aim of this study was investigating chronic diarrhea, its etiologies, clinical features and outcomes in infancy.Materials and Methods Retrospective study investigating infants hospitalized in the gastroenterology department of Tehran tertiary care center.The main demographic data, etiology, characteristics of diarrhea, and outcome were evaluated. Data were analyze...

  16. Gestational weight gain in relation to offspring body mass index and obesity from infancy through adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2010-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood.......Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood....

  17. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  18. Maternal pregnancy weight gain and cord blood iron status are associated with eosinophilia in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, R; Dosch, N C; Bacsik-Campbell, M E; Guilbert, T W; Coe, C L; Kling, P J

    2015-08-01

    Allergic disease is multifactorial in origin. Because iron nutrition affects immune responses and maternal pregnancy weight gain impairs fetal iron delivery while increasing fetal demands for growth, the study examined maternal pregnancy weight gain, newborn iron status and an index of atopic disease, infant eosinophilia. Within a larger prospective study of healthy newborns at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia, umbilical cord iron indicators were compared to infant eosinophil counts. Infants who developed eosinophilia exhibited higher cord reticulocyte-enriched zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio, Peosinophilia was 90%. High maternal pregnancy weight gain predicted infant eosinophil counts, Peosinophilia, Peosinophilia.

  19. Developmental trajectories of the fronto-temporal lobes from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Matsui, Mie; Uematsu, Akiko; Noguchi, Kyo; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Brain development during early life in healthy individuals is rapid and dynamic, indicating that this period plays a very important role in neural and functional development. The frontal and temporal lobes are known to play a particularly important role in cognition. The study of healthy frontal and temporal lobe development in children is therefore of considerable importance. A better understanding of how these brain regions develop could also aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Some developmental studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine infant brains, but it remains the case that relatively little is known about cortical brain development in the first few years of life. In the present study we examined whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe developmental trajectories from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals, considering gender and brain hemisphere differences. We performed a cross-sectional, longitudinal morphometric MRI study of 114 healthy individuals (54 females and 60 males) aged 1 month to 25 years old (mean age ± SD 8.8 ± 6.9). We measured whole brain, temporal and frontal lobe gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) volumes, following previously used protocols. There were significant non-linear age-related volume changes in all regions. Peak ages of whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe development occurred around pre-adolescence (9-12 years old). GM volumes for all regions increased significantly as a function of age. Peak age was nevertheless lobe specific, with a pattern of earlier peak ages for females in both temporal and frontal lobes. Growth change in whole brain GM volume was larger in males than in females. However, GM volume growth changes for the temporal and frontal lobes showed a somewhat different pattern. GM volume for both temporal and frontal lobes showed a greater increase in females until around 5-6 years old, at which point this tendency reversed (GM volume

  20. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fildes, A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Llewellyn, C.; Wardle, J.; Fisher, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early

  1. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fildes, A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Llewellyn, C.; Wardle, J.; Fisher, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infan

  2. An Exploration of Parenting Behaviours and Attitudes during Early Infancy: Association with Maternal and Infant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, B.; Brown, A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of warm and democratic parenting styles for optimal social, emotional and cognitive outcomes in children over the age of five is well established. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring variations in parenting styles during infancy, despite many popular parenting books aimed at this period. The primary aim of this study…

  3. [Cognitive and brain development of memory from infancy to early adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dégeilh, Fanny; Eustache, Francis; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and brain development are closely linked from infancy to adulthood. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of knowledge on behavioral and brain substrates of memory development. First, we will review cognitive development of different memory systems, from procedural to autobiographical memory. We will discuss how the development of other cognitive functions (language, attention, executive functions and metamemory) participates in memory development. Second, we will describe how structural and functional changes in two core brain regions of memory, i.e. the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, impact the protracted development of memory throughout childhood. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  4. Setting the stage for child health and development: prevention of iron deficiency in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M

    2008-12-01

    Iron deficiency is estimated to be the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and is particularly persistent among infants and children. The high prevalence of anemia in 6- to 9-mo-old children raises the concern that birth iron stores in some infants are inadequate to sustain growth and development through the first 6 mo of life, and postnatal factors are contributing to early depletion of iron stores and development of anemia. At the same time, there are concerns about negative effects of excess iron in infants. Maternal iron status, infant birth weight and gestational age, as well as the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth all contribute to the establishment of adequate total body iron at birth. Postnatally, feeding practices and growth rate are factors that will affect how quickly birth iron is depleted during the first 6 mo of life. Under conditions in which maternal iron status, birth weight, gestational age, and umbilical cord clamping time are optimal, and exclusive breast-feeding is practiced, infants should have adequate iron stores for the first 6-8 mo of life. Under suboptimal conditions, infants may not reach this goal and may need to be targeted for iron supplementation before 6 mo of age.

  5. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, H; Kawai, M; Niwa, F; Hasegawa, T; Iwanaga, K; Ohata, K; Tamaki, A; Heike, T

    2014-06-01

    Physical growth in neurologically healthy preterm infants affects motor development. This study investigated the separate relationships between muscle and fat in infancy and later motor development and physical growth. Muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness of the anterior thigh were measured using ultrasound images obtained from neurologically healthy preterm infants at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months' corrected age. We also obtained the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores at 18 months' corrected age to assess motor ability and motor delay. Thirty preterm infants completed the study protocol. There was a significant positive correlation between motor ability and increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 and 6 months' corrected age (r = 0.48 and 0.40, p muscle thickness growth in any of the periods. A secondary, logistic regression analysis showed that increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 months were a protective factor for motor delay. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. DEFINING RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5 APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    Infant mental health is explicitly relational in its focus, and therefore a diagnostic classification system for early childhood disorders should include attention not only to within-the-child psychopathology but also between child and caregiver psychopathology. In this article, we begin by providing a review of previous efforts to introduce this approach that date back more than 30 years. Next, we introduce changes proposed in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-5 (ZERO TO THREE, in press). In a major change from previous attempts, the DC:0-5 includes an Axis I "Relationship Specific Disorder of Early Childhood." This disorder intends to capture disordered behavior that is limited to one caregiver relationship rather than cross contextually. An axial characterization is continued from the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-3R (ZERO TO THREE, 2005), but two major changes are introduced. First, the DC:0-5 proposes to simplify ratings of relationship adaptation/maladaptation, and to expand what is rated so that in addition to characterizing the child's relationship with his or her primary caregiver, there also is a characterization of the network of family relationships in which the child develops. This includes coparenting relationships and the entire network of close relationships that impinge on the young child's development and adaptation. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Feeding Disorders in Infancy: A Case for Early Intervention in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVota, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…

  8. Longitudinal investigation of nasopharyngeal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in early infancy: The PATCH birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M-H; Chiu, C-Y; Shih, H-J; Liao, S-L; Hua, M-C; Huang, S-H; Yao, T-C; Lai, S-H; Huang, T-S; Yeh, K-W; Chen, L-C; Su, K-W; Lim, W-H; Chang, Y-J; Chiang, C-H; Huang, S-Y; Huang, J-L

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the long-term Staphylococcus aureus colonization patterns and strain relatedness, and the association between maternal and infant colonization in infancy. A birth cohort study was conducted from January 2012 to November 2014. Nasopharyngeal swabs for S. aureus detection were collected from infants at the age of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months and from mothers when their children were 1-month-old. In total, 254 samples were collected at each planned visit during the first 12-month study. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization decreased in the first year of life, ranging from 61.0% (155/254) at the age of 1 month to 12.2% (31/254) at 12 months. Persistent colonization, defined as a positive culture on four or five occasions, was detected in only 13.8% (35/254) of carriers. Most of the persistent carriers were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) only, and among persistent MRSA carriers, 61.1% (11/18) had indistinguishable genotypes. Of the mothers with MRSA colonization, 77.1% (27/35) had infants who were concomitantly colonized at the age of 1 month; 70.4% (19/27) of the infant-mother paired isolates belonged to indistinguishable or related subtypes, which suggests that surrounding carriers, probably their mothers, may be the possible source for MRSA acquisition in early infancy. Staphylococcus aureus colonization including MRSA was commonly observed in our cohort. Strains of persistent MRSA among infant-mother pairs were usually of indistinguishable genotypes. Therefore, horizontal spread within households is possibly an important factor related to infant MRSA colonization. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-scale brain networks underlying language acquisition in early infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka eHomae

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in human development is that of whether the language-related areas in the left frontal and temporal regions work as a functional network in preverbal infants. Here, we used 94-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to reveal the functional networks in the brains of sleeping 3-month-old infants with and without presenting speech sounds. During the first 3 min, we measured spontaneous brain activation (period 1. After period 1, we provided stimuli by playing Japanese sentences for 3 min (period 2. Finally, we measured brain activation for 3 min without providing the stimulus (period 3, as in period 1. We found that not only the bilateral temporal and temporoparietal regions but also the prefrontal and occipital regions showed oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb signal increases and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb signal decreases when speech sounds were presented to infants. By calculating time-lagged cross-correlations and coherences of oxy-Hb signals between channels, we tested the functional connectivity for the 3 periods. The oxy-Hb signals in neighboring channels, as well as their homologous channels in the contralateral hemisphere, showed high correlation coefficients in period 1. Similar correlations were observed in period 2; however, the number of channels showing high correlations was higher in the ipsilateral hemisphere, especially in the anterior-posterior direction. The functional connectivity in period 3 showed a close relationship between the frontal and temporal regions, which was less prominent in period 1, indicating that these regions form the functional networks and work as a hysteresis system that has memory of the previous inputs. We propose a hypothesis that the spatiotemporally large-scale brain networks, including the frontal and temporal regions, underlie speech processing in infants and they might play important roles in language acquisition during infancy.

  10. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  11. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Robie; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear. Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11-14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence. Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI -2.4 to -0.1) and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI -4.9 to 0.0), and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI -1.1 to 0.0) and 1.2 cm (95% CI -2.3 to -0.1), respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  12. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  13. INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHIATRY – CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OUTPATIENT CLINIC IN A CENTRAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Guerra Aguiar

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Most children referred were under the age of three and presented clinical indicators of mental suffering. In the last years, mental health in early childhood has been an area of growing investment, namely in the early identification of risk groups and signs of mental suffering, allowing mental carers to intervene preemptively.

  14. Socioeconomic disparities in birth weight and body mass index during infancy through age 7 years: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Howe, Laura D; Rasmussen, Mette; Due, Pernille; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. Methods The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. Results Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards between birth and age 7 years. At age 5 and 12 months, there were no educational gradient. A low maternal educational level was associated with lower birth weight for gestational age z-scores at birth for boys (−0.199; 95% CI −0.230 to −0.169) and girls (−0.198; 95% CI −0.229 to −0.167) and higher BMI z-scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7 years, but with a much weaker gradient at 5 and 12 months. Conclusions The educational gradient shifts from positive with birth weight, to none during infancy to inverse with BMI at age 7 years. In contrast, the income gradient was positive at birth and at 7 years and much weaker during infancy. PMID:28110282

  15. Predictors and Pathways from Infancy to Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Ystrom, Eivind; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a prospective 11-year longitudinal survey were used to identify early predictors and pathways to symptoms of anxiety and depression at 12-13 years of age, and to examine whether there were unique predictors of anxious versus depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to explore longitudinal relations between contextual…

  16. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie Ashley; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4…

  17. Association between body mass index percentile trajectories in infancy and adiposity in childhood and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M

    2017-01-01

    To identify distinct body mass index (BMI) percentile trajectories during early childhood and examine adiposity levels in childhood and early adulthood according to the BMI percentile trajectories. Iowa Fluoride Study cohort parents (n = 1,093) reported their child's anthropometric data on average six times between ages 0 and 23 months. A subset of the cohort underwent DXA scans at approximately age 8 years (n = 495) and again at approximately age 19 years (n = 314). Group-based trajectory analysis was conducted to identify distinct BMI percentile trajectories from ages 0 to 23 months. Sex-specific age-adjusted linear regression analyses were conducted to compare fat mass index in childhood and early adulthood among subgroups that follow the distinct BMI percentile patterns. Four BMI percentile patterns were identified: consistently low (group 1: 9.8%), increase in the second year (group 2: 33.7%), increase in the first year (group 3: 23.9%), and consistently high (group 4: 32.6%). Compared with group 2 females, groups 3 and 4 females had higher fat mass index in childhood and early adulthood (P BMI percentile in the first year of life, as opposed to a steep increase in the second year of life, may have higher body fat later in life, but this was not found in males. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Emergence of amae crying in early infancy as a possible social communication tool between infants and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroko

    2015-08-01

    Amae is defined as "wishing to be loved (Scheidlinger (1999). The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 27(1), p. 91)". Amae crying is known as crying of infants when seeking intimate emotional communication with caregivers. The objective of this study was to delineate when and how amae crying emerges in early infancy. Crying episodes of four infants were observed bimonthly, in the natural context of their homes, from birth to 6 months of age, for approximately 60min per session. Crying episodes (total=275) as determined by two coders were analyzed with respect to several behavioral measures. Results indicated that amae crying emerged at the age of 2 months, and consistently accounted for 30-40% of the total crying episodes after the ages of 3 months. Amae crying could be accurately identified when infants were not in acute discomfort and had already got the attention of their mothers. At such times, infants did not shed tears, cried with a fussy voice, and frequently looked at their mothers. Mothers responded to amae crying more promptly than they did to other types of crying behaviors. It is concluded that 3 months of age, when infants probably begin to use crying as a social communication tool is a major turning point for crying behavior from the perspective of its biological and social roles. It is suggested that amae crying might play an important role in strengthening and encouraging mother-infant interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Isabel; Miranda, Teresa; Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Napol, Marta

    2012-09-01

    Stunting, overweight and child development impairment are key problems affecting early infancy and have short and long-term consequences on academic performance, social competence and adult health. The aim of this paper is to identify linkages and factors that may simultaneously contribute to these problems. A cross sectional study. 2,046 children under 5 years in Canelones, Uruguay. For simultaneous assessment of the relationship between stunting, overweight and child development impairment we used multiple logistic regression analyses. We included children, household, maternal and paternal variables as confounder factors. To give the strength of association we performed odds ratios (OR). A significant OR was defined as upper and lower 95% confidence limits not containing the value of one. Significance level was 160 cm and maternal smoking increased chance of overweight. Some maternal behaviors, such as mother not used to singing songs and maternal smoking increased the likelihood of delaying psychomotor development. The close linkages between stunting, being overweight and child development impairment suggest they should be targeted together: they coexist in the same infants and predict each other. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correction of deformational plagiocephaly in early infancy using the plagio cradle orthotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruya, Mitchel; Oh, Albert K; Sauerhammer, Tina M; Taylor, Jonathan H; Rogers, Gary F

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess early treatment of deformational plagiocephaly using the Plagio Cradle, a modifiable cranial orthotic. Infants were included if they had treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with the Plagio Cradle beginning at 4 months or younger. Patients were prospectively stratified by the age treatment was initiated: group 1: under 10 weeks (n = 50); group 2: 10 to 20 weeks (n = 113). Pretreatment and posttreatment calvarial asymmetry was measured using direct anthropometry and reported as a transcranial difference (TCD). The end point for therapy was a TCD of 5 mm or less, falling within 2 SDs of published normative data. One hundred sixty-three infants were included. Initial TCD was significantly higher for group 1 as compared with group 2 (initial TCD: 11.0 vs 9.0 mm; P Plagio Cradle can fully correct deformational plagiocephaly early in life. Nevertheless, treatment is more effective if initiated before 10 weeks of age.

  1. Relationships between vocalization forms and functions in infancy: preliminary implications for early communicative assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Ertmer, David J

    2014-11-01

    This preliminary study explored relationships between form and function in prelinguistic vocalizations to increase our understanding of early communicative development and to provide potential clinical implications for early communicative assessment and intervention. Twenty typically developing infants-5 infants in each of 4 age groups, from 3 to 20 months of age-were included. Vocalizations from these infants had previously been categorized for their form (Nathani, Ertmer, & Stark, 2006) and function (Stark, Bernstein, & Demorest, 1993) characteristics. In the present study, cross-classification tabulations between form and function were conducted to examine relationships between vocalization types and their apparent uses. As anticipated, earlier developing forms were mostly associated with earlier developing functions, and later developing forms were mostly associated with later developing functions. However, there were some exceptions such that some forms were associated with a variety of functions, and vice versa. The results suggest that some forms are more tightly coupled to function than others in the prelinguistic and early linguistic period. Preliminary implications for developmental theory, future research, and clinical applications are discussed. Larger, longitudinal studies with typical and atypical populations and stricter methodological controls are needed to validate these findings.

  2. Importance of early weight change in a pediatric weight management trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Theim, Kelly R; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2011-07-01

    Early weight change is associated with overall weight loss treatment response in adults but has been relatively unexplored in youth. We investigated the importance of early weight change in a pediatric weight control trial. Overweight children aged 7 to 12 years (n=204) participated in a randomized controlled trial of 2 weight maintenance treatments (MTs) after a 20-week family-based behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT). Hierarchical regression was used to investigate the relation between children's percentage weight change at sessions 4, 6, and 8 of FBT and BMI z-score reductions after FBT and at the 2-year follow-up. Correlations and hierarchical regression were used to identify child and parent factors associated with children's early weight change. Children's percentage weight change by FBT session 8 was the best predictor of BMI z-score reductions after FBT and at 2-year follow-up. Percentage weight change in children at session 8 was associated with better FBT attendance and with greater percentage weight change in parents at FBT session 8. Early weight change seems to be related to treatment response through the end of treatment and 2-year follow-up. Future research should include investigation of strategies to promote early weight change in children and parents and identification of mechanisms through which early weight change is related to overall treatment response. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Socioeconomic differences in children's growth trajectories from infancy to early adulthood: evidence from four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; O'Leary, Neil; Fraga, Silvia; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Kartiosuo, Noora; Raitakari, Olli; Kivimäki, Mika; Vineis, Paolo; Layte, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Height is regarded as a marker of early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress, but the extent to which differences in height are determined by early-life socioeconomic circumstances, particularly in contemporary populations, is unclear. This study examined socioeconomic differences in children's height trajectories from birth through to 21 years of age in four European countries. Data were from six prospective cohort studies-Generation XXI, Growing Up in Ireland (infant and child cohorts), Millennium Cohort Study, EPITeen and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study-comprising a total of 49 492 children with growth measured repeatedly from 1980 to 2014. We modelled differences in children's growth trajectories over time by maternal educational level using hierarchical models with fixed and random components for each cohort study. Across most cohorts at practically all ages, children from lower educated mothers were shorter on average. The gradient in height was consistently observed at 3 years of age with the difference in expected height between maternal education groups ranging between -0.55 and -1.53 cm for boys and -0.42 to -1.50 cm for girls across the different studies and widening across childhood. The height deficit persists into adolescence and early adulthood. By age 21, boys from primary educated maternal backgrounds lag the tertiary educated by -0.67 cm (Portugal) and -2.15 cm (Finland). The comparable figures for girls were -2.49 cm (Portugal) and -2.93 cm (Finland). Significant differences in children's height by maternal education persist in modern child populations in Europe. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Domain-general neural computations underlying prosociality during infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Jason M; Calma-Birling, Destany; Decety, Jean

    2017-08-12

    A mounting body of neuroscience research in the social and moral evaluative abilities of infants and young children suggests the coopting of three domain-general processes involved in attention allocation, approach/avoidance, and intention and action understanding. Electrophysiological investigations demonstrate children's preference for prosocial others, that children's individual differences in moral evaluation predict prosocial behaviors, and that parental values may already influence neural sociomoral computations at quite young ages. This review highlights the importance of a developmental neuroscience approach in clarifying our understanding of early prosocial preference and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children.

  6. Mental health problems and psychopathology in infancy and early childhood. An epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    of neurodevelopmental psychopathology than has been described hitherto. Risk factors of emotional, behavioural and eating and sleeping disorders were psycho-social adversities in parents, and parent-child relationship disturbances seem to be the key mediator in the risk mechanisms. Risk factors of relationship......UNLABELLED: The thesis includes seven published papers and an overview concerning the epidemiological aspects of mental health problems and psychopathology in children aged 0-3 years. The research behind the thesis focuses at psychopathology in the first years of life. The aim has been...... to investigate phenomenology, prevalence, risk factors and predictors, in order to contribute to the knowledge about early developmental psychopathology, and improve the scientific foundation for identification and treatment of mental illness of infants and toddlers, and optimize the foundation for prevention...

  7. Sex hormones in early infancy seem to predict aspects of later language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Hesse, Volker; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-02-01

    Sex differences in the development of cognitive behavior such as language have long been of great research interest. Lately, researchers have started to associate language function and brain differences with diverse sex hormones (e.g., testosterone/estradiol). However, results concerning the impact of early postnatal sex hormone concentration on the child's later language development are rare. Here, we analyze the impact of testosterone and estradiol in girls and boys as well as their neurophysiological phonemic discrimination at age 5months on language development at age 4years. Interestingly, we found strong positive estradiol and negative testosterone impact on later language performance at age 4years, which was true for both girls and boys. These results demonstrate that postnatal sex hormone surge might be viewed as one factor determining later language development, independent of gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad S Al-Shehri

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidase (XO is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined.Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 μM respectively were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 μM. Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3 ± 12.2 μM H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 μM H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2-449 compared to adults (620 U/L, 48-1348, while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns.During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral-and hence gut-microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity.

  9. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehri, Saad S.; Knox, Christine L.; Liley, Helen G.; Cowley, David M.; Wright, John R.; Henman, Michael G.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Charles, Bruce G.; Shaw, Paul N.; Sweeney, Emma L.; Duley, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Xanthine oxidase (XO) is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined. Results Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 μM respectively) were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 μM). Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3±12.2 μM H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 μM H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2–449) compared to adults (620 U/L, 48–1348), while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns. Discussion and Conclusion During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral–and hence gut–microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity. PMID:26325665

  10. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehri, Saad S; Knox, Christine L; Liley, Helen G; Cowley, David M; Wright, John R; Henman, Michael G; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Charles, Bruce G; Shaw, Paul N; Sweeney, Emma L; Duley, John A

    2015-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined. Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 μM respectively) were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 μM). Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3 ± 12.2 μM H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 μM H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2-449) compared to adults (620 U/L, 48-1348), while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns. During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral-and hence gut-microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity.

  11. Maternal expression of communicative intentions and pragmatic fine tuning in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Magda

    2010-12-01

    This study focuses on pragmatic characteristics of infant-directed speech and pragmatic fine tuning during the first 18 months of life. The subjects of the study were a mother-child dyad involved in a longitudinal/observational study in a familial context. Audiovisual recordings were transcribed according to the conventions of the Child Language Data Exchange System (MacWhinney, 2000; MacWhinney & Snow, 1990). The Ninio and Wheeler's (1988) system for coding communicative intentions was adapted. The results of this research show that most of the communicative exchanges identified at 14, 20 and 32 months by Snow, Pan, Imbens-Bailey, and Herman (1996) appear in mother-child interaction from the beginning, while other communicative interchanges appear later. With respect to speech acts, the results highlight, from an early age, the general tendencies discussed by Snow et al. and some novelties. Interestingly, changes in some pragmatic measures were identified around 8 months of age, and the appearance of new communicative interchanges also took place around this age. These changes are interpreted as maternal adjustments to the child's communicative competence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vegetable and Fruit Acceptance during Infancy: Impact of Ontogeny, Genetics, and Early Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Reiter, Ashley R; Daniels, Loran M

    2016-01-01

    Many of the chronic illnesses that plague modern society derive in large part from poor food choices. Thus, it is not surprising that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, aimed at the population ≥2 y of age, recommends limiting consumption of salt, fat, and simple sugars, all of which have sensory properties that we humans find particularly palatable, and increasing the variety and contribution of fruits and vegetables in the diet, to promote health and prevent disease. Similar recommendations may soon be targeted at even younger Americans: the B-24 Project, led by the US Department of Health and Human Services and the USDA, is currently evaluating evidence to include infants and children from birth to 2 y of age in the dietary guidelines. This article reviews the underinvestigated behavioral phenomena surrounding how to introduce vegetables and fruits into infants' diets, for which there is much medical lore but, to our knowledge, little evidence-based research. Because the chemical senses are the major determinants of whether young children will accept a food (e.g., they eat only what they like), these senses take on even greater importance in understanding the bases for food choices in children. We focus on early life, in contrast with many other studies that attempt to modify food habits in older children and thus may miss sensitive periods that modulate long-term acceptance. Our review also takes into consideration ontogeny and sources of individual differences in taste perception, in particular, the role of genetic variation in bitter taste perception.

  13. Interpersonal and Genetic Origins of Adult Attachment Styles: A Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Holland, Ashley S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that individual differences in adult attachment styles emerge from individuals’ developmental histories. To examine this assumption empirically the authors report data from an age 18 follow-up (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2012) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal investigation that tracked a cohort of children and their parents from birth to age 15. Analyses indicate that individual differences in adult attachment can be traced to variations in the quality of individuals’ caregiving environments, their emerging social competence, and the quality of their best friendship. Analyses also indicate that assessments of temperament and most of the specific genetic polymorphisms thus far examined in the literature on genetic correlates of attachment styles were essentially uncorrelated with adult attachment, with the exception of a polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A rs6313), which modestly predicted higher attachment anxiety and that revealed a G × E interaction such that changes in maternal sensitivity across time predicted attachment-related avoidance. The implications of these data for contemporary perspectives and debates concerning adult attachment theory are discussed. PMID:23397970

  14. Interpersonal and genetic origins of adult attachment styles: a longitudinal study from infancy to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Roisman, Glenn I; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Holland, Ashley S

    2013-05-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that individual differences in adult attachment styles emerge from individuals' developmental histories. To examine this assumption empirically, the authors report data from an age 18 follow-up (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2012) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal investigation that tracked a cohort of children and their parents from birth to age 15. Analyses indicate that individual differences in adult attachment can be traced to variations in the quality of individuals' caregiving environments, their emerging social competence, and the quality of their best friendship. Analyses also indicate that assessments of temperament and most of the specific genetic polymorphisms thus far examined in the literature on genetic correlates of attachment styles are essentially uncorrelated with adult attachment, with the exception of a polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A rs6313), which modestly predicted higher attachment anxiety and which revealed a Gene × Environment interaction such that changes in maternal sensitivity across time predicted attachment-related avoidance. The implications of these data for contemporary perspectives and debates concerning adult attachment theory are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Early infancy microbial and metabolic alterations affect risk of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T; Dimitriu, Pedro A; Thorson, Lisa; Russell, Shannon; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Gold, Matthew J; Britton, Heidi M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Subbarao, Padmaja; Mandhane, Piush; Becker, Allan; McNagny, Kelly M; Sears, Malcolm R; Kollmann, Tobias; Mohn, William W; Turvey, Stuart E; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-09-30

    Asthma is the most prevalent pediatric chronic disease and affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Recent evidence in mice has identified a "critical window" early in life where gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) are most influential in experimental asthma. However, current research has yet to establish whether these changes precede or are involved in human asthma. We compared the gut microbiota of 319 subjects enrolled in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study, and show that infants at risk of asthma exhibited transient gut microbial dysbiosis during the first 100 days of life. The relative abundance of the bacterial genera Lachnospira, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, and Rothia was significantly decreased in children at risk of asthma. This reduction in bacterial taxa was accompanied by reduced levels of fecal acetate and dysregulation of enterohepatic metabolites. Inoculation of germ-free mice with these four bacterial taxa ameliorated airway inflammation in their adult progeny, demonstrating a causal role of these bacterial taxa in averting asthma development. These results enhance the potential for future microbe-based diagnostics and therapies, potentially in the form of probiotics, to prevent the development of asthma and other related allergic diseases in children.

  16. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective.

  17. Assessing the impact of movement consequences on the development of early reaching in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L Williams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on infant reaching has shown that providing infants with repeated opportunities to reach for objects aids the emergence and progression of reaching behavior. This study investigated the effect of movement consequences on the process of learning to reach in pre-reaching infants. Thirty-five infants aged 2.9 months at the onset of the study were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Two groups received a 14-day intervention to distinct reaching tasks: (1 in a contingent group, a toy target moved and sounded upon contact only, and (2 in a continuous group, the toy moved and sounded continuously, independent of hand-toy contact. A third control group did not receive any intervention; this group’s performance was assessed only on two days at a 15-day interval. Results revealed that infants in the contingent group made the most progress over time compared to the two other groups. Infants in this group made significantly more overall contacts with the sounding/moving toy, and they increased their rate of visually-attended target contacts relative to non-visually-attended target contacts compared to the continuous and control groups. Infants in the continuous group did not differ from the control group on the number of hand-toy contacts nor did they show a change in visually-attended target versus non-visually-attended target contacts ratio over time. However, they did show an increase in movement speed, presumably in an attempt to attain the moving toy. These findings highlight the importance of contingent movement consequences as a critical reinforcer for the selection of action and motor learning in early development. Through repeated opportunities to explore movement consequences, infants discover and select movements that are most successful to the task-at-hand. This study further demonstrates that distinct sensory-motor experiences can have a significant impact on developmental trajectories and can influence the skills young infants

  18. Long-term effects of birth weight and breastfeeding duration on inflammation in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Metzger, Molly W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Garfield, Craig; Adam, Emma K

    2014-06-07

    Chronic inflammation is a potentially important physiological mechanism linking early life environments and health in adulthood. Elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP)--a key biomarker of inflammation--predict increased cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk in adulthood, but the developmental factors that shape the regulation of inflammation are not known. We investigated birth weight and breastfeeding duration in infancy as predictors of CRP in young adulthood in a large representative cohort study (n = 6951). Birth weight was significantly associated with CRP in young adulthood, with a negative association for birth weights 2.8 kg and higher. Compared with individuals not breastfed, CRP concentrations were 20.1%, 26.7%, 29.6% and 29.8% lower among individuals breastfed for less than three months, three to six months, 6-12 months and greater than 12 months, respectively. In sibling comparison models, higher birth weight was associated with lower CRP for birth weights above 2.5 kg, and breastfeeding greater than or equal to three months was significantly associated with lower CRP. Efforts to promote breastfeeding and improve birth outcomes may have clinically relevant effects on reducing chronic inflammation and lowering risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  19. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Harries, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum.

  20. Early Weight Gain Predicting Later Weight Gain Among Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE, Yen-Chi L.; RAHMAN, Mahbubur; BERENSON, Abbey B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine if early weight gain in depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users predicts continued excessive weight gain and to identify risk factors of early weight gain in DMPA users. Methods DMPA users (N=240) were assessed prior to initiating contraception and every 3 months for 36 months. Early weight gain was defined as over 5% baseline weight gain within 6 months of DMPA use. Mean weight gain at 6-month intervals was estimated based on early weight gain status (at or below 5% gain vs. above 5% gain). Multiple logistic and mixed-model regression analyses were used. Results About one-fourth of DMPA users had early weight gain. The mean weight gain of the at or below 5% group and above 5% group was 0.63 kg and 8.04 kg, 1.48 kg and 10.86 kg, and 2.49 kg and 11.08 kg after 12, 24, and 36 months (P < 0.001 at all observations), respectively. Early weight gainers also had a much steeper slope of weight gain over time than the regular weight gainers (0.35 kg/month vs. 0.08 kg/month, P < 0.001). Risk factors for early weight gain were: BMI less than 30 (OR 4.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.513 – 10.455), parity (OR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.040 – 4.761), and self-reported increased appetite after 6 months of DMPA use (OR 3.06, 95% CI: 1.505 – 6.214). Conclusion Most DMPA users who gain excessive weight experience more than a 5% weight increase within 6 months. These data help physicians predict who is at risk of excessive gain and counsel them appropriately. PMID:19622988

  1. Exposure of Neonatal Mice to Tobacco Smoke Disturbs Synaptic Proteins and Spatial Learning and Memory from Late Infancy to Early Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Helena Torres

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in the early postnatal period has been associated with several diseases; however, little is known about the brain effects of ETS exposure during this critical developmental period or the long-term consequences of this exposure. This study investigated the effects of the early postnatal ETS exposure on both reference and working memory, synaptic proteins and BDNF from late infancy to early adulthood (P3-P73. BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes (0.73 mg of nicotine/cigarette from P3 to P14. Spatial reference and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze during infancy (P20-P29, adolescence (P37-P42 and adulthood (P67-P72. Synapsin, synaptophysin, PSD95 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were assessed at P15, P35 and P65 by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Mice that were exposed to ETS during the early postnatal period showed poorer performance in the spatial reference memory task. Specifically, the ETS-exposed mice exhibited a significantly reduced time and distance traveled in the target quadrant and in the platform location area than the controls at all ages evaluated. In the spatial working memory task, ETS disrupted the maintenance but not the acquisition of the critical spatial information in both infancy and adolescence. ETS also induced changes in synaptic components, including decreases in synapsin, synaptophysin, PSD95 and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Exposure to ETS in the early postnatal period disrupts both spatial reference and working memory; these results may be related to changes in synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. Importantly, most of these effects were not reversed even after a long exposure-free period.

  2. Weight trajectories through infancy and childhood and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence: the ALSPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Fraser, Abigail; Callaway, Mark P; Sattar, Naveed; Day, Chris; Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-09-01

    Adiposity is a key risk factor for NAFLD. Few studies have examined prospective associations of infant and childhood adiposity with subsequent NAFLD risk. We examined associations of weight-for-height trajectories from birth to age 10 with liver outcomes in adolescence, and assessed the extent to which associations are mediated through fat mass at the time of outcome assessment. Individual trajectories of weight and height were estimated for participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using random-effects linear-spline models. Associations of birthweight (adjusted for birth length) and weight change (adjusted for length/height change) from 0-3 months, 3 months-1 y, 1-3 y, 3-7 y, and 7-10 y with ultrasound scan (USS) determined liver fat and stiffness, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) at mean age 17.8 y were assessed with linear and logistic regressions. Mediation by concurrent fat mass was assessed with adjustment for fat mass at mean age 17.8 y. Birth weight was positively associated with liver stiffness and negatively with ALT and AST. Weight change from birth to 1 y was not associated with outcomes. Weight change from 1-3 y, 3-7 y, and 7-10 y was consistently positively associated with USS and blood-based liver outcomes. Adjusting for fat mass at mean age 17.8 y attenuated associations toward the null, suggesting associations are largely mediated by concurrent body fatness. Greater rates of weight-for-height change between 1 y and 10 y are consistently associated with adverse liver outcomes in adolescence. These associations are largely mediated through concurrent fatness. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination, lower respiratory infections in children, other infectious diseases, and acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P L; Klig, J E; Kahn, J S; Shapiro, E D; Baron, M A

    1997-02-01

    This section focuses on issues in infectious disease that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. Paul McCarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. Jean Klig reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children. Jeffrey Kahn and Eugene Shapiro discuss literature concerning several infectious diseases commonly seen in office settings and concerning which recent developments are of interest. Michael Baron reviews recent literature about gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

  4. early weight-bearing after ankle fracture fixation: a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I then determined to study and compare the functional benefit of early weight- bearing as compared ... management strategies after surgical treatment which have included ..... compensation expectations or concurrent medical comorbidity were ...

  5. Socioeconomic disparities in birth weight and body mass index during infancy through age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2017-01-01

    1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. RESULTS: Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards......-scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7......BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated...

  6. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  7. Childhood overweight after establishment of the gut microbiota: the role of delivery mode, pre-pregnancy weight and early administration of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajslev, T A; Andersen, C S; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A; Jess, T

    2011-04-01

    To investigate whether delivery mode (vaginal versus by caesarean section), maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and early exposure to antibiotics (diversity of the gut microbiota are associated with later risk of overweight. Longitudinal, prospective study with measure of exposures in infancy and follow-up at age 7 years. A total of 28 354 mother-child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort, with information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, delivery mode and antibiotic administration in infancy, were assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed with childhood height and weight at the 7-year follow-up as outcome measures. Delivery mode was not significantly associated with childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR):1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.47). Antibiotics during the first 6 months of life led to increased risk of overweight among children of normal weight mothers (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.17) and a decreased risk of overweight among children of overweight mothers (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.98). The same tendency was observed among children of obese mothers (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.41-1.76). The present cohort study revealed that a combination of early exposures, including delivery mode, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and antibiotics in infancy, influences the risk of overweight in later childhood. This effect may potentially be explained by an impact on establishment and diversity of the microbiota.

  8. Increased body mass in infancy and early toddlerhood in Angelman syndrome patients with uniparental disomy and imprinting center defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marie-Luise; Adam, Margaret P; Seaver, Laurie H; Myers, Angela; Schelley, Susan; Zadeh, Neda; Hudgins, Louanne; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Angelman syndrome (AS) is based on clinical features and genetic testing. Developmental delay, severe speech impairment, ataxia, atypical behavior and microcephaly by two years of age are typical. Feeding difficulties in young infants and obesity in late childhood can also be seen. The NIH Angelman-Rett-Prader-Willi Consortium and others have documented genotype-phenotype associations including an increased body mass index in children with uniparental disomy (UPD) or imprinting center (IC) defects. We recently encountered four cases of infantile obesity in non-deletion AS cases, and therefore examined body mass measures in a cohort of non-deletion AS cases. We report on 16 infants and toddlers (ages 6 to 44 months; 6 female, and 10 male) with severe developmental delay. Birth weights were appropriate for gestational age in most cases, >97th% in one case and not available in four cases. The molecular subclass case distribution consisted of: UPD (n = 2), IC defect (n = 3), UPD or IC defect (n = 3), and UBE3A mutation (n = 8). Almost all (7 out of 8) UPD, IC and UPD/IC cases went on to exhibit >90th% age- and gender-appropriate weight for height or BMI within the first 44 months. In contrast, no UBE3A mutation cases exhibited obesity or pre-obesity measures (percentiles ranged from <3% to 55%). These findings demonstrate that increased body mass may be evident as early as the first year of life and highlight the utility of considering the diagnosis of AS in the obese infant or toddler with developmental delay, especially when severe. Although a mechanism explaining the association of UPD, and IC defects with obesity has not been identified, recognition of this correlation may inform investigation of imprinting at the PWS/AS locus and obesity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Soluble human leukocyte antigen -G during pregnancy and infancy in Benin: Mother/child resemblance and association with the risk of malaria infection and low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milet, Jacqueline; Cottrell, Gilles; Mondière, Amandine; Avokpaho, Euripide; Gineau, Laure; Sabbagh, Audrey; Massougbodji, Achille; Moutairou, Kabirou; Donadi, Eduardo A.; Favier, Benoit; Carosella, Edgardo; Moreau, Philippe; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Courtin, David; Garcia, André

    2017-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) G is a tolerogenic molecule involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance phenomenon. Its expression during some infectious diseases leading to immune evasion has been established. A first study conducted in Benin has shown that the production of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) during the first months of life is strongly correlated with the maternal level at delivery and associated with low birth weight and malaria. However sHLA-G measurements during pregnancy were not available for mothers and furthermore, to date the evolution of sHLA-G in pregnancy is not documented in African populations. To extend these previous findings, between January 2010 and June 2013, 400 pregnant women of a malaria preventive trial and their newborns were followed up in Benin until the age of 2 years. Soluble HLA-G was measured 3 times during pregnancy and repeatedly during the 2 years follow-up to explore how sHLA-G evolved and the factors associated. During pregnancy, plasma levels of sHLA-G remained stable and increased significantly at delivery (p<0.001). Multigravid women seemed to have the highest levels (p = 0.039). In infants, the level was highest in cord blood and decreased before stabilizing after 18 months (p<0.001). For children, a high level of sHLA-G was associated with malaria infection during the follow-up (p = 0.02) and low birth weight (p = 0.06). The mean level of sHLA-G during infancy was strongly correlated with the mother’s level during pregnancy (<0.001), and not only at delivery. Moreover, mothers with placental malaria infection had a higher probability of giving birth to a child with a high level of sHLA-g (p = 0.006). High sHLA-G levels during pregnancy might be associated with immune tolerance related to placental malaria. Further studies are needed but this study provides a first insight concerning the potential role of sHLA-G as a biomarker of weakness for newborns and infants. PMID:28166246

  10. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.

  11. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Sonja; Gohlke, Bettina; Peiler, Annika; Schreiner, Felix; Born, Mark; Bartmann, Peter; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW), we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01). Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05), but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.). In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001). Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05), whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05). Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children. PMID:28208596

  12. Migrating Partial Seizures of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A national surveillance study in conjunction with the British Paediatric Neurology Unit was undertaken to further define the clinical, pathological and molecular genetic features of migrating partial seizures of infancy (MPSI, a rare early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with poor prognosis.

  13. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  14. Fever without apparent source on clinical examination, lower respiratory infections in children, bacterial infections, and acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, P L; Bachman, D T; Shapiro, E D; Baron, M A

    1995-02-01

    This section focuses on issues in infectious disease that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. Paul McCarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. David Bachman reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children and focuses on community-acquired lower respiratory infections and respiratory syncytial virus. Eugene Shapiro discusses literature concerning several infectious diseases commonly seen in office settings and concerning which recent developments are of interest: the hemolytic-uremic syndrome and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin, infections in day care centers, and new antimicrobial drugs. Michael Baron reviews recent literature about gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood and discusses diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis and physiology, epidemiology, and treatment.

  15. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  16. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  17. Effect of growth in infancy on body composition, insulin resistance, and concentration of appetite hormones in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjaer, Anni; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    High infancy weight gain is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR) in later life, but the association with later body composition has not been well explored. Appetite regulatory hormones may be programmed in early life, but data to support this are lacking....

  18. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Diffusion weighted EPI in early cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Susumu; Cho, Keiichi; Hosaka, Sumio; Ito, Koichiro; Tajima, Natsuki; Kobayashi, Shiro [Nippon Medical School (Japan). Chiba-Hokuso Hospital; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-11-01

    Fifteen cases of early cerebral infarction and 14 cases of cerebral hemorrhage underwent diffusion weighted echo planar imaging. Increased intensity area was detected only 2 in 5 cases less than 3 hours from ictus, whereas infarction was correctly diagnosed in all cases over 3 hours. Infarcted area was increased on the follow-up study in 2 cases. Hematoma showed mixed intensity in hyper acute phase, very hypo in acute, mixed in subacute and very hyper in the chronic stage. High intensity area surrounded the hematoma. (author)

  20. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy and Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This parameter reviews the current status of reactive attachment disorder with regard to assessment and treatment. Attachment is a central component of social and emotional development in early childhood, and disordered attachment is defined by specific patterns of abnormal social behavior in the context of "pathogenic care." Clinically relevant…

  1. REFLECTING ON THE PRACTICE OF INFANT MENTAL HEALTH AND THE REDUCTION OF RISK IN INFANCY AND EARLY PARENTHOOD: AN ESSAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherston, Deborah J

    2017-01-01

    This essay discusses infant mental health (IMH) as well as its origins and relational framework. The author then reflects, professionally and personally, on the meaning of psychological vulnerability of boys under 5 years of age, the importance of early caregiving relationships to the reduction of risk, and implications for education and training in the IMH field. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Maternal Filarial Infection Influences the Development of Regulatory T Cells in Children from Infancy to Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Madhusmita; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Achary, K Gopinath; Satapathy, Ashok K

    2016-11-01

    Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood. Hence the present study was designed to test the hypothesis by selecting a cohort of pregnant mothers and children born to them subsequently in a filarial endemic area of Odisha, India. A total number of 49 pregnant mothers and children born to them subsequently have been followed up (mean duration 4.4 years) in an area where the microfilariae (Mf) rate has come down to mother, cord and children were assessed through detection of microfilariae (Mf) and circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Expression of Tregs cells were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of IL-10 were evaluated by using commercially available ELISA kit. A significantly high level of IL-10 and Tregs have been observed in children born to infected mother compared to children of uninfected mother at the time of birth as well as during early childhood. Moreover a positive correlation between Tregs and IL-10 has been observed among the children born to infected mother. From these observations we predict that early priming of the fetal immune system by filarial antigens modulate the development of Tregs, which ultimately scale up the production of IL-10 in neonates and creates a milieu for high rate of acquisition of infection in children born to infected mothers. The mechanism of susceptibility and implication of the results in global elimination

  3. Maternal Filarial Infection Influences the Development of Regulatory T Cells in Children from Infancy to Early Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusmita Bal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs. Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood. Hence the present study was designed to test the hypothesis by selecting a cohort of pregnant mothers and children born to them subsequently in a filarial endemic area of Odisha, India.A total number of 49 pregnant mothers and children born to them subsequently have been followed up (mean duration 4.4 years in an area where the microfilariae (Mf rate has come down to <1% after institution of 10 rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA. The infection status of mother, cord and children were assessed through detection of microfilariae (Mf and circulating filarial antigen (CFA. Expression of Tregs cells were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of IL-10 were evaluated by using commercially available ELISA kit. A significantly high level of IL-10 and Tregs have been observed in children born to infected mother compared to children of uninfected mother at the time of birth as well as during early childhood. Moreover a positive correlation between Tregs and IL-10 has been observed among the children born to infected mother.From these observations we predict that early priming of the fetal immune system by filarial antigens modulate the development of Tregs, which ultimately scale up the production of IL-10 in neonates and creates a milieu for high rate of acquisition of infection in children born

  4. Developmental Trajectory of Audiovisual Speech Integration in Early Infancy. A Review of Studies Using the McGurk Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomalski Przemysław

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from their remarkable phonological skills young infants prior to their first birthday show ability to match the mouth articulation they see with the speech sounds they hear. They are able to detect the audiovisual conflict of speech and to selectively attend to articulating mouth depending on audiovisual congruency. Early audiovisual speech processing is an important aspect of language development, related not only to phonological knowledge, but also to language production during subsequent years. Th is article reviews recent experimental work delineating the complex developmental trajectory of audiovisual mismatch detection. Th e central issue is the role of age-related changes in visual scanning of audiovisual speech and the corresponding changes in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in the second half of the first year of life. Th is phenomenon is discussed in the context of recent theories of perceptual development and existing data on the neural organisation of the infant ‘social brain’.

  5. INFLUENCES OF COMPREHENSIVE INTERVENTION ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT IN INFANCY%综合干预对极低出生体重儿婴儿期生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩庆华; 刘霞

    2015-01-01

    [ABSTRACT]Objective: To explore the influences of early comprehensive intervention out of hospital on physical and motor development of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI).Methods: 35 VLBWI that hospitalized in our hospital were used as intervention group, 40 healthy full term infants as control group. The infants in intervention group were given early systemic comprehensive intervention. The physical and motor developments of infants in 2 groups were respectively observed at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months age.Results: The physical and motor development of VLBWI at birth, 3 months and 6 months age were obviously lagged behind healthy full term infants(P0.05); but the head circumference of VLBWI was still less than that of healthy full term infants (P0.05).Conclusions: Early comprehensive intervention out of hospital in infancy can stimulate the growth potential of VLBWI and help them achieve normal developmental level.%目的::探讨出院后早期综合干预对极低出生体重儿婴儿期体格和运动发育的影响。方法:以我院35例极低出生体重儿为干预组,以同期40例正常健康足月儿为对照组,干预组早期给予系统化的综合干预。分别于3月龄、6月龄、9月龄、12月龄时观察两组体格发育和运动发育情况。结果:干预组极低出生体重儿在出生、3月龄、6月龄时体格和运动发育均明显落后于对照组足月儿(P<0.05)。9月龄时,极低出生体重儿身长、体重和运动发育已达足月儿水平(P>0.05);但干预组极低出生体重儿的头围仍小于对照组足月儿(P<0.05)。12月龄时,极低出生体重儿的体格发育和运动发育均已达足月儿水平(P>0.05)。结论:出院后早期对极低出生体重儿实施综合干预,能使极低出生体重儿在婴儿期完成体格和运动发育的追赶生长,达到正常发育的水平。

  6. A longitudinal investigation of the affective environment in families with young children: from infancy to early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robin A; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2010-04-01

    We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months of age. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person's emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital satisfaction when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influences of the partner's emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent's interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents' emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child's development, and declined thereafter. Children's anger was highest at 15 months of age, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one's positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one's anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents' neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships.

  7. Performance of the Towers of Hanoi task and cortical electroencephalographic power changes associated with infancy, adolescence, and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Miguel Ángel; Hernández González, Marisela; Rizo Martínez, Lucía Ester; Robles Aguirre, Francisco Abelardo

    2013-11-01

    The executive functions, which depend on the adequate maturation and functioning of the prefrontal cortex and its connection to posterior zones, follow a process of development as age increases. This work studied changes in the absolute power (AP) of EEG activity recorded in the prefrontal and parietal areas during the performance of the Tower of Hanoi task in children, adolescents, and young adults. Three groups of healthy male subjects such as G1, 11-13; G2, 18-20; and G3, 26-30, years of age were recorded at the F3, F4, P3, and P4 derivations under two conditions: basal and performance of the Towers of Hanoi task. The majority of subjects in G1 failed to complete the task in the allotted time (7 min), while those in G2 and G3 were able to resolve the task quickly and efficiently. During the Towers of Hanoi task, G1 showed an increase of AP in the delta band only in the frontal areas, with a decrease in the alpha1 and alpha2 sub-bands only at the parietal derivations, while G2 and G3 were characterized by an increase of AP in the delta band and a decreased AP in the alpha1 and alpha2 sub-bands in all derivations. These data demonstrate that during the performance of the Towers of Hanoi task, the prefrontal and parietal areas show a characteristic EEG pattern in relation to age. It is probable that the AP patterns obtained in G2 and G3 are associated with the functional changes at cortical levels that adolescents and early adults require to achieve an adequate and fast performance of the Towers of Hanoi task.

  8. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chu; HU Dao-yu; ZHANG Wei; LI Xiao-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background With the advanced MRI techniques,pathologic features can be detected at an early stage and quantitatively evaluated,resulting in the advantages of early diagnosis and prompt treatment.This study aimed to determine the value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWl) in detection of early ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and investigate the characteristic manifestations of AS on whole body DWl (WB-DWl).Methods Twenty patients with the diagnosis of early AS,twenty patients with low back pain (LBP),and twenty-five healthy volunteers were included in this study.The subchondral bone apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) among these groups in the bilateral ilia and sacrum along the sacroiliac joints were compared.An independent sample t-test was utilized to analyze ADC value differences among groups.P-values less than 0.05 denoted statistical significance.The mean ADC values of focal DWI lesions in AS patients were also measured.Whole body diffusion-weighted imaging was performed in fifteen additional AS patients,and analyzed with MIP and MPR techniques in comparison to conventional MR images in order to evaluate the ability to detect AS lesions with whole body DWI.Results Mean ADC values in AS patients were (0.518±0.122)x10-3 mm2/s in the ilium and (0.503±0.168)x10-3 mm2/s in the sacrum.These were significantly greater than the values measured in the ilium and sacrum of LBP patients,(0.328±0.053)x10-3 mm2/s in the ilium and (0.311±0.081)x10-3 m2/s in the sacrum,and control group,(0.325±0.015)x10-3 mm2/s in the ilium and (0.318±0.011)x10-3 mm2/s in the sacrum respectively.No statistically significant differences were found between LBP group and control group.The mean ADC value of focal DWI lesions in early AS patients was (0.899±0.265)x10-3 mm2/s,which was significantly higher than that of adjacent normal-appearance areas ((0.454±0.079)x103 mm2/s).WB-DWI detected abnormalities in the 15 additional AS patients both within the sacroiliac joints and at other sites

  10. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after p

  11. Lack of evidence for a causal relationship between hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and subdural hemorrhage in fetal life, infancy, and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byard, Roger W; Blumbergs, Peter; Rutty, Guy

    2013-01-01

    to cause injury in certain cases of inflicted head injury in infancy, clarification is required. A retrospective study of 82 fetuses, infants, and toddlers with proven HIE and no trauma was undertaken from forensic institutes in Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark, and the United States...

  12. Efficacy of early neonatal vitamin A supplementation in reducing mortality during infancy in Ghana, India and Tanzania: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Rajiv

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A supplementation of 6-59 month old children is currently recommended by the World Health Organization based on evidence that it reduces mortality. There has been considerable interest in determining the benefits of neonatal vitamin A supplementation, but the results of existing trials are conflicting. A technical consultation convened by WHO pointed to the need for larger scale studies in Asia and Africa to inform global policy on the use of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Three trials were therefore initiated in Ghana, India and Tanzania to determine if vitamin A supplementation (50,000 IU given to neonates once orally on the day of birth or within the next two days will reduce mortality in the period from supplementation to 6 months of age compared to placebo. Methods/Design The trials are individually randomized, double masked, and placebo controlled. The required sample size is 40,200 in India and 32,000 each in Ghana and Tanzania. The study participants are neonates who fulfil age eligibility, whose families are likely to stay in the study area for the next 6 months, who are able to feed orally, and whose parent(s provide informed written consent to participate in the study. Neonates randomized to the intervention group receive 50,000 IU vitamin A and the ones randomized to the control group receive placebo at the time of enrolment. Mortality and morbidity information are collected through periodic home visits by a study worker during infancy. The primary outcome of the study is mortality from supplementation to 6 months of age. The secondary outcome of the study is mortality from supplementation to 12 months of age. The three studies will be analysed independent of each other. Subgroup analysis will be carried out to determine the effect by birth weight, sex, and timing of DTP vaccine, socioeconomic groups and maternal large-dose vitamin A supplementation. Discussion The three ongoing studies are the

  13. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known abo....... Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings....

  14. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  15. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Fabricius-Bjerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and to study if the effect differed between adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA vs. appropriate for gestational age (AGA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 30 SGA and 57 AGA healthy young Danish adolescents were analysed. They had a mean age of 17.6 years and all were born at term. Data on early infant weight gain from birth to three months as well as from birth to one year were available in the majority of subjects. In adolescence, glucose metabolism was assessed by a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressures as well as plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Early infant weight gain from birth to three months was positively associated with the fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, basal lipid levels and systolic blood pressure at 17 years. There was a differential effect of postnatal weight gain on HOMA-IR in AGA and SGA participants (P for interaction = 0.03. No significant associations were seen between postnatal weight gain and body composition or parameters of glucose metabolism assessed by the simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test. In subgroup analysis, all associations with early infant weight gain were absent in the AGA group, but the associations with basal insulin and HOMA-IR were still present in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that accelerated growth during the first three months of life may confer an increased risk of later metabolic disturbances--particularly of glucose metabolism--in individuals born SGA.

  16. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  17. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  18. Infancy and Critical Theory

    OpenAIRE

    UENO, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines with a relationship between infancy and critical theory by addressing a Japanese postwar intellectual who is a kind of counterparts of Frankfurt School scholar in Euro/Am context, Fujita Shozo, and one of his texts in the details.

  19. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kamata, Noriko; Okazaki, Eiwa [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Moriyama, Sachiko; Funata, Nobuaki [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Takita, Junko; Yamada, Hideo; Takayama, Naohide [Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected pathologic changes. (orig.)

  20. Early weight development of goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Malone

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.

  1. Sudden death in infancy due to bicuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, Ferah; Ozaslan, Abdi; Turan, Arzu Akcay; Pakis, Isil; Ketenci, Cetin; Eroglu, Ayse Guler

    2006-09-01

    Symptoms of bicuspid aortic valve usually occur in the age group of 50-70 years, but rarely, it can also lead to sudden unexpected death in infancy and early childhood. The autopsy of a 2-month-old baby boy, found dead in his cot, revealed the heart weight as 25 g, and the macroscopic examination showed the circumference of the aortic valve consisting of two leaflets as 8 mm. The thickness of the left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum was measured as 8, 7, and 10 mm, respectively. Microscopically, the heart revealed hypertrophic changes of myocytes. Subendocardial areas displayed necrosis of myocytes, and severe and diffuse ischemic changes characterized by loss of myofibers and vacuolization. Interstitial pneumonia was identified in the lungs. Death occurred as a result of a congenital bicuspid aortic valve obstructing the left ventricular outflow tract complicated by lung infection. As there are only a few reported cases in infancy, and congenital bicuspid aortic valve can lead to sudden unexpected death, this case is presented to the forensic community.

  2. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Doornaert, Patricia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RI). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and nutrition

  3. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals.

  4. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population1-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, S Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 mo in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Aim The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. Study Design and Subjects One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 mo. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Results Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 (1.01) to -2.20 (1.05) and -2.26 (1.01) at 3 and 6 mo respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 mo were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R2 = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 mo was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education*maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 mo. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. Conclusion The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. PMID:24083893

  5. Effects of preterm experience on the developing visual system : A longitudinal study of shifts of attention and gaze in early infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, Sabine; Geuze, Reint H.; Zweens, Mar J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies on visual development support the notion that healthy, low-risk preterm infants benefit from their early exposure to the visual world. It has been suggested, however, that mainly early developing sensory and motor processes are enhanced as a result of visual experience and early exer

  6. Effects of preterm experience on the developing visual system: A longitudinal study of shifts of attention and gaze in early infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.; Zweens, M.J.; Bos, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies on visual development support the notion that healthy, low-risk preterm infants benefit from their early exposure to the visual world. It has been suggested, however, that mainly early developing sensory and motor processes are enhanced as a result of visual experience and early exer

  7. Ulcerative colitis in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rukunuzzaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder of colon. Frequency of UC is gradually increasing over few years worldwide. Prevalence is 35 to 100/100 000 people in USA, 1% of them are infants. UC develops in a genetically predisposed individual with altered intestinal immune response. An eight-month-old girl presented with loose bloody stool, growth failure, and moderate pallor. The girl was diagnosed as a case of UC by colonoscopy and biopsy. Treatment was thereafter started with immunosuppressive drugs. After initial induction therapy with parenteral steroid and infliximab, the patient is now on remission with azathioprine and mesalamine. UC is rare in Bangladesh, especially in children, and it is rarer during infancy. Several conditions like infective colitis, allergic colitis, Meckel′s diverticulitis, Crohn′s disease, etc. may mimic the features of UC. So, if a child presents with recurrent bloody diarrhea, UC should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  8. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher...... future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations...... of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting...

  9. A meta-analysis of the evidence on the impact of prenatal and early infancy exposures to mercury on autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Takemura, Shigeki; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2014-09-01

    Although a measurable number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to clarify the associations between mercury exposure during embryo or early infancy and later incidences of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the conclusion still remains unclear. Meta-analysis was conducted for two major exposure sources; i.e., thimerosal vaccines that contain ethylmercury (clinical exposure), and environmental sources, using relevant literature published before April 2014. While thimerosal exposures did not show any material associations with an increased risk of ASD or ADHD (the summary odds ratio (OR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.24 for ASD; OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.70-1.13 for ADHD/ADD), significant associations were observed for environmental exposures in both ASD (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.17) and ADHD (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.10-2.33). The summary ORs were similar after excluding studies not adjusted for confounders. Moderate adverse effects were observed only between environmental inorganic or organic mercury exposures and ASD/ADHD. However, these results should be interpreted with caution since the number of epidemiological studies on this issue was limited and still at an early stage. Further studies focused on subjects with genetic vulnerabilities of developmental disorders are warranted for better understanding of the effects of such environmental exposures.

  10. The Effect of Early Excessive Weight Gain on the Development of Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhstaller, Kelly E; Bastek, Jamie A; Thomas, Ann; Mcelrath, Thomas F; Parry, Samuel I; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-10-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between total excessive gestational weight gain and hypertension in pregnancy. However, this may be a reflection of excessive water retention associated with the pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Early excessive weight gain, prior to the third trimester, results in greater maternal fat deposition and inflammation, which has also been associated with the development of hypertension. By focusing on early excessive weight gain, the association between maternal weight gain and the future development of hypertension can be examined. Objective To evaluate the association between early excessive maternal weight gain and the development of hypertension during pregnancy. Study Design This was a secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of 1,441 women without chronic hypertension who were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating maternal angiogenic factors and the prediction of preeclampsia. Initial body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight and height at the first study visit. Early excessive maternal weight gain was defined as weight gain by 28 weeks that exceeded the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and was calculated utilizing the maximum amount of weight gain per week recommended by the IOM based on the patient's starting BMI (normal: 0.45 kg; overweight: 0.32 kg; obese: 0.27 kg). Hypertension was defined as a sustained systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between early excessive weight gain, initial BMI, and the development of hypertension, including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, during pregnancy. Results Of 1,441 women, 767 (53.2%) had weight gain that exceeded the IOM guidelines in the first 28 weeks and 154 (10.8%) developed hypertension during pregnancy. Women whose weight gain exceeded the IOM guidelines were more likely to develop

  11. Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844

  12. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Cho

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, large for gestational age (LGA infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS. The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese, based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes

  13. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M;

    2006-01-01

    individuals born between 1959 and 1961. In 1999, cases of schizophrenia were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the cases were compared with the cohort pool of controls with respect to height, weight, and BMI from draft records. The effect of low BMI was adjusted for parental social......OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found...

  14. Bone disease of primary hyperoxaluria in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, E.; Wendler, H.; Zobel, G. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderheilkunde); Ratschek, M. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Pathologie)

    1989-11-01

    A patient with primary hyperoxaluria type I in infancy is reported. He had renal insufficiency, but urolithiasis was absent. Demonstration of diffuse nephrocalcinosis by renal ultrasound contributed to early diagnosis. Prolonged survival leads to extensive extrarenal oxalate deposition. Repeated skeletal surveys showed the development and the progression of severe hyperoxaluria-related bone disease. Translucent metaphyseal bands with sclerotic margins, wide areas of rarefaction at the ends of the long bones, and translucent rims around the epiphyses and the tarsal bones were signs of disordered bone growth. Bone density generally increased with time indicating progressive sclerosis due to oxalate deposition in the previously normal bone structure. (orig.).

  15. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: Presentation of a case affecting the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pooja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare, distinctive neoplasm of early infancy with rapid expansile growth and a high rate of recurrence. Most commonly, the lesion affects the maxilla of infants during the first year of life. One such case was diagnosed in the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology in Subharti Dental College, Meerut.

  16. Do environments in infancy moderate the association between stress and inflammation in adulthood? Initial evidence from a birth cohort in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W.; Hoke, Morgan; Borja, Judith B.; Adair, Linda S.; Kuzawa, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a potentially important pathway through which psychosocial stressors increase risk for cardiovascular disease. However, prior research on stress and inflammation has been conducted almost exclusively in high income, industrialized populations with low levels of infectious disease. In this study we test the hypothesis that psychosocial stressors are associated with elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) among young adults in the Philippines (n=1,622), who have grown up in an ecological and epidemiological setting that differs substantially from that of the US. In addition, we apply a developmental, ecological perspective to consider whether microbial and nutritional environments in infancy alter patterns of association between stressors and CRP. Data come from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a prospective cohort study that began collecting data in 1983-84 when participants were in utero. A series of regression models indicate trends toward significant interactions between perceived stress and environmental factors in infancy, including exposure to animal feces, season of birth, and birth weight. Parental absence in childhood was a significant predictor of CRP in adulthood in interaction with exposure to animal feces in infancy. Positive associations between stressors and CRP were only evident for individuals with lower levels of microbial exposure in infancy, or lower birth weight. These results suggest that early environments influence the development of inflammatory phenotypes in ways that moderate sensitivity to psychosocial stressors in adulthood, and they underscore the value of a comparative, developmental approach to research on social environments, inflammation, and disease. PMID:22960631

  17. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  18. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% (n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m(2)) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2). The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  19. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  20. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutc

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood: An individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hjelmborg, Jacob v. B.; Möller, Sören; Honda, Chika; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ooki, Syuichi; Aaltonen, Sari; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D’Ippolito, Cristina; Freitas, Duarte L.; Maia, José Antonio; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Busjahn, Andreas; Kandler, Christian; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Jang, Kerry L.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Gao, Wenjing; Yu, Canqing; Li, Liming; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Tynelius, Per; Lichtenstein, Paul; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Willemsen, Gonneke; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Christensen, Kaare; Öncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Rasmussen, Finn; Goldberg, Jack H.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-01-01

    Height variation is known to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, but a systematic description of how their influences differ by sex, age and global regions is lacking. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts from 20 countries, including 180,520 paired measurements at ages 1–19 years. The proportion of height variation explained by shared environmental factors was greatest in early childhood, but these effects remained present until early adulthood. Accordingly, the relative genetic contribution increased with age and was greatest in adolescence (up to 0.83 in boys and 0.76 in girls). Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North-America and Australia, and East-Asia), genetic variance was greatest in North-America and Australia and lowest in East-Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation was roughly similar across these regions. Our findings provide further insights into height variation during childhood and adolescence in populations representing different ethnicities and exposed to different environments. PMID:27333805

  2. [Ecological security early-warning in Zhoushan Islands based on variable weight model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhong, Lin-sheng; Chen, Tian; Zhou, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Ecological security early warning, as an important content of ecological security research, is of indicating significance in maintaining regional ecological security. Based on driving force, pressure, state, impact and response (D-P-S-I-R) framework model, this paper took Zhoushan Islands in Zhejiang Province as an example to construct the ecological security early warning index system, test degrees of ecological security early warning of Zhoushan Islands from 2000 to 2012 by using the method of variable weight model, and forecast ecological security state of 2013-2018 by Markov prediction method. The results showed that the variable weight model could meet the study needs of ecological security early warning of Zhoushan Islands. There was a fluctuant rising ecological security early warning index from 0.286 to 0.484 in Zhoushan Islands between year 2000 and 2012, in which the security grade turned from "serious alert" into " medium alert" and the indicator light turned from "orange" to "yellow". The degree of ecological security warning was "medium alert" with the light of "yellow" for Zhoushan Islands from 2013 to 2018. These findings could provide a reference for ecological security maintenance of Zhoushan Islands.

  3. Breastfeeding and allergic disease: a multidisciplinary review of the literature (1966-2001) on the mode of early feeding in infancy and its impact on later atopic manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odijk, J.; Kull, I.; Borres, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Strategies to prevent children from developing allergy have been elaborated on the basis of state-of-the-art reviews of the scientific literature regarding pets and allergies, building dampness and health, and building ventilation and health. A similar multidisciplinary review of infant...... feeding mode in relation to allergy has not been published previously. Here, the objective is to review the scientific literature regarding the impact of early feeding (breast milk and/or cow's milk and/or formula) on development of atopic disease. The work was performed by a multidisciplinary group...... concluded that breastfeeding seems to protect from the development of atopic disease. The effect appears even stronger in children with atopic heredity. If breast milk is unavailable or insufficient, extensively hydrolysed formulas are preferable to unhydrolysed or partially hydrolysed formulas in terms...

  4. Exposure to Multiple Languages Enhances Communication Skills in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Early exposure to multiple languages can enhance children's communication skills, even when children are effectively monolingual (Fan, Liberman, Keysar & Kinzler, 2015). Here we report evidence that the social benefits of multilingual exposure emerge in infancy. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a communication task that required…

  5. Exposure to Multiple Languages Enhances Communication Skills in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Early exposure to multiple languages can enhance children's communication skills, even when children are effectively monolingual (Fan, Liberman, Keysar & Kinzler, 2015). Here we report evidence that the social benefits of multilingual exposure emerge in infancy. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a communication task that required…

  6. Experience of early breast milk feeding in preterm very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Z; Islam, Q R; Roy, S; Akhter, N; Hoque, M M

    2012-04-01

    Although human milk is generally accepted as the gold standard for the feeding of term infants, its use in the preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants particularly in the initial period of birth has been more controversial. Little is known about the risks and benefits of early introduction of breast feeding on preterm VLBW infants. The primary object of this study was to evaluate the safety and benefit of early breast milk feeding in preterm VLBW newborns during their initial hospitalization periods. Therefore a prospective observational study was conducted among 37 preterm VLBW infants who were admitted to the Neonatal ward of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital during the period of February 15th to July 25th, 2003. Oral feeding with breast milk was started within one hour of birth, and weight gain, feeding tolerance, nosocomial infection rate as well as other associated problems of pre-maturity, and postnatal growth curve were recorded upto 16th postnatal day. Seventy three percent of the newborns tolerate breast milk well from the very beginning, and the rest did not tolerate initially but all of them tolerate within 24 hours of birth. Infants had less initial weight loss (20 ± 10 gm) and faster recovery of birth weight. They regained their birth weight at 12th postnatal day. Hyper-bilirubinaemia was found in only 22% cases, and was observed in the group who initially didn't tolerate breast milk and was on intravenous fluid. Nobody developed symptomatic hypoglycemia or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Two cases of sepsis and another two cases of minor infection like conjunctivitis and oral thrush have occurred. In conclusion it can be said that early breast milk feeding is safe in preterm VLBW infants and it helps to promote growth and reduce the need for intravenous line.

  7. [Early Detection of Manganese Intoxication Based on Occupational History and T1-weighted MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Toshio; Yano, Hajime; Kushida, Ryutaro; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal cell function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course terminating to atypical parkinsonism with little therapeutic efficacy. For subjects with chronic manganese exposure such as welders, manganese intoxication can be detected early based on the presence of hyperintensity in the globus pallidus on T(1)-weighted MRI and abnormally high urinary excretion of manganese with a chelating agent even in cases of normal serum/urine level of manganese.

  8. Flavor Programming During Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Julie A. Mennella; Griffin, Cara E.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences.

  9. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found....... No significant differences between cases and controls were observed with respect to adult height. CONCLUSION: Independent of several possible confounders, an inverse relationship between young adult BMI and risk of later development of schizophrenia was demonstrated in this all-male sample.......OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...

  10. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  11. PREVALENCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF E. COLI IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES OF EARLY ONSET SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Singh et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world which can be classified into early onset sepsis (EOS which occurs in the first 7 days of life and late onset sepsis (LOS which occurs ≥7 days of life. E. coli has been reported to be one of the significant and most common nosocomial pathogen which may cause septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis in the newborn. Most of the antibiotics which have been used extensively as life saving are rendered useless because of the emergence of resistant strains of bacterias. Therefore for determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli which is responsible for EOS and LOS and to establish the relationship with birth weight, a total of 229 blood samples were obtained from the neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU who showed the clinical signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis and sent for culture and sensitivity. Out of these 229, 102 showed the positive culture, among which early onset sepsis was found in 80 neonates while late onset sepsis was diagnosed in 22 neonates. The most frequent pathogen isolated from positive blood culture was E. coli (66.66% and it was also the most common pathogen in low birth weight and preterm neonates of both early (59 cases- 57.84% and late-onset (9 cases- 8.82% sepsis and the incidence was found higher in early onset sepsis. The isolate was completely resistant to vancomycin and the resistance was higher for monotherapy of semi-synthetic penicillin group of antibiotics than their combination therapy with sulbactum. Imepenam and gatifloxacin showed the highest sensitivity (100%, followed by Piperacillin - tazobactum and ciprofloxacin, however the frequency of resistance was more common in low birth weight neonates of early onset sepsis.

  12. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION DURING PREGNANCY AND TEMPERAMENT IN EARLY INFANCY: FINDINGS FROM A MULTI-ETHNIC, ASIAN, PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shang-Chee; Broekman, Birit Fp; Qiu, Anqi; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chan, Yiong Huak; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Law, Evelyn; Chee, Cornelia Yin Ing; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Chen, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Maternal antenatal mood is associated with negative infant temperament. This link has not been substantiated in Asian populations. We evaluated the association between antenatal maternal mood and infant temperament among Asian mother-infant pairs. Antenatal maternal depression and anxiety were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J. Cox, J. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C. Spielberger, R. Gorsuch, R. Lushene, P. Vagg, & G. Jacobs, 1983), respectively, at 26 weeks of pregnancy and 3 months' postnatally. Infant temperament was evaluated with the Early Infant Temperament Questionnaire (B. Medoff-Cooper, W.B. Carey, & S.C. McDevitt, 1993) at 3 months. Factor analysis was performed to extract culturally relevant categories of temperamental traits. Linear regression was performed to examine the influences of antenatal maternal mood on the factor-model-derived infant temperament. Of the 609 mothers, 11% met risk criteria for depression, 17% for state-anxiety, and 19% for trait-anxiety during pregnancy. Factor analysis yielded three infant temperament factors: Emotionality and Attentional Regulation, Sensory Reactivity, and Regularity and Motor Expression, Cronbach's αs = 0.613, 0.712, and 0.752, respectively. Maternal antenatal state-anxiety, p < .001, and trait anxiety, p = .005, were associated with negative emotionality and poor attentional regulation, especially among Chinese, whereas depression was not, p = .090. There was an association between maternal antenatal anxiety and negative infant temperamental traits in this Asian sample. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Long-term follow-up after epilepsy surgery in infancy and early childhood--a prospective population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdson, Jesper; Olsson, Ingrid; Edelvik, Anna; Hallböök, Tove; Lundgren, Johan; Rydenhag, Bertil; Malmgren, Kristina

    2015-08-01

    To describe 2-year and long-term outcomes (five or ten years) after resective epilepsy surgery in children operated before the age of four years. This prospective, population based, longitudinal study is based on data from the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register 1995-2010. The following variables were analysed: seizure frequency, antiepileptic drug treatment (AED), neurological deficits, type of operation, histopathological diagnosis and perioperative complications. During the study period 47 children under four years had resective surgery. A majority had seizure onset within the first year of life, and the median age at surgery was two years and one month. Two thirds had neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Temporal lobe resection, frontal lobe resection and hemispherotomy predominated. A majority had malformations of cortical development. There was one major perioperative complication. At the 2-year follow-up, 21/47 children (45%) were seizure free, eight of whom were off medication. At the long-term follow-up, 16/32 (50%) were seizure-free and 11 of them off medication. Another ten (31%) had ≥75% reduction in seizure frequency. Fourteen children (44%) had sustained seizure freedom from surgery to the long-term follow-up. This is the first prospective, population based, longitudinal study to show that a favourable seizure outcome is achievable in a majority of infants and young children undergoing resective epilepsy surgery and that the improvements are consistent over time. Many can also stop taking AEDs. The findings emphasise the importance of early referral to epilepsy surgery evaluation in cases of medically intractable epilepsy in infants and young children. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Infant, maternal, and familial predictors and correlates of regulatory problems in early infancy: The differential role of infant temperament and maternal anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Julia; Petzoldt, Johanna; Knappe, Susanne; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems are likely to emerge from the complex interplay of various factors. To investigate the role of infant (e.g., temperament), maternal (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders), and familial (e.g., social support) factors as potential precursors of infant regulatory problems. Prospective-longitudinal study. 286 mother-infant dyads were investigated from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum via questionnaires and interviews. Regulatory problems at 2, 4 and 16 months postpartum assessed by standardized diagnostic interviews. Fussy infant temperament and maternal anxiety disorders were associated with excessive infant crying (OR=1.16, 95%CI:1.05-1.29, OR=3.28, 95%CI:1.16-9.26) and feeding problems (OR=1.05, 95%CI:1.01-1.11, OR=2.27, 95%CI:1.36-3.80) whereas maternal depressive disorders were associated with infant sleeping problems (OR=2.55, 95%CI:1.06-6.11). Moreover, high maternal age (OR=0.86, 95%CI:0.75-0.98) was associated with a lower risk for excessive crying and being a single mother (OR=0.16, 95%CI:0.03-0.73) and cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions (OR: 0.59, 95%CI:0.36-0.96) was associated with a lower risk for sleeping problems. Excessive infant crying and feeding problems may be related to interactional deficits of anxious mothers who perceive their infants as "difficult" during soothing or feeding situations. Sleeping problems may be transmitted already during pregnancy by an altered sleep-wake-rhythm of mothers with a history of depression or by a genetic predisposition. Therapeutic interventions should focus on maternal anxiety and depression, behavior management techniques to cope with difficult situations with "fussy" infants and potential protective factors (e.g. favorable maternal emotion regulation) to address crying, feeding and sleeping problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Early discontinuation of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with persistent primary vesicoureteral reflux initially detected during infancy: outcome analysis and risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Kimihiko; Mitsui, Takahiko; Kitta, Takeya; Nakamura, Michiko; Kanno, Yukiko; Kon, Masafumi; Nishimura, Yoko; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively assessed the incidence of and risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in children during active surveillance after early discontinuation of antibiotic prophylaxis. We retrospectively evaluated 9 females and 61 uncircumcised males diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux before age 1 year who had persistent reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram and were subsequently followed under active surveillance without continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Patients with secondary vesicoureteral reflux or associated urological abnormality were excluded. Clinical outcomes, including incidence of febrile urinary tract infection and new scar formation, were evaluated. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection were also analyzed. Mean age at stopping continuous antibiotic prophylaxis was 21 months, and mean followup was 61 months. During active surveillance 21 patients had febrile urinary tract infection, and the 5-year infection-free rate under active surveillance was 67.5%. One or 2 foci of minimal new scarring developed in 4 of 16 patients who underwent followup dimercapto-succinic acid scan after febrile urinary tract infection. On multivariate analysis dilated vesicoureteral reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram was the only significant risk factor for febrile urinary tract infection. This study revealed that about two-thirds of patients with persistent vesicoureteral reflux were free of febrile urinary tract infection during 5 years of active surveillance. Those with dilated vesicoureteral reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram are at significantly greater risk for febrile urinary tract infection. Accordingly active surveillance, especially in patients with nondilated vesicoureteral reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram, seems to be a safe option even in children who have not yet been toilet trained. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Increased glycine-amidated hyocholic acid correlates to improved early weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindel, Tammy L; Krause, Crystal; Helm, Melissa C; McBride, Corrigan L; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Thakare, Rhishikesh; Alamoudi, Jawaher; Kothari, Vishal; Alnouti, Yazen; Kohli, Rohit

    2017-08-04

    Bile acids (BAs) are post-prandial hormones that play an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as energy expenditure. Total and glycine-amidated BAs increase after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and correlate to improved metabolic disease. No specific bile acid subtype has been shown conclusively to mediate the weight loss effect. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the comprehensive changes in meal-stimulated BAs after SG and determine if a specific change in the BA profile correlates to the early weight loss response. Patients were prospectively enrolled at the University of Nebraska Medical Center who were undergoing a SG for treatment of morbid obesity. Primary and secondary plasma bile acids and their amidated (glycine, G-, or taurine, T-) subtypes were measured at fasting, 30 and 60 min after a liquid meal performed pre-op, and at 6 and 12 weeks post-op. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the hour meal test for each bile acid subtype. BAs that were significantly increased post-op were correlated to body mass index (BMI) loss. Total BA AUC was significantly increased at 6 (p loss (p = 0.03). Increased G-hyocholic acid was significantly correlated to increased weight loss at both 6 (p = 0.05) and 12 weeks (p = 0.006). SG induced an early and persistent post-prandial surge in multiple bile acid subtypes. Increased G-hyocholic consistently correlated with greater early BMI loss. This study provides evidence for a role of BAs in the surgical weight loss response after SG.

  17. Development and Predictive Value of Early Vocalizations in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze early vocalization development, the predictive value of this development in terms of later language skills, and possible gender difference in early vocalization development in a selected cohort of 32 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children and 35 full-term controls. The data on early vocalization…

  18. A genetic link between prepregnancy body mass index, postpartum weight retention, and offspring weight in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aihua; Teo, Koon K; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David

    2017-01-01

    The effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and offspring obesity traits, as well as the maternal and offspring genetic contribution to GWG and postpartum weight retention, were examined. Blood samples from mothers (n = 608) and offspring (n = 541) were genotyped for 83 BMI-associated SNPs and 47 waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)-associated SNPs. Linear regression and mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine clinical epidemiological and genetic associations with unweighted and weighted BMI and WHR genetic risk scores (GRS). Prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with offspring weight and BMI Z-score from birth to 5 years. GWG was positively associated with maternal postpartum weight retention at 1 and 5 years and with offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old. The maternal unweighted BMI GRS was associated with prepregnancy BMI, postpartum weight retention at 5 years, and offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old, but not associated with GWG. Both maternal and offspring unweighted WHR GRSs were negatively associated with GWG. Maternal BMI-associated SNPs may contribute to the genetic link between prepregnancy BMI variation, long-term postpartum weight retention, and offspring birth weight and longitudinal weight. Maternal and offspring WHR-associated SNPs may contribute to GWG variation. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. Application of weighted early-arrival waveform inversion to shallow land data

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-03-01

    Seismic imaging of deep land targets is usually difficult since the near-surface velocities are not accurately estimated. Recent studies have shown that inverting traces weighted by the energy of the early-arrivals can improve the accuracy of estimating shallow velocities. In this work, it is explained by showing that the associated misfit gradient function tends to be sensitive to the kinetics of wave propagation and insensitive to the dynamics. A synthetic example verifies the theoretical predictions and shows that the effects of noise and unpredicted amplitude variations in the inversion are reduced using this weighted early arrival waveform inversion (WEWI). We also apply this method to a 2D land data set for estimating the near-surface velocity distribution. The reverse time migration images suggest that, compared to the tomogram inverted directly from the early arrival waveforms, the WEWI tomogram provides a more convincing velocity model and more focused reflections in the deeper part of the image. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry....... The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...

  1. Association between whole-blood polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women and early fetal weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Katrine; Pedersen, L.; Bønnelykke, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:Studies suggest that intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in pregnancy have an impact on birth weight, but only few have investigated the effect on early fetal growth. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between levels of PUFA...... in maternal blood in gestational week 24 and biometric measures and estimated fetal weight in gestational week 20.Subjects/methods:In the COPSAC cohort, whole-blood fatty acid composition (a biomarker of PUFA intake) from 583 women in week 24 was analyzed by gas chromatography. Biometric data (head...... by multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses. Results:There was a wide range in maternal blood DHA, which varied from 1.8 to 6.9% depending on socioeconomic status, smoking and body mass index. After adjusting for these variables, no association was observed between any of the assessed PUFA components...

  2. Early weight regain after gastric bypass does not affect insulin sensitivity but is associated with higher ghrelin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Robyn A.; Breitman, Igal; Marks-Shulman, Pam A.; Jabbour, Kareem; Melvin, Willie; Williams, Brandon; Clements, Ronald H.; Feurer, Irene D.; Abumrad, Naji N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine: 1) if early weight regain between one and two years after RYGB is associated with worsened hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and 2) if preoperative levels of ghrelin and leptin are associated with early weight regain after RYGB. Design and Methods Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity and ghrelin and leptin plasma levels were assessed longitudinally in 45 subjects before RYGB and at one month, six months, one year, and two years post operatively. Weight regain was defined as ≥ 5% increase in body weight between one and two years after RYGB. Results Weight regain occurred in 33% of subjects, with an average increase in body weight of 10 ± 5 % (8.5 ± 3.3 kg). Weight regain was not associated with worsening of peripheral or hepatic insulin sensitivity. Subjects with weight regain after RYGB had higher preoperative and postoperative levels of ghrelin compared to those who maintained or lost weight during this time. Conversely, the trajectories of leptin levels corresponded with the trajectories of fat mass in both groups. Conclusions Early weight regain after RYGB is not associated with a reversal of improvements in insulin sensitivity. Higher preoperative ghrelin levels might identify patients that are more susceptible to weight regain after RYGB. PMID:24777992

  3. Early weight regain after gastric bypass does not affect insulin sensitivity but is associated with elevated ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Robyn A; Breitman, Igal; Marks-Shulman, Pam A; Jabbour, Kareem; Melvin, Willie; Williams, Brandon; Clements, Ronald H; Feurer, Irene D; Abumrad, Naji N

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine: (1) if early weight regain between 1 and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with worsened hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and (2) if preoperative levels of ghrelin and leptin are associated with early weight regain after RYGB. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity and ghrelin and leptin plasma levels were assessed longitudinally in 45 subjects before RYGB and at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. Weight regain was defined as ≥5% increase in body weight between 1 and 2 years after RYGB. Weight regain occurred in 33% of subjects, with an average increase in body weight of 10 ± 5% (8.5 ± 3.3 kg). Weight regain was not associated with worsening of peripheral or hepatic insulin sensitivity. Subjects with weight regain after RYGB had higher preoperative and postoperative levels of ghrelin compared to those who maintained or lost weight during this time. Conversely, the trajectories of leptin levels corresponded with the trajectories of fat mass in both groups. Early weight regain after RYGB is not associated with a reversal of improvements in insulin sensitivity. Higher preoperative ghrelin levels might identify patients that are more susceptible to weight regain after RYGB. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  4. Trajectories of childhood weight gain: the relative importance of local environment versus individual social and early life factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Carter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors. METHODS: Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors. RESULTS: FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.

  5. Acute bronchiolitis in infancy as risk factor for wheezing and reduced pulmonary function by seven years in Akershus County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbrandsen Pål

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causes of hospitalisation during infancy in our region with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV historically being the major causative agent. Many infants with early-life RSV bronchiolitis have sustained bronchial hyperreactivity for many years after hospitalisation and the reasons for this are probably multifactorial. The principal aim of the present study was to investigate if children hospitalised for any acute viral bronchiolitis during infancy in our region, and not only those due to RSV, had more episodes of subsequent wheezing up to age seven years and reduced lung function at that age compared to children not hospitalised for acute bronchiolitis during infancy. A secondary aim was to compare the hospitalised infants with proven RSV bronchiolitis (RS+ to the hospitalised infants with non-RSV bronchiolitis (RS- according to the same endpoints. Methods 57 infants hospitalised at least once with acute viral bronchiolitis during two consecutive winter seasons in 1993–1994 were examined at age seven years. An age-matched control group of 64 children, who had not been hospitalised for acute viral bronchiolitis during infancy, were recruited from a local primary school. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected retrospectively from hospital discharge records and through structured clinical interviews and physical examinations at the follow-up visit. Results The children hospitalised for bronchiolitis during infancy had decreased lung function, more often wheezing episodes, current medication and follow-up for asthma at age seven years than did the age matched controls. They also had lower average birth weight and more often first order family members with asthma. We did not find significant differences between the RSV+ and RSV- groups. Conclusion Children hospitalised for early-life bronchiolitis are susceptible to recurrent wheezing and reduced pulmonary function by

  6. Musical predispositions in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, S E

    2001-06-01

    Some scholars consider music to exemplify the classic criteria for a complex human adaptation, including universality, orderlying development, and special-purpose cortical processes. The present account focuses on processing predispositions for music. The early appearance of receptive musical skills, well before they have obvious utility, is consistent with their proposed status as predispositions. Infants' processing of musical or music-like patterns is much like that of adults. In the early months of life, infants engage in relational processing of pitch and temporal patterns. They recognize a melody when its pitch level is shifted upward or downward, provided the relations between tones are preserved. They also recognize a tone sequence when the tempo is altered so long as the relative durations remain unchanged. Melodic contour seems to be the most salient feature of melodies for infant listeners. However, infants can detect interval changes when the component tones are related by small-integer frequency ratios. They also show enhanced processing for scales with unequal steps and for metric rhythms. Mothers sing regularly to infants, doing so in a distinctive manner marked by high pitch, slow tempo, and emotional expressiveness. The pitch and tempo of mothers' songs are unusually stable over extended periods. Infant listeners prefer the maternal singing style to the usual style of singing, and they are more attentive to maternal singing than to maternal speech. Maternal singing also has a moderating effect on infant arousal. The implications of these findings for the origins of music are discussed.

  7. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  8. An Inverse Relationship Between Weight and Free Thyroxine During Early Gestation Among Women Treated for Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, James E; Neveux, Louis M; Palomaki, Glenn E; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Malone, Fergal D; D'Alton, Mary E

    2015-08-01

    Following treatment sufficient to normalize thyrotropin (TSH), nonpregnant hypothyroid adults display higher free thyroxine (FT(4)) concentrations than a reference population. Our aim is to determine whether FT(4) concentrations are higher during pregnancy among women treated for hypothyroidism and whether their weight is associated with FT(4) levels. Weight/FT(4) relationships have not previously been reported in treated hypothyroid adults (either pregnant or nonpregnant). Thyroid-related measurements were available from over 10,000 women at two early pregnancy time periods from the FaSTER (First and Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk for Fetal aneuploidy) trial (1999-2002). All women were receiving routine prenatal care. Present analyses were restricted to 9267 reference women and 306 treated, hypothyroid women with TSH between the 2nd and 98th reference percentiles. We compared FT(4) values between those groups at 11-14 and 15-18 weeks' gestation, using linear regression to estimate FT(4)/maternal weight relationships, after accounting for treatment and other potential covariates. In comparison to reference women, median FT(4) values and percent of FT(4) values ≥95th reference percentile were significantly higher in treated women at both 11-14 and 15-18 weeks' gestation (pwomen, median FT(4) decreased monotonically with increasing weight, regardless of anti-thyroperoxidase antibody status. Maternal age, maternal weight, and treatment status were important predictors of FT(4) levels (pwomen, independent of other factors. Maternal age and weight reduced FT(4) levels by 0.0694 pmol/L/y and 0.0208 pmol/L/kg, respectively. FT(4) concentrations are higher among treated hypothyroid pregnant women than among reference women, and higher maternal weight is associated with lower FT(4) levels, regardless of treatment status. This inverse relationship is not associated with higher TSH levels. While no immediate clinical implications are attached to the current

  9. Proatherogenic Lipid Profile in Early Childhood: Association with Weight Status at 4 Years and Parental Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Rodríguez-Dehli, Cristina; Valvi, Damaskini; Vrijheid, Martine; Tardón, Adonina

    2017-08-01

    To determine lipid profiles in early childhood and evaluate their association with weight status at 4 years of age. Additionally, we evaluated whether the risk of overweight or having an altered lipid profile was associated with parental weight status. Five hundred eighty two mothers and their 4-year-old children from 2 Spanish population-based cohorts were studied. Weight status in children at 4 years of age was classified as overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined in children and lipid ratios were calculated. A proatherogenic lipid profile was defined as having the 3 lipid ratios in the third tertile. A total of 12.9% of children were overweight and 6.4% were obese. Weight status at 4 years of age was related to maternal prepregnancy body mass index, paternal body mass index, gestational diabetes, and birth weight, but not with other sociodemographic characteristics of the mother. We found no association with gestational age, sex of the child, or breastfeeding. The risk of overweight/obesity was increased 4.17-fold if mothers were overweight/obese (95% CI 1.76-9.88) and 5.1-fold (95% CI 2.50-10.40) if both parents were overweight/obese. There were 133 children (22.8%) with a proatherogenic lipid profile. The risk of a proatherogenic lipid profile was increased 2.44-fold (95% CI 1.54-3.86) if they were overweight/obese at 4 years of age and 2-fold if the father was overweight/obese (95% CI 1.22-3.35). Four-year-old overweight/obese children have higher lipid risk profiles. Offspring of overweight/obese parents have an increased risk for obesity and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of simulated early weight bearing on micromotion and pullout strength of uncemented distal femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennifer S; White, Jedediah K; Punt, Stephanie E W; Conrad, Ernest U; Ching, Randal P

    2015-05-01

    The effect of simulated early weight bearing on both micromotion and pullout strength of uncemented distal femoral stems was evaluated in this study. The effect of stem endosteal contact and bone quality on implant pullout strength was also analyzed. A randomized matched-pair study was performed using 8 bilateral pairs of fresh human cadaveric femoral specimens. Each specimen pair was dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanned, uniformly implanted, fluoroscopically imaged, and randomly assigned to the cycled or uncycled group. The cycled group received 5000 cycles of axial compressive loading (to 700 N) and the contralateral side was not cycled. Micromotion was monitored during cycling and compared with a failure threshold (150 µm), and all implants underwent direct axial distraction (pullout) testing. During cycling, minimal micromotion was observed with an asymptotic decrease in differential motion between the first and last 50 cycles. Both cycled and uncycled groups demonstrated no statistical difference in average pullout force (4888±2124 N vs 4367±1154 N; P=.43). The percentage of cortical contact for each implant was determined from panoramic fluoroscopy images using digital image analysis software. Contact area for the distal third of the stem showed the highest correlation with pullout force and with predicting pullout force. Bone quality did not correlate with pullout force (r(2)=0.367) or stem contact area (r(2)=0.394). In sum, press-fit uncemented femoral stems did not loosen or demonstrate decreased pullout strength with early weight bearing simulated by cyclical axial compressive loading.

  11. Early versus Late Trophic Feeding in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Satarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improved survival of preterm infants, beneficial effects of trophic feeding and limited data on timing management of enteral feeding for very low birth weight preterm infants requires more researches to determine the exact starting time and increased volumes. This study aims to compare early (72h trophic feeding with respect to important neonatal outcomes.Methods: In a cohort study from September 2007 to October 2008, a total of 170 preterm infants (1000-1500gram, 26-31 weeks consisting of 125 who received trophic feeding enterally within the first 48 hours of birth(early group and 45 fed enterally after 72 h0urs (late group, without major congenital birth defects and severe asphyxia entered the study. Bolus feeding was started in both groups at 1-2 cc/kg every 4-6 hours of human milk or preterm infant formula and was advanced 1-2 cc/kg/day if tolerated along with parenteralnutrition. Feeding intolerance, possibility of necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC, episodes of sepsis, body weight,length of NICU stay, and duration of parenteral nutrition were assessed serially.Findings: There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical and maternal characteristics ofinfants in the two groups. The time to gain birth weight (13.75±5.21 vs 20.53±6.31 (P<0.001, duration of parenteral nutrition (9.26±4.572 days vs 14.11±6.415 days (P<0.001, hospital stay (12.14±8.612 vs 21.11±1.156 (P<0.001 were significantly shorter in early compared to late feeding group; none of the twogroups experienced a high incidence of late onset sepsis (P=0.73. There was 1 case of confirmed NEC in every group.Conclusion: The benefits of early trophic feeding shown by this study strongly support its use for the preterm infants without adding to complications.

  12. Early nutritional supplementation immediately after diagnosis of infectious disease improves body weight in psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Slump, E.; Kleijer, C.N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: Many elderly people with Alzheimer's disease experience weight loss. Illness and inadequate regain after a period of illness are considered as contributory causes of progressive weight loss in psychogeriatric patients. We studied whether early use of a liquid nutrition supplemen

  13. Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Christina M.; Torrang, Anna; Tuvblad, Catherine; Cnattingius, Sven; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence. Method: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical…

  14. Ossifying renal tumor of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Johannes; Schröder, Annette; Stein, Raimund; Rösch, Wolfgang H

    2007-06-01

    A renal ossifying tumor of infancy is a rare event with few cases having been published, and the etiology has not yet been established. We report on two new cases of this unusual neoplasm. A 2-year-old boy presented with intermittent painless gross hematuria. After several diagnostic procedures, an open pyelolithotomy was performed and the histological diagnosis of renal tumor of infancy was finally made. The history of the second case is very similar. An 8-week-old infant presented with gross hematuria. As in the first case, an open pyelolithotomy was performed and a tumor entirely covered with blood clots was found in the renal pelvis and completely removed. A histological diagnosis of renal ossifying tumor of infancy was made. Using the literature available, the histological criteria and biological behavior are discussed, together with the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for this tumor. In infants with gross hematuria and a calcified (non-)invasive mass in the pelvi-calceal system, renal ossifying tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis. MRI or CT scan offers a good diagnostic guide.

  15. A narrative literature review of the development of obesity in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Yardy, Katie; Carter, Victoria

    2012-12-01

    This narrative review explains the development of excess weight gain in babies and children. It takes a life course approach which includes genetics, pre-conception, pregnancy, infancy and childhood. The paper focuses on feeding behaviours, physical activity, parental influences and the wider social and environmental context. Risk factors which can cumulatively lead to excess childhood weight gain include: under- or overweight during pregnancy; the presence of diabetes during pregnancy; low or high birth weight; having obese parents; early weaning; prolonged formula feeding; rapid weight gain in the first year; disinhibited eating patterns and the consistent availability of energy dense food at home; feeding practices which are not responsive to the child's cues; insufficient sleep among preschool children; sedentary parents; low parental education; living in poor socio-economic circumstances; absence, or perceived absence, of safe play areas; parents who lack time or confidence to authoritatively parent; environments where there is poor access to affordable lower energy dense foods; and parents who do not accept that excess weight is a health problem. Recommendations for health professionals are made.

  16. Sibling bullying during infancy does not make wimpy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Drummond, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Despite frequent suggestions that dominance–subordination relationships in infancy can affect subsequent agonistic potential during adult life, to our knowledge no explicit test has been made. Experiments have shown that adverse conditions during early development can have long-term effects on a variety of traits ranging from growth to competitive behaviour. In many vertebrate species, the main social setting in which the infant develops is a sibling group where competition is often mediated by a dominance hierarchy. Here, we show in a long-lived marine bird that subordination to an aggressive sibling throughout infancy does not compromise aggressiveness years later during adult life. Former junior and senior chicks of the blue-footed booby, whose typical brood of two chicks exhibits a consistent dominance–subordination relationship with strong ‘trained winner’ and ‘trained loser’ conditioning effects, did not differ in their aggressiveness while defending their nest against a conspecific intruder stimulus. Our results suggest that aggressive subordination and associated food deprivation, poor growth and elevated stress hormone during infancy do not prejudice aggressiveness of adult boobies during at least the first 13 years of life. Development of important traits such as aggressive tendencies may be buffered against the normal and predictable challenges of infancy. PMID:21697164

  17. Placental Malaria is associated with reduced early life weight development of affected children independent of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmero Melba S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy contributes substantially to the disease burden in both mothers and offspring. Placental malaria may lead to intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery resulting in low birth weight (LBW, which, in general, is associated with increased infant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the possible direct impact of the specific disease processes occurring in PM on longer term outcomes such as subsequent retarded growth development independent of LBW. Methods In an existing West-African cohort, 783 healthy infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g were followed up during their first year of life. The aim of the study was to investigate if Plasmodium falciparum infection of the placenta, assessed by placental histology, has an impact on several anthropometric parameters, measured at birth and after three, six and 12 months using generalized estimating equations models adjusting for moderate low birth weight. Results Independent of LBW, first to third born infants who were exposed to either past, chronic or acute placental malaria during pregnancy had significantly lower weight-for-age (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.80;-0.07, weight-for-length (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 and BMI-for-age z-scores (-0.57, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 compared to infants born to mothers who were not diagnosed with placental malaria (p = 0.019, 0.013, and 0.012, respectively. Interestingly, the longitudinal data on histology-based diagnosis of PM also document a sharp decline of PM prevalence in the Sukuta cohort from 16.5% in 2002 to 5.4% in 2004. Conclusions It was demonstrated that PM has a negative impact on the infant's subsequent weight development that is independent of LBW, suggesting that the longer term effects of PM have been underestimated, even in areas where malaria transmission is declining.

  18. Exploratory Literature Meta-Analysis to Characterize the Relationship Between Early and Longer Term Body Weight Loss for Antiobesity Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plock, Nele; Bax, Leon; Lee, Douglas; DeManno, Deborah; Lahu, Gezim; Pfister, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The presented analysis was performed to characterize the relationship between treatment-related early (week 4) and longer term (3-6 months) weight loss to understand the potential utility of 4-week proof-of-mechanism studies in the early decision-making process during clinical development of new antiobesity compounds. A regression-based meta-analysis was performed leveraging publically available clinical outcomes data to (1) characterize the within-trial relationship between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss and (2) identify and quantify key covariate effects on this relationship. Data from 89 randomized clinical trials with 209 treatment arms, representing observations from 54 461 patients and 9 treatments, were available for the meta-analysis. Results indicated that (1) there is a correlation between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss (r > 0.9), (2) baseline body weight influences the relationship between early and longer term weight loss, whereas comorbidity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, class of drugs including GLP-1 analogues and the antiobesity compounds lorcaserin or phentermine/topiramate showed no significant effects on this relationship. The model was externally evaluated with data from the investigational compound beloranib, for which longer term weight loss could be successfully predicted based on early response data. Based on these results, the identified strong relationship between treatment-related early and longer term weight loss appears to be independent of mechanism of action. Thus, findings from this analysis can optimize design of clinical studies and facilitate development of new anti-obesity compounds. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Sibling bullying during infancy does not make wimpy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Drummond, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Despite frequent suggestions that dominance–subordination relationships in infancy can affect subsequent agonistic potential during adult life, to our knowledge no explicit test has been made. Experiments have shown that adverse conditions during early development can have long-term effects on a variety of traits ranging from growth to competitive behaviour. In many vertebrate species, the main social setting in which the infant develops is a sibling group where competition is often mediated ...

  20. Early nCPAP versus intubation in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neves Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.

  1. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); Luecke, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); University of Bochum, Department of Neuropediatrics, Pediatric Hospital, Bochum (Germany); Hoy, Ludwig [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Biometrics, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  2. Effects of body size and change in body size from infancy through childhood on body mass index in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2014-01-01

    Background:Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult body...... mass index (BMI) and also the extent to which these associations during infancy are mediated through childhood BMI.Methods:The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, in which participants were followed from birth through 42 years of age, provided information on weight at 12 months and BMI at 42 years for 1633...... of Obesity advance online publication, 15 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.108....

  3. Low birth weight and intelligence in adolescence and early adulthood: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, C E; Wilkinson, A J; Davey, C J; Cunningham, A J

    2014-06-01

    Research has demonstrated an association between low birth weight (LBW; intelligence quotient (IQ) outcomes in childhood and early adolescence. We systematically evaluated whether this association persists into late adolescence and early adulthood and also assessed the influence of age of IQ assessment on effect size. During Stage 1 (meta-analysis of data on adolescents/adults), we searched for relevant articles in PsychINFO, PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL, ProQuest and ERIC until February 2011 (no lower limit). Studies which assessed full-scale IQ among LBW individuals (analysis provided a pooled estimate of the difference in IQ scores between LBW and NBW individuals. Publication bias was assessed using Rosenthal's classic fail-safe N and Duval and Tweedie's Trim and Fill. During Stage 2, we added data from the Kerr-Wilson et al. meta-analysis (which included data from children; in Meta-analysis of the association between preterm delivery and intelligence. Journal Public Health 2011;33:1-8) to our sample from Stage 1 and conducted a meta-regression to evaluate the effect of age of IQ assessment. Using a total of 15 studies in Stage 1, it was demonstrated that NBW individuals scored an average of 7.63 IQ points higher than LBW individuals, CI = 5.95-9.31. After adjusting for publication bias, NBW samples demonstrated an IQ of 4.98 points higher than LBW samples, CI = 3.20-6.77. Furthermore, age at IQ assessment was a significant moderator of the association between birth weight and IQ, in that the effect size decreased from childhood into young adulthood. Cognitive impairments associated with LBW persist into adolescence and early adulthood; however, the influence of LBW on IQ decreases from childhood to young adulthood. These conclusions must be interpreted with caution due to unmeasured variables and possible influence from publication bias. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions

  4. Early developmental influences on self-esteem trajectories from adolescence through adulthood: Impact of birth weight and motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ferro, Mark A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-04-20

    While the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood varies from person to person, little research has examined how differences in early developmental processes might affect these pathways. This study examined how early motor skill development interacted with preterm birth status to predict self-esteem from adolescence through the early 30s. We addressed this using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight (self-report, and self-esteem was reported during three follow-up periods (age 12-16, age 22-26, and age 29-36). We found that birth weight status moderated the association between early motor skills and self-esteem. Stable over three decades, the self-esteem of normal birth weight participants was sensitive to early motor skills such that those with poorer motor functioning manifested lower self-esteem, while those with better motor skills manifested higher self-esteem. Conversely, differences in motor skill development did not affect the self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood in individuals born at extremely low birth weight. Early motor skill development may exert differential effects on self-esteem, depending on whether one is born at term or prematurely.

  5. Disorganized Attachment in Infancy Predicts Greater Amygdala Volume in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Ruth, K.; Pechtel, P.; Yoon, S.A.; Anderson, C.M.; Teicher, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49 years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6 months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02 mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r = .679, p < .004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  6. Association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Greenberg, Rachel G; Quek, Bin H; Clark, Reese H; Laughon, Matthew M; Smith, P Brian; Hornik, Christoph P

    2017-06-19

    In very low birth weight infants, persistence of a patent ductus arteriosus results in morbidity and mortality. Therapies to close the ductus are effective, but clinical outcomes may depend on the accuracy of diagnosis and the timing of administration. The objective of the present study was to characterise the association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants. This retrospective cohort study used electronic health record data on inborn infants of gestational age ⩽28 weeks and birth weight patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 31,712/48,551 (65%). The diagnosis was more common in infants who had undergone early echocardiography (14,549/15,971 [91%] versus 17,163/32,580 [53%], ppatent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.15). Early echocardiography was associated with an increased diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, but not with decreased mortality.

  7. Cryptosporidium infection in infancy as a cause of malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kare; Andersen, M; Aaby, Peter

    1997-01-01

    . A total of 5072 weight and 4264 height measurements was made. There were no tendencies of low weight (P = 0.38) or height (P = 0.16) in children who acquired cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis in infancy was accompanied by an estimated weight loss of 392 g (95% CI: 247, 538 g) in boys and 294 g (95% CI......: 109, 479 g) in girls, corresponding to 3.7% and 2.9% of mean weight, respectively, at 2 y of age. No significant catch-up growth covered for this loss in weight. A similar effect in linear growth was shown (P = 0.02). Although it has been suggested that the effect of infections on nutrition is usually...

  8. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  9. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  10. Excess pregnancy weight gain leads to early indications of metabolic syndrome in a swine model of fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Buhman, Kimberly K; Ajuwon, Kolapo; Donkin, Shawn S

    2014-03-01

    Few data exist on the impact of maternal weight gain on offspring despite evidence demonstrating that early-life environment precipitates risks for metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excessive weight gain during pregnancy results in programming that predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We further hypothesized that early postweaning nutrition alters the effects of maternal weight gain on indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring. Pregnant sows and their offspring were used for these experiments due to similarities with human digestive physiology, metabolism, and neonatal development. First parity sows fed a high-energy (maternal nutrition high energy [MatHE]) diet gained 12.4 kg (42%) more weight during pregnancy than sows fed a normal energy (maternal nutrition normal energy) diet. Birth weight and litter characteristics did not differ, but offspring MatHE gilts weighed more (P pregnancy. These data indicate that excessive gestational weight gain during pregnancy in a pig model promotes early indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring that are further promoted by a high-energy postweaning diet.

  11. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants....... METHODS: Two-thousand three hundred forty-three LBW infants were randomly allocated 1:1 to "early BCG" (intervention group) or "late BCG" (current practice). Furthermore, a subgroup (N = 1717) were included in a two-by-two randomised trial in which they were additionally randomised 1:1 to vitamin...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  12. Early changes in body weight and blood pressure are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranton, Flore; Duny, Yohan; Szwarc, Ilan; Deleuze, Sébastien; Rouanet, Catherine; Selcer, Isabelle; Maurice, François; Rivory, Jean-Pierre; Servel, Marie-Françoise; Jover, Bernard; Brunet, Philippe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Argilés, Àngel

    2016-04-01

    While much research is devoted to identifying novel biomarkers, addressing the prognostic value of routinely measured clinical parameters is of great interest. We studied early blood pressure (BP) and body weight (BW) trajectories in incident haemodialysis patients and their association with all-cause mortality. In a cohort of 357 incident patients, we obtained all records of BP and BW during the first 90 days on dialysis (over 12 800 observations) and analysed trajectories using penalized B-splines and mixed linear regression models. Baseline comorbidities and all-cause mortality (median follow-up: 2.2 years) were obtained from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, and the association with mortality was assessed by Cox models adjusting for baseline comorbidities. During the initial 90 days on dialysis, there were non-linear decreases in BP and BW, with milder slopes after 15 days [systolic BP (SBP)] or 30 days [diastolic BP (DBP) and BW]. SBP or DBP levels at dialysis initiation and changes in BW occurring in the first month or during the following 2 months were significantly associated with survival. In multivariate models adjusting for baseline comorbidities and prescriptions, higher SBP value and BW slopes were independently associated with a lower risk of mortality. Hazard ratios of mortality and 95% confidence intervals were 0.92 (0.85-0.99) for a 10 mmHg higher SBP and 0.76 (0.66-0.88) for a 1 kg/month higher BW change on Days 30-90. BW loss in the first weeks on dialysis is a strong and independent predictor of mortality. Low BP is also associated with mortality and is probably the consequence of underlying cardiovascular diseases. These early markers appear to be valuable prognostic factors.

  13. Evaluation of renal allograft function early after transplantation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberger, Ute; Frey, Felix J. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Bern (Switzerland); Thoeny, Harriet C. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Binser, Tobias; Boesch, Chris [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Gugger, Mathias [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Pathology, Bern (Switzerland); Vermathen, Peter [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Department of Clinical Research/AMSM, Pavillon 52, Inselspital, P.O. Box 35, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the inter-patient variability of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and concurrent micro-circulation contributions from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) in renal allografts early after transplantation, and to obtain initial information on whether these measures are altered in histologically proven acute allograft rejection (AR). DW-MRI was performed in 15 renal allograft recipients 5-19 days after transplantation. Four patients presented with AR and one with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Total ADC (ADC{sub T}) was determined, which includes diffusion and micro-circulation contributions. Furthermore, diffusion and micro-circulation contributions were separated, yielding the ''perfusion fraction'' (F{sub P}), and ''perfusion-free'' diffusion (ADC{sub D}). Diffusion parameters in the ten allografts with stable function early after transplantation demonstrated low variabilities. Values for ADC{sub T} and ADC{sub D} were (x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s) 228 {+-} 14 and 203 {+-} 9, respectively, in cortex and 226 {+-} 16 and 199 {+-} 9, respectively, in medulla. F{sub P} values were 18 {+-} 5% in cortex and 19 {+-} 5% in medulla. F{sub P} values were strongly reduced to less than 12% in cortex and medulla of renal transplants with AR and ATN. F{sub P} values correlated with creatinine clearance. DW-MRI allows reliable determination of diffusion and micro-circulation contributions in renal allografts shortly after transplantation; deviations in AR indicate potential clinical utility of this method to non-invasively monitor derangements in renal allografts. (orig.)

  14. Effects of iron deficiency in infancy on patterns of motor development over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Calatroni, Agustin; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of the effects of iron deficiency in infancy assessed motor development over time in 185 healthy Costa Rican children who varied in iron status at 12–23 months. Longitudinal analyses (hierarchical linear modeling) used the Bayley Psychomotor Index before and both 1 week and 3 months after iron treatment in infancy and the Bruninks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency – long form at 5 years and short form at 11–14 years. Children with chronic severe iron deficiency in infancy had lower motor scores at the beginning of the study and a lower but parallel trajectory for motor scores through early adolescence. Thus, there was no evidence of catch-up in motor development, despite iron therapy in infancy that corrected iron deficiency anemia in all cases. PMID:17050023

  15. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, Linda S.; Fall, Caroline HD; Osmond, Clive; Aryeh D. Stein; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. Methods We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guate...

  16. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  17. Pre-pregnancy weight status, early pregnancy lipid profile and blood pressure course during pregnancy: The ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Busschers, Wim B; Spierings, Eline J M; Roseboom, Tessa J; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2017-01-01

    Although pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile are known to influence blood pressure course during pregnancy, little is known about how these two factors interact. The association between pre-pregnancy weight status and blood pressure course during pregnancy was assessed in the prospective ABCD study and the role (independent/mediating/moderating) of early pregnancy lipid profile in this association was determined. We included 2500 normal weight (lipids [median (IQR): 13 (12-14) weeks of gestation] and blood pressure during pregnancy [mean (SD) = 10 (2.3)]. Lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids) were divided into tertiles. Multilevel piecewise linear spline models were used to describe the course of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in four time periods during gestation for overweight and normal weight women. Both SBP (5.3 mmHg) and DBP (3.9 mmHg) were higher in overweight compared to normal weight women and this difference remained the same over all four time periods. The difference in SBP and DBP was not mediated or moderated by the lipid profile. Lipid profile had an independent positive effect on both SBP (range 1.3-2.2 mmHg) and DBP (0.8-1.1 mmHg), but did not change blood pressure course. Both pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile independently increase blood pressure during pregnancy. Improving pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile might result in a healthier blood pressure course during pregnancy.

  18. The Interactive Effects of Puberty and Peer Victimization on Weight Concerns and Depression Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compian, Laura J.; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a cross-sectional design, the authors examined associations between pubertal status, peer victimization, and their interaction in relation to weight concerns and symptoms of depression in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 261). Multivariate analyses revealed a significant interaction between pubertal status and relational…

  19. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  20. Early corticosteroid treatment does not affect severity of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Bos, Arend F.; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. Methods: In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the fi

  1. Social Development from Infancy to Adolescence: Longitudinal and Concurrent Factors in an Adoption Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari-Bimmel, Nicole; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mooijaart, Ab

    2006-01-01

    In the present longitudinal study, early adopted children (N = 160) were followed from infancy to adolescence to assess the influence of previous and concurrent factors on the children's social development. This study allowed for more conclusive evidence of the influence of early and concurrent rearing experiences and temperament on…

  2. Conductive Hearing Loss during Infancy: Effects on Later Auditory Brain Stem Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; Finitzo, Terese

    1991-01-01

    Long-term effects on auditory electrophysiology from early fluctuating hearing loss were studied in 27 children, aged 5 to 7 years, who had been evaluated originally in infancy. Findings suggested that early fluctuating hearing loss disrupts later auditory brain stem electrophysiology. (Author/DB)

  3. 早期干预对早产儿和低出生体质量儿婴儿期行为发育的影响%Effects of early interventions to behavior development in infancy among premature and infants with low body mass at birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭钊安; 童梅玲; 黄萍; 邓静云; 胡幼芳; 张俊珍

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The beginning of the research on early interventions of premature and low birth body mass infants was a bit late. Evaluations on the effects of early interventions were just done at 1 year old or after 1 year old.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effects of early interventions on infancy behavior development in premature and low birth weight infants.DESIGN: Randomized case-control trial study.SETTING, PARTICIPANTS and INTERVENTION: Sixty cases of premature and low birth body infants were chosen from Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University and were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group included 16 males and 14 females, the mean body mass at birth was(2 268 +531) g. In the control group, there were also 16 males and 14 females, the mean body mass at birth was(2 307 + 398) g. A set of early stage upbringing plan designed by Professors Chen RH and Deng JY of Nanjing Medical University, which targeted for 0 to 3-year-old children was applied. The parents of the control group would go to early education clinic to learn how to train children by the doctor's instruction when the infants were born and in the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12thmonth after birth. It was required that the parents should complete the training tasks of everyday, at the same time, the growth of physical build as well as the development of behaviors should be followed up and monitored.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Development quotients in the 3rd, 6th, 9thand 12th month of both experimental and control groups.RESULTS: The average values of five developmental quotients in adaptability, gross motor, fine motor, language and sociability in the experimentalgroup were higher than those in the control group. Moreover, there were statistical differences in fine motor and social communication between the two groups from the 3nd month. When in the 12th month, there were significant differences in adaptability(97 +5, 89 +4), fine motor(98 + 10, 88 ± 8

  4. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's "protective shield" and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review: (1) Freud's "protective shield" describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality. (2) Anzieu's "Skin-Ego" is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. (3) Bick's "psychic skin" establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother's containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant's psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces. (4) Stern's "narrative envelope" derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualize the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes. Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic, and genetic) and recommend further investigation.

  5. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eMellier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's 'protective shield' and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review:1 Freud's protective shield describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality.2 Anzieu's Skin-Ego is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. 3 Bick's psychic skin establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother’s containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant’s psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces.4 Stern's narrative envelope derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualise the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes.Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic and genetic and recommend further investigation.

  6. Effects of perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain on long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Ilka; Finke, Beatrice; Tam, Friederike I; Fittig, Eike; Scholz, Michael; Gantchev, Krassimir; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe mental disorder with an onset during adolescence, has been found to be difficult to treat. Identifying variables that predict long-term outcome may help to develop better treatment strategies. Since body image distortion and weight gain are central elements of diagnosis and treatment of AN, the current study investigated perceptual body image distortion, defined as the accuracy of evaluating one's own perceived body size in relation to the actual body size, as well as total and early weight gain during inpatient treatment as predictors for long-term outcome in a sample of 76 female adolescent AN patients. Long-term outcome was defined by physical, psychological and psychosocial adjustment using the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule as well as by the mere physical outcome consisting of menses and/or BMI approximately 3 years after treatment. Perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain predicted long-term outcome (explained variance 13.3 %), but not the physical outcome alone. This study provides first evidence for an association of perceptual body image distortion with long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa and underlines the importance of sufficient early weight gain.

  7. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.

  8. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  9. Maternal diet in early and late pregnancy in relation to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, A S; Skuladottir, G V; Thorsdottir, I; Hauksson, A; Steingrimsdottir, L

    2006-03-01

    To identify dietary factors related to the risk of gaining weight outside recommendations for pregnancy weight gain and birth outcome. An observational study with free-living conditions. Four hundred and ninety five healthy pregnant Icelandic women. The dietary intake of the women was estimated with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire covering food intake together with lifestyle factors for the previous 3 months. Questionnaires were filled out at between 11 and 15 weeks and between 34 and 37 weeks gestation. Comparison of birth outcome between the three weight gain groups was made with ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Dietary factors related to at least optimal and excessive weight gain during pregnancy were represented with logistic regression controlling for potential confounding. Of the women, 26% gained suboptimal and 34% excessive weight during pregnancy. Women in late pregnancy with at least optimal, compared with women with suboptimal, weight gain were eating more (OR = 3.32, confidence interval (CI)=1.81-6.09, P lifestyle modifications affecting consequent weight gain during pregnancy. They are most likely to gain excessive weight and therefore most likely to suffer pregnancy and delivery complications and struggle with increasing overweight and obesity after giving birth.

  10. Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying nonresponders to an intensive lifestyle intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Weight losses in lifestyle interventions are variable, yet prediction of long-term success is difficult. The utility of using various weight loss thresholds in the first 2 months of treatment for predicting 1-year outcomes was examined. Methods: Participants included 2,327 adults with t...

  11. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  12. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  13. Microbial exposures in infancy predict levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-4 in Filipino young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Paula Skye; Kuzawa, Christopher; Adair, Linda; Borja, Judith B.; McDade, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Infancy represents a window of development during which long-term immunological functioning can be influenced. In this study, we evaluate proxies of microbial exposures in infancy as predictors of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in young adulthood. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of atopic and allergic disease. Methods Data come from 1,403 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS), an ongoing population-based study in the Philippines. Relationships between microbial and nutritional environments in infancy and plasma IL-4 concentrations in adulthood were evaluated using tobit regression models. Results Having older siblings and more episodes of respiratory illness in infancy significantly predicted lower concentrations of plasma IL-4 in adulthood. Unexpectedly, more episodes of diarrheal illness in infancy were associated with higher IL-4. Interactions between a composite household pathogen exposure score, and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding approached significance. This interaction showed that the negative association between household pathogen exposure in infancy and adult IL-4 was only significant for individuals who had been exclusively breastfed for a short duration of time. Finally, currently living in an urban household was unexpectedly, negatively associated with adult IL-4. Associations were independent of early nutrition, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity, as well as current measures of infection, body fat, socioeconomic status, and smoking. Conclusions This study builds on a growing body of literature demonstrating that early ecological conditions have long-term effects on human biology by providing evidence that multiple proxies of microbial exposures in infancy are associated with adult IL-4. PMID:22307655

  14. Early kangaroo mother care vs. conventional method in stabilizing low birth weight infant: physiologic parameters (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulina Suradi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC has been accepted as an effective method in nursing low birth weight infant (LBWI. However, the application of this method in the early life of infants has not been studied in Indonesia. Objective To evaluate some physiologic parameters of LBWI treated with early KMC compared to conventional method. Methods This was a randomized clinical-trial, which compared early KMC to conventional method in stabilizing LBWI in the first 4 hours of life. All LBWI (birth weight 1500-2499 g bom at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Budi Kemuliaan Matemity Hospital Jakarta were recruited consecutively in the period of November 2001 until March 2002. The inclusion criteria were spontaneous delivery, APGAR scores 13t and 5th minute 37, and parental consent. Results Sixty-four subjects distributed evenly into early KMC group and control group. One subject in the KMC group and three subjects in the control group were excluded due to respiratory distress. The mean birth weight was 2091 (SO 299.4 g in the KMC group and 2184 (SO 214.9 g inthe control group. The mean gestational-age in both groups was 35.6 (SO 3.0 weeks. There were no statistical differences in mean temperature (P=0.281, heart rate (P=0.956, and respiratory rate (P=0.898 between the two groups during the first 4 hours of life. We found a larger proportion of infants reaching the temperature of 36.5QC in the KMC group, especially at one hour (49% vs. 7%; the difference of proportion was 0.42 (95%CI 0.22 to 0.61. Conclusion Early KMC method is proved to be as safe as conventional method in stabilizing healthy LBWI.

  15. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2 to 4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2) or excess weight (BMIz≥2). Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001) and maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) (r=0.113; p=0.002). The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=-0.099; p=0.006) and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=-0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Marieke; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Fall, Caroline H D; van Eijsden, Manon; Osmond, Clive; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2016-01-01

    Small birth size and rapid postnatal growth have been associated with higher future blood pressure. The timing of these effects, the relative importance of weight gain and linear growth and the role of infant feeding need to be clarified. We assessed how blood pressure relates to birth weight, infant and childhood growth and infant feeding (duration of exclusive breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) in 2227 children aged 5 years from a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development). Postnatal growth was represented by statistically independent measures of relative weight gain (weight gain independent of height) and linear growth in four age periods during infancy (0-1 month; 1-3 months; 3-6 months; 6-12 months) and from 12 months to 5 years. Lower birth weight was associated with higher childhood diastolic blood pressure (-0.38 mm Hg.SD-1; P = 0.007). Faster relative weight gain and linear growth after 1 month were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Associations of linear growth with systolic blood pressure ranged from 0.47 to 1.49 mm Hg.SD-1; Pgrowth. Compared to breastfeeding 1 month was associated with lower blood pressure (e.g. >6 months -1.56 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P6 months, introduction of complementary feeding pressure (e.g. 4-6 months 0.91 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P = 0.004). After the age of one month faster growth in either weight or height is associated with higher childhood blood pressure. It is unknown whether faster weight gain and linear growth carry the same risk for adult hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity. Longer breastfeeding and delayed introduction of complementary feeding may be associated with lower adult blood pressure.

  17. Study of Vessel Conditions in Different Categories of Weight for Early-Stage of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hafizzatul ‘Izzah bt Mat Harun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the clinical experiment study is presented to diagnose the Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT. The diagnosis of DVT is commonly used by monitoring the blood velocity and the present of thrombus in vessel from B-mode ultrasound image associated with the application of Doppler ultrasound. However, the monitoring of those parameters will only be confirmed when someone had already suffered from DVT disease. Thus, this study is to diagnose the early stage of DVT. Since it is difficult to recognize the vessel condition at the early stage of DVT, the evaluation of vein mechanism based on different categories of weight at the early stage of DVT is proposed. The wall displacement and blood flow velocity is considered to be the important parameters to construct a clinical model of DVT risk factor, thereby constitutes an important contribution for predicting probability of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT.

  18. Childhood overweight after establishment of the gut microbiota: the role of delivery mode, pre-pregnancy weight and early administration of antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, C S; Gamborg, M

    2011-01-01

    influencing the establishment and diversity of the gut microbiota are associated with later risk of overweight. Design: Longitudinal, prospective study with measure of exposures in infancy and follow-up at age 7 years. Methods: A total of 28¿354 mother–child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort...... overweight (odds ratio (OR):1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95–1.47). Antibiotics during the first 6 months of life led to increased risk of overweight among children of normal weight mothers (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09–2.17) and a decreased risk of overweight among children of overweight mothers (OR: 0...... of overweight in later childhood. This effect may potentially be explained by an impact on establishment and diversity of the microbiota....

  19. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajendra Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI is a relatively uncommon osteolytic-pigmented neoplasm that primarily affects the jaws of infants. The early onset and its rapid disfiguring spread necessitate early diagnosis. A 4-month-old male child reported with the complaint of swelling in the right back tooth region of the upper jaw, which rapidly increased in size causing disfigurement of the face. Radiographic examination showed a diffuse osteolytic radiolucent lesion in the right maxilla and displacement and dysmorphic changes in the developing primary tooth buds. Wide surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological report revealed characteristic large pigmented epitheloid cells (melanocyte like cells. The biphasic tumor cell population arranged in a background of fibrous connective tissue stroma is suggestive of MNTI involving the cancellous bone. Early diagnosis and management of such aggressive tumors precludes significant morbidity of the patient.

  20. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2-4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2) or excess weight (BMIz≥2). Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001) and maternal body mass index (BMI) (r=0.113; p=0.002). The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=−0.099; p=0.006) and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=−0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. Conclusions: The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. PMID:27452430

  1. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2-4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2 or excess weight (BMIz≥2. Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001 and maternal body mass index (BMI (r=0.113; p=0.002. The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=−0.099; p=0.006 and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=−0.112; p=0.002. There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. Conclusions: The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age.

  2. L-Carnitine supplementation during suckling intensifies the early postnatal skeletal myofiber formation in piglets of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, D; Kalbe, C; Rehfeldt, C

    2009-07-01

    Piglets of low birth weight exhibit a reduced total number of skeletal myofibers at birth and throughout life compared with piglets of middle and heavy birth weight, which is associated with impaired (lean) growth and quality of carcass and meat at market weight. We investigated the effect of L-carnitine supplementation to suckling piglets of different birth weights on early postnatal myofiber formation, muscle growth, and body composition. A total of 48 piglets of low (LW) and middle (MDW) birth weight from 9 German Landrace gilts received 400 mg of L-carnitine (carnitine, n = 25) or a placebo (control, n = 23) once daily from d 7 to 27 of age and were slaughtered on d 28 of age (weaning). Carnitine-supplemented piglets deposited less fat as indicated by a reduced proportion of perirenal (P = 0.1) and intramuscular fat (P = 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to be greater in supplemented LW piglets (P = 0.13). The concentration of carnitine in semitendinosus (STN) muscle was approximately doubled (P supplementation, with emphasis on the proportion of esterified carnitine. The ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to isocitrate dehydrogenase tended (P = 0.12) to be smaller in STN muscle of supplemented piglets, indicating a more oxidative muscle metabolism. The total number of STN myofibers was increased by 13% (P = 0.02) in supplemented LW piglets, thereby reaching the unchanged level of MDW littermates. In addition, supplemented LW piglets displayed a 2.4-fold mRNA expression of the gene encoding the embryonic isoform of the myosin heavy chain in STN muscle than control piglets (P = 0.05), but there were no differences in the proportion of fibers positively staining for the embryonic myosin isoform. L-carnitine-supplemented piglets exhibited a greater DNA:protein ratio (P = 0.02) in STN muscle, which resulted from a greater DNA concentration (P = 0.04). However, the STN muscle of L-carnitine-supplemented piglets was not less mature as indicated by

  3. A comparison of low birth weight among newborns of early adolescents, late adolescents, and adult mothers in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Julia A; Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Rahme, Elham; Gagnon, Anita J; Manges, Amee R; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2011-07-01

    To compare low birth weight (LBW: birth registries. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to compare LBW in newborns of adolescents (10-14, 15-19 years) and adults (≥20 years) and then for primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age, adjusting for newborn sex, antenatal care, and location of the mother's residence. A total of 4,384 mothers had had a singleton live birth and 1,501 were primiparous with a normal gestational age. Early and late adolescents had significantly greater odds of having a LBW infant than adults (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.09, 4.78; OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.30, 2.14, respectively). For primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age, the same was true only for early adolescents (OR = 3.07, 95%CI: 1.09, 8.61). There were significant differences in mean birth weight between adults (3178.7 g) and both adolescent age groups overall (10-14 years: 2848.9 g; 15-19 years: 2998.3 g) and for primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age (10-14 years: 2900.8 g; 15-19 years: 3059.2 g; ≥20 years: 3151.8 g). Results suggest there is an important difference between adolescent and adult mothers in terms of newborn birth weight, especially among early adolescents. Future research on LBW and possibly other adverse birth outcomes should consider early adolescents as a separate sub-group of higher risk.

  4. Early relations between language development and the quality of mother-child interaction in very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Korja, R; Matomäki, J; Lapinleimu, H; Haataja, L; Lehtonen, L

    2014-05-01

    It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cow's milk allergy in infancy and childhood: immunological and clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, Rogier Paul

    2001-01-01

    Allergy is an important disease that affects a substantial proportion of the general population, and which has seen an increasing incidence during the past three decades. Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is one of the major food-allergies during infancy and early childhood. This thesis focuses on patients

  6. Cow's milk allergy in infancy and childhood: immunological and clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, Rogier Paul

    2002-01-01

    Allergy is an important disease that affects a substantial proportion of the general population, and which has seen an increasing incidence during the past three decades. Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is one of the major food-allergies during infancy and early childhood. This thesis focuses on patients w

  7. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Ingestive Problems of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Berkowitz, Robert I.

    1996-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recognizes that feeding problems of infants and children are not typically the same as eating problems of adolescents, thus the addition of a broad diagnostic category, "Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood." Subtypes are…

  8. Impact of adjusting for the reciprocal relationship between maternal weight and free thyroxine during early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haddow, James E

    2013-02-01

    Among euthyroid pregnant women in a large clinical trial, free thyroxine (FT4) measurements below the 2.5th centile were associated with a 17 lb higher weight (2.9 kg\\/m(2)) than in the overall study population. We explore this relationship further.

  9. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  10. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Johnson, L.; Boniface, D.; Jebb, S.A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939

  11. Sequential cranial ultrasound and cerebellar diffusion weighted imaging contribute to the early prognosis of neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha J Brouwer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS and term-equivalent age magnetic resonance imaging (TEA-MRI including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI to the early prognosis of neurodevelopmental outcome in a cohort of very preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <31 weeks. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 93 preterm infants (median [range] GA in weeks: 28.3 [25.0-30.9] were enrolled in this prospective cohort study and underwent early and term cUS as well as TEA-MRI including DWI. Early cUS abnormalities were classified as normal, mild, moderate or severe. Term cUS was evaluated for ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly (VM and enlargement of the extracerebral cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF space. Abnormalities on T1- and T2-weighted TEA-MRI were scored according to Kidokoro et al. Using DWI at TEA, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs were measured in four white matter regions bilaterally and both cerebellar hemispheres. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at two years' corrected age (CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. Linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between the different neuroimaging modalities and outcome. RESULTS: Moderate/severe abnormalities on early cUS, ex-vacuo VM and enlargement of the eCSF space on term cUS and increased cerebellar ADC values on term DWI were independently associated with worse motor outcome (p<.05. Ex-vacuo VM on term cUS was also related to worse cognitive performance at two years' CA (p<.01. CONCLUSION: These data support the clinical value of sequential cUS and recommend repeating cUS at TEA. In particular, assessment of moderate/severe early cUS abnormalities and ex-vacuo VM on term cUS provides important prognostic information. Cerebellar ADC values may further aid in the prognostication of gross motor function.

  12. Gemini: a UK twin birth cohort with a focus on early childhood weight trajectories, appetite and the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Johnson, Laura; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane

    2010-02-01

    Gemini is a cohort study of young twins in the United Kingdom designed to assess genetic and environmental influences on early childhood weight trajectories with a focus on infant appetite and the family environment. A total of 2402 families with twins born in England and Wales between March and December 2007 agreed to participate and returned completed baseline questionnaires. The sample includes 1586 same-sex and 816 opposite-sex twins. The study is currently funded for 5 years of follow-up, but is planned to continue into early adolescence and beyond, pending funding. With current funding of the study, families will be followed up when twins are: 8 months old (baseline), and then at 15, 20, 24, 36 and 48 months of age. Gemini is in its early stages, with baseline and first follow-up data collection completed. This is the first twin cohort to focus on childhood weight gain with detailed and repeated measures of children's appetite, food preferences, activity behavior and parental feeding styles, alongside detailed and repeated collection of anthropometrics. This article reviews the rationale for the Gemini study, its representativeness and the main measures.

  13. College expectations in high school mitigate weight gain over early adulthood: Findings from a national study of American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Schulenberg, John E; Lee, Hedwig; Colabianchi, Natalie; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-07-01

    Research conducted on school-based interventions suggests that school connectedness protects against a variety of risk behaviors, including substance abuse, delinquency and sedentary behavior. The line of research is extended by examining the link between college expectations and early adult weight gain using nationally representative panel data from thirty cohorts of American high school seniors followed prospectively to age 30 in the Monitoring the Future Study (1986-2009). Growth mixture models identified two latent classes of trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from age 19 to 30: a persistently overweight class (BMI ≥ 25) and a second class exhibiting more moderate growth in BMI to age 30. Compared to those who did not expect to graduate from college, students fully expecting to graduate from college had 34% lower odds of being in the persistently overweight class (adjusted odds ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.54, 0.81), controlling for academic performance and socioeconomic status. Successful prevention of obesity early in the life course is based on a multifactorial approach incorporating strategies that address the contexts in which adolescents are embedded. The school setting may be one avenue where successful educational attachment could have positive consequences for subsequent weight gain in early adulthood. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  14. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, PFasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P... after an oral glucose challenge (Pmicrobiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P

  15. Early life height and weight production functions with endogenous energy and protein inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Esteban; Wang, Fan; Behrman, Jere R; Cunha, Flavio; Hoddinott, John; Maluccio, John A; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-09-01

    We examine effects of protein and energy intakes on height and weight growth for children between 6 and 24 months old in Guatemala and the Philippines. Using instrumental variables to control for endogeneity and estimating multiple specifications, we find that protein intake plays an important and positive role in height and weight growth in the 6-24 month period. Energy from other macronutrients, however, does not have a robust relation with these two anthropometric measures. Our estimates indicate that in contexts with substantial child undernutrition, increases in protein-rich food intake in the first 24 months can have important growth effects, which previous studies indicate are related significantly to a range of outcomes over the life cycle.

  16. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  17. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  18. Pure cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Dimah; Joshi, Charuta

    2015-05-01

    Malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy is a devastating pharmacoresistent epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology characterized by onset in the first 6 months of life, continuous migrating focal seizures with corresponding multifocal electroencephalographic discharges, developmental deterioration, and early mortality. Recent widespread interest in the nonpsychoactive component of the cannabis plant, cannabidiol, as a potential treatment for refractory devastating epilepsies has led to individual trials initiated by families or physicians in states that have legalized medical marijuana with anecdotal success. We describe a now 10-month-old boy with malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy who made developmental gains and demonstrated sustained seizure reduction with the addition of cannabidiol to his antiepileptic regimen. This report supports a role for cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low birth weight male guinea pig offspring display increased visceral adiposity in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousseynou Sarr

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR predisposes individuals to adult visceral obesity. We postulated that low birth weight (LBW offspring, from UPI-induced IUGR pregnancies, would display a visceral adipose lipogenic molecular signature involving altered gene expression, phosphorylation status of proteins of the lipid synthesis pathway and microRNA (miR expression profile, occurring in association with increased visceral adiposity. Normal birth weight (NBW and LBW (obtained by uterine artery ablation male guinea pig pups were fed a control diet from weaning to 145 days and sacrificed. Despite being lighter at birth, LBW pups displayed body weights similar to NBW offspring at 145 days. At this age, which represents young adulthood, the relative weights of LBW epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and lipid content were increased; which was consistent with adipocyte hypertrophy in the LBW offspring. Additionally, the mRNA expression of lipid synthesis-related genes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, diglyceride acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 1 (PPARγ1, was increased in LBW EWAT. Further, LBW EWAT displayed decreased phospho-ACC (Ser79 and phospho-PPARγ (Ser273 proteins. Moreover, the mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, both involved in promoting adipose lipid storage, was increased in LBW EWAT. Finally, miR-24 and miR-103-2, miRs related to adipocyte development, were both increased in LBW EWAT. These findings indicate that, following an adverse in utero environment, lipid synthesis-related genes and miR expression, along with phosphorylation status of key regulators of lipid synthesis, appear to be chronically altered and occur in association with increased visceral adiposity in young adult IUGR male offspring.

  20. Early Markers of Atherosclerotic Disease in Individuals with Excess Weight and Dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menti, Eduardo; Zaffari, Denise; Galarraga, Thais; Lessa, João Regis da Conceição e; Pontin, Bruna; Pellanda, Lucia Campos; Portal, Vera Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive weight is a cardiovascular risk factor since it generates a chronic inflammatory process that aggravates the endothelial function. Objective To evaluate the endothelial function in individuals with excess weight and mild dyslipidemia using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD), and the association of endothelial function with anthropometric and biochemical variables. Methods Cross-sectional study that included 74 individuals and evaluated anthropometric variables (body mass index [BMI], waist-hip ratio [WHR], waist circumference [AC], and percentage of body fat [PBF]), biochemical (blood glucose, insulinemia, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol) and endothelial function (BAFMD, evaluated by ultrasound). The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS, version 16.0. To study the association between the variables, we used chi-square, Student's t and Mann-Whitney tests, and Pearson's correlation. Logistic regression analyzed the independent influence of the factors. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results The participants had a mean age of 50.8 years, and 57% were female. BMI, WC, WHR, and PBF showed no significant association with BAFMD. The male gender (p = 0.02) and higher serum levels of fibrinogen (p = 0.02) were significantly and independently associated with a BAFMD below 8%. Conclusions In individuals with excess weight and mild untreated dyslipidemia, male gender and higher levels of fibrinogen were independently associated with worse BAFMD. PMID:27142650

  1. Impact of birth weight and gender on early postnatal hypothalamic energy balance regulatory gene expression in the young lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, C L; Bake, T; Findlay, P A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    2013-11-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is involved in developmental metabolic programming and here we test the hypothesis that IUGR affects the developing hypothalamic energy balance regulatory pathways in a sex-specific manner. This experiment investigated early postnatal hypothalamic gene expression for six primary leptin- and insulin-sensitive neuropeptides and receptors in male and female IUGR (n = 8 and 9, respectively) and normal (N) birth weight lambs (n = 8 per gender) gestated and suckled by overnourished mothers. IUGR lambs were smaller at birth, had increased fractional growth rates (FGR), lower final body weight (11 weeks) and similar body fat content compared with N lambs, while males had higher final body weight and insulinemia but lower body fat and leptinemia than females. In situ hybridization revealed greater gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus at 11 weeks for anorexigenic genes in females and orexigenic genes in males, with no effect of IUGR. Leptinemia correlated with gene expression for neuropeptide Y (NPY, negatively) in both sexes and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, positively) in females but with leptin receptor (negatively) only in males. Current FGR for girth correlated negatively with gene expression for NPY in males and POMC in females. Neither IUGR nor gender affected suckling activity (proxy for appetite) assessed at 3 weeks, but final NPY gene expression correlated with suckling weight gain in males. This study has revealed no effect of IUGR on early postnatal hypothalamic energy balance gene expression but a major effect of gender associated with major sex differences in adiposity and leptinemia. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adoption of risk-related factors through early adolescence: associations with weight status and implications for causal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E; Nelson, Melissa C; Lytle, Leslie A; Moe, Stacey G; Perry, Cheryl L

    2008-10-01

    To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between weight status and measures of risk and protective factors in youth. Participants included 3010 students (72.1% white, 27.9% nonwhite), with a baseline mean age of 12.7 years from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School (TEENS) study. Surveys were administered in grades 7 and 8. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mixed-effects regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between body mass index z-score percentiles (BMI) and risk and protective factors (including substance use, depression, fighting, optimism, and spirituality). Only depression was associated with BMI at the beginning of grade 7. However, by the end of grade 8, binge drinking, alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use, fighting, and depression were all cross-sectionally associated with BMI. Longitudinally, BMI in grade 7 did not predict risk and protective factors in grade 8. However, ATOD use, fighting, depression, and optimism in grade 7 predicted BMI in grade 8. This study suggests there is a notable co-occurrence of unhealthy factors (including weight status, ATOD use, depression) which appears to develop during the critical transition period through early adolescence. Specifically, earlier ATOD use, depression, increased fighting, and decreased optimism may lead to unhealthy increases in weight status, whereas early indicators of increased weight status do not appear to predict increases in these factors. This work yields important insights into the causal mechanisms underlying adolescent behavior patterning and the progression with which these unhealthy risk factor profiles are adopted during this critical age.

  3. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  4. Teasing and clowning in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Mireault, Gina

    2015-01-01

    “… do not take from me your laughter..... it opens for me all the doors of life” — Pablo Neruda Before they speak or walk or crawl, infants joke. Infant laughter captured the attention of Aristotle, who thought it was the sign of the entry of the soul into the body, and of Darwin, who noted its emergence in the fourth month of life. Darwin saw such laughter as the early appreciation of humour, the presence at this age of which should not surprise us too much, given the early emergence of play...

  5. Pruritus and dermographism due to intrahepatic cholestasis of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Beer, W; Davies, R

    1978-04-01

    A case report of intrahepatic cholestasis of infancy presenting with chronic severe pruritus is described. This presentation is compared with similar cases attending this unit. Intrahepatic cholestasis of infancy and the pathogenesis of puritus associated with cholestasis are briefly discussed.

  6. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    -Bissau of early BCG vs the usual postponed BCG, a subgroup was bled 4 weeks after randomization. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured from whole-blood assays stimulated with innate agonists to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4......BACKGROUND:  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS:  Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guinea...... or -7/8, or purified protein derivative (PPD). RESULTS:  Among 467 infants, BCG significantly increased the in vitro cytokine responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD), as expected. BCG was also associated with increased responses to heterologous innate stimulation...

  7. Total body bone development during early childhood in very low birth weight infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamura, T; Hasegawa, K; Yoshioka, H; Mizuta, R; Sawada, T

    1998-04-01

    Total body bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 52 children who were very low birth weight (VLBW) infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation (postconceptional age, from 10 mo to 6 y and 6 mo). VLBW infants in this study seemed to show compensatory acceleration of total body bone development, catching up with the control group during early childhood. However, in VLBW infants with at least one of the three factors such as total parenteral nutrition for 1 week or more, assisted ventilation for 1 week or more, or oxygen therapy for 28 d or more in their early stage after birth, adequate mineral supplementation might be especially important for long-term bone development.

  8. Early Caffeine Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants and Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-12-01

    The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (≥3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed for this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad's scale. Studies were included if they examined the effect of the early use of caffeine compared with the late use of caffeine. Two reviewers screened the candidate articles and extracted the data from the full-text of all of the included studies. We included a total of 59,136 participants (range 58,997-59,136; variable in one study) from a total of 5 studies. The risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 0.902; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.828 to 0.983; P=0.019), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR, 0.507; 95% CI, 0.396 to 0.648; Pcaffeine group. Early caffeine use was not associated with a risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and NEC requiring surgery. This meta-analysis suggests that early caffeine use has beneficial effects on neonatal outcomes, including mortality and BPD, without increasing the risk of NEC.

  9. Ossifying renal tumor of infancy: findings at ultrasound, CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hwan; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung-Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kyung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A 4-month-old boy presented with persistent gross hematuria. At ultrasonography, a 3.5-cm echogenic mass with posterior shadowing and tumor vascularity was detected within the right renal pelvis. Precontrast CT showed a slightly hyperattenuating mass in the renal pelvis. At MRI the mass was heterogeneously hypointense on T2-weighted images and isointense on T1-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI both revealed peripheral enhancement of the mass. A histological diagnosis of ossifying renal tumor of infancy was made after open pyelostomy and tumor enucleation. We suggest that ossifying renal tumor of infancy should be considered when a mass with posterior acoustic shadowing and tumor vascularity on US, hyperattenuation on precontrast CT and hypointensity on T2-weighted MRI is seen within the renal pelvis of an infant with hematuria. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction with blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Yoon [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: chankyokim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Kwan [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Sanghoon [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Department of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • R2* and ADC in renal allografts are moderately correlated with eGFR. • R2* and ADC are lower in early allograft dysfunction than normal allograft function. • No significant difference between AR and ATN was found in both R2* and ADC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T for assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and methods: 34 patients with a renal allograft (early dysfunction, 24; normal, 10) were prospectively enrolled. BOLD MRI and DWI were performed at 3 T. R2* and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in cortex and medulla of the allografts. Correlation between R2* or ADC values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. R2* or ADC values were compared among acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and normal function. Results: In all renal allografts, cortical or medullary R2* and ADC values were moderately correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05). Early dysfunction group showed lower R2* and ADC values than normal function group (P < 0.05). AR or ATN had lower R2* values than normal allografts (P < 0.05), and ARs had lower cortical ADC values than normal allografts (P < 0.05). No significant difference of R2* or ADC values was found between AR and ATN (P > 0.05). Conclusion: BOLD MRI and DWI at 3 T may demonstrate early functional state of renal allografts, but may be limited in characterizing a cause of early renal allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed.

  11. Assessing Pain in Infancy: The Caregiver Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pillai Riddell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is largely accepted as being influenced by social context. Unlike most other developmental stages throughout the lifespan, infancy is marked by complete dependence on the caregiver. The present paper discusses the primary importance of understanding the caregiver context when assessing infant pain expression.

  12. Morality from infancy to middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Fieke Dineke

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis, a homogeneous upper middle class sample of firstborn girls and their mothers were followed from infancy (18 and 24 months) to middle childhood (89 months) using questionnaires and observations. The focus of the study was on three components of moral behavior, i.e. empathy,

  13. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  14. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  15. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life.

  16. Efficacy of T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo MRI in Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unilateral Thalamic Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Mitaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an uncommon cause of stroke with diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Because of variability in clinical presentation and neuroimaging, CVT remains a diagnostic challenge. Recently, some studies have highlighted the value of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI (T2*WI in the diagnosis of CVT. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with CVT due to a hypercoagulable state associated with cancer. On the initial T2-weighted image (T2WI, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the right thalamus, extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule and midbrain. T2*WI showed diminished signal and enlargement of the right basilar vein and the vein of Galen. Even though there is a wide range of differential diagnoses in unilateral thalamic lesions, and a single thalamus lesion is a rare entity of CVT, based on T2*WI findings we could make an early diagnosis and perform treatment. Our case report suggests that T2*WI could detect thrombosed veins and be a useful method of early diagnosis in CVT.

  17. Height and weight are correlated with lumbar spinal bone mineral contents and densities in Chinese adolescents with early ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xing; HU Yun-yu; MA Xiang-dong; WANG Quan-ping; LI Xiao-juan; LU Rong; WANG Jun; XU Xin-zhi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible factors influencing lumbar spinal bone mineral contents and bone mineral densities in Chinese adolescents with early ankylosing spondylitis(AS). Methods: Thirty-one male Chinese adolescent outpatients with early AS were included and compared with 31 age-matched male controls. Age (year), height (cm), total body weight (kg) together with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 ) of all subjects and disease duration (month), BASMI,BASFI, BASDAI, SASSS as well as ESR (mm/h) of AS patients were obtained. Lumbar2-4 bone mineral content (L2-4BMC, g) and lumbar2-4 areal bone mineral density (L2-4 BMD, g/cm2 ) were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) with Lunar DPX-IQ device and lumbar2-4 volumetric bone mineral apparent density (L2-4 BMAD, g/cm3 )was subsequently calculated. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: Compared with 31 agematched male controls, AS patients had significantly lower L2-4 BMD [ (0. 984 ± 0.142) g/cm2 vs ( 1.055 ± 0. 137) g/cm2,P = 0.049 ] and L2- 4 BMAD [ (0. 1527 ± 0. 0173) g/cm3 vs (0. 1630 ± 0. 0195) g/cm3, P = 0. 032 ]. In AS patients,multiple regression analysis identified that only the factor of height was significantly correlated with L2- 4 BMC ( R = 0. 673,P = 0.000) and the factor of weight had predominant influences on L2-4 BMD ( R = 0. 620, P = 0. 000) as well as L2-4BMAD (R=0.510, P = 0.003). Conclusion: The young patients with early AS had marked reduction in lumbar spine bone mineral densities, which indicated an important primary event leading to osteoporosis. Positive effects of height and weight on lumbar spine bone mass and densities could expectantly make favorable contributions to early prevention of AS associated bone loss and subsequent osteoporosis.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal motility: prenatal development and problems in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singendonk, Maartje M J; Rommel, Nathalie; Omari, Taher I; Benninga, Marc A; van Wijk, Michiel P

    2014-09-01

    Deglutition, or swallowing, refers to the process of propulsion of a food bolus from the mouth into the stomach and involves the highly coordinated interplay of swallowing and breathing. At 34 weeks gestational age most neonates are capable of successful oral feeding if born at this time; however, the maturation of respiration is still in progress at this stage. Infants can experience congenital and developmental pharyngeal and/or gastrointestinal motility disorders, which might manifest clinically as gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms, feeding difficulties and/or refusal, choking episodes and airway changes secondary to micro or overt aspiration. These problems might lead to impaired nutritional intake and failure to thrive. These gastrointestinal motility disorders are mostly classified according to the phase of swallowing in which they occur, that is, the oral preparatory, oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal phases. GER is a common phenomenon in infancy and is referred to as GERD when it causes troublesome complications. GER is predominantly caused by transient relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter. In oesophageal atresia, oesophageal motility disorders develop in almost all patients after surgery; however, a congenital origin of disordered motility has also been proposed. This Review highlights the prenatal development of upper gastrointestinal motility and describes the most common motility disorders that occur in early infancy.

  19. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Identification of low molecular weight nuclear complexes containing integrase during the early stages of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Annabelle; Soler, Nicolas; Ségéral, Emmanuel; Belshan, Michael; Emiliani, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    HIV-1 replication requires integration of its reverse transcribed viral cDNA into a host cell chromosome. The DNA cutting and joining reactions associated to this key step are catalyzed by the viral protein integrase (IN). In infected cells, IN binds the viral cDNA, together with viral and cellular proteins, to form large nucleoprotein complexes. However, the dynamics of IN complexes formation is still poorly understood. Here, we characterized IN complexes during the early stages of T-lymphocyte infection. We found that following viral entry into the host cell, IN was rapidly targeted to proteasome-mediated degradation. Interactions between IN and cellular cofactors LEDGF/p75 and TNPO3 were detected as early as 6 h post-infection. Size exclusion chromatography of infected cell extracts revealed distinct IN complexes in vivo. While at 2 h post-infection the majority of IN eluted within a high molecular weight complex competent for integration (IN complex I), IN was also detected in a low molecular weight complex devoid of full-length viral cDNA (IN complex II, ~440 KDa). At 6 h post-infection the relative proportion of IN complex II increased. Inhibition of reverse transcription or integration did not alter the elution profile of IN complex II in infected cells. However, in cells depleted for LEDGF/p75 IN complex II shifted to a lower molecular weight complex (IN complex III, ~150 KDa) containing multimers of IN. Notably, cell fractionation experiments indicated that both IN complex II and III were exclusively nuclear. Finally, IN complex II was not detected in cells infected with a virus harboring a mutated IN defective for LEDGF/p75 interaction and tetramerization. Our findings indicate that, shortly after viral entry, a significant portion of DNA-free IN that is distinct from active pre-integration complexes accumulates in the nucleus.

  1. Identification of low molecular weight nuclear complexes containing integrase during the early stages of HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Annabelle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 replication requires integration of its reverse transcribed viral cDNA into a host cell chromosome. The DNA cutting and joining reactions associated to this key step are catalyzed by the viral protein integrase (IN. In infected cells, IN binds the viral cDNA, together with viral and cellular proteins, to form large nucleoprotein complexes. However, the dynamics of IN complexes formation is still poorly understood. Results Here, we characterized IN complexes during the early stages of T-lymphocyte infection. We found that following viral entry into the host cell, IN was rapidly targeted to proteasome-mediated degradation. Interactions between IN and cellular cofactors LEDGF/p75 and TNPO3 were detected as early as 6 h post-infection. Size exclusion chromatography of infected cell extracts revealed distinct IN complexes in vivo. While at 2 h post-infection the majority of IN eluted within a high molecular weight complex competent for integration (IN complex I, IN was also detected in a low molecular weight complex devoid of full-length viral cDNA (IN complex II, ~440 KDa. At 6 h post-infection the relative proportion of IN complex II increased. Inhibition of reverse transcription or integration did not alter the elution profile of IN complex II in infected cells. However, in cells depleted for LEDGF/p75 IN complex II shifted to a lower molecular weight complex (IN complex III, ~150 KDa containing multimers of IN. Notably, cell fractionation experiments indicated that both IN complex II and III were exclusively nuclear. Finally, IN complex II was not detected in cells infected with a virus harboring a mutated IN defective for LEDGF/p75 interaction and tetramerization. Conclusions Our findings indicate that, shortly after viral entry, a significant portion of DNA–free IN that is distinct from active pre-integration complexes accumulates in the nucleus.

  2. Analysis of daily body weight of dairy cows in early lactation and associations withproductive and reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Karina Poncheki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe daily body weight (BW changes in the first 100 days of lactation in confined dairy cows and to associate BW loss with productive and reproductive performance. Data included 26,344 daily BW measurements of 372 Holsteins calving between June 2011 and June 2012 in a commercial herd in the South of Brazil. Cows were automatically weighed and were assigned according to parity. Individual measurements were smoothed using cubic splines, generating nadir BW, days to nadir BW and the BW loss (absolute and relative values. This approach used days in milk (DIM as a single smoothing variable. Body weight at calving differed across parities: 570.5, 653.5, and 699.9 kg, for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd and subsequent parities, respectively. Body weight at nadir also differed across parities: 521.5, 608.8, and 647.3 kg, respectively. Mean days from calving BW to nadir BW and mean loss of BW (kg from calving to nadir BW did not differ across parities, but relative BW change (kg/100 kg was larger in animals in first parity (-8.4 kg/100 kg than second parity (-6.6 kg/100 kg. However, cows in first parity had more chances for good reproduction than cows in third and subsequent parities (44.0% vs. 30.7%, respectively. There was no difference in the probability of adequate reproduction (pregnant until 180 DIM among cows with low, medium, or high milk yield. Furthermore, cows with low and medium BW loss (below 60 kg of BW change showed more likelihood to adequate reproduction than cows with high BW loss (above 60 kg of BW: 45.5 and 45.8% vs. 24.4%, respectively. Improvements in fertility of dairy cows should be achieved by minimizing body weight loss in early lactation.

  3. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz) study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barry J; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Galland, Barbara C; Gray, Andrew R; Lawrence, Julie A; Sayers, Rachel M; Dale, Kelly; Coppell, Kirsten J; Taylor, Rachael W

    2011-12-19

    Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz) study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years) or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months) and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry), duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use). This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Infancy is likely to be the most effective time to establish patterns of

  4. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. Methods/Design This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use. This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Discussion Infancy is likely to

  5. No association between low birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood: evidence from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Filumena Maria Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing literature suggests that low birth weight increases the risk of poor health outcomes in adulthood. We tested this hypothesis among young adults living in São Paulo State, Brazil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To identify the effects of low birth weight on young adulthood outcomes, a medical assessment of 297 individuals born between 1977 and 1989 was conducted at a primary care unit in São Paulo State, Brazil. We analyzed body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels using linear and logistic regressions. Low birth was negatively associated with BMI (β = -2.0, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.27, p = 0.02, fasting glucose levels (β = -1.9, 95% CI: -3.9, -0.07, p = 0.05, waist-hip ratio (β = -0.03, 95% CI: -0.07, -0.01, p = 0.10, systolic blood pressure (β = -3.32, 95% CI: -7.60, 0.96, p = 0.12, and total cholesterol levels (β = -3.19, 95% CI: -16.43, 10.05, p = 0.636. Low birth weight was also associated with lower odds of young adults being overweight and obese, but neither association was statistically significant. Weight gain in the first 12 months of life was associated with higher adult BMI (β = 0.79, 95% CI: -0.0455, 1.623, p = 0.064 and blood pressure (β = 2.79, 95% CI: 0.22, 5.35, p = 0.034. No associations were found between low birth weight and early life (catch-up growth. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was not associated with poor health outcomes among young adults in Brazil. These results appear inconsistent with the original Barker hypothesis, but will need to be corroborated in larger samples with longer follow-ups to allow a more general evaluation of the validity of the hypothesis in low and middle income countries.

  6. EATING AND FEEDING DISORDERS IN THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF LIFE: REVISING THE DC:0-3R DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD AND RATIONALE FOR THE NEW DC:0-5 PROPOSED CRITERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Miri

    2016-09-01

    Problems of eating and feeding are one of the most common reasons of referral to pediatric and infant mental health clinics. This article is drawn from work done by the ZERO TO THREE Task Force developing the DC:0-5 Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, specifically dealing with eating disorders in the first 5 years of life. The proposed changes come from both reviewing major studies and reviews published in the last 10 years and reports from clinicians collected through surveys commissioned by the Task Force. The main changes that are proposed include changes in terminology, such as Eating Disorders instead of Feeding Behavior Disorders, as well as focusing on the child's observed eating symptoms rather than on classifying the eating problems by inferred etiologies. Another major change relates to the differentiation between eating disorders that are observed beyond any specific caregiver-child relationship context and those that are confined to one specific relationship. A new category, Overeating Disorder, has been added, as it has been increasingly recognized as a significant and not rare clinical condition. Two illustrative cases are described. The proposed changes in the classification of eating disorders in the first 5 years of life are intended to encourage both clinicians and researchers to study these important disorders in young children.

  7. Benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Lidija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Benign paroxysmal torticollis (BPT is an episodic functional disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by the periods of torticollic posturing of the head, that occurs in the early months of life in healthy children. Case report. We reported two patients with BPT. In the first patient the symptoms were observed at the age of day 20, and disappeared at the age of 3 years. There were 10 episodes, of which 2 were followed by vomiting, pallor, irritability and the abnormal trunk posture. In the second patient, a 12-month-old girl, BPT started from day 15. She had 4 episodes followed by vomiting in the first year. Both girls had the normal psychomotor development. All diagnostical tests were normal. Conclusion. The recognition of BPT, as well as its clinical course may help to avoid not only unnecessary tests and the treatment, but also the anxiety of the parents.

  8. [Hypertensive crisis in infancy and childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirbelauer, J; Strotmann, J; Kirchhoff, A; Darge, K; Thomas, W

    2008-01-01

    The extended physical examination of a patient includes measurement of blood pressure. In infancy and childhood the blood pressure measurement may be difficult due to an uncooperative and restless patient. In a 16-month-old girl apparently unmeasurable blood pressure was a hypertensive crisis with systolic blood pressure of more than 200 mmHg. The cause of the hypertension was found to be a nephroblastoma. In the case of rapidly progressive arterial hypertension in another 16-month-old girl with left ventricular dilatation and reduced function was a consequence of kidney dysplasia. Headache attacks lead to diagnosis of a subtotal coarctation of the aortic isthmus in a 17-year-old boy. Hypertensive crisis in infancy, childhood and adolescence is discussed based on these case reports. Special features of blood pressure measurement in the pediatric age group, pathogenesis of hypertensive crisis and the potential therapies are discussed incorporating a brief review of the literature.

  9. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  10. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    . However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity......, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.......There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed...

  11. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients.

  12. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  13. Neonatal Biomarkers of Inflammation: Correlates of Early Neurodevelopment and Gait in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Hintz, Susan R; Stevenson, David K

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal biomarkers of inflammation were examined in relation to early neurodevelopment and gait in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm children. We hypothesized that preterm infants exposed to higher levels of neonatal inflammation would demonstrate lower scores on Bayley Scales of Infant Toddler Development, 3rd ed. (BSID-III) and slower gait velocity at 18 to 22 months adjusted age. A total of 102 VLBW preterm infants (birthweight [BW] ≤ 1,500 g, gestational age [GA] ≤ 32 weeks) admitted to neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] were recruited. Neonatal risk factors examined were GA at birth, BW, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, sepsis, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, and total bilirubin over first 2 postnatal weeks. At 18 to 22 months, neurodevelopment was assessed with BSID-III and gait was assessed with an instrumented mat. Children with neonatal CRP ≥ 0.20 mg/dL (n = 52) versus low-level neonatal inflammation and neurodevelopment suggest early biomarkers that may inform neuroprotective treatment for preterm children. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Predicting ADHD by Assessment of Rutter's Indicators of Adversity in Infancy.

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    Søren D Østergaard

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with early onset. ADHD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, partly due to delayed diagnosis. Identification of children at high risk for developing ADHD could lead to earlier diagnosis and potentially change the negative trajectory of the illness for the better. Since early psychosocial adversity is considered to be a likely etiological risk factor for ADHD, markers of this construct may be useful for early identification of children at high risk. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether Rutter's indicators of adversity (low social class, severe marital discord, large family size, paternal criminality, maternal mental disorder, and placement in out-of-home care assessed in infancy could serve as early predictors for the development of ADHD.Using data from the Danish nationwide population-based registers, we established a cohort consisting of all 994,407 children born in Denmark between January 1st 1993 and December 31st 2011 and extracted dichotomous values for the six Rutter's indicators of adversity at age 0-12 months (infancy for each cohort member. The cohort members were followed from their second birthday and the association between the sum of Rutter's indicators of adversity (RIA-score in infancy and subsequent development of ADHD was estimated by means of Cox regression. Also, the number needed to screen (NNS to detect one case of ADHD based on the RIA-scores in infancy was calculated. During follow-up (9.6 million person-years, 15,857 males and 5,663 females from the cohort developed ADHD. For both males and females, there was a marked dose-response relationship between RIA-scores assessed in infancy and the risk for developing ADHD. The hazard ratios for ADHD were 11.0 (95%CI: 8.2-14.7 and 11.4 (95%CI: 7.1-18.3 respectively, for males and females with RIA-scores of 5-6, compared to males and females with RIA-scores of 0

  15. Exposure to breast milk in infancy and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hampton, John M; Egan, Kathleen M

    2009-09-01

    Early life exposures, such as being breastfed in infancy, may influence the risk of breast cancer in adulthood. We evaluated the risk of breast cancer in relation to ever having been breastfed in infancy among 9,442 women who participated in a population-based, case-control study. Cases were identified through cancer registries in three states (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin); controls were identified through statewide drivers' license lists or medicare lists. Data on known and suspected risk factors were obtained through telephone interview. We used unconditional logistic regression to assess the relation of breast cancer with ever having been breastfed and with breastfeeding duration (available for only 19% of breastfed women) in premenopausal women (1,986 cases and 1,760 controls) and postmenopausal women (2,600 cases and 2,493 controls). We found no evidence that ever having been breastfed in infancy was associated with breast cancer risk in either premenopausal women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83-1.10) or postmenopausal women (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.87-1.10). The association did not differ according to breast cancer stage, mother's history of breast cancer, or any other reproductive factor assessed. Likewise, we found no association between breastfeeding duration and risk of breast cancer. Our results did not support the hypothesis that exposure to breast milk in infancy influences the risk of adult breast cancer.

  16. Association Between Early Life Growth and Blood Pressure Trajectories in Black South African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Munthali, Richard J; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-11-01

    Early growth is associated with blood pressure measured on one occasion, but whether early life growth patterns are associated with longitudinal blood pressure trajectories is under-researched. Therefore, we sought to examine the association between early growth and blood pressure trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Blood pressure was measured on 7 occasions between ages 5 and 18 years in the Birth to Twenty cohort study, and conditional variables for growth in infancy and mid-childhood were computed from anthropometric measures (n=1937, 52% girls). We used a group-based trajectory modeling approach to identify distinct height-adjusted blood pressure trajectories and then tested their association with growth between birth and mid-childhood adjusting for several covariates. Three trajectory groups were identified for systolic and diastolic blood pressure: lower, middle, and upper in boys and girls, separately. In boys, predictors of the middle or upper systolic blood pressure trajectories versus the lower trajectory were in birth weight (odds ratio 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.58-0.96] per SD) and relative weight gain in infancy (4.11 [1.25-13.51] per SD). In girls, greater relative weight gain and linear growth in both infancy and mid-childhood were consistently associated with an almost 2-fold higher likelihood of being in the upper versus lower systolic blood pressure trajectory. The associations for the diastolic blood pressure trajectories were inconsistent. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying children at risk of progression to high blood pressure. Accelerated growth in infancy and mid-childhood may be a key target for early life intervention in prevention of elevated blood pressure progression. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  18. Stiripentol: new preparation. Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy: promising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    (1) Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (Dravet's syndrome) is associated with multiple seizures and progressive onset of mental retardation. Available antiepileptics (valproic acid and clonazepam/clobazam) are only partially effective, even when used in combination. (2) Stiripentol is intended to be added to the valproate + clobazam combination when the latter is ineffective. (3) In a two-month double-blind trial, 9 of 21 infants remained seizure-free when stiripentol was added to the valproate-clobazam combination, whereas all 20 infants receiving a placebo instead of stiripentol continued to have seizures. (4) Two follow-up studies lasting two and three years and involving 37 and 46 children showed that about 20% of patients had a major benefit (fewer seizures) when stiripentol was added to inadequately effective valproate-clobazam combination therapy. The possible impact of stiripentol on psychomotor development is unknown. Stiripentol was only moderately effective in adolescents. (5) Stiripentol has common and sometimes serious adverse effects such as loss of appetite (with ensuing weight loss), drowsiness and insomnia. Stiripentol inhibits several cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, including CYP 3A4, creating a high risk of interactions, especially with co-administered antiepileptics. (6) The stiripentol dose strengths currently available in France are unsuitable for infants weighing less than 10 kg. (7) In practice, given the severity of this type of myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the addition of stiripentol to ongoing but ineffective valproate-clobazam combination therapy is justified, even though the treatment is somewhat difficult to manage and has not yet been fully evaluated.

  19. 婴儿颅内血肿的早期诊断和手术治疗(附3例报告)%Early Diagnosis and Operation on Intracranial Hematoma in Infancy: A Report of 3 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张源; 张慧玲; 李秀莲; 辛骥

    1989-01-01

    本文报道3例婴儿颅内血肿,均早期作出诊断,皆施行开颅术,手术获得成功.文中对婴儿颅内出血的原因、诊断和手术问题进行了分析和讨论.%This article reports 3 infants with intracranial hematoma. All cases got an early diagnosis and operation and a successful recovery. The main causes of intracranial hematoma are trauma,asphyxia or hypoxia during delivery,hemorrhagic disease,Vit. K deficiency and congenital malformation of cerebral vessels. Plateau anoxia is a predisposition. The diagnosis is based on the history,lumbar puncture,CT and B-ultrasonography of the fontanel,CT being the first of chioce. Craniotomy is attempted to the treatment via a U-shaped skin flap to elear and drain the hematoma. One of the 3 cases was operated on at 3 days after birth. The 2 year follow-up of these patients has showed normal intelligence and a developing nerve system.

  20. Early weight loss predicts the reduction of obesity in men with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism undergoing long-term testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Mahmoud; Yassin, Dany-Jan; Shoukfeh, Huda; Nettleship, Joanne Elisabeth; Yassin, Aksam

    2017-03-01

    We and others have previously shown that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) results in sustained weight loss in the majority of middle-aged hypogonadal men. Previously, however, a small proportion failed to lose at least 5% of their baseline weight. The reason for this is not yet understood. In the present study, we sought to identify early indicators that may predict successful long-term weight loss, defined as a reduction of at least 5% of total body weight relative to baseline weight (T0), in men with hypogonadism undergoing TRT. Eight parameters measured were assessed as potential predictors of sustained weight loss: loss of 3% or more of baseline weight after 1 year of TU treatment, severe hypogonadism, BMI, waist circumference, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), age and use of vardenafil. Among the eight measured parameters, three factors were significantly associated with sustained weight loss over the entire period of TU treatment: (1) a loss of 3% of the baseline body weight after 1 year of TRT; (2) baseline BMI over 30; and (3) a waist circumference >102 cm. Age was not a predictor of weight loss.

  1. Low birth weight activates the renin-angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-02-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Low birth weight activates the renin–angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. PMID:25649246

  3. Blood Culture Proven Early Onset Sepsis and Late Onset Sepsis in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Chang, Meayoung; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains one of the most important causes of death and co-morbidity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to determine the current incidences of early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS), the distribution of pathogens, and the impact of infection on co-morbidities in VLBW infants. We analyzed the data including sepsis episode from 2,386 VLBW infants enrolled in Korean Neonatal Network from January 2013 to June 2014. We defined EOS as a positive blood culture occurring between birth and 7 days of life and LOS after 7 days of life. Sepsis was found in 21.1% of VLBW infants. The risk of sepsis was inversely related to birth weight and gestational age. EOS was found in only 3.6% of VLBW infants, however the mortality rate was as high as 34.1%. EOS was associated with the increased odds for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. The vast majority of EOS was caused by Gram-positive organisms, particularly coagulase-negative staphylococci (30.6%). LOS developed in 19.4% of VLBW infants with a 16.1% mortality rate. Pathogens in LOS were dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (38.3%). Twenty-five percent and fifty percent of first LOS episode occurred after 12 days and 20 days from birth, respectively. Younger and smaller VLBW infants showed the earlier occurrence day for the 25% of first LOS episode. This study provides a recent nationwide epidemiology of sepsis in VLBW infants in Korea. Based on this study, successful strategies to reduce infections would improve survival and reduce morbidity.

  4. Microbial changes during pregnancy, birth and infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meital Nuriel-Ohayon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several healthy developmental processes such as pregnancy, fetal development and infant development include a multitude of physiological changes: weight gain, hormonal and metabolic changes, as well as immune changes. In this review we present an additional important factor which both influences and is affected by these physiological processes- the microbiome. We summarize the known changes in microbiota composition at a variety of body sites including gut, vagina, oral cavity and placenta, throughout pregnancy, fetal development and early childhood. There is still a lot to be discovered; yet several pieces of research point to the healthy desired microbial changes. Future research is likely to unravel precise roles and mechanisms of the microbiota in gestation; perhaps linking the metabolic, hormonal and immune changes together. Although some research has started to link microbial dysbiosis and specific microbial populations with unhealthy pregnancy complications, it is important to first understand the context of the natural healthy microbial changes occurring. Until recently the placenta and developing fetus were considered to be germ free, containing no apparent microbiome. We present multiple study results showing distinct microbiota compositions in the placenta and meconium, alluding to early microbial colonization. These results may change dogmas and our overall understanding of the importance and roles of microbiota from the beginning of life. We further review the main factors shaping the infant microbiome- modes of delivery, feeding, weaning, and exposure to antibiotics. Taken together, we are starting to build a broader understanding of healthy vs. abnormal microbial alterations throughout major developmental time-points.

  5. An Early Continuous Experimental Study on Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-weighted Image of Focal Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The chronological and spatial rules of changes during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in different brain regions with magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a model of occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and the development of cytotoxic edema in acute phase were explored. Fifteen healthy S-D rats with MCA occluded by thread-emboli were randomly divided into three groups. 15 min after the operation, the serial imaging was scanned on DWI for the three groups. The relative mean signal intensity (RMSI) of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, lateral cauda-putamen, medial cauda-putamen and the volume of regions of hyperintense signal on DWI were calculated. After the last DWI scanning, T2 WI was performed for the three groups. After 15min ischemia, the rats was presented hyperintense signals on DWI. The regions of hyperintense signal were enlarged with prolonging ischemia time. The regions of hyperintense signal were back to normal after 60 min reperfusion with a small part remaining to show hyperintense signal. The RMSIs of parietal lobe and lateral cauda-putamen were higher than that of the frontal lobe and medial cauda-putamen both in ischemia phase and recanalization phase. The three groups werenormal on T2WI imaging. DWI had good sensitivity to acute cerebral ischemia, which was used to study the chronological and spatial rules of development of early cell edema in ischemia regions.

  6. The value of 3.0Tesla diffusion-weighted MRI for pelvic nodal staging in patients with early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, W.M.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Spijkerboer, A.M.; Bosch, M.A. van den; Mali, W.P.Th.; Heintz, A.P.; Bipat, S.; Sie-Go, D.M.; Velden, J.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Stoker, J.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 3.0Tesla (3T) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in addition to conventional MRI for the detection of lymphadenopathy in patients with early stage cervical cancer compared to histopathological evaluati

  7. In it for the long haul: characteristics of early and late drop out in a self-management intervention for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, Charlotte D W; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-10-01

    Although drop out rates in weight management interventions are high, little is known about characteristics of people dropping out at different time points during such interventions. This study aims to examine characteristics of early and late drop outs during a self-management intervention aimed at weight control, hypothesizing that changes in psychological characteristics during active intervention would differentiate drop outs from completers. Participants' (N = 167) socio-demographics and personality traits were measured via self-report at baseline, as well as their behavioral and psychological outcomes before and during the intervention. No baseline differences were found between early drop outs and initial completers. As expected, late drop outs were characterized by a different change pattern in self-efficacy during the initial phase compared to completers. Few differences in other characteristics were found. Changes in self-efficacy during active intervention are relevant for understanding drop out in weight management interventions.

  8. Maternal undernutrition from early- to mid-gestation leads to growth retardation, cardiac ventricular hypertrophy, and increased liver weight in the fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Hess, Bret W; Hansen, Thomas R; McCormick, Richard J; Rule, Daniel C; Moss, Gary E; Murdoch, William J; Nijland, Mark J; Skinner, Donal C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2003-07-01

    Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine disease in adult life. Multiparous ewes were fed to 50% (nutrient restricted) or 100% (control fed) of total digestible nutrients from Days 28 to 78 of gestation. All ewes were weighed weekly and diets adjusted for individual weight loss or gain. Ewes were killed on Day 78 of gestation and gravid uteri recovered. Fetal body and organ weights were determined, and numbers, morphologies, diameters, and weights of all placentomes were obtained. From Day 28 to Day 78, restricted ewes lost 7.4% of body weight, while control ewes gained 7.5%. Maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations were reduced in restricted versus control pregnancies. Fetuses were markedly smaller in the restricted group than in the control group. Further, restricted fetuses exhibited greater right- and left-ventricular and liver weights per unit fetal weight than control fetuses. No treatment differences were observed in any gross placentomal measurement. However, caruncular vascularity was enhanced in conceptuses from nutrient-restricted ewes but only in twin pregnancies. While these alterations in fetal/placental development may be beneficial to early fetal survival in the face of a nutrient restriction, their effects later in gestation as well as in postnatal life need further investigation.

  9. Development of thalamocortical connectivity during infancy and its cognitive correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcauter, Sarael; Lin, Weili; Smith, J Keith; Short, Sarah J; Goldman, Barbara D; Reznick, J Steven; Gilmore, John H; Gao, Wei

    2014-07-02

    Although commonly viewed as a sensory information relay center, the thalamus has been increasingly recognized as an essential node in various higher-order cognitive circuits, and the underlying thalamocortical interaction mechanism has attracted increasing scientific interest. However, the development of thalamocortical connections and how such development relates to cognitive processes during the earliest stages of life remain largely unknown. Leveraging a large human pediatric sample (N = 143) with longitudinal resting-state fMRI scans and cognitive data collected during the first 2 years of life, we aimed to characterize the age-dependent development of thalamocortical connectivity patterns by examining the functional relationship between the thalamus and nine cortical functional networks and determine the correlation between thalamocortical connectivity and cognitive performance at ages 1 and 2 years. Our results revealed that the thalamus-sensorimotor and thalamus-salience connectivity networks were already present in neonates, whereas the thalamus-medial visual and thalamus-default mode network connectivity emerged later, at 1 year of age. More importantly, brain-behavior analyses based on the Mullen Early Learning Composite Score and visual-spatial working memory performance measured at 1 and 2 years of age highlighted significant correlations with the thalamus-salience network connectivity. These results provide new insights into the understudied early functional brain development process and shed light on the behavioral importance of the emerging thalamocortical connectivity during infancy. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349067-09$15.00/0.

  10. The infancy Gospel of Thomas: Allegory or myth � Gnostic or Ebionite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G van Aarde

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show that scholars assess the Infancy Gospel of Thomas disparagingly as �illogical�, �un-Christian� and �banal�. A more positive judgment is� that it is either �Gnostic� or �purified of Gnosticism�, or merely one of many ancient tales in the form of a historical allegory about Jesus as a child.� The article argues that the author of the Greek version of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas in Codex Sinaiticus (Gr 453 describes the miracles of Jesus in a positive and negative light as if he were an adult.� This phenomenon should be understood against the background that this second-century gospel is presented not so much in the genre of a Gnostic redeemer myth, but rather as a god-child myth that has neither an Orthodox nor a Gnostic orientation. Its context is rather early Ebionite Christianity.

  11. Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, Dr. Margot Moser; Volkmar, Dr. Fred R.

    1994-01-01

    Since its introduction into DSM-Ill, reactive attachment disorder has stood curiously apart from other diagnoses for two reasons: it remains the only diagnosis designed for infants, and it requires the presence of a specific etiology. This paper describes the pattern of disturbances demonstrated by some children who meet DSM-Ill-R criteria for reactive attachment disorder. Three suggestions are made: (1) the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic concept may be enhanced by including cr...

  12. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  13. Cutaneous changes in fibrous hamartoma of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar F-Eire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few published case of fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI have commented on the changes in the overlying skin. There are descriptions of individual cases with cutaneous hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis and hyperhidrosis. It is interesting to describe our case because, to our knowledge, the altered pigmentation of the overlying skin, with hairs on the surface, and eccrine gland hyperplasia combined with abortive hair follicles has not been reported together in association with the FHI. We recommend that all the biopsies must be excisional including overlying skin, thus the epidermal and dermal adnexal changes can be assessed in the microscopic evaluation which could have relevant implications from clinical and embryological point of view.

  14. Imitation in infancy: the development of mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S

    2007-07-01

    Parents of 162 infants ages 6 to 20 months modeled subsets of four of the same set of eight behaviors, each for a maximum of 3 min, and encouraged their infants to imitate. Proportions of infants producing each behavior (a) when it was modeled and (b) during modeling of a different behavior were compared to estimate the age at which infants mimicked each kind of behavior. No reproduction of these motor acts--that is, no mimicry--was observed at 6 months. Mimicry appeared to develop slowly through most of the 2nd year, emerging at different ages for different behaviors. The findings suggest that newborns' behavioral matching may not be continuous with mimicry later in infancy. Imitation is probably not one behavioral competency with one underlying mechanism. It is more likely a category of different ways of combining and using different types of knowledge, some of which develop across the first 2 years of life.

  15. Associations Among Excess Weight Status and Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Drug Use in a Large National Sample of Early Adolescent Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Becnel, Jennifer; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Wu, Yelena P

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent substance use and overweight/obesity each are public health priorities, with unique prevalences based on race/ethnicity. Whether these biobehavioral risks are linked in today's youth is unknown, leaving critical gaps in prevention science. Utilizing a national epidemiological sample of 10th grade students (N = 19,678; M age = 16.09 years; 69.5 % White, 14.5 % Black, 16.0 % Hispanic; 2008-2009 Monitoring the Future), we examined adolescent substance use behaviors (current use, grade of first use, polysubstance use) for adolescents of overweight (OV), obese (OB), or severely obese (SO) status compared to adolescents of healthy weight (HW) for each race/ethnicity group. We also examined how engagement in smoking behaviors (current, early grade at first use) was linked to other substance use behaviors for youth of varying degrees of excess weight. Relative to HW youth, White youth of excess weight, particularly SO, had higher odds of early (youth. These findings suggest adolescent health risk behaviors co-occur uniquely for White youth, in particular those who are SO and by early adolescence. Understanding the downstream public health consequences and how risk pathways of excess weight, tobacco, and other substance use may uniquely unfold for each race/ethnicity group is imperative.

  16. Early-life social origins of later-life body weight: the role of socioeconomic status and health behaviors over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-07-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Saira; Sebire, Neil; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); McCarville, Mary Beth [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare neoplasm of neural crest origin. To describe three further cases of MNTI, with emphasis on CT and MRI findings. Data for children with histologically confirmed MNTI following biopsy or surgery were retrieved. Three children with available imaging at the time of diagnosis were included in the study. All three children had primary tumour in the head and neck region: one in the maxilla, one in the occipital bone (extra-axial but with intracranial extension) and one with an unusual tumour growing exophytically from the subcutaneous tissues adjacent to the occipital bone. All tumours were iso/hypointense both on T1- and T2-weighted MRI, and showed marked contrast enhancement in their non-ossified components. CT allowed identification of bone destruction and remodelling. Our findings are consistent with previously reported cases of MNTI regarding age at presentation and location in the head and neck region. Our MR findings did not demonstrate the typical pattern of T1-shortening expected from melanin deposition. (orig.)

  18. Stiripentol : in severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (dravet syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plosker, Greg L

    2012-11-01

    Stiripentol is an anticonvulsant used as adjunctive therapy with valproate and clobazam in the management of patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI; Dravet syndrome), a rare form of epilepsy that develops in the first year of life and is subsequently associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Results of a randomized, double-blind trial, in which patients (≥3 years of age) whose SMEI was inadequately controlled with valproate and clobazam received adjunctive therapy with stiripentol or placebo for 2 months, showed a significantly higher response rate in the stiripentol group compared with the placebo group (71 % vs. 5 %; p stiripentol recipients were seizure free during this period compared with none in the placebo group. Stiripentol was also statistically superior to placebo for secondary efficacy outcomes in the randomized controlled trial, which included the median number of seizures during the second month of the double-blind period and the mean percentage change from baseline in seizure frequency. These results are supported by efficacy data from other studies in patients with SMEI treated with stiripentol as adjunctive therapy, including a long-term retrospective analysis, prospectively conducted open-label studies and a meta-analysis. Drowsiness, loss of appetite and weight loss are the most frequently reported adverse events with stiripentol, and the drug inhibits various cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, potentially leading to clinically significant drug interactions. Stiripentol is an important addition to the limited treatment options available for the management of patients with SMEI.

  19. The influence of birth weight and body mass in early adulthood on early coronary heart disease risk among Danish men born in 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were retrieved from birth certificates and conscript records, respectively, were followed from 1978 until 2005 (between age 25 and 52 years) for incident fatal and non-fatal CHD. Data on CHD were obtained through record linkage to the Cause of Death Registry and the National Patient Registry. During follow-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or above. Adjustment for childhood social circumstances and educational status at age 19 had minor influence on the estimates. In conclusion, BMI in young adulthood seems to be strongly associated with the risk of CHD before age 52, and birth weight seem to modify the association. The risk estimates is highest for individuals with a combination of low birth weight and overweight in young adulthood.

  20. Comparison of CT perfusion summary maps to early diffusion-weighted images in suspected acute middle cerebral artery stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, John; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi [Hennepin County and University of Minnesota Medical Centers, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Salazar, Pascal [Vital Images, A Division of Toshiba Medical, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Jagadeesan, Bharathi; Palmer, Christopher S.; Truwit, Charles L. [Hennepin County and University of Minnesota Medical Centers, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); McKinney, Alexander M., E-mail: mckinrad@umn.edu [Hennepin County and University of Minnesota Medical Centers, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Objectives: To assess the accuracy and reliability of one vendor's (Vital Images, Toshiba Medical, Minnetonka, MN) automated CT perfusion (CTP) summary maps in identification and volume estimation of infarcted tissue in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution infarcts. Subjects and methods: From 1085 CTP examinations over 5.5 years, 43 diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-positive patients were included who underwent both CTP and DWI <12 h after symptom onset, with another 43 age-matched patients as controls (DWI-negative). Automated delay-corrected postprocessing software (DC-SVD) generated both infarct “core only” and “core + penumbra” CTP summary maps. Three reviewers independently tabulated Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scores (ASPECTS) of both CTP summary maps and coregistered DWI. Results: Of 86 included patients, 36 had DWI infarct volumes ≤70 ml, 7 had volumes >70 ml, and 43 were negative; the automated CTP “core only” map correctly classified each as >70 ml or ≤70 ml, while the “core + penumbra” map misclassified 4 as >70 ml. There were strong correlations between DWI volume with both summary map-based volumes: “core only” (r = 0.93), and “core + penumbra” (r = 0.77) (both p < 0.0001). Agreement between ASPECTS scores of infarct core on DWI with summary maps was 0.65–0.74 for “core only” map, and 0.61–0.65 for “core + penumbra” (both p < 0.0001). Using DWI-based ASPECTS scores as the standard, the accuracy of the CTP-based maps were 79.1–86.0% for the “core only” map, and 83.7–88.4% for “core + penumbra.” Conclusion: Automated CTP summary maps appear to be relatively accurate in both the detection of acute MCA distribution infarcts, and the discrimination of volumes using a 70 ml threshold.

  1. Excess body weight, liver steatosis, and early fibrosis progression due to hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierluigi Toniutto; Carlo Fabris; Claudio Avellini; Rosalba Minisini; Davide Bitetto; Elisabetta Rossi; Carlo Smirne; Mario Pirisi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate how weight gain after OLT affects the speed of fibrosis progression (SFP) during recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of the graft.METHODS: Ninety consecutive patients (63 males,median age 53 years; 55 with HCV-related liver disease),transplanted at a single institution, were studied. All were followed for at least 2 years after OLT and had at least one follow-up graft biopsy, performed not earlier than 1 year after the transplant operation. For each biopsy, a single,experienced pathologist gave an estimate of both the staging according to Ishak and the degree of hepatic steatosis.The SFP was quantified in fibrosis units/month (FU/mo).The lipid metabolism status of patients was summarized by the plasma triglycerides/cholesterol (T/C) ratio. Body mass index (BMI) was measured before OLT, and 1 and 2 years after it.RESULTS: In the HCV positive group, the highest SFP was observed in the first post-OLT year. At that time point,a SFP ≤0.100 FU/mo was observed more frequently among recipients who had received their graft from a young donor and had a pre-transplant BMI value >26.0 kg/m2. At completion of the first post-transplant year, a BMI value >26.5 kg/m2 was associated with a T/C ratio ≤1. The proportion of patients with SFP >0.100 FU/mo descended in the following order: female recipients with a high T/C ratio, male recipients with high T/C ratio, and recipients of either gender with low T/C ratio. Hepatic steatosis was observed more frequently in recipients who, in the first post-transplant year, had increased their BMI ≥1.5 kg/m2 in comparison to the pre-transplant value. Hepatic steatosis was inversely associated with the staging score.CONCLUSION: Among HCV positive recipients, excessweight gain post-OLT does not represent a factor favoring early liver fibrosis development and might even be protective against it.

  2. The nature of goal-directed action representations in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Jessica A; Upshaw, Michaela B; Loucks, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    A critical question for developmental psychologists concerns how representations in infancy are best characterized. Past and current research provides paradoxical evidence regarding the nature of early representations: in some ways, infants appear to build concrete and specific representations that guide their online perception and understanding of different events; in other ways, infants appear to possess abstract representations that support inferences regarding unseen event outcomes. Characterizing the nature of early representations across domains is a central charge for developmentalists because this task can provide important information regarding the underlying learning process or processes that drive development. Yet, little existing work has attempted to resolve this paradox by characterizing the ways in which infants' representations may have both abstract and concrete elements. The goal of this chapter is to take a close look at infants' early representations of goal-directed action in order to describe the nature of these representations. We first discuss the nature of representations of action that infants build through acting on the world and argue that these representations possess both concrete and abstract elements. On the one hand, infants appear to build representations of action that stress goal-relevant features of actions in an action- or event-specific fashion, suggesting specificity or concreteness. On the other hand, these representations are sufficiently abstract to not only drive action but also support infants' perception of others actions and to support inferences regarding unseen action outcomes. We next discuss evidence to suggest that by the end of the first year of life, infants possess increasingly abstract representations of the actions of others and use contextual cues, including linguistic statements accompanying action, to flexibly specify the level of representational specificity. We further consider the possibility that

  3. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don S. Urquhart

    2016-03-01

    Appreciate disorders of respiratory control; Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail.

  4. The influence of birth weight and body mass in early adulthood on early coronary heart disease risk among Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were......-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or above....... Adjustment for childhood social circumstances and educational status at age 19 had minor influence on the estimates. In conclusion, BMI in young adulthood seems to be strongly associated with the risk of CHD before age 52, and birth weight seem to modify the association. The risk estimates is highest...

  5. The influence of birth weight and body mass in early adulthood on early coronary heart disease risk among Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were......-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m2 or above. Adjustment...... for childhood social circumstances and educational status at age 19 had minor influence on the estimates. In conclusion, BMI in young adulthood seems to be strongly associated with the risk of CHD before age 52, and birth weight seem to modify the association. The risk estimates is highest for individuals...

  6. Adult Metabolic Syndrome and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Are Associated With Different Patterns of BMI Gain During Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H.D.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Biswas, Sushant Dey; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil; Ramji, Siddharth; Reddy, K. Srinath; Barker, David J.P.; Bhargava, Santosh K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of infant, childhood, and adolescent BMI and weight associated with adult metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We measured waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition) in 1,492 men and women aged 26–32 years in Delhi, India, whose weight and height were recorded every 6 months throughout infancy (0–2 years), childhood (2–11 years), and adolescence (11 years–adult). RESULTS—Men and women with metabolic syndrome (29% overall), any of its component features, or higher (greater than upper quartile) insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) had more rapid BMI or weight gain than the rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes) was, like metabolic syndrome, associated with rapid BMI gain in childhood and adolescence but with lower BMI in infancy. CONCLUSIONS—In this Indian population, patterns of infant BMI and weight gain differed for individuals who developed metabolic syndrome (rapid gain) compared with those who developed glucose intolerance (low infant BMI). Rapid BMI gain during childhood and adolescence was a risk factor for both disorders. PMID:18835958

  7. The association between family meals and early-adolescents' weight status change in the context of parental discipline practices: the moderating roles of ethnicity and acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the interactions among family meals, parental discipline practices, ethnicity, and acculturation on weight status change in a diverse sample of early-adolescents. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. In fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines. In fifth and eighth grade, children were weighed and measured at school. Above and beyond covariates, less acculturated Hispanic adolescents who ate more family meals and experienced low parental behavioral control in fifth grade were less likely to make a healthy change (γ = -0.15, OR = 0.86, p parental discipline practices, and healthy weight promotion are discussed in the context of ethnicity and acculturation.

  8. Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures: three patients treated with the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Roberto; Noli, Daniel; Cachia, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    We present three patients with epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures treated with the ketogenic diet. Between February 1, 2012 and January 31, 2014, three patients who met the diagnostic criteria for migrating focal seizures in infancy at our department were placed on the ketogenic diet and followed for a minimum of seven months. Two of the three children responded well to the ketogenic diet. One of these patients became seizure-free and his neuropsychological performance also significantly improved. The other child had a seizure reduction of 75% to 99% with only weekly seizures and moderate psychomotor improvement. For these two patients who responded well to the ketogenic diet, hospital admission was not required. The remaining patient had a seizure reduction of less than 50%. Tolerability of the diet was good in all three patients. Early treatment with the ketogenic diet should be considered for epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures to control seizures and status epilepticus, and avoid progressive cognitive impairment.

  9. Sleep in infancy predicts gender specific social-emotional problems in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet eSaenz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite strong evidence linking sleep to developmental outcomes, the longitudinal relationship between sleep and emotional wellbeing remains largely unknown. To address this gap in our knowledge, the current study examined sleep in infancy, measured via actigraphy, as a predictor of social-emotional problems in toddlers. A total of 47 children (29 males were included in this longitudinal study. At time one, actigraphy measures of sleep were obtained from 3- to 4-month-old infants. At time two, parents rated their 18- to 24-month-old toddler’s social-emotional wellbeing using the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment. Results indicated that boys tended to have higher levels of externalizing behaviors than did girls. Additionally, boys with longer sleep durations also showed lower sleep efficiency. In girls, sleep duration in infancy was a significant predictor of Autism Spectrum Disorder behaviors and approached significance as a predictor of externalizing problems in toddlerhood. Our findings are the first to show a relationship between sleep measured in infancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder symptomatology measured in early childhood. They suggest that the etiology of social-emotional problems may differ between genders and raise the possibility that sleep/wake cycles may be differentially related to Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms in girls and boys.

  10. Sleep in infancy predicts gender specific social-emotional problems in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Janet; Yaugher, Ashley; Alexander, Gerianne M

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong evidence linking sleep to developmental outcomes, the longitudinal relationship between sleep and emotional well-being remains largely unknown. To address this gap in our knowledge, the current study examined sleep in infancy, measured via actigraphy, as a predictor of social-emotional problems in toddlers. A total of 47 children (29 males) were included in this longitudinal study. At time one, actigraphy measures of sleep were obtained from 3- to 4-month-old infants. At time two, parents rated their 18- to 24-month-old toddler's social-emotional well-being using the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment. Results indicated that boys tended to have higher levels of externalizing behaviors than did girls. Additionally, boys with longer sleep durations also showed lower sleep efficiency. In girls, sleep duration in infancy was a significant predictor of autism spectrum disorder behaviors and approached significance as a predictor of externalizing problems in toddlerhood. Our findings are the first to show a relationship between sleep measured in infancy and autism spectrum disorder symptomatology measured in early childhood. They suggest that the etiology of social-emotional problems may differ between genders and raise the possibility that sleep/wake cycles may be differentially related to autism spectrum disorder symptoms in girls and boys.

  11. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C. M.; Panter-Brick, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  12. Potential Selection Effects when Estimating Associations Between the Infancy Peak or Adiposity Rebound and Later Body Mass Index in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Tornaritis, Michalis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:This study aims to evaluate a potential selection effect caused by exclusion of children with non-identifiable infancy peak (IP) and adiposity rebound (AR) when estimating associations between age and BMI at IP and AR and later weight status. Subjects and methods: In 4 744 children...... with at least 4 repeated measurements of height and weight in the age interval from 0 to 8 years (37 998 measurements) participating in the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study, fractional polynomial multi-level models were used to derive individual BMI trajectories. Based on these trajectories, age and BMI at IP...... for later weight status instead....

  13. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  14. Mohammad Shakeel et al 694 Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Shakeel; Munaza Shafi; Mohammad Imran; Mudasar Ahad

    2016-01-01

    Melanotic neuroec todermal tumor of infancy is a rare congenital neoplasm involving the head and neck region in young patients. A case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is pre - sented. This tumor occurred in left maxillary alveolar ridge in a 5-month-old female. The present case showed an increased urinary level of vanillylmandelic acid, confirming that the tumor is originated from neural crest. Clinical assessment, histologic diagnosis and labora...

  15. Apparent life-threatening event in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Joung

    2016-01-01

    An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as the combination of clinical presentations such as apnea, marked change in skin and muscle tone, gagging, or choking. It is a frightening event, and it predominantly occurs during infancy at a mean age of 1–3 months. The causes of ALTE are categorized into problems that are: gastrointestinal (50%), neurological (30%), respiratory (20%), cardiovascular (5%), metabolic and endocrine (2%–5%), or others such as child abuse. Up to 50% of ALTEs are idiopathic, where the cause cannot be diagnosed. Infants with an ALTE are often asymptomatic at hospital and there is no standard workup protocol for ALTE. Therefore, a detailed initial history and physical examination are important to determine the extent of the medical evaluation and treatment. Regardless of the cause of an ALTE, all infants with an ALTE should require hospitalization and continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring and evaluation for at least 24 hours. The natural course of ALTEs has seemed benign, and the outcome is generally associated with the affected infants' underlying disease. In conclusion, systemic diagnostic evaluation and adequate treatment increases the survival and quality of life for most affected infants.

  16. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometric measures in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Fei, Chunyuan; Gamborg, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent chemicals that may affect growth early in life. The authors estimated the associations between maternal plasma levels of PFOS and PFOA and infants' weight, length, and body mass index development during the first year of...

  17. Retrospective cohort study of the effects of obesity in early pregnancy on maternal weight gain and obstetric outcomes in an obstetric population in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,1 George O Ugwu,1 Frank O Ezugwu,2 Osaheni L Lawani,3 Azubuike K Onyebuchi31Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, 2Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, 3Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, NigeriaObjective: The purpose of this study was to compare maternal weight gain in pregnancy and obstetric outcomes between women with obesity in early pregnancy and those with a normal body mass index (BMI in early pregnancy.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of women with obesity in early pregnancy and those with a normal BMI who were seen at three teaching hospitals in South-East Nigeria. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 software, with descriptive and inferential statistics at the 95% level of confidence.Results: The study sample consisted of 648 women (324 obese and 324 healthy-weight. The mean age of the obese women was 26.7 ± 5.1 years and that of the healthy-weight women was 26.6 ± 4.9 years. Although both excessive weight gain (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.54 and inadequate weight gain (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04–0.15 were less common in women with early pregnancy obesity than in healthy-weight women, a significantly higher proportion of obese women with excessive weight gain had adverse fetomaternal outcomes. Also, a significantly higher proportion of obese women had specific complications, such as premature rupture of membranes (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.12–5.04, gestational hypertension/pre-eclampsia (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12–5.04, antepartum hemorrhage (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02–7.93, gestational diabetes (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.62–11.74, cesarean delivery (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2–5.44, macrosomia (OR 4.08, 95% CI 1.06–8.41, severe birth asphyxia (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6

  18. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%, while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%. Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although

  19. Radiographic and functional results in the treatment of early stages of Charcot neuroarthropathy with a walker boot and immediate weight bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Ribeiro Parisi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common gold standards for the treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN in the early Eichenholtz stages I and II is immobilization with the total contact casting and lower limb offloading. However, the total amount of offloading is still debatable. Objectives: This study evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in the treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with a walker boot and immediate total weight-bearing status. Methods: Twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and CN of Eichenholtz stages I and II were selected for non-operative treatment. All patients were educated about their condition, and full weight bearing was allowed as tolerated. Patients were monitored on a fortnightly basis in the earlier stages, with clinical examination, temperature measurement, and standardized weight-bearing radiographs. Their American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scores were determined before and after the treatment protocol. Results: No cutaneous ulcerations or infections were observed in the evaluated cases. The mean measured angles at the beginning and end of the study, although showing relative increase, did not present a statistically significant difference (p > 0.05. Mean AOFAS scores showed a statistically significant improvement by the end of the study (p < 0.005. Conclusion: The treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with emphasis on walker boot and immediate weight bearing has shown a good functional outcome, non-progressive deformity on radiographic assessment, and promising results as a safe treatment option.

  20. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  1. Low birth weight and early-life iron deficiency in piglets : Post-weaning effects on cognition, development, and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, A.

    2016-01-01

    Proper cognitive, physical and anatomical development depend on the correct orchestration of developmental processes and the factors influencing them. Complications and disturbances around birth and during early development may negatively affect development permanently. In this thesis, we studied tw

  2. Parents' education and child body weight in France: The trajectory of the gradient in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apouey, Bénédicte H; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the relationship between parental education and offspring body weight in France. Using two large datasets spanning the 1991-2010 period, we examine the existence of inequalities in maternal and paternal education and reported child body weight measures, as well as their evolution across childhood. Our empirical specification is flexible and allows this evolution to be non-monotonic. Significant inequalities are observed for both parents' education--maternal (respectively paternal) high education is associated with a 7.20 (resp. 7.10) percentage points decrease in the probability that the child is reported to be overweight or obese, on average for children of all ages. The gradient with respect to parents' education follows an inverted U-shape across childhood, meaning that the association between parental education and child body weight widens from birth to age 8, and narrows afterward. Specifically, maternal high education is correlated with a 5.30 percentage points decrease in the probability that the child is reported to be overweight or obese at age 2, but a 9.62 percentage points decrease at age 8, and a 1.25 percentage point decrease at age 17. The figures for paternal high education are respectively 5.87, 9.11, and 4.52. This pattern seems robust, since it is found in the two datasets, when alternative variables for parental education and reported child body weight are employed, and when controls for potential confounding factors are included. The findings for the trajectory of the income gradient corroborate those of the education gradient. The results may be explained by an equalization in actual body weight across socioeconomic groups during youth, or by changes in reporting styles of height and weight.

  3. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudeva, Akhila, E-mail: akhilavasudeva@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Abraham, Anu Annie, E-mail: anuannieabraham@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Kamath, Asha, E-mail: aashakamat@gmail.com [Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, A Constituent College of Manipal University (India)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th{sup ,} 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery.

  4. Treatment of malignant migrating partial epilepsy of infancy with rufinamide: report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Martina; Poduri, Annapurna; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Kluger, Gerhard; Coppola, Giangennaro; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2011-03-01

    The syndrome of malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy (MMPEI) is characterized by early onset of multiple seizures types, highly pharmaco-resistant seizures, and overall poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated retrospectively the efficacy of rufinamide (RUF) in five infants with MMPEI, by examining seizure type and frequency, EEG features and antiepileptic drug use. The data demonstrate that two of the five patients showed good efficacy and tolerability for RUF with a > 50% reduction in seizure frequency. The use of RUF for the treatment of MMPEI may therefore provide some hope for such infants and should be further validated. [Published with video sequences].

  5. Malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy controlled by stiripentol and clonazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdariu, Dana; Delanoë, Catherine; Mahfoufi, Nora; Bellavoine, Vanina; Auvin, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The syndrome of malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy (MMPSI) is characterized by early onset of multiple seizure types and overall poor prognosis. Seizures are markedly drug resistant and few reports have suggested the efficacy of some antiepileptic drugs. We report one case of MMPSI in which prolonged seizure control is obtained with an association of clonazepam, levetiracetam and stiripentol, confirming thus the possibility of complete sustained seizure control in this epileptic syndrome. Of more than 60 cases reported to date, ours is the forth in which sustained complete control of seizures was obtained.

  6. Do the early development of gestures and receptive and expressive language predict language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Lind, A; Matomäki, J; Haataja, L; Lapinleimu, H; Lehtonen, L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear what the predictive value of very early development of gestures and language is on later language ability in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight ≤1500g) children. The aim of the present study was to analyse the predictive value of early gestures and a receptive lexicon measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3, as well as the predictive value of receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0 for language skills at 5;0 in VLBW children. The subjects were 29 VLBW children and 28 full-term children whose language development has been followed intensively between the ages of 0;9 and 2;0 using the Finnish version of the MacArthur Developmental Inventory and the Reynell Developmental Language Scales (RDLS III). At 5;0, five selected verbal subtests of the Nepsy II test and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) were used to assess children's language skills. For the first time in VLBW children, the development of gestures measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3 was shown to correlate significantly and positively with language skills at 5;0. In addition, both receptive and expressive language ability measured at 2;0 correlated significantly and positively with later language skills in both groups. Moreover, according to the hierarchical regression analysis, the receptive language score of the RDLS III at 2;0 was a clear and significant predictor for language skills at 5;0 in both groups. The findings particularly underline the role of early receptive language as a significant predictor for later language ability in VLBW children. The results provide evidence for a continuity between early language development and later language skills. After reading this article, readers will understand the associations between the very early (≤2 years of age) development of gestures and language (i.e. early receptive lexicon, expressive lexicon at 2;0, receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0) and the language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born

  7. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  8. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming;

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...

  9. A randomised controlled trial of early insulin therapy in very low birth weight infants, "NIRTURE" (neonatal insulin replacement therapy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornette Luc

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in adult intensive care have highlighted the importance of insulin and improved glucose control on survival, with 32% reduction in mortality, 22% reduction in intensive care stay and halving of the incidence of bacteraemia. Very low birth weight infants requiring intensive care also have relative insulin deficiency often leading to hyperglycaemia during the first week of life. The physiological influences on insulin secretion and sensitivity, and the potential importance of glucose control at this time are not well established. However there is increasing evidence that the early postnatal period is critical for pancreatic development. At this time a complex set of signals appears to influence pancreatic development and β cell survival. This has implications both in terms of acute glucose control but also relative insulin deficiency is likely to play a role in poor postnatal growth, which has been associated with later motor and cognitive impairment, and fewer β cells are linked to risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Methods A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of early insulin replacement in very low birth weight babies (VLBW, birth weight Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78428828. EUDRACT Number 2004-002170-34

  10. Early administration of inhaled corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in very low birth weight preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vibhuti S; Ohlsson, Arne; Halliday, Henry L; Dunn, Michael

    2017-01-04

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short- and long-term effects of systemic corticosteroids. Theoretically, administration of inhaled corticosteroids may allow for beneficial effects on the pulmonary system with a lower risk of undesirable systemic side effects. To determine the impact of inhaled corticosteroids administered to preterm infants with birth weight up to 1500 grams (VLBW) beginning in the first two weeks after birth for the prevention of CLD as reflected by the requirement for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library (searched 5 January 2016), MEDLINE (1966 to 5 January 2016), Embase (1980 to 5 January 2016), CINAHL (1982 to 5 January 2016), reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research or electronically on the Pediatric Academic Societies web-site (1990 to May 2016). We included in this review randomised controlled trials of inhaled corticosteroid therapy initiated within the first two weeks of life in VLBW preterm infants. We evaluated data regarding clinical outcomes, including: CLD at 28 days or 36 weeks' PMA; mortality; combined outcome of death or CLD at 28 days of age and at 36 weeks' PMA; the need for systemic corticosteroids; failure to extubate within 14 days; and adverse effects of corticosteroids. All data were analysed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5. Meta-analyses were performed using relative risk (RR) and risk difference (RD), along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). If RD was significant, the number needed to treat for

  11. First detected Helicobacter pylori infection in infancy modifies the association between diarrheal disease and childhood growth in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    WINDLE, HENRY

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In endemic settings, Helicobacter pylori infection can occur shortly after birth and may be associated with a reduction in childhood growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated what factors promote earlier age of first H. pylori infection and evaluated the role of H. pylori infection in infancy (6-11 months) versus early childhood (12-23 months) on height. We included 183 children near birth from a peri-urban shanty town outside of Lima, Peru. Field-workers c...

  12. First detected Helicobacter pylori infection in infancy modifies the association between diarrheal disease and childhood growth in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaganath, D; Saito, M; Gilman, RH; Queiroz, DM; Rocha, GA; Cama, V; Cabrera, L; Kelleher, D; Windle, HJ; Crabtree, JE; Checkley, W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In endemic settings, Helicobacter pylori infection can occur shortly after birth and may be associated with a reduction in childhood growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated what factors promote earlier age of first H. pylori infection and evaluated the role of H. pylori infection in infancy (6-11 months) versus early childhood (12-23 months) on height. We included 183 children near birth from a peri-urban shanty town outside of Lima, Peru. Field-workers collected da...

  13. Primitive Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumor of Infancy Involving Chest Wall in an Infant: A Case Report and Clinicopathologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer H; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; John Hicks, M; Schady, Deborah; Chintagumpala, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (PMMTI) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of early childhood characterized by aggressive local infiltration of surrounding structures, rare metastases, and poor response to chemotherapy. Surgery alone appears to be the most effective treatment given the lack of predilection for metastasis and poor response to traditional chemotherapy. Below we report a patient with PMMTI successfully managed with surgery and observation and summarize the existing literature on histopathologic features and treatment of this lesion.

  14. A New Early Warning Index Selection and Weight Assignment Method for Urban Significant Emergency in Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiansheng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex real-life environment, many index values of urban emergency are easily expressed by fuzzy linguistic terms. In this study, we present a new weight assignment approach for the selected warning indexes of urban emergency by using extended fuzzy AHP and the urgent decision-making approach for uncertain urban emergency is then presented. By ranking of the aggregation values of all the warning indexes of urban emergency, we can order the severity of each urban emergency and select the most severe urban emergency. Finally, a numeric example is given to illustrate the application of the presented fuzzy warning index weighting method to the urgent decision-making for uncertain urban emergency involving fuzzy evaluation value.

  15. Associations of Linear Growth and Relative Weight Gain in Early Life with Human Capital at 30 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Victora, Cesar G; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Barros, Fernando C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the associations of birthweight, nutritional status and growth in childhood with IQ, years of schooling, and monthly income at 30 years of age. In 1982, the 5 maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Brazil, were visited daily and 5914 live births were identified. At 30 years of age, 3701 subjects were interviewed. IQ, years of schooling, and income were measured. On average, their IQ was 98 points, they had 11.4 years of schooling, and the mean income was 1593 reais. After controlling for several confounders, birthweight and attained weight and length/height for age at 2 and 4 years of age were associated positively with IQ, years of years of schooling, and income, except for the association between length at 2 years of age and income. Conditional growth analyses were used to disentangle linear growth from relative weight gain. Conditional length at 2 years of age ≥1 SD score above the expected value, compared with ≥1 SD below the expected, was associated with an increase in IQ (4.28 points; 95% CI, 2.66-5.90), years of schooling (1.58 years; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08), and monthly income (303 Brazilian reais; 95% CI, 44-563). Relative weight gain, above what would be expected from linear growth, was not associated with the outcomes. In a middle-income setting, promotion of linear growth in the first 1000 days of life is likely to increase adult IQ, years of schooling, and income. Weight gain in excess of what is expected from linear growth does not seem to improve human capital. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry...... with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also...... characteristics had been traced manually in 1965. This population was followed up from April 1968 to January 2002 for information on mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and violent deaths. RESULTS: Men whose fathers were working class or of unknown social class...

  17. Age and weight at final discharge from an early discharge programme for stable but tube-fed preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt, A M; Stanchev, H.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Preterm birth is often associated with prolonged hospitalisation, complicating the parent-child relationship and breastfeeding rates. As a result, an early discharge programme was implemented in the department of neonatology at Rigshospitalet. The infants were stable, but required tube feeding...

  18. Clostridium difficile colonization and/or infection during infancy and the risk of childhood allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Gong, Yun Na; Ryoo, Eell

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota can influence several diseases through immune modulation; however, the exact role of microbes such as Clostridium difficileand the relationship between microbiota colonization and allergic diseases are not well known. This study aimed to determine the relationship between C. difficilecolonization and/or infection (CDCI) during infancy and allergic diseases during early childhood. Infants 1-12 months of age presenting changes in bowel habits for more than 2 weeks were enrolled in this study. After dividing them into 2 groups according to the presence and absence of C. difficile, the risk of allergic disease development during childhood was identified and compared. Sixty-five patients were included in this study; 22 (33.8%) were diagnosed with CDCI. No significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics between the C. difficile-positive and -negative groups except for antibiotic exposure (22.7% vs. 60.5%, P=0.004). Compared to the C. difficile-negative group, the risk of developing at least one allergic disease was higher in the C. difficile-positive group after adjusting other variables (adjusted odds ratios, 5.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-20.74; P=0.007). Furthermore, food allergies were more prevalent in the C. difficile-positive group (P=0.03). CDCI during infancy were associated with a higher risk of developing allergic diseases during early childhood. These results suggest that CDCI during infancy might reflect the reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiota, which is associated with an increased risk of allergic sensitization. To identify the underlying mechanism, further investigation and a larger cohort study will be needed.

  19. Determination of Intestinal Enzyme Activities During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Örün

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal enzyme activities are indirect indicators that reflect the existence and metabolic activity of bacteria living in the intestinal flora. The purpose of the study was to measure fecal beta (β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase and urease enzyme activities and to determine the factors that affect levels in 6 week old and 8 month old babies. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 100 healthy infants at 6 weeks of age. Feces samples were collected from all infants. However, 17 of the feces samples were not included due to the lack of particles in the feces. The same samples were also taken from 35 infants at 8 months of age. Twenty-five of the infants had given feces samples at both 6 weeks and 8 months of age. Urease, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzyme activities (nmol/min-1/mg-protein-1 were measured. Results: In repeated measures, the levels of β-glucuronidase and urease declined over time and β-glucosidase levels increased. At 8 months of age, higher β-glucuronidase levels were obtained in premature infants. At 6 weeks of age, lower levels of urease were measured in babies who were started breastfeeding at the first hour of life and were bottle-fed. Exclusive breastfeeding had no influence on the intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusions: In early infancy period when microflora is structured, intestinal enzyme activities are important that show indirectly functionality of the microflora. However, it is difficult to highlight what affects the levels of intestinal enzymes because activities vary according to the age.

  20. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…

  1. Early prediction of anticancer effects with diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with colorectal liver metastases following selective internal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudeck, Oliver; Zeile, Martin; Wybranski, Christian; Schulmeister, Alice; Fischbach, Frank; Pech, Maciej; Wieners, Gero; Ruehl, Ricarda; Grosser, Oliver; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    To prospectively evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for early prediction of tumour response in patients with colorectal liver metastases following selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT). We evaluated 41 metastases in 21 patients, age 62.9 {+-} 9.9 years. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including breath-hold echoplanar DWI sequences. Imaging was performed before therapy (baseline MRI), 2 days after SIRT (early MRI) as well as 6 weeks later (follow-up MRI). Tumour volume (TV) and intratumoural apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured independently by two radiologists at all time points. Metastases were categorised as responding lesions (RL; n = 33) or non-responding lesions (NRL; n = 8) according to changes in TV after 6 weeks. We found an inverse correlation of changes in TV and ADC at follow-up MRI with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = -0.66 (p < 0.0001). On early MRI, no significant changes in TV were found for either RL or NRL. Conversely, ADC decreased significantly in RL by 10.7 {+-} 8.4% (p < 0.0001). ADC increased in NRL by 9.6 {+-} 20.8%, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.40). DWI was capable of predicting therapy effects of SIRT in patients with colorectal hepatic metastases as early as 2 days following treatment. (orig.)

  2. Ultrasound and MR imaging of fibromatosis colli (sternomastoid tumor of infancy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablin, D.S.; Jain, K. [Department of Radiology, University of California, Sacramento, CA (United States); Howell, L. [Department of Pathology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); West, D.C. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The sonographic and CT findings of fibromatosis colli (sternomastoid tumor of infancy) have been described, but the MRI appearance has been reported in only one case in which the mass resolved over time. This case describes the detailed MRI findings in a biopsy-proven case of fibromatosis colli; the signal intensity of the mass on T2-weighted images was slightly less than on gradient-recalled T1-weighted images, consistent with the presence of some fibrous tissue within the muscle mass. The involved portion of the muscle was better defined on MRI than sonography. MRI was helpful in demonstrating the signal characteristics of the mass; localizing the mass to within the sternocleidomastoid muscle; and demonstrating clear surrounding fascial planes with lack of associated lymphadenopathy, airway compression, vascular encasement, bone involvement or intracranial/intraspinal extension associated with other neck masses. (orig.) With 3 figs., 6 refs.

  3. Clinical and Microbiologic Characteristics of Early-onset Sepsis Among Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Opportunities for Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M

    2017-05-01

    Most very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight onset sepsis (EOS). The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of VLBW infants with culture-confirmed EOS at a single center during 25 years and to identify opportunities for antibiotic stewardship. Retrospective cohort study includes VLBW infants admitted from 1990 to 2015. EOS was defined as isolation of a pathogen in blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture obtained at labor, preterm rupture of membranes and/or the obstetrical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis were present in 106/109 cases (97%). Obligate anaerobic organisms accounted for 16% of cases. Time to culture positivity was 36 hours for 88% and 48 hours for 98% of cases. From 1999 to 2013, 97% of VLBW infants were evaluated for EOS and 90% administered empiric antibiotics; 22% of these infants were born by cesarean section to mothers with preeclampsia and without preterm labor or chorioamnionitis and had a 12-fold lower incidence of EOS compared with the remaining infants. Decisions to initiate and discontinue empiric antibiotics among VLBW infants can be informed by the delivery characteristics of infected infants and by local microbiologic data.

  4. Socioeconomic status and the growth of intelligence from infancy through adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) children perform on average worse on intelligence tests than children from higher SES backgrounds, but the developmental relationship between intelligence and SES has not been adequately investigated. Here, we use latent growth curve (LGC) models to assess associations between SES and individual differences in the intelligence starting point (intercept) and in the rate and direction of change in scores (slope and quadratic term) from infancy through adolescence in 14,853 children from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), assessed 9 times on IQ between the ages of 2 and 16 years. SES was significantly associated with intelligence growth factors: higher SES was related both to a higher starting point in infancy and to greater gains in intelligence over time. Specifically, children from low SES families scored on average 6 IQ points lower at age 2 than children from high SES backgrounds; by age 16, this difference had almost tripled. Although these key results did not vary across girls and boys, we observed gender differences in the development of intelligence in early childhood. Overall, SES was shown to be associated with individual differences in intercepts as well as slopes of intelligence. However, this finding does not warrant causal interpretations of the relationship between SES and the development of intelligence. PMID:26640306

  5. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  6. Obesity and excess weight in early adulthood and high risks of arsenic-related cancer in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Castriota, Felicia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Meza, Rodrigo; Calcagno, Sergio; Uauy, Ricardo; Smith, Martyn T

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases. Inflammation or oxidative stress induced by high BMI may explain some of these effects. Millions of people drink arsenic-contaminated water worldwide, and ingested arsenic has also been associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cancer. To assess the unique situation of people living in northern Chile exposed to high arsenic concentrations in drinking water and investigate interactions between arsenic and BMI, and associations with lung and bladder cancer risks. Information on self-reported body mass index (BMI) at various life stages, smoking, diet, and lifetime arsenic exposure was collected from 532 cancer cases and 634 population-based controls. In subjects with BMIs lung and bladder cancer combined for arsenic concentrations of 800 µg/L were 1.00, 1.64 (95% CI, 1.19-2.27), and 3.12 (2.30-4.22). In subjects with BMIs ≥90th percentile in early adulthood, the corresponding ORs were higher: 1.00, 1.84 (0.75-4.52), and 9.37 (2.88-30.53), respectively (synergy index=4.05, 95% CI, 1.27-12.88). Arsenic-related cancer ORs >20 were seen in those with elevated BMIs in both early adulthood and in later life. Adjustments for smoking, diet, and other factors had little impact. These findings provide novel preliminary evidence supporting the notion that environmentally-related cancer risks may be markedly increased in people with elevated BMIs, especially in those with an elevated BMI in early-life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EFFECT OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND FILM THICKNESS ON THE CRYSTALLIZATION AND MICROPHASE SEPARATION IN POLYSTYRENE BLOCK-POLY(L-LACTIC ACID) THIN FILMS AT THE EARLY STAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-han Wei; Cai-yuan Pan; Bin-yao Li; Xin-hong Yu; Yan-chun Han

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of molecular weight and film thickness on the crystallization and microphase separation in semicrystalline block copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(L-lactic acid) (PS-b-PLLA) thin films, at the early stage of film evolution (when Ts < T < TODT) by in situ hot stage atomic force microscopy. For PS-b-PLLA 1 copolymer which had lower molecular weight and higher PLLA fraction, diffusion-controlled break-out crystallization started easily.For PS-b-PLLA 2 with higher molecular weight, crystallization in nanometer scales occurs in local area. After melting of the two copolymer films, islands were observed at the film surface: PS-b-PLLA 1 film was in a disordered phase mixed state while PS-b-PLLA 2 film formed phase-separated lamellar structure paralleling to the substratc. Crystallization-melting and van der Waals forces drove the island formation in PS-b-PLLA 1 film. Film thickness affected the crystallization rate. Crystals grew very slowly in much thinner film ofPS-b-PLLA 1 and remained almost unchanged at long time annealing. The incompatibility between PS and PLLA blocks drove the film fluctuation which subsequently evolved into spinodal-like morphology.

  8. Value of diffusion weighted MR imaging as an early surrogate parameter for evaluation of tumor response to high-dose-rate brachytherapy of colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI as an early surrogate parameter for treatment response of colorectal liver metastases to image-guided single-fraction 192Ir-high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT. Methods Thirty patients with a total of 43 metastases underwent CT- or MRI-guided HDR-BT. In 13 of these patients a total of 15 additional lesions were identified, which were not treated at the initial session and served for comparison. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI including breathhold echoplanar DWI sequences was performed prior to therapy (baseline MRI, 2 days after HDR-BT (early MRI as well as after 3 months (follow-up MRI. Tumor volume (TV and intratumoral apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC were measured independently by two radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate comparison, ANOVA and paired t test as well as Pearson's correlation. Results At early MRI no changes of TV and ADC were found for non-treated colorectal liver metastases. In contrast, mean TV of liver lesions treated with HDR-BT increased by 8.8% (p = 0.054 while mean tumor ADC decreased significantly by 11.4% (p p = 0.027 without significant change of mean ADC values. In contrast, mean TV of treated lesions decreased by 47.0% (p = 0.026 while the mean ADC increased inversely by 28.6% compared to baseline values (p Conclusions DWI is a promising imaging biomarker for early prediction of tumor response in patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with HDR-BT, yet the optimal interval between therapy and early follow-up needs to be elucidated.

  9. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  10. Pilot study of a new mathematical algorithm for early detection of late-onset sepsis in very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ilan; Riskin, Arieh; Markel, Gal; Bader, David; Nave, Yaron; Barzilay, Bernard; Eyal, Fabien G; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of late onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants relies mainly on clinical suspicion, whereas prognosis depends on early initiation of antibiotic treatment. RALIS is a mathematical algorithm for early detection of LOS incorporating six vital signs measured every 2 hours. The aim of this study is to study RALIS ability to detect LOS before clinical suspicion. A total of 118 VLBW preterm infants (gestational age detection of LOS between RALIS and clinical/culture evidence of LOS. Of the 2,174 monitoring days, RALIS indicated sepsis in 590 days, and LOS was positively diagnosed in 229 days. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were 74.6, 80.7, 38.8, and 95.1%, respectively. RALIS provided an indication for sepsis 3 days on the average before clinical suspicion. RALIS has a promising potential as an easy to implement noninvasive early indicator of LOS, especially for ruling out LOS in VLBW high-risk infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Weight, height and body mass index nomograms; early adiposity rebound in a sample of children in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing growth is a useful tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. The objective of this study was to construct growth reference curves of Iranian infants and children (0-6 years old and compare them with previous and international references. Methods: Weight, height or length of 2107 Iranian infants and children aged 0-6 years old were measured using a cross-sectional survey in Tehran in 2010. Standard smooth reference curves for Iranian population were constructed and compared to multinational World Health Organization 2006 reference standards as well as a previous study from two decades ago. Results: Growth index references for Iranian girls are increased in compare to data from two decades ago and are approximately close to the international references. In boys; however, the increment was considerably large as it passed the international references. Not only the values for indexes was changed during two decades, but also the age at adiposity rebound came near the age of 3, which is an important risk factor for later obesity. Conclusions: During two decades, growth indexes of Iranian children raised noticeable. Risk factors for later obesity are now apparent and demand immediate policy formulations. In addition, reference curves presented in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring growth of Iranian children.

  12. Chronic fructose intoxication after infancy in children with hereditary fructose intolerance. A cause of growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, D M; Perman, J A; Thaler, M; Morris, R C

    1983-09-29

    In two unrelated boys, 5.3 and 3.8 years of age with hereditary fructose intolerance, apparently isolated growth retardation (-2.71 S.D. and -2.40 S.D.) occurred after infancy, even though acute symptomatic fructose intoxication was prevented by restriction of dietary fructose. When more stringent restriction of dietary fructose was instituted (approximately 40 mg per kilogram of body weight per day), growth velocity increased from the 25th to the 97th percentile in one child and from well below the 3d to above the 75th percentile in the other. When restriction of dietary fructose was experimentally relaxed (from 10 to 250 mg per kilogram per day), neither boy had symptoms, hypoglycemia, or evidence of hepatic or renal dysfunction, but both had sustained hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria and increases in the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of magnesium. We conclude that in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, clinically important chronic fructose intoxication can occur after infancy without causing symptoms of acute fructose intoxication and can be expressed as an apparently isolated, reversible retardation of somatic growth with a continuing disorder of adenine nucleotide metabolism, characterized in part by recurrently increased rates of degradation of adenine nucleotides.

  13. Influence of gut microbiota on immunological maturation in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    Maturation and function of the immune system is highly influenced by the establishment of the microbiota in the gut, which in turn, particularly in infancy, is influenced by factors such as maternal microbiota and the environment, including diet. Studies have shown that although lymph nodes...

  14. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  15. Methylprednisolone therapy in acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risikesan, Jeyanthini; Koppelhus, Uffe; Steiniche, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of an 18-month-old boy who showed severe clinical signs indicative of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI) with painful purpuric skin affection primarily of the face and marked edema of the ears. The histological findings were diagnostic for leukocytoclastic vasculitis...

  16. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children.

  17. Clinical and electroencephalographic polymorphism of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kholin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy (MMPSI are a rare epileptic syndrome that occurs in the first 6 months of life and is characterized by multiple continuous electroencephalographic and electroclinical focal ictal patterns with involvement of different independent areas of both hemispheres and with arrested psychomotor development. Is proposed the definition of this epileptic syndrome as: «malignant epilepsy of infancy with migrating multifocal seizures» or «Coppola-Dulac syndrome». The paper describes an observation of 19 MMPSI patients examined and treated at Departament of Psychoneurology №2, Russian Children Clinical Hospital. Video-EEG monitoring showed that all the patients had very frequent and polymorphous seizures — at least 5 types in every child with ictal patterns originating from different areas of both hemispheres. The infants with MMPSI were found to have 4 subtypes of the syndrome: (1 a classicform with drug-resistant migrating status epilepticus (SE of migrating multifocal seizures and with absolutely poor prognosis (n = 7; (2 a severe mixed form (MMPSI + early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME with a combination of electroclinical characteristics of MMPSI with migrating multifocal SE and EME with chaotic erratic myoclonus and a suppression-burst pattern with diffuse polyspikewaves on EEG (n = 5; (3 a moderate type with reverse evolution to monofocal or multifocal epilepsy with a decrease in seizure frequency and better prognosis of life and psychomotor development (n = 5; (4 a subtle form manifesting itself as slightly identified minimal motor and inhibitory seizures, subclinical migrating multifocal SE pattern on EEG, multiple partial awakenings during sleep due to ictal patterns, and as severely delayed psychomotor development (n = 2. MMPSI is a severe form of SE in infancy with high drug resistance. At the same time, only the injection form of valproate (convulex could stabilize progressive worsening

  18. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, L L; Soede, N M; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Graat, E A M; Feitsma, H; Kemp, B

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to 32 after the first insemination, sows were fed either 2.5 kg/d of a standard gestation diet (control, n = 49), 3.25 kg/d (+30%) of a standard gestation diet (plus feed, n = 47), or 2.5 kg/d of a gestation diet with 30% greater ileal digestible AA (plus protein, n = 49). Feed intake during the experimental period was 29% greater for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (93 vs. 72 kg, P Sows in the plus feed group gained 10 kg more BW during the experimental period compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (24.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.5 ± 1.2 and 16.9 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, P sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (76.6% vs. 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively, P = 0.16). Litter size, however, was larger for sows in the plus feed group (15.2 ± 0.5 total born) compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (13.2 ± 0.4 and 13.6 ± 0.4 total born, respectively, P = 0.006). Piglet birth weight was not different among treatments (P = 0.65). For both first- and second-parity sows, the plus feed treatment showed similar effects on BW gain, farrowing rate, and litter size. In conclusion, an increased feed intake (+30%) during the first month of gestation improved sow BW recovery and increased litter size, but did not significantly affect farrowing rate in the subsequent parity. Feeding a 30% greater level of ileal digestible AA during the same period did not improve sow recovery or reproductive performance in the subsequent parity.

  19. Anaemia in infancy in rural Bangladesh: contribution of iron deficiency, infections and poor feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Kennedy, Andrew; Rohner, Fabian; Ruel, Marie; Menon, Purnima

    2014-01-14

    Few data exist on the aetiology of anaemia and Fe deficiency (ID) during early infancy in South Asia. The present study aimed to determine the contribution of ID, infections and feeding practices to anaemia in Bangladeshi infants aged 6-11 months. Baseline data from 1600 infants recruited into a cluster-randomised trial testing the effectiveness of micronutrient powder sales by frontline health workers on the prevalence of anaemia were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for anaemia and ID, and population attributable fractions (PAF) were computed to estimate the proportion of anaemia that might be prevented by the elimination of individual risk factors. It was found that 68 % of the infants were anaemic, 56 % were Fe deficient, and one-third had evidence of subclinical infections. The prevalence of anaemia and ID increased rapidly, until 8-9 months of age, while that of subclinical infections was constant. ID (adjusted OR (AOR) 2·6-5·0; Panaemia, in addition to age and male sex. Similarly, subclinical infections, age and male sex were significant risk factors for ID. Previous-day consumption of Fe-rich foods was very low and not associated with anaemia or ID. The PAF of anaemia attributable to ID was 67 % (95 % CI 62, 71) and that of subclinical infections was 16 % (95 % CI 11, 20). These results suggest that a multipronged strategy that combines improvements in dietary Fe intake alongside infection control strategies is needed to prevent anaemia during infancy in Bangladesh.

  20. A review on the genetic, environmental, and lifestyle aspects of the early-life origins of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2014-03-01

    This article is a comprehensive review on developmental origins of health and disease regarding various factors related to the origins of cardiovascular diseases from early life. It presents a summary of the impacts of various factors such as epigenetics; gene-environment interaction; ethnic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and their underlying risk factors; prenatal factors; fetal programming; maternal weight status and weight gain during pregnancy; type of feeding during infancy; growth pattern during childhood; obesity; stunting; socioeconomic status; dietary and physical activity habits; active, secondhand, and thirdhand smoking, as well as environmental factors including air pollution and global climate change on the development and progress of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The importance of early identification of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases for primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases from early life is highlighted.

  1. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in Your Own Skin Your Weight Loss Expectations & Goals Healthier Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT ...

  2. Kawasaki Disease and Peripheral Gangrene in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Iran; Ziaee, Vahid; Sadrosadat, Taravat; Moardinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Sayadpour-Zanjani, Keyhan

    2015-12-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease as the most common cause of acquired heart disease in childhood, may significantly improve the prognosis. Diagnosing infantile Kawasaki (younger than a year) is difficult because of obscure symptoms; at the same time they are at the higher risk of coronary abnormalities. We report three infants with prolonged (more than 5 days) fever and peripheral gangrene without any other clinical manifestations of Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki was diagnosed due to dilation of coronary artery and other aortic branches, thrombocytosis, and rising of ESR and CRP. All patients were treated with high dose aspirin, IVIG and pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. Additionally, cytotoxic drugs or infliximab were used for two of them because of severe aneurysms in the aortic branches. All 3 patients received aspirin with anti-platelet aggregation dose and 2 patients heparin as an anti-coagulant agent for longtime. After adequate treatment, peripheral gangrene, arterial dilations and aneurysms improved, but during 12 months follow-up coronary aneurysms did not improve completely. Peripheral gangrene must be regarded as an important sign of infantile Kawasaki disease early treatment of which can prevent severe permanent coronary involvements and sequels.

  3. Feeding frequency in infancy and dental caries in childhood: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues, Priscila Humbert; de Anastácio, Gislaine; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2017-09-03

    Feeding patterns in infancy are plausible contributors to dental caries later in childhood, yet relatively few cohort studies have examined potential dietary risk factors at this age. This study aimed to investigate the associations between feeding frequency at age 12 months and caries prevalence at age 3 years. In this prospective birth cohort of 345 Brazilian children, all foods and drinks consumed at age 12 months, including bottle-use and breastfeeding, were recorded using two 24-hour infant dietary recalls with mothers. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC) at age 38 months were compared in groups defined according to 12-month feeding frequency, using regression models to adjust for sociodemographic characteristics and total carbohydrate intake. Independent of other variables, compared with children with infrequent bottle-use and breastfeeding at 12 months, at 38 months the ECC prevalence was 1.8-times higher in children breastfed more than three times/day (P = 0.001), 1.4-times higher in children bottle-fed more than three times/day (P = 0.07) and 1.5-times higher with combined high frequency of bottle and breastfeeding together (P = 0.04), but the association with consumption of other foods or drinks more than five times/day [risk ratio (RR) = 1.2; P = 0.10] was not statistically significant. Prevalence of S-ECC was significantly associated with frequent breastfeeding (RR = 2.4; P < 0.001) and with greater frequency of consumption of other foods or drinks (RR = 1.7, P = 0.001). High-frequency feeding in late infancy, including both bottle use and breastfeeding, were positively associated with dental caries in early childhood, suggesting possible early-life targets for caries prevention. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of metastatic abdominal and pelvic tumours is sensitive to early changes induced by a VEGF inhibitor using alternative diffusion attenuation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Matthew R. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Messiou, Christina; DeSouza, Nandita [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Collins, David; Leach, Martin O. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, Veronica A. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Tessier, Jean; Young, Helen [Early Clinical Development, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the utility of diffusion weighted imaging for monitoring early treatment effects associated with a VEGF inhibitor. Twenty-nine patients with metastatic abdominal and pelvic tumours were recruited and imaged with DW-MRI: twice at baseline, and after 7 and 28 days of treatment with cediranib. Tumour measures were derived using mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched-exponential models, and parameter repeatability and treatment effects seen after 7 and 28 days were assessed. Correlations with volume changes and DCE-MRI metrics were also assessed. Diffusion coefficient repeatabilities from all models were < 6 %; f and D* (bi-exponential) were 22 % and 44 %; α (stretched-exponential) was 4.2 %. Significant increases in the diffusion coefficients from all models were observed at day 28 but not day 7. Significant decreases in D* and f.D* were observed at day 7 and in f at day 28; significant increases in α were observed at both time-points. Weak correlations between DW-MRI changes and volume changes and DCE-MRI changes were observed. DW-MRI is sensitive to early and late treatment changes caused by a VEGF inhibitor using non-mono-exponential models. Evidence of over-fitting using the bi-exponential model suggests that the stretched-exponential model is best suited to monitor such changes. (orig.)

  5. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    % primiparous cows. The cows were divided into 2 feeding strategies: half of the cows received a high-energy density diet (HD) in early lactation followed by a lower-energy density diet (LD; strategy HD-LD). The change in diet was defined individually after 42 d of lactation, and when the live weight (LW) gain...... of the cow was ≥0 based on a 5-d average. The other half of the cows were fed the LD diet during the entire lactation (strategy LD-LD). Both groups received 3 kg of concentrates per day during milking. Weekly milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cells), daily milk production, daily feed...... and treatment effects using a linear mixed-effects model. The HD-LD and LD-LD cows had a similar length of lactation (461 ± 7 d). The HD diet reduced the intensity of the mobilization period and increased the milk production of the multiparous cows in early lactation compared with the cows fed the LD diet...

  6. Association of Weight Loss and Medication Adherence Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, Susan; Fox, Kathleen M; Hardy, Elise

    2013-12-01

    Adherence to prescribed diabetes medications is suboptimal, which can lead to poor glycemic control and diabetic complications. Treatment-related weight gain is a side effect of some oral antidiabetic agents and insulin, which may negatively affect adherence to therapy. This study investigated whether adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who lost weight had better medication adherence than those who gained weight. Weight change over 1 year (2007 to 2008) was assessed among respondents in the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). Weight loss of >1.0%, ≥3%, and ≥5% of weight was compared with weight gain of ≥1.0%. Medication adherence was assessed using the Morisky 4-item questionnaire for medication-taking behavior, with lower scores representing better adherence. There were 746 T2DM respondents who lost >1.0%, 483 who lost ≥3%, 310 who lost ≥5%, and 670 who gained ≥1.0% of weight. Each weight-loss group had significantly lower Morisky scores than the weight-gain group; mean scores of 0.389 versus 0.473 (P = 0.050) for the >1.0% weight-loss group, 0.365 versus 0.473 (P = 0.026) for the ≥3% weight-loss group, and 0.334 versus 0.473 (P = 0.014) for the ≥5% weight-loss group. Significantly fewer respondents who lost weight had received insulin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione therapy (57%) compared with respondents who gained weight (64%) (P = 0.002). Demographics, exercise habits, and dieting were similar between weight-loss and weight-gain groups. T2DM respondents with weight loss had significantly better medication adherence and were less likely to be on treatment regimens that increase weight than T2DM respondents with weight gain. These findings suggest that strategies that lead to weight loss, including use of diabetes medications associated with weight loss, may improve medication adherence.

  7. Quantification of synovitis in the cranio-cervical region: Dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis-A feasibility follow up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeromel, M., E-mail: miran.jeromel@gmail.com [Institute of Radiology, Department for Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jevtic, V., E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si [Medical Faculty Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1104 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sersa, I., E-mail: igor.sersa@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ambrozic, A., E-mail: ales.ambrozic@mf.uni-lj.si [Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Vodnikova 62, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomsic, M., E-mail: matija.tomsic@kclj.si [Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Vodnikova 62, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To test the feasibility of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCEI) and diffusion weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying synovitis of the cranio-cervical (C-C) region in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and neck pain at the beginning and at a six month follow up. Methods: 27 patients with duration of RA of less than 24 months and neck pain were studied with standard qualitative MRI evaluation and two quantitative MRI methods (DCEI and DWI) at the level of atlantoaxial joints. Rate of early enhancement (REE), enhancement gradient (Genh) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were extracted from DCEI and DWI data. MRI was coupled with clinical assessment and radiographic imaging. Results: Using standard qualitative MRI evaluation, unequivocal active synovitis (grade 2 or 3 contrast enhancement) was proved in 16 (59%) patients at baseline and 14 (54%) at follow up. DCEI and DWI measurements confirmed active synovitis in 25 (93%) patients at baseline and 24 (92%) at follow up. Average REE, Genh and ADC values decreased during follow up, however the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Both qualitative and quantitative MRI methods confirmed active inflammatory disease in the C-C region following therapy although all clinical criteria showed signs of improvement of the peripheral disease. Conclusions: The study proved the feasibility of DCEI and DWI MRI for quantifying synovitis of the C-C region in patients with early RA and neck pain. Both techniques can be used as additional method for evaluation of synovitis of the C-C region in RA.

  8. Changes in low-molecular-weight thiol-disulphide redox couples are part of bread wheat seed germination and early seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerna, Davide; Roach, Thomas; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Wagner, Johanna; Vaccino, Patrizia; Limonta, Margherita; Kranner, Ilse

    2017-06-01

    The tripeptide antioxidant glutathione (γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) essentially contributes to thiol-disulphide conversions, which are involved in the control of seed development, germination, and seedling establishment. However, the relative contribution of GSH metabolism in different seed structures is not fully understood. We studied the GSH/glutathione disulphide (GSSG) redox couple and associated low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols and disulphides related to GSH metabolism in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds, focussing on redox changes in the embryo and endosperm during germination. In dry seeds, GSH was the predominant LMW thiol and, 15 h after the onset of imbibition, embryos of non-germinated seeds contained 12 times more LMW thiols than the endosperm. In germinated seeds, the embryo contained 17 and 11 times more LMW thiols than the endosperm after 15 and 48 h, respectively. This resulted in the embryo having significantly more reducing half-cell reduction potentials of GSH/GSSG and cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS) redox couples (EGSSG/2GSH and ECySS/2Cys, respectively). Upon seed germination and early seedling growth, Cys and CySS concentrations significantly increased in both embryo and endosperm, progressively contributing to the cellular LMW thiol-disulphide redox environment (Ethiol-disulphide). The changes in ECySS/2Cys could be related to the mobilisation of storage proteins in the endosperm during early seedling growth. We suggest that EGSSG/2GSH and ECySS/2Cys can be used as markers of the physiological and developmental stage of embryo and endosperm. We also present a model of interaction between LMW thiols and disulphides with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in redox regulation of bread wheat germination and early seedling growth.

  9. The emergence of intention attribution in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda L.; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Gerson, Sarah; Henderson, Annette M. E.; Buresh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Perception of the social world in terms of agents and their intentional relations is fundamental to human experience. In this chapter, we review recent investigations into the origins of this fundamental ability that trace its roots to the first year of life. These studies show that infants represent others’ actions not as purely physical motions, but rather as actions directed at goals and objects of attention. Infants are able to recover intentional relations at varying levels of analysis, including concrete action goals, higher-order plans, acts of attention, and collaborative goals. There is mounting evidence that these early competencies are strongly influenced by infants’ own experience as intentional agents. Action experience shapes infants’ action perception. PMID:24771952

  10. Vitamin K deficiency and hemorrhage in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, F R

    1995-09-01

    Hemorrhage in the infant from vitamin K deficiency is still a concern in pediatrics. Vitamin K given intramuscularly will largely prevent hemorrhagic disease in the newborn, even in infants who are exclusively breast-fed and are thus at the greatest risk for bleeding. The vitamin K content of human milk is very low compared with standard infant formulas. Results with oral vitamin K prophylaxis, currently used in some countries following the association found in a single report between childhood cancer and intramuscular vitamin K, are far more controversial. Any role of vitamin K in the prevention of IVH in premature infants has not been sufficiently demonstrated. Ongoing developments in this field will lead to improved methods of detecting early vitamin K deficiency and perhaps suitable alternatives to intramuscular vitamin K prophylaxis in the newborn.

  11. Forms of vitality play in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Martínez, Mauricio; Bordoni, Mariana; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we report a qualitative study based on the constant comparative method to initiate the systematic study of forms of vitality play. This is an unnoticed non-figurative play frame linked to early social play and temporal arts in which child and adult elaborate the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form. In the introduction we present the theoretical underpinnings and the sporadic observations we have done in previous studies. Then, by the iterative observations of the recorded material of a longitudinal case study on play during the third year of life, we generated the general category of forms of vitality play and four subcategories of display modes of forms of vitality play (improvised forms of vitality play, ritualized forms of vitality play, forms of vitality play combined with pretend play, and forms of vitality play combined with role playing) which are illustrated with descriptive narratives. We discuss the properties of the developed categories, the limits of the present study, and the need to continue systematizing the research on this playful activity.

  12. Hemorrhagic Lacrimation and Epistaxis in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Mreish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is an uncommon benign cutaneous vasculitis. Despite its worrisome presentation, it carries good prognosis with rarely reported systemic involvement. Management of these cases has been an area of debate with majority of physicians adopting conservative modalities. We report a case that presented with classic triad of rash, low grade fever, and peripheral edema along with two rarely reported manifestations in literature: hemorrhagic lacrimation and epistaxis.

  13. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy-a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh R Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presenting with fever and purpura often presents a diagnostic challenge for the dermatologist. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI is a rare acute cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitic syndrome of infants leading to this presentation. We present an 18-month-old girl with AHEI who presented with fever, edema, and purpuric lesions involving the face, ears and extremities with uneventful complete recovery.

  14. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumours outside the central nervous system in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces-Inigo, Enrique F. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Radiology Department, Hermanos Falco, Albacete (Spain); Leung, Rebecca; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant rhabdoid tumours (RT) are increasingly recognized in young children, probably as a consequence of advances in accurate histological diagnosis rather than a true increase in frequency. Although typically presenting as renal tumours in infancy, extrarenal tumours outside the central nervous system (CNS) in children less than 12 months of age are now well recognized, but previous literature on their imaging features is very limited. To demonstrate the imaging features of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS. A retrospective database review was made from 1989 to 2007 of patients diagnosed with extrarenal RT in infancy, i.e. below 12 months of age. There were nine patients (six boys and three girls). The age at presentation varied from 1 to 11 months (average 6 months). Tumours were located in the thorax/mediastinum (n=3), liver (n=3), neck (n=1), shoulder (n=1) and axilla (n=1). The imaging modalities used included US (n=8), CT (n=7) and MRI (n=6). Bone scan was positive in one patient, while metastases at the time of diagnosis occurred in four patients. On MRI the tumours tended to show nonspecific hypointensity on T1-W images and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W images, with heterogeneous enhancement. This is the largest radiological series of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS in infancy. In our series no imaging features were found specific to the diagnosis. A tendency towards large size and mediastinal/paravertebral location were noted. A hypodense solid component on CT and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W MR images suggest that this tumour should be considered in the routine differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumours in infancy, in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. (orig.)

  15. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M. [Radiology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street, WC1N 3JH, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Histopathology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Jaffe, Adam [Portex Respiratory Medicine Unit, The Institute of Child Health, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  16. Thyroid adenomas and carcinomas following radiotherapy for a hemangioma during infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, N.; Andriamboavonjy, T.; Paoletti, C.; Mousannif, A.; Shamsaldin, A.; Doyon, F.; Labbe, M.; Diallo, I.; Vathaire, F. de [INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dondon, M.G. [INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Robert, C. [Dermatology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Avril, M.F. [Dermatology, Hopital Cochin, Paris (France); Fragu, P.; Schlumberger, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Eschwege, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Lefkopoulos, D. [Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schvartz, C. [Reseau des registres des cancers, Francim, Toulouse (France)

    2012-07-01

    A cohort study was performed to investigate the carcinogenic effect of treating skin hemangioma with ionizing radiation during early childhood. This paper presents the incidence of differentiated thyroid adenomas and carcinomas after radiotherapy in this cohort. This study confirms that radiation treatment performed in the past for hemangioma during infancy increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma and adenoma. Patients treated with external radiotherapy or with Radium 226 applicators for hemangiomas have to be more specifically followed up because this is the subgroup in whom the highest doses were received by the thyroid gland (more than 90% of the radiation doses were higher than 100 mGy). They are therefore more at risk of developing thyroid cancer

  17. Isolated ileal perforation in infancy: a lethal initial presentation of Hirschsprung’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Iskandarani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of ileal perforation, as a fatal initial presentation of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA in infancy is reported. A 10-week-old boy, was brought to the emergency department with symptoms of complicated intestinal obstruction. He looked ill, was lethargic, markedly dehydrated and had a severely distended abdomen. An abdominal X-ray revealed multiple air fluid levels seen in a distended small intestine. During exploratory laparotomy the ileum was massively dilated with distal segment perforation. Ileal perforation repair was performed. A totally collapsed microcolon was identified. Biopsies were taken from the high rectum, sigmoid and hepatic flexure. Appendectomy and ileostomy were performed. All biopsies, as well as the appendix, showed absence of ganglion cells. Despite this procedure the patient progressively deteriorated and later died due to sepsis. Ileal perforation in infants is a rare, but potentially fatal initial presentation of TCA. Early detection is essential to prevent life-threatening complications.

  18. Repeated validation of parental self-reported smoking during pregnancy and infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne E; Tobiassen, Mette; Jensen, Tina K

    2004-01-01

    -reported smoking among parents during pregnancy and early childhood in a cohort of children at high risk for allergy development by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). The cohort comprised 117 families enrolled from the general population of pregnant women at admission to antenatal care. Data on parental...... tobacco smoking were obtained by interview and exhaled CO was measured (Micro-Smokerlyzer(R)) in parents twice during pregnancy and when the child was 6 and 18 months old. The median (range) exhaled CO levels were 3 (0-10) parts per million (ppm) for non-smokers and 15 (1-39) ppm for smokers (P ...Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during fetal life and infancy is closely related to the smoking habits of the parents. Estimates of exposure to ETS require valid and detailed information on changes in cigarette smoking over time. The objective was to test the validity of self...

  19. Repeated Validation of Parental Selfreported Smoking during Pregnancy and Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Tobiassen, Mette; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2004-01-01

    -reported smoking among parents during pregnancy and early childhood in a cohort of children at high risk for allergy development by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). The cohort comprised 117 families enrolled from the general population of pregnant women at admission to antenatal care. Data on parental...... tobacco smoking were obtained by interview and exhaled CO was measured (Micro-Smokerlyzer(R)) in parents twice during pregnancy and when the child was 6 and 18 months old. The median (range) exhaled CO levels were 3 (0-10) parts per million (ppm) for non-smokers and 15 (1-39) ppm for smokers (P ...Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during fetal life and infancy is closely related to the smoking habits of the parents. Estimates of exposure to ETS require valid and detailed information on changes in cigarette smoking over time. The objective was to test the validity of self...

  20. A Case Report of Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safari

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is an acute and rare cutaneous disorder that affects children between 4 months to 2 years of age and characterized by cutaneous purpuric lesions with millimeters to centimeters diameter. Systemic involvement is rare. The disease is benign and spontaneously resolved in 1-3 weeks.Case Report: Here we described a 22-months old girl with acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy who hospitalized in department of pediatric with the presence of erythematous-purpuric lesions localized on the face, ears and lower limbs that developed suddenly two days before hospitalization. Laboratory examination revealed including normal cell blood counts, serum complements, serum electrolytes and creatinin. ANA was negative. Coagulation tests were normal. ESR was 45 mm/h. Urine analysis and stool examination revealed no abnormal findings. Disease resolved spontaneously without any problem.Conclusion: According to the contrast between the acuteness of the cutaneous sign, which are typical and unmistakable, and the general condition of the patient, which was good and the laboratory findings, our patient labeled as acute hemprrhagic edema of infancy.

  1. An in-depth look at saccadic search in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Roy S; Hooge, Ignace T C; Kemner, Chantal

    2016-06-01

    Two questions were posed in the present study: (1) Do infants search for discrepant items in the absence of instructions? We outline where previous research has been inconclusive in answering this question. (2) In what manner do infants search, and what are the fixation and saccade characteristics in saccadic search? A thorough characterization of saccadic search in infancy is of great importance as a reference for future eye-movement studies in infancy. We presented 10-month-old infants with 24 visual search displays in two separate sessions within two weeks. We report that infant saccadic search performance at 10 months is above what may be expected by our model of chance, and is dependent on the specific target. Infant fixation and saccade characteristics show similarities to adult fixation and saccade characteristics in saccadic search. All findings were highly consistent across two separate sessions on the group level. An examination of the reliability of saccadic search revealed that test-retest reliability for oculomotor characteristics was high, particularly for fixation duration. We suggest that future research into saccadic search in infancy adopt the presented model of chance as a baseline against which to compare search performance. Researchers investigating both the typical and atypical development of visual search may benefit from the presented results.

  2. Risk factors for failure to thrive in infancy depend on the anthropometric definitions used: The Copenhagen County Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    used criterion of downward crossing of centiles on an ordinary weight-for-age chart was associated with factors normally linked with low risk of adverse physical and mental development. Slow conditional weight gain, irrespective of additional thinness, seemed to identify infants with prenatal growth......Failure to thrive (FTT) is the term widely used to describe poor weight gain in infancy, a condition associated with cognitive deficiency in later childhood. FTT has been investigated in earlier population studies, but little is known about risk factors for FTT or the sequence of events...... as this requires data to be collected prospectively within the first year of life. Furthermore, several different anthropometric criteria have been used to define FTT, and it is not known whether children identified by the different criteria are comparable. In the present population study we compared risk factors...

  3. Effects on transcriptional regulation and lipid droplet characteristics in the liver of female juvenile pigs after early postnatal feed restriction and refeeding are dependent on birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Nebendahl

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U and normal (N birth weight (d 75, T1 and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2 followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3. Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1 animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm(2 was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR. To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%. The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life.

  4. Effects on transcriptional regulation and lipid droplet characteristics in the liver of female juvenile pigs after early postnatal feed restriction and refeeding are dependent on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebendahl, Constance; Krüger, Ricarda; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Martens, Karen; Hennig, Steffen; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Pfuhl, Ralf; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U) and normal (N) birth weight (d 75, T1) and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2) followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3). Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1) animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD) was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm(2)) was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR). To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%). The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life.

  5. Temperament in infancy and behavioral and emotional problems at age 5.5: The EDEN mother-child cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Xian; Pryor, Laura; Michel, Grégory; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early temperamental characteristics may influence children’s developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child’s sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression. Method 1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003–2011), were followed from 24–28 weeks of pregnancy to the child’s fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS) questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children’s overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001), emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001), conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001) and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01) at 5.5 years. Infants’ active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02), while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04). The association between the child’s temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children’s own or family characteristics. Conclusion An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways. PMID:28199415

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging versus positron emission tomography/computed tomography for early response assessment of liver metastases to Y90-radioembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasch, Alexandra; Kraemer, Nils A; Ciritsis, Alexander; Hansen, Nienke L; Lierfeld, Marco; Heinzel, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian; Neumann, Ulf; Kuhl, Christiane K

    2015-06-01

    Patients with hepatic metastases who are candidates for Y90-radioembolization (Y90-RE) usually have advanced tumor stages with involvement of both liver lobes. Per current guidelines, these patients have usually undergone several cycles of potentially hepatotoxic systemic chemotherapy before Y90-RE is at all considered, requiring split (lobar) treatment sessions to reduce hepatic toxicity. Assessing response to Y90-RE early, that is, already after the first lobar session, would be helpful to avoid an ineffective and potentially hepatotoxic second lobar treatment. We investigated the accuracy with which diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can provide this information. An institutional review board-approved prospective intraindividual comparison trial on 35 patients who underwent fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and DWI-MRI within 6 weeks before and 6 weeks after Y90-RE to treat secondary-progressive liver metastases from solid cancers (20 colorectal, 13 breast, 2 other) was performed. An increase of minimal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) or decrease of maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) by at least 30% was regarded as positive response. Long-term clinical and imaging follow-up was used to distinguish true- from false-response classifications. On the basis of long-term follow-up, 23 (66%) of 35 patients responded to the Y90 treatment. No significant changes of metastases size or contrast enhancement were observable on pretreatment versus posttreatment CT or magnetic resonance images.However, overall SUVmax decreased from 8.0 ± 3.9 to 5.5 ± 2.2 (P magnetic resonance imaging appears superior to PET/CT for early response assessment in patients with hepatic metastases of common solid tumors. It may be used in between lobar treatment sessions to guide further management of patients who undergo Y90-RE for hepatic metastases.

  7. Hormone replacement therapy dissociates fat mass and bone mass, and tends to reduce weight gain in early postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled 5-year clinical trial of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on weight changes, body composition, and bone mass in early postmenopausal women in a partly randomized comprehensive cohort study design. A total of 2016 women ages 45-58 years from 3 months to 2 years past last...... of the weight gain was a decline in physical fitness. Women opting for HRT had a significantly lower body weight at inclusion than the other participants, but the results in the self-selected part of the study followed the pattern found in the randomized part. The change in fat mass was the strongest predictor...

  8. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  9. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E

    2013-01-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...... on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery....

  10. Early diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging can predict survival in women with locally advanced cancer of the cervix treated with combined chemo-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoye, Gbolahan; Parkin, David [Ward 42, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Harry, Vanessa [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Semple, Scott [Queen' s Medical Research Institute, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Plataniotis, George [Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation, Taunton (United Kingdom); Scott, Neil [University of Aberdeen, Section of Population Health, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Radiology Department, Box 218, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    To assess the predictive value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for survival in women treated for advanced cancer of the cervix with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Twenty women treated for advanced cancer of the cervix were recruited and followed up for a median of 26 (range <1 to 43) months. They each had DWI performed before treatment, 2 weeks after beginning therapy (midtreatment) and at the end of treatment. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated from regions of interest (ROI). All participants were reviewed for follow-up data. ADC values were compared with mortality status (Mann-Whitney test). Time to progression and overall survival were assessed (Kaplan-Meier survival graphs). There were 14 survivors. The median midtreatment ADC was statistically significantly higher in those alive compared to the non-survivors, 1.55 and 1.36 (x 10{sup -3}/mm{sup 2}/s), respectively, P = 0.02. The median change in ADC 14 days after treatment commencement was significantly higher in the alive group compared to non-survivors, 0.28 and 0.14 (x 10{sup -3}/mm{sup 2}/s), respectively, P = 0.02. There was no evidence of a difference between survivors and non-survivors for pretreatment baseline or post-therapy ADC values. Functional DWI early in the treatment of advanced cancer of the cervix may provide useful information in predicting survival. (orig.)

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight ... Key words: Weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, obesity, metabolic ..... scientific Statement. .... The 86th Annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, New.

  12. 极低出生体质量儿的早期积极营养支持%Early nutritional support for very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾谦学; 顾红兵; 李双双; 陆超; 胡毓华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the role of early intravenous nutrition given aggressively combined with early minimal feeding on very low birth weight infants (VLBWI),and to evaluate the clinical value of intestinal barrier protein and MicroRNA.Methods All of 62 cases of VLBWI admitted in NICU,the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Nantong Affiliated to Nantong University from January 2006 to June 2014 were recruited.Sixty-two VLBWI were randomly divided into group A and group B.Thirty infants in group A were exposed to conventional intravenous nutrition.Thirty-two infants in group B were treated with early intravenous nutrition aggressively combined with early minimal feeding.The time of birth weight recovery,days with intravenous nutrition,hospital stay and complications were recorded.The liver and kidney functions,electrolytes,blood gas analysis were monitored.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent method was used to detect intestinal fatty acid binding protein (Ⅰ-FABP),an intestinal barrier protein in plasma.Infection related MicroRNA155 was detected with fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Group B was superior to group A in weight loss after birth [(13.70 ± 3.10) % vs (5.46 ± 2.64) %,P < 0.05],shorter recovery time of body weight [(12.20 ± 3.38) d vs (6.82 ± 3.20) d,P < 0.05],fewer days with intravenous nutrition [(29.62 ± 4.16) d vs (20.80 ± 3.20) d,P < 0.05] and shorter hospital stays [(44.60 ± 6.32) d vs (28.91 ± 4.36) d,P < 0.05].Compared with group A,the infants in group B had less complications,including hyperbilirubinemia (31.2% vs 56.7%),extrauterine growth retardation (34.3% vs 73.3%),cholestasis (6.2% vs 23.3%),feeding intolerance (15.6% vs 53.3%) and necrotizing enterocolitis (0 vs 16.7%) (all P < 0.05).Although Ⅰ-FABP had a higher plasma concentration in group A than that of group B [(9.083 ± 1.059) μg/L vs (7.563 ± 0.739) μg/L],the difference was not significant (t =1.190,P =0.076 4

  13. Cesarean Section, Formula Feeding, and Infant Antibiotic Exposure: Separate and Combined Impacts on Gut Microbial Changes in Later Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Yasmin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Established during infancy, our complex gut microbial community is shaped by medical interventions and societal preferences, such as cesarean section, formula feeding, and antibiotic use. We undertook this study to apply the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM method to quantify changes in gut microbial composition during later infancy following the most common birth and postnatal exposures affecting infant gut microbial composition. Gut microbiota of 166 full-term infants in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort were profiled using 16S high-throughput gene sequencing. Infants were placed into groups according to mutually exclusive combinations of birth mode (vaginal/cesarean birth, breastfeeding status (yes/no, and antibiotic use (yes/no by 3 months of age. Based on repeated permutations of data and adjustment for the false discovery rate, the SAM statistic identified statistically significant changes in gut microbial abundance between 3 months and 1 year of age within each infant group. We observed well-known patterns of microbial phyla succession in later infancy (declining Proteobacteria; increasing Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes following vaginal birth, breastfeeding, and no antibiotic exposure. Genus Lactobacillus, Roseburia, and Faecalibacterium species appeared in the top 10 increases to microbial abundance in these infants. Deviations from this pattern were evident among infants with other perinatal co-exposures; notably, the largest number of microbial species with unchanged abundance was seen in gut microbiota following early cessation of breastfeeding in infants. With and without antibiotic exposure, the absence of a breast milk diet by 3 months of age following vaginal birth yielded a higher proportion of unchanged abundance of Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in later infancy, and a higher ratio of unchanged Enterobacteriaceae to Alcaligenaceae microbiota. Gut microbiota of infants born

  14. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  15. Bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and small for gestational age, but not with spontaneous preterm birth: A population-based study on Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Vogel, Ida; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) in early pregnancy and preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) in a Danish population. Methods. A geographically defined population-based prospective study of Danish-speaking pregnant women over...

  16. Bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and small for gestational age, but not with spontaneous preterm birth: A population-based study on Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Vogel, Ida; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) in early pregnancy and preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) in a Danish population. Methods. A geographically defined population-based prospective study of Danish-speaking pregnant women over...

  17. A Social Media Peer Group Intervention for Mothers to Prevent Obesity and Promote Healthy Growth from Infancy: Development and Pilot Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gruver, Rachel S; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T.; Lieberman, Alexandra; Gerdes, Marsha; Virudachalam, Senbagam; Suh, Andrew W; Kalra, Gurpreet K.; Magge, Sheela N.; Shults, Justine; Schreiner, Mark S; Power, Thomas J.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Fiks, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence increasingly indicates that childhood obesity prevention efforts should begin as early as infancy. However, few interventions meet the needs of families whose infants are at increased obesity risk due to factors including income and maternal body mass index (BMI). Social media peer groups may offer a promising new way to provide these families with the knowledge, strategies, and support they need to adopt obesity prevention behaviors. Objective The aim of this study is to ...

  18. Building an adaptive brain across development: Targets for neurorehabilitation must begin in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Ogline Edgin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made toward behavioural and pharmacological intervention in intellectual disability, which was once thought too difficult to treat. Down syndrome research has shown rapid advances, and clinical trials are currently underway, with more on the horizon. Here, we review the literature on the emergent profile of cognitive development in Down syndrome, emphasizing that treatment approaches must consider how some end state impairments, such as language deficits, may develop from early alterations in neural systems beginning in infancy. Specifically, we highlight evidence suggesting that there are pre- and early postnatal alterations in brain structure and function in Down syndrome, resulting in disturbed network function across development. We stress that these early alterations are likely amplified by Alzheimer’s disease progression and poor sleep. Focusing on three network hubs (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, we discuss how these regions may relate to evolving deficits in cognitive function in individuals with Down syndrome, and to their language profile in particular.

  19. The infancy of atomic physics Hercules in his cradle

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Atomic physics is a mighty Hercules that dominates modern civilization, promising immense reserves of power but threatening catastrophic war and radioactive pollution. The story of the atom's discovery and the development of techniques to harness its energy offers fascinating insights into the forces behind twenty-first-century technology. This compelling history portrays the human faces and lives behind the beginnings of atomic science.The Infancy of Atomic Physics ranges from experiments in the 1880s by William Crookes and others to the era just after the First World War, when Rutherford's f

  20. ACUTE HEMORRHAGIC EDEMA OF INFANCY – HOW TO RECOGNIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pires Pinto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy is a leukocytoclastic vasculitis of unknown origin that occurs in infants and toddlers. It is characterized by exuberant and unexpected erythematous and purpuric skin lesions associated with extremity edema and fever. It is not very recognized or diagnosed, although the clinical features are quite typical. The authors describe two clinical cases observed in the emergency room with similar clinical presentation, laboratory findings and evolution. They intend to present this entity, allowing its quick recognition and avoiding and unnecessary investigations and treatments.

  1. Fibrous harmatoma of infancy in the scrotum: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kyu Soon; Kang, Dong Wook; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI) is a rare, benign subcutaneous tumor occurring mainly before the age of 2 years. The most commonly reported locations of FHI are the extremities such as the shoulder or axilla. However, FHI arising in the genital area is extremely rare and has not been reported with correlated radiologic findings. In this case report, we present a case of 5-month-old male child diagnosed with FHI in the scrotum, with a focus on the correlation between the radiologic and pathologic findings.

  2. Mineralocorticoid replacement during infancy for salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa G. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The protocols for glucocorticoid replacement in children with salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency are well established; however, the current recommendation for mineralocorticoid replacement is general and suggests individualized dose adjustments. This study aims to retrospectively review the 9-∝-fludrocortisone dose regimen in salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient children who have been adequately treated during infancy. METHODS: Twenty-three salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients with good anthropometric and hormonal control were followed in our center since diagnosis. The assessments of cortisone acetate and 9-∝-fludrocortisone doses, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical and hormonal levels were rigorously evaluated in pre-determined intervals from diagnosis to two years of age. RESULTS: The 9-∝-fludrocortisone doses decreased over time during the first and second years of life; the median fludrocortisone doses were 200 µg at 0-6 months, 150 µg at 7-18 months and 125 µg at 19-24 months. The cortisone acetate dose per square meter was stable during follow-up (median = 16.8 mg/m²/day. The serum sodium, potassium and plasma rennin activity levels during treatment were normal, except in the first month of life, when periodic 9-∝-fludrocortisone dose adjustments were made. CONCLUSIONS: The mineralocorticoid needs of salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients are greater during early infancy and progressively decrease during the first two years of life, which confirms that a partial aldosterone resistance exists during this time. Our study proposes a safety regiment for mineralocorticoid replacement during this critical developmental period.

  3. Aberrant IgA responses to the gut microbiota during infancy precede asthma and allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzidic, Majda; Abrahamsson, Thomas R; Artacho, Alejandro; Björkstén, Bengt; Collado, Maria Carmen; Mira, Alex; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2017-03-01

    Although a reduced gut microbiota diversity and low mucosal total IgA levels in infancy have been associated with allergy development, IgA responses to the gut microbiota have not yet been studied. We sought to determine the proportions of IgA coating together with the characterization of the dominant bacteria, bound to IgA or not, in infant stool samples in relation to allergy development. A combination of flow cytometric cell sorting and deep sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial recognition patterns by IgA in stool samples collected at 1 and 12 months of age from children staying healthy or having allergic symptoms up to 7 years of age. The children with allergic manifestations, particularly asthma, during childhood had a lower proportion of IgA bound to fecal bacteria at 12 months of age compared with healthy children. These alterations cannot be attributed to differences in IgA levels or bacterial load between the 2 groups. Moreover, the bacterial targets of early IgA responses (including coating of the Bacteroides genus), as well as IgA recognition patterns, differed between healthy children and children with allergic manifestations. Altered IgA recognition patterns in children with allergy were observed already at 1 month of age, when the IgA antibodies are predominantly maternally derived in breast-fed children. An aberrant IgA responsiveness to the gut microbiota during infancy precedes asthma and allergy development, possibly indicating an impaired mucosal barrier function in allergic children. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia in infancy and childhood – clinical outcome and in vitro immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Michael

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia in infancy and childhood (SHIC, may be an early manifestation of a primary immunodeficiency or a maturational delay in the normal production of immunoglobulins (Ig. We aimed to evaluate the natural course of SHIC and correlate in vitro lymphoproliferative and secretory responses with recovery of immunoglobulin values and clinical resolution. Methods Children, older than 1 year of age, referred to our specialist clinic because of recurrent infections and serum immunoglobulin (Ig levels 2 SD below the mean for age, were followed for a period of 8 years. Patient with any known familial, clinical or laboratory evidence of cellular immunodeficiency or other immunodeficiency syndromes were excluded from this cohort. Evaluation at 6- to 12-months intervals continued up to 1 year after resolution of symptoms. In a subgroup of patients, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and Ig secretion in response to mitogens was performed. Results 32 children, 24 (75% males, 8 (25% females, mean age 3.4 years fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Clinical presentation: ENT infections 69%, respiratory 81%, diarrhea 12.5%. During follow-up, 17 (53% normalized serum Ig levels and were diagnosed as transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THGI. THGI patients did not differ clinically or demographically from non-transient patients, both having a benign clinical outcome. In vitro Ig secretory responses, were lower in hypogammaglobulinemic, compared to normal children and did not normalize concomitantly with serum Ig's in THGI patients. Conclusions The majority of children with SHIC in the first decade of life have THGI. Resolution of symptoms as well as normalization of Ig values may be delayed, but overall the clinical outcome is good and the clinical course benign.

  5. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    and gestational age, with single parenthood and with mother having smoked during pregnancy. Onset between 2 weeks and 4 months was associated with congenital disorders and serious somatic illness, and with deviant mother-child relationship, whereas, onset between 4 and 8 months seemed to represent a group...

  6. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  7. Association between common variation at the FTO locus and changes in body mass index from infancy to late childhood: The complex nature of genetic association through growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Sovio (Ulla); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); N.M. Warrington (Nicole); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); L. Briollais (Laurent); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); J. Cecil (Joanne); J.K. Sandling (Johanna); A.-C. Syvänen; M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.J. Beilin (Lawrence); I.Y. Millwood (Iona); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); J. Laitinen (Jaana); A. Pouta (Anneli); J. Molitor (John); G.D. Smith; Y. Ben-Shlomo; V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); C.E. Pennell (Craig); T.J. Cole (Tim); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M.R. Järvelin; N.J. Timpson (Nicholas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAn age-dependent association between variation at the FTO locus and BMI in children has been suggested. We meta-analyzed associations between the FTO locus (rs9939609) and BMI in samples, aged from early infancy to 13 years, from 8 cohorts of European ancestry. We found a positive

  8. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjaer, Anni; Molgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. High-fat semielemental diet in the treatment of protracted diarrhea of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, P; Young, C; Srimaruta, N; Rossi, T M; Cardano, A; Lebenthal, E

    1990-12-01

    The capacity for greater fat absorption relative to carbohydrate absorption in protracted diarrhea of infancy was studied in a developed and a developing country (Buffalo, NY, and Bangkok, Thailand). Fifty patients with protracted diarrhea in the first year of life (defined as liquid stools of more than 20 mL/kg per day with more than a 14-day duration) were randomly assigned to receive either a standard semielemental diet (Pregestimil) or a high-fat semielemental diet that contained 40% more fat. The increased fat was largely in the form of medium-chain triglycerides, with the new diet providing 60% of the fat as medium-chain triglycerides compared with 40% in the standard diet. Tolerance to both diets was good in both studies. Both groups showed adequate weight gain and an improvement in anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The patients receiving the high-fat diet showed no initial weight loss, however, and their weight gain was initiated earlier. Cumulative weight gain was also higher in the group receiving the high-fat semielemental diet. Fecal fat analyses were performed after 1 week of therapy. There was no difference observed in the coefficient of fat absorption between the groups receiving the two formulas, indicating that infants with protracted diarrhea may be able to tolerate a higher fat intake than is normally provided. As carbohydrate intolerance is known to be a complicating factor when using semielemental enteral feeds for infants with protracted diarrhea, a higher-fat semielemental diet may be the most appropriate way to provide adequate caloric intake.

  10. Beyond Acute Pain: Understanding Chronic Pain in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda DiLorenzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This topical review presents the current challenges in defining chronic pain in infants, summarizes evidence from animal and human infant studies regarding the biological processes necessary for chronic pain signaling, and presents observational/experiential evidence from clinical experts. A literature search of four databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE was conducted, along with hand searches of reference lists. Evidence from animal studies suggest that important neurophysiological mechanisms, such as the availability of key neurotransmitters needed for maintenance of chronic pain, may be immature or absent in the developing neonate. In some cases, human infants may be significantly less likely to develop chronic pain. However, evidence also points to altered pain perception, such as allodynia and hyperalgesia, with significant injury. Moreover, clinicians and parents in pediatric intensive care settings describe groups of infants with altered behavioral responses to repeated or prolonged painful stimuli, yet agreement on a working definition of chronic pain in infancy remains elusive. While our understanding of infant chronic pain is still in the rudimentary stages, a promising avenue for the future assessment of chronic pain in infancy would be to develop a clinical tool that uses both neurophysiological approaches and clinical perceptions already presented in the literature.

  11. Analog Magnitudes Support Large Number Ordinal Judgments in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanMarle, Kristy; Mou, Yi; Seok, Jin H

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the source of infants' ordinal knowledge, and those that have are equivocal regarding the underlying representational system. The present study sought clear evidence that the approximate number system, which underlies children's cardinal knowledge, may also support ordinal knowledge in infancy; 10 - to 12-month-old infants' were tested with large sets (>3) in an ordinal choice task in which they were asked to choose between two hidden sets of food items. The difficulty of the comparison varied as a function of the ratio between the sets. Infants reliably chose the greater quantity when the sets differed by a 2:3 ratio (4v6 and 6v9), but not when they differed by a 3:4 ratio (6v8) or a 7:8 ratio (7v8). This discrimination function is consistent with previous studies testing the precision of number and time representations in infants of roughly this same age, thus providing evidence that the approximate number system can support ordinal judgments in infancy. The findings are discussed in light of recent proposals that different mechanisms underlie infants' reasoning about small and large numbers.

  12. Excess weight in preschool children with a history of severe bronchiolitis is associated with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmänen, Sari; Lauhkonen, Eero; Saari, Antti; Koponen, Petri; Korppi, Matti; Nuolivirta, Kirsi

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between excess weight gain and asthma in childhood remains inadequately defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate, as part of a prospective post-bronchiolitis follow-up, whether there is a link between earlier or current overweight or obesity and asthma or asthma symptoms at 5-7 years of age. In all, 151 former bronchiolitis patients were followed-up until the mean age of 6.45 years. At the control visit, the weights and heights were measured, and the asthma symptoms and medications for asthma were recorded. The weight status was expressed as body mass index (BMI) z-scores (zBMI). There were 10 obese and 31 overweight (zBMI over national references) children. In adjusted analyses, presence of current asthma at 6-7 years of age (aOR 3.05, 95% CI 1.02-9.93) differed between overweight and normal weight children. Further, asthma ever, asthma at age 4-5 years, asthma at age 5-6 years, use of bronchodilators ever and use of ICSs during the last 12 months were more common in currently overweight than in normal weight children. Obesity was associated only with current asthma and asthma ever. Instead, there were no significant associations between birth weight, excess weight gain in infancy, or overweight at age 1.5 years, and later asthma, asthma symptoms or use of asthma medication. Asthma was more common in currently overweight than in normal weight former bronchiolitis patients at preschool age and early school age. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Can we predict subject-specific dynamic cortical thickness maps during infancy from birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Li, Gang; Rekik, Islem; Zhang, Han; Gao, Yaozong; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the early dynamic development of the human cerebral cortex remains a challenging problem. Cortical thickness, as one of the most important morphological attributes of the cerebral cortex, is a sensitive indicator for both normal neurodevelopment and neuropsychiatric disorders, but its early postnatal development remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate a key question in neurodevelopmental science: can we predict the future dynamic development of cortical thickness map in an individual infant based on its available MRI data at birth? If this is possible, we might be able to better model and understand the early brain development and also early detect abnormal brain development during infancy. To this end, we develop a novel learning-based method, called Dynamically-Assembled Regression Forest (DARF), to predict the development of the cortical thickness map during the first postnatal year, based on neonatal MRI features. We applied our method to 15 healthy infants and predicted their cortical thickness maps at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age, with respectively mean absolute errors of 0.209 mm, 0.332 mm, 0.340 mm, and 0.321 mm. Moreover, we found that the prediction precision is region-specific, with high precision in the unimodal cortex and relatively low precision in the high-order association cortex, which may be associated with their differential developmental patterns. Additional experiments also suggest that using more early time points for prediction can further significantly improve the prediction accuracy. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2865-2874, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infancy and Social Emotional Development in Preschool-Aged Chinese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.; Wang, L.; Wang, Y.; Brouwer, I.D.; Kok, F.J.; Lozoff, B.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to compare affect and behavior of 3 groups of nonanemic 4-year-old children: children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy whose anemia was not corrected before 24 months (chronic IDA) (n = 27); children with IDA in infancy whose anemia was corrected before 24 months (cor

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infancy and Social Emotional Development in Preschool-Aged Chinese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.; Wang, L.; Wang, Y.; Brouwer, I.D.; Kok, F.J.; Lozoff, B.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to compare affect and behavior of 3 groups of nonanemic 4-year-old children: children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy whose anemia was not corrected before 24 months (chronic IDA) (n = 27); children with IDA in infancy whose anemia was corrected before 24 months

  16. Child-Related Interparental Conflict in Infancy Predicts Child Cognitive Functioning in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2013-01-01

    While associations between exposure to marital conflict and child development have been documented extensively in middle childhood and adolescence, few studies have examined the developmental consequences of conflict exposure in infancy. Moreover, those that have examined marital conflict in infancy tended to focus on consequences of conflict…

  17. Early Intervention Effect Analysis of Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants ( Analysis of 348 Cases)%早产低体重儿的早期干预效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 赵泽宇

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨早产低体重儿的早期干预效果.方法 选择2011年7月—2013年6月在我院出生的早产低体重儿348例,按照掷骰子法分为早期干预组与对照组,每组各174例.早期干预组予视听刺激、抚触、运动训练等对早产低体重儿进行早期干预,对照组不采取任何干预措施,观察并比较两组婴儿出生90 d、180 d、360 d的身高及体重、智力发育、精神运动发育情况.结果 干预90 d、180 d、360 d后,干预组身高、体重、智力发育、精神运动发育水平均优于对照组(P<0.05),且随着时间的推移上述各项指标比较差异更加显著.结论 对早产低体重儿进行早期干预,能够在促进身高、体重正常生长发育的同时,提高其智力及精神运动发育水平.%Objective To investigate the early intervention effect on preterm low birth weight infants. Methods Clinical data of 348 cases of preterm low birth weight infants were divided into early intervention group and control group with in accordance with the dice method, 174 cases in each group. Early intervention group was given visual stimulation, massage, exercise training for early intervention on low birth weight infants, while the control group did not undergo any intervention. The 90 d, 180 d, 360 d's height, weight, intellectual development, psychomotor development situation of the 2 groups were observed and compared. Results The 90 d, 180 d, 360 d's height, weight, mental development, spiritual movement devel-opment level of the intervention group was better than that of the control group (P<0. 05). As time went by, the differences of the above indicators were more significant. Conclusion Early intervention for premature infants with low birth weight, can not only promote the normal growth and development of height and weight but also improve the level of intellectual and spiritual movement development of the infants.

  18. Early programming of the IGF-I axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Ingstrup, Helga Kristensen; Schack-Nielsen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    -I production. Conversely, studies suggest that later in childhood, those breastfed are taller and have higher IGF-I levels. Therefore, it has been suggested that the IGF-I axis may be programmed by diet during infancy. The association between IGF-I in infancy and later life is not known. OBJECTIVE: To examine......=-0.26, P=0.043, and n=109). CONCLUSION: The results support the hypothesis that the IGF-I axis can be programmed early in life....

  19. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  20. Gut hormones, early dumping and resting energy expenditure in patients with good and poor weight loss response after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, C; Jørgensen, N B; Bojsen-Møller, K N

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To identify factors contributing to the variation in weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).Design:Cross-sectional study of patients with good (excess body mass index lost (EBL) >60%) and poor weight loss response (EBL 12 months after RYGB and a lean control group matched...

  1. Neural evidence for the subliminal processing of facial trustworthiness in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Sarah; Grossmann, Tobias

    2017-04-22

    Face evaluation is thought to play a vital role in human social interactions. One prominent aspect is the evaluation of facial signs of trustworthiness, which has been shown to occur reliably, rapidly, and without conscious awareness in adults. Recent developmental work indicates that the sensitivity to facial trustworthiness has early ontogenetic origins as it can already be observed in infancy. However, it is unclear whether infants' sensitivity to facial signs of trustworthiness relies upon conscious processing of a face or, similar to adults, occurs also in response to subliminal faces. To investigate this question, we conducted an event-related brain potential (ERP) study, in which we presented 7-month-old infants with faces varying in trustworthiness. Facial stimuli were presented subliminally (below infants' face visibility threshold) for only 50ms and then masked by presenting a scrambled face image. Our data revealed that infants' ERP responses to subliminally presented faces differed as a function of trustworthiness. Specifically, untrustworthy faces elicited an enhanced negative slow wave (800-1000ms) at frontal and central electrodes. The current findings critically extend prior work by showing that, similar to adults, infants' neural detection of facial signs of trustworthiness occurs also in response to subliminal face. This supports the view that detecting facial trustworthiness is an early developing and automatic process in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal and contextual influences and the effect of temperament development during infancy on parenting in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Gartstein, Maria A; Putnam, Samuel P; McKay, Talia; Iddins, Erin; Robertson, Christopher; Ramsay, Kristin; Rittmueller, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, latent growth modeling (LGM) was used to: (1) identify the developmental trajectories of infant negative emotions (NE) and regulatory capacity (RC) from 4 to 12 months of age, (2) examine maternal and family factors that may affect NE and RC trajectories, (3) examine transactional associations between developing NE and RC, and (4) examine the effect of infant temperament trajectories on negative parenting when toddlers reached 18 months of age. Mothers from 156 families completed a measure of infant temperament when infants were 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age and completed maternal relationship stress, depression, and family demographics measures when infants were 4 months of age. Information regarding negative parenting was collected when toddlers reached 18 months of age. LGM results suggest that maternal relationship stress and depression influence infant NE development, that high NE early in infancy may compromise the development of infant regulation, and that steeper decreases of infant RC contribute the greatest amount of variance to negative parenting in toddlerhood. The implications for models of early emotion regulation and incorporating changes in temperament over time into developmentally sensitive models (e.g., emerging parenting practices and developmental psychopathology) are discussed.

  3. Interrupter technique in infancy: Higher airway resistance and lower short-term variability in preterm versus term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usemann, Jakob; Demann, Désirée; Anagnostopoulou, Pinelopi; Korten, Insa; Gorlanova, Olga; Schulzke, Sven; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    In preschool children, measurement of airway resistance using interrupter technique (Rint) is feasible to assess the degree of bronchial obstruction. Although some studies measured Rint in infancy, values of Rint and its variability in preterm infants are unknown. In this study, Rint and its variability was measured at infancy and compared between healthy term and preterm infants. High quality Rint measurements in term (n = 50) and preterm (n = 48) infants were obtained at postmenstrual age of 42-50 weeks in two study centers in Switzerland. Intra-measurement variability of Rint in one measurement and inter-measurement variability between two subsequent measurements was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV). Mean Rint in term infants was 4.2 ± (SD; 1.9) kPa · s · L(-1) and in preterm infants was 5.6 ± (2.8) kPa · s · L(-1) . Mean CV in term infants was 29.6 ± (14.9)% and in preterm infants was 20.2 ± (8.4)%. Rint was significantly lower (95%CI -2.31 to -0.38; P = 0.007) and CV significantly higher (95%CI 4.53-14.3; P preterm infants. There were no differences in mean Rint and mean CV between the first and the second measurement obtained in a subgroup of term (n = 24, 48%) and preterm (n = 22, 45%) infants. Our results suggest that differences in airway mechanics between term and preterm infants can be assessed with the interrupter technique during early infancy. Before clinical application of Rint measurements in this age group, reasons underlying the variability of measurements should be further investigated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. How the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort study has contributed to the understanding of the impact of birth weight and early life socioeconomic position on disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Mann, Kay D; Relton, Caroline L; Francis, Roger M; Steele, James G; Craft, Alan W; Parker, Louise

    2012-05-01

    Much has been made of the potential influence of birth weight and early socioeconomic disadvantage in influencing adult health, but little has been published in terms of how important these associations may be with respect to exposures throughout the lifecourse. The objective of this review is to describe the contributions of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study in understanding the relative impacts of factors in early life, particularly birth weight and socio-economic position at birth, in influencing health in later life. The Newcastle Thousand Families Study is a prospective birth cohort established in 1947. It originally included all births to mothers resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, in northern England, in May and June of that year. Study members were followed extensively throughout childhood and intermittently in adulthood. At the age of 49-51 years, study members underwent a large-scale follow-up phase enabling an assessment of how early life may influence their later health, and also incorporating adult risk factors which enabled the relative contributions of factors at different stages of life to be assessed. While some findings from the study do support birth weight and early socio-economic position having influences on adult health status, the associations are generally small when compared to risk factors later in life. Using path analyses on longitudinal data of this nature enables mediating pathways between early life and later health to be assessed and if more studies were to take this approach, the relative importance of early life on adult disease risk could be better understood.

  5. Biventricular pacing as bridge to rapid recovery in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragulescu, Andreea; Bilska, Karolina; Van Doorn, Catharina; Goldman, Allan; Marek, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The authors present the unique case of an 8-month-old baby diagnosed with severe left ventricular failure of unknown etiology. Due to a lack of organ availability for this age, a mechanical assist device and assessment for cardiac transplantation were not offered. Subsequent comprehensive echocardiographic dyssynchrony assessment and the presence of left bundle branch block were suggestive of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Dual-chamber epicardial pacing was initiated, resulting in prompt marked clinical and echocardiographic improvement, which continued until complete normalization of cardiac function. The pacing system was safely turned off 6 months after its implantation. In conclusion, cardiac resynchronization therapy should be considered as a treatment option even in infancy, regardless of the etiology of disease and/or patient age. 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Possessed by evil spirits: a history of seizures in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-07-01

    For 4 millennia, seizures in infancy were believed to be of supranatural origin and were dealt with by incantations, exorcising rituals, and protective amulets. Instead of pursuing scientific research into their causes, gods, devils, mothers, wet nurses, midwives, or obstetricians were blamed. Help from protective gods and patron saints was sought, and amulets against the "evil eye" were recommended by physicians, mostly in the form of necklaces. Infants were despised and hidden away from the community. Among the medical conditions associated with seizures, those most prominent were dentition, gastrointestinal irritation, and "bad" mother's milk. Medical treatment consisted of cutting or rubbing the gums with a hare's brain during dentition, and applying peony or theriac. Even during the 20th century, when laboratory methods, electroencephalography, brain imaging, and powerful pharmaceutical techniques were available, effective treatment evolved empirically rather than systematically.

  7. Linguistic experience and phonemic perception in infancy: a crosslinguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, R E; Gavin, W; Wilson, W R

    1979-03-01

    English- and Spanish-learning infants were tested for perception of 2 synthetic speech contrasts differing in voice onset time. The 2 pairs were chosen so that they were native to either Spanish or English. Using the Visually Reinforced Infant Speech Discrimination (VRISD) paradigm, 6--8-month-old infants were taught to respond to a change in auditory stimuli with a headturn. Correct headturns were reinforced by the activation of a lighted animated toy. While Spanish-learning infants provided evidence of discriminating both English and Spanish contrasts, English-learning infants only provided evidence of discriminating their native contrast. The results are discussed in terms of the role of linguistic experience in the development of speech perception skills in infancy.

  8. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4......+ and CD8+ cells. Two different populations of infants between birth and 1 year of age were examined. Study Group I: infants with a variable duration of breastfeeding. Study Group II: long-term breastfed infants. In both groups a correlation was found between CD8+ cells and the thymic index at 10 months...... to 10 months of age; and a positive correlation between the number of breastfeedings per day at 8 months of age, and an increase in CD4+ cells from 8 to 10 months of age (p Breastfeeding might have both a current and long...

  9. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP)

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Methods Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental...

  10. Inappropriate bottle use: an early risk for overweight? Literature review and pilot data for a bottle-weaning trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen A; Huang, Vincent; Fletcher, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Identifying early risk factors for childhood obesity is critical, as weight in infancy and early childhood tracks to later periods. Continued bottle use - primarily from excess milk intake - is emerging as a potential risk factor for early childhood overweight. Over three fourths of US infants drink from bottles beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months, and two thirds of UK infants use a bottle at 18 months. This paper is divided into three parts. Part 1 reviews the literature on beverage intake, weight and bottle use in young children. Part II describes pilot data on milk bottle use and weight in 12-60-month-olds, collected prior to a randomized controlled (RCT) trial of a bottle-weaning intervention. Median daily milk bottle consumption at 12 months was 5.0 (interquartile range = 3-6). Among 12-36-month-olds, current users were significantly more likely to be >95th% weight-for-height (19% vs. 0%, P 85% weight-for-height (27% vs. 11%, P flip chart. An observational study nested within the RCT will describe dietary changes during this period of feeding transitions.

  11. Experience-induced interocular plasticity of vision in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eTschetter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal model studies of amblyopia have generally found that enduring effects of monocular deprivation (MD on visual behavior (i.e. loss of visual acuity are limited to the deprived eye, and are restricted to juvenile life. We have previously reported, however, that lasting effects of MD on visual function can be elicited in adulthood by stimulating visuomotor experience through the non-deprived eye. To test whether visuomotor experience would also induce interocular plasticity of vision in infancy, we assessed in rats from eye opening on postnatal day (P15, the effect of pairing MD with daily threshold measurements of opto-kinetic tracking (OKT. Combining MD with OKT experience up to P25 led to a ~60% enhancement of the spatial frequency threshold through the non-deprived eye for OKT during the MD, which was followed by loss of function (~60% below normal through both eyes when the deprived eye was opened. Strictly limiting the period of deprivation to infancy, by opening the deprived eye at P19, resulted in comparable loss of function. Thresholds recovered by P30 unless binocular OKT experience was stimulated through both eyes from P25-P30, which was sufficient to maintain the lost function indefinitely. The ability to generate the plasticity, as well as to maintain lost function, was dependent on visual cortex. Animals with reduced visuomotor thresholds also exhibited significantly reduced visual acuity, measured independently in a discrimination task. Thus, a form of interocular plasticity, in which the stimulation of visual experience during MD can induce amblyopia, is present before the beginning of juvenile life.

  12. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  13. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  14. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaëlle M. A. van Gijssel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber (DF intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS. These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042, and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003, but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  15. Hypophosphatemic rickets developed after treatment with etidronate disodium in a patient with generalized arterial calcification in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Miyai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1 was originally reported as a responsible gene for generalized arterial calcification in infancy (GACI. Though the prognosis of GACI patients is poor because of myocardial infarction and heart failure in relation to medial calcification of the coronary arteries, some patients rescued by bisphosphonate treatment have been reported. Recently, ENPP1 is also reported as responsible for autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets type 2. We show here a boy with homozygous ENPP1 mutations diagnosed as having GACI in early infancy. After the diagnosis, he was treated with etidronate disodium (EHDP in combination with antihypertensive drugs. The calcification of major arteries was diminished and disappeared by the age of eight months. He also showed mild hypophosphatemia (2.6–3.7 mg/dl from the age of one year. After the treatment with EHDP for five years, he showed genu valgum with hypophosphatemia (2.6 mg/dl. He was diagnosed as having hypophosphatemic rickets at the age of seven years. The findings that hyper-mineralization of the arteries and hypo-mineralization of the bone observed in the same patient are noteworthy. ENPP1 could be regarded as a controller of the calcification of the whole body at least in part.

  16. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-08-30

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  17. The genetic architecture of body mass index from infancy to adulthood modified by parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Huppertz, Charlotte; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Bartels, Meike; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-09-01

    A higher prevalence of obesity in lower socioeconomic classes is common in Western societies. This study examined the role of gene-environment interactions in the association between parental education and body mass index (BMI) from infancy to the onset of adulthood. Parentally reported BMI from 1 to 13 and self-reported BMI from 14 to 20 years of age were collected in 16,646 complete Dutch twin pairs and analyzed by genetic twin modeling. At 7 to 8 years of age, children whose parents had middle or low educational levels had more excess weight than the children of more highly educated parents, and the difference increased until 18 to 20 years of age. The major part of the BMI variation was explained by additive genetic factors (a(2)  = 0.55-0.85), but environmental factors common for co-twins also played a significant role, especially from 3 to 7-8 years of age (c(2)  = 0.15-0.29). The genetic variation in BMI was higher in children whose parents had middle or low educational levels compared with children whose parents had a high educational level. The interaction between genetic factors and the childhood social environment may contribute to the formation of socioeconomic differences in obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L; Wyatt, Holly R; Eckel, Robert H; Hill, James O; MacLean, Paul S

    2011-09-01

    The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss.

  19. Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steig, Amy J.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Higgins, Janine A.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Eckel, Robert H.; Hill, James O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

  20. Gender difference in breast tissue size in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida Maria; Chellakooty, Marla; Haavisto, Anne-Maarit

    2002-01-01

    as the dependent variable and weight for gestational age, subscapular skinfold, weight at 3 mo of age and serum estradiol as independent variables, a gender difference was shown. In girls, the estradiol level was positively (p

  1. Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia of Infancy: Diagnosis With High-Resolution CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Alan S.; Guillerman, R. Paul; Hay, Thomas C.; Wagner, Brandie D.; Young, Lisa R.; Deutsch, Gail H.; Fan, Leland L.; Deterding, Robin R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy is a form of childhood interstitial lung disease originally reported as persistent tachypnea of infancy. Reports of small series of cases and anecdotal experience have suggested that this disorder may have a consistent CT pattern. The purpose of this study was to review the CT findings in children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy to determine the findings at high-resolution CT, the diagnostic accuracy of CT compared with biopsy, and interrater reliability. MATERIALS AND METHODS Images from 23 CT examinations of children with biopsy-proven neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy and six CT examinations of children with other childhood interstitial lung diseases were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists with special expertise in thoracic imaging. Identifying digital data were removed, and images were reviewed without clinical data. A CT assessment form was completed for each patient. RESULTS Ground-glass opacification was the most common finding in patients with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. The right middle lobe and lingula were most commonly involved. Air trapping with a mosaic pattern was the second most common finding. Interrater reliability was very good with a kappa value of 0.93. The sensitivity and specificity of CT in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy were at least 78% and 100%. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy can have a characteristic appearance on high-resolution CT scans, the imaging findings being useful in differentiating neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy from other types of childhood interstitial lung disease. The appearance aids radiologists in suggesting a specific diagnosis but does not exclude this diagnosis; in 17–22% of cases, the readers in this study did not suggest the diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy when it was present. PMID:20028928

  2. 极低出生体重儿23例早期护理干预效果研究%Study on the effect of early nursing intervention on 23 very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨早期护理干预对极低出生体重儿存活率及并发症的影响.方法:将46例极低出生体重儿随机分为观察组和对照组各23例.观察组给予早期护理干预(微量喂养、抚触、体位管理等),对照组给予常规护理.观察两组极低出生体重儿护理后体重增长情况、不良反应发生率.结果:与对照组比较,观察组极低出生体重儿体重增长速度快(P<0.01),呕吐、哭闹、胃潴留、腹胀发生率明显降低(P<0.01).结论:早期护理干预能够提高极低出生体重儿的存活率,减少并发症,值得临床推广.%Objective: To investigate the effect of early nursing intervention on the survival rate and complications of very low birth weight infants.Methods: 46 very low birth weight infants were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group ( 23 cases for each group ).The early nursing intervention ( micro - amount feeding, massage, position management,etc.) was given to the infants in the observation group and the infants in the control group received routine nursing care.The weight gain and incidence of adverse reactions of very low birth weight infants were observed after nursing care in both groups.Results: The weight gain of very low birth weight infants was faster in the observation group than the control group (P <0.01 );the incidence of vomiting, crying, gastric retention, abdominal distension was significantly lower in the observation group than the control group ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion: The early nursing intervention can improve the survival rate of very low birth weight infants and reduce the incidence of complications.

  3. Early weaning to reduce tissue mobilization in lactating sows and milk supplementation to enhance pig weaning weight during extreme heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J D; Boyd, R D; Cabrera, R; Allee, G L

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of reduced lactation length and supplemental milk replacer (MR) during high ambient temperatures. Thirty nine primiparous and 100 multiparous sows (PIC, Franklin, KY, C-22) were used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments consisted of two lactation room temperatures (21 degrees C [TN] and 32 degrees C [HOT]), two lactation lengths (14 or 19 d), and two parity groups (primiparous, multiparous). Pigs were either: 1) sow-reared to 19 d or 2) sow-reared to 14 d, and then reared to 19 d with MR after sow removal. All sows were fed the same diet (1.07% lysine, 3,366 kcal of ME/kg). Sows were weighed and ultrasound for backfat thickness (BF) and longissimus muscle area (LMA) within 6 h after farrowing and at the time of sow removal (d 14 or 19). Pigs were individually weighed at weaning (d 19) and after a 47-d nursery period (d 66). Heat stress increased sow weight loss (-13.35 kg, P Milk replacer decreased the difference normally observed in 19-d weights between primiparous and multiparous sow-reared pigs in TN. Pigs fed MR in both environments and nursing multiparous sows had improved weight gains in the nursery compared with pigs nursing sows to 19 d (428 vs. 406 g/d, respectively; P milk replacer to preserve the sow and to restore pig weaning weights and nursery end weights under heat stress.

  4. Rapid Early Growth May Modulate the Association Between Birth Weight and Blood Pressure at 5 Years in the EDEN Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taine, Marion; Stengel, Bénédicte; Forhan, Anne; Carles, Sophie; Botton, Jérémie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Physiological evidence suggests that birth weight (BW) and postnatal growth affect blood pressure (BP) level, independently or in interaction. Their respective roles are difficult to disentangle in epidemiological studies, however, especially when adjusting for final weight. We assessed the portion of the effect of BW on BP at 5 years that was not attributable to postnatal growth and investigated potential interactions between BW and postnatal growth velocity at different time points in the EDEN mother-child study. Collecting a median of 19 weight measurements for each of the 1119 children who completed follow-up enabled us to model instantaneous growth velocity at any age. After computing a BP SD-score at 5 years, adjusted for age, sex, current body mass index, and height, we used multiple linear regression to study its association with age- and sex-specific BW z score, adjusting for several maternal and pregnancy risk factors. We tested interactions between BW categories (small-, appropriate-, and large-for-gestational-age) and weight growth velocities at different ages. The BW z score was negatively and significantly correlated with the systolic BP SD-score at the age of 5 years (r=-0.07, P=0.02). Interactions were found between BW categories and weight growth velocities from 1 to 4 months (P from 0.002 to 0.08) but not at older ages; specifically, children born small for gestational age with a fast weight growth velocity in their first few months of life had the highest absolute systolic BP and SD score values at 5 years. They may need monitoring for cardiovascular risks. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up.

  6. Mutant Enpp1asj mice as a model for generalized arterial calcification of infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Li

    2013-09-01

    Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI, an autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by early mineralization of blood vessels, often diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound and usually resulting in demise during the first year of life. It is caused in most cases by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, encoding an enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate, the latter being a powerful anti-mineralization factor. Recently, a novel mouse phenotype was recognized as a result of ENU mutagenesis – those mice developed stiffening of the joints, hence the mutant mouse was named ‘ages with stiffened joints’ (asj. These mice harbor a missense mutation, p.V246D, in the Enpp1 gene. Here we demonstrate that the mutant ENPP1 protein is largely absent in the liver of asj mice, and the lack of enzymatic activity results in reduced inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi levels in the plasma, accompanied by extensive mineralization of a number of tissues, including arterial blood vessels. The progress of mineralization is highly dependent on the mineral composition of the diet, with significant shortening of the lifespan on a diet enriched in phosphorus and low in magnesium. These results suggest that the asj mouse can serve as an animal model for GACI.

  7. Overnight Changes in the Slope of Sleep Slow Waves during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattinger, Sara; Jenni, Oskar G.; Schmitt, Bernhard; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) is a well-established marker for sleep pressure in adults. Recent studies have shown that increasing sleep pressure is reflected by an increased synchronized firing pattern of cortical neurons, which can be measured by the slope of sleep slow waves. Thus we aimed at investigating whether the slope of sleep slow waves might provide an alternative marker to study the homeostatic regulation of sleep during early human development. Design: All-night sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded longitudinally at 2, 4, 6, and 9 months after birth. Setting: Home recording. Patients or Participants: 11 healthy full-term infants (5 male, 6 female). Interventions: None Measurements and Results: The slope of sleep slow waves increased with age. At all ages the slope decreased from the first to the last hour of non rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, even when controlling for amplitude differences (P waves during infancy. SLEEP 2014;37(2):245-253. PMID:24497653

  8. The development of emotion perception in face and voice during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Interacting with others by reading their emotional expressions is an essential social skill in humans. How this ability develops during infancy and what brain processes underpin infants' perception of emotion in different modalities are the questions dealt with in this paper. Literature review. The first part provides a systematic review of behavioral findings on infants' developing emotion-reading abilities. The second part presents a set of new electrophysiological studies that provide insights into the brain processes underlying infants' developing abilities. Throughout, evidence from unimodal (face or voice) and multimodal (face and voice) processing of emotion is considered. The implications of the reviewed findings for our understanding of developmental models of emotion processing are discussed. The reviewed infant data suggest that (a) early in development, emotion enhances the sensory processing of faces and voices, (b) infants' ability to allocate increased attentional resources to negative emotional information develops earlier in the vocal domain than in the facial domain, and (c) at least by the age of 7 months, infants reliably match and recognize emotional information across face and voice.

  9. Mutant Enpp1asj mice as a model for generalized arterial calcification of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoli; Guo, Haitao; Chou, David W; Berndt, Annerose; Sundberg, John P; Uitto, Jouni

    2013-09-01

    Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), an autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by early mineralization of blood vessels, often diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound and usually resulting in demise during the first year of life. It is caused in most cases by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, encoding an enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate, the latter being a powerful anti-mineralization factor. Recently, a novel mouse phenotype was recognized as a result of ENU mutagenesis - those mice developed stiffening of the joints, hence the mutant mouse was named 'ages with stiffened joints' (asj). These mice harbor a missense mutation, p.V246D, in the Enpp1 gene. Here we demonstrate that the mutant ENPP1 protein is largely absent in the liver of asj mice, and the lack of enzymatic activity results in reduced inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels in the plasma, accompanied by extensive mineralization of a number of tissues, including arterial blood vessels. The progress of mineralization is highly dependent on the mineral composition of the diet, with significant shortening of the lifespan on a diet enriched in phosphorus and low in magnesium. These results suggest that the asj mouse can serve as an animal model for GACI.

  10. Fate of developing tooth buds located in relation to mandibular fractures in three infancy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Horita, Satoshi; Matsubara, Yuri; Kuraki, Miho; Kurihara, Miyako; Imai, Yuichiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2010-08-01

    The fate of developing tooth buds located in relation to mandibular fractures was investigated in three infancy cases. Three infants, 2 girls and a boy, aged from 1 year and 5-months old to 2 years and 6-months old, were treated for dislocated mandibular fracture in the symphyseal region by manual reduction and fixation with a thermoforming splint and circumferential wiring under general anesthesia. Fracture healing was uneventful in all cases. A few years later, no obvious deformity of the jaw or malocclusion was observed; however, malformation of the crown was found in one of the permanent teeth on the fracture line in the first case. In the second case, no abnormality was observed in one of the permanent teeth on the fracture line, but the effect on the other tooth could not be evaluated due to abnormality of the tooth probably not related to the injury. In the third case, root formation was arrested in one of the permanent teeth on the fracture line and the tooth was lost early after eruption. The development of tooth buds on the fracture line is not predictable and therefore, should be monitored by regular follow up.

  11. Sustained attention in infancy as a longitudinal predictor of self-regulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Marciszko, Carin; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Nyström, Pär; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2015-11-01

    Previous literature suggests that attention processes such as sustained attention would constitute a developmental foundation for the self-regulatory functions executive functioning and effortful control (e.g., Garon, Bryson, & Smith, 2008; Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner, 1994). Our main aim was to test this hypothesis by studying whether sustained attention at age 1 year can predict individual differences in self-regulatory functions at age 2 years. Longitudinal data from 66 infants and their parents were included in the study. Sustained attention was assessed during free play at age 1 year; executive functioning, measured using an eye-tracking version of the A-not-B task, and effortful control, measured using parental ratings, were assessed at both age 1 and age 2 years. The results did support a longitudinal prediction of individual differences in 2-year-olds' self-regulatory functions as a function of sustained attention at age 1 year. We also found significant improvement in both executive functioning and effortful control over time, and the two self-regulatory constructs were related in toddlerhood but not in infancy. The study helps increase our understanding of the early development of self-regulatory functions necessary for identifying developmental risks and, in the future, for developing new interventions.

  12. The behavioural phenotype in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS): from infancy to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swillen, A; Devriendt, K; Legius, E; Prinzie, P; Vogels, A; Ghesquière, P; Fryns, J P

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution the current status and recent findings of the behavioural phenotype in VCFS (22q11 deletion) are discussed with regard to motor development, cognition and neurodevelopment, and behaviour and temperament. Motor: hypotonia in infancy, gross-motor milestones are delayed, problems with coordination and balance from preschool age on, problems with tempo/speed during adolescence. Cognition and neurodevelopment: learning disabilities (82-100%), intellectual disability (45%), better verbal abilities than performal abilities, poor attention and concentration, visuo-perceptual-spatia problems, good (auditory) memory. An important subgroup of children (55%) has a non-verbal learning disability (NLD). Behaviour and social-emotional development AD(H)D, withdrawn and shy, person-dependent social problems in relationships with peers, anxious, risk for child psychiatric problems as well as for the development of psychiatric problems during adolescence and early adulthood. Information on the behavioural phenotype in VCFS (22q11 deletion) is of great importance to clinicians as an aid to syndrome diagnosis, but even more to parents because it offers immense direct practical value to the management of the behaviour of their child. Appropriate counseling and information on the long-term expectations, and better insight in the behaviour will lead to the development of realistic ways of coping with their child.

  13. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumina Hasan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up.

  14. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2016-03-01

    To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental weight status. The odds for high diet quality in relation to parental diet quality were determined. Associations between measured infant relative weight and dietary intake were examined adjusting for obesity risk, socio-demographics, and infant feeding. Infant dietary intake did not differ between high- and low-risk families. The parents in high-risk families consumed soft drinks, French fries, and low-fat spread more frequently, and fish and fruits less frequently (p intake of vegetables and fish increased the odds for children being consumers of vegetables (OR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.0-2.9) and fish, respectively (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.4-4.4). Infant relative weight was weakly associated with a high intake of milk cereal drink (r = 0.15; p intake, obesity risk, or early feeding patterns. At the age of one, dietary intake in infants is not associated with family obesity risk, nor with parental obesogenic food intake. Milk cereal drink consumption but no other infant dietary marker reflects relative weight at this young age.

  15. Epilepsy phenotype associated with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A: Migrating partial seizures of infancy or atypical Dravet syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Hunmin; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    The deletion of a sodium channel gene cluster located on chromosome 2q24.3 is associated with variable epilepsy phenotypes, including Dravet syndrome and migrating partial seizures of infancy. Although SCN1A is considered as the major contributor to the epilepsy phenotype, the role of other sodium channel genes that map within this cluster has not been delineated. We presented five new cases with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A and investigated their epilepsy phenotype in relation to the extent of the deletion. Three cases with deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster (SCN3A, SCN2A, SCN1A, SCN9A, and SCN7A) exhibited a complex epilepsy phenotype that was atypical for Dravet syndrome and suggestive of migrating partial seizures of infancy: early seizure onset (before 2 months of age), severe developmental delay from seizure onset, multifocal interictal spikes, polymorphous focal seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Two cases with partial deletion of SCN1A and SCN9A and whole SCN1A deletion had an epilepsy phenotype of Dravet syndrome. A literature review of cases with chromosome 2q24.3 deletion revealed that, in most Dravet syndrome cases, it does not involve SCN2A and SCN3A, whereas a complex epilepsy phenotype that is shared with migrating partial seizures of infancy was associated with cases of deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster.

  16. Effect of weight and adiposity at conception and wide variations in gestational dietary intake on pregnancy outcome and early postnatal performance in young adolescent sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P

    2010-02-01

    Nutritional backgrounds prior to pregnancy may interact with subsequent gestational intake to influence pregnancy outcome, particularly in young, growing adolescents. To investigate this interaction, singleton pregnancies were established in two groups of adolescent sheep of identical age but different initial weight and adiposity score, classified as good (G) and poor (P) body mass index (BMI). Thereafter, ewes were offered either an optimal control (C) intake to maintain adiposity throughout pregnancy, undernourished (UN) to maintain weight at conception but deplete maternal body reserves, or overnourished (ON) to promote rapid maternal growth and adiposity, resulting in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Gestation length was independent of BMI and reduced in ON dams. Average placental and lamb birth weights were influenced by initial BMI (G > P) and gestational intake (C > UN > ON), with the highest incidence of growth restriction in ON groups. Metabolic challenges at two thirds of gestation revealed enhanced insulin insensitivity in ON dams (higher glucose postinsulin challenge and higher insulin postglucose challenge), but nevertheless fetal growth was constrained. Initial colostrum yield, total IgG, and nutrient supply were reduced in ON groups, but these low-birth-weight lambs exhibited rapid catch-up growth to weaning. Thus, both maternal BMI at conception and gestational intake have a profound influence on pregnancy outcome in young, putatively growing adolescent sheep and may have implications for the nutritional management of pregnant adolescent humans.

  17. Infantile autism: a chronic psychosis since infancy due to synaptic pruning of the supplementary motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2008-01-01

    in IA despite no rise in adversity signifies a rising deficiency in brain-food. That this is so is suggested by a changing clinical picture: no Mental Retardation in an IA majority. Deficit in Olfaction is pathognomonic in schizophrenia since 30 yrs and distinguishes the Asperger Syndrome. If brain-food deficiency alone sufficiently prolongs pruning to cause absent activity in SMA in infancy, less mentally retarded IA from other causes might be observed. Deficit in brain-food was evident in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: birthweight averaged 200-300 g lower than sibs, Omega-3 levels in brainstem were lower than controls. Only 20 % SIDS died in first hypoxic episode, suggesting such episodes are more frequent than we imagined. Children with learning-behaviour problems have similarly depressed birthweight. A general deficiency in Omega-3 contributes to the lacking reduction in Schizophrenia, despite early puberty predominates. Olfactory Bulb is first affected in the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease. Cognitive decline with age, Hippocampal dysfunctions rise markedly irrespective of disease, but the major mental illnesses and Infantile Autism in particular, benefit from "brain-food" that might also prevent a development of these disorders. To secure optimal brain function in the coming generations, there is a need to change the diet now from its emphasis on protein for body growth to food for the brain. This means there is a need to increase fish and sea food consumption.

  18. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  19. Academic Performance in Adolescence after Inguinal Hernia Repair in Infancy: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom G; Pedersen, Jacob K; Henneberg, Steen W

    2011-01-01

    for inguinal hernia repair in infancy and subsequent academic performance. METHODS:: Using Danish birth cohorts from 1986-1990, we compared the academic performance of all children who had undergone inguinal hernia repair in infancy to a randomly selected, age-matched 5% population sample. Primary analysis...... found no evidence that a single, relatively brief anesthetic exposure in connection with hernia repair in infancy reduced academic performance at age 15 or 16 yr after adjusting for known confounding factors. However, the higher test score nonattainment rate among the hernia group could suggest...... repair in infancy. A randomly selected, age-matched 5% population sample consists of 14,575 individuals. Although the exposure group performed worse than the control group (average score 0.26 lower; 95% CI, 0.21-0.31), after adjusting for known confounders, no statistically significant difference (-0...

  20. Research Progress of Early Treatment Management of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant%超低出生体质量儿的早期治疗管理进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祎琳; 陈燕华; 李慧; 周晓玉; 薛梅

    2014-01-01

    The extremely low birth weight (ELBW)infant means that the premature infants′birth body weight is less than 1 000 g.At present,with the increase of neonatal intensive care technology,the survival rate of the ELBW infant is gradually improving,but the early treatment management of ELBW is still one of the most difficult problems in the world.The current studies showed many disputes in the early treatment management of the ELBW infant.This review summarized the early treatment management of the ELBW infant from the perspectives of breathing management, nutrition management, infection and complications.%超低出生体质量(ELBW)儿是指出生体质量<1000 g的早产儿。随着新生儿重症监护技术的提高,ELBW儿的存活率呈逐年上升趋势,但其早期治疗管理仍是国内外学者关注的重点及难题之一。目前,就 ELBW儿的早期治疗管理仍存争议。笔者拟就从呼吸管理、营养管理、感染及并发症处理方面对ELBW儿的早期治疗管理,进行综述如下。

  1. Surgical Management of Pierre Robin Sequence: Using Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis to Address Hypoventilation and Failure to Thrive in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew R

    2016-04-01

    Mandibular hypoplasia may present in isolation or in the context of glossoptosis and a U-shaped, incomplete cleft palate. This latter triad is referred to as Pierre Robin sequence. Deleterious effects of micrognathia that may present during infancy are due primarily to glossoptosis or posterior displacement of the tongue. This tongue base prolapse may cause varying degrees of upper airway obstruction. A surgical option for management of tongue base airway obstruction secondary to mandibular hypoplasia is neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Herein, the author seeks to outline the benefits and limitations of early mandibular distraction osteogenesis as a way of managing airway obstruction and feeding difficulty in newborns with micrognathia. A description of the author's operative technique as well as potential complications and pitfalls will also be discussed.

  2. Vegetarian diets in pregnancy, lactation, infancy and childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strict vegetarian diet with avoidance of all foods of animal origin poses a risk of deficiency of several nutrients: iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, vitamin B12, B2, A, D, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22: 6n-3, proteins and energy. Guidelines of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN and the Slovenian guidelines dissuade from strict vegetarian or vegan diet for children. However, in the majority of adolescents across Europe, including in Slovenia, markedly too low intake of vegetables is reported. The manuscript presents the benefits of plant-based foods in the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents. Other benefits of sufficient intake of plant-based foods include the prevention of cardiovascular diseases with the Mediterranean diet. While warning against very strict vegetarian diet in infancy, specially in children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women it is very important to promote plant-foods in the diet of omnivorous children and adolescents; this should become an important public health strategy.

  3. Different Neurologic Aspects of Nutritional B12 Deficiency in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sanem; Serdaroglu, Gul; Tekgul, Hasan; Gokben, Sarenur

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate neurologic problems caused by nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. Twenty-four cases between 2 and 18 months of age with neurologic symptoms and/or signs and diagnosed as nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency were analyzed. The most common symptoms were developmental retardation, afebrile seizures, and involuntary movements. The mean vitamin B12 levels were lower in patients with both neurologic and extraneurologic involvement when compared to those with only neurologic symptoms. All of the cases were treated with vitamin B12. In patients with severe deficiencies, involuntary movements were observed during vitamin B12 treatment using cyanocobalamin form. At the 1-year follow-up, all but 3 patients were considered neurodevelopmentally normal. The 3 patients that did not fully recover, on admission, had the lowest vitamin B12 levels. It is of great importance to prevent, diagnose, and treat vitamin B12 deficiency promptly to prevent the long-term neurologic problems.

  4. Face processing in Williams syndrome is already atypical in infancy

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    Dean eD'Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Face processing is a crucial socio-cognitive ability. Is it acquired progressively or does it constitute an innately-specified, face-processing module? The latter would be supported if some individuals with seriously impaired intelligence nonetheless showed intact face-processing abilities. Some theorists claim that Williams syndrome (WS provides such evidence since, despite IQs in the 50s, adolescents/adults with WS score in the normal range on standardised face-processing tests. Others argue that atypical neural and cognitive processes underlie WS face-processing proficiencies. But what about infants with WS? Do they start with typical face-processing abilities, with atypicality developing later, or are atypicalities already evident in infancy? We used an infant familiarisation/novelty design and compared infants with WS to healthy controls as well as to a group of infants with DS matched on both mental and chronological age. Participants were familiarised with a schematic face, after which they saw a novel face in which either the features (eye shape were changed or just the configuration of the original features. Configural changes were processed successfully by controls, but not by infants with WS who were only sensitive to featural changes and who showed syndrome-specific profiles different from infants with the other neurodevelopmental disorder. Our findings indicate that theorists can no longer use the case of Williams syndrome to support claims that evolution has endowed the human brain with an independent face-processing module.

  5. [Atopic dermatitis and food allergy in infancy and childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stögmann, W; Kurz, H

    1996-01-01

    Food allergies are causal factors for atopic dermatitis (AD) in 50% in infancy, in 20 to 30% in childhood, and only in 10 to 15% after puberty and in adulthood. Cow's milk, egg, fish, wheat, soy, nuts and citrus-fruits are the most proven allergens. Pseudoallergens, especially food-additiva, have to be regarded too. For the proof of the clinical relevance that food allergy is causing AD a positive result of elimination and provocation has to be required. When by these diagnostic procedure a special food is found as causing the AD it has to be eliminated in the diet of this patient. In severe cases of AD semi-elementary respectively few foods diets may be necessary. However in most cases of AD the "diet of choice" is an age related normal nutrition. To delay respectively to avoid the manifestation of atopy special recommendations for the nutrition of high risk newborns and infants (especially long breast feeding, late solid feeding) should be considered.

  6. Reasoning about instrumental and communicative agency in human infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, György; Jacob, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical rationality and practical rationality are, respectively, properties of an individual's belief system and decision system. While reasoning about instrumental actions complies with practical rationality, understanding communicative actions complies with the principle of relevance. Section 2 reviews the evidence showing that young infants can reason about an agent's instrumental action by representing her subjective motivations and the episodic contents of her epistemic states (including false beliefs). Section 3 reviews the evidence showing special sensitivity in young human infants to some ostensive behavioral signals encoding an agent's communicative intention. We also address the puzzle of imitative learning of novel means actions by 1-year olds and argue that it can be resolved only by assuming that the infant construes the model's demonstration as a communicative, not an instrumental, action. Section 4 reviews the evidence for natural pedagogy, a species-unique social communicative learning mechanism that exploits human infants' receptivity to ostensive-communicative signals and enables infants to acquire kind-wide generalizations from the nonverbal demonstrations of communicative agents. We argue that the essentialist bias that has been shown to be involved in children's concepts of natural kinds also applies to infants' concepts of artifacts. We further examine how natural pedagogy may also boost inductive learning in human infancy.

  7. Selective social learning in infancy: looking for mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Cristina; Phillips, Sara; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-08-30

    Although there is mounting evidence that selective social learning begins in infancy, the psychological mechanisms underlying this ability are currently a controversial issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether theory of mind abilities and statistical learning skills are related to infants' selective social learning. Seventy-seven 18-month-olds were first exposed to a reliable or an unreliable speaker and then completed a word learning task, two theory of mind tasks, and a statistical learning task. If domain-general abilities are linked to selective social learning, then infants who demonstrate superior performance on the statistical learning task should perform better on the selective learning task, that is, should be less likely to learn words from an unreliable speaker. Alternatively, if domain-specific abilities are involved, then superior performance on theory of mind tasks should be related to selective learning performance. Findings revealed that, as expected, infants were more likely to learn a novel word from a reliable speaker. Importantly, infants who passed a theory of mind task assessing knowledge attribution were significantly less likely to learn a novel word from an unreliable speaker compared to infants who failed this task. No such effect was observed for the other tasks. These results suggest that infants who possess superior social-cognitive abilities are more apt to reject an unreliable speaker as informant. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/zuuCniHYzqo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Allergy from infancy to adolescence. A population-based 18-year follow-up cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Minna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxious parents have many concerns about the future health of their atopic infants. Paediatricians and primary care practitioners need to seek knowledge on long-term outcomes in order to cope with the increasing caseload of suspected allergy and the concerns of parents. The aim of the study was to assess suspected and diagnosed allergy in infancy as predictors of allergy and asthma in adolescence. Methods Families expecting their first baby and making their first visit to a maternity health care clinic in 1986 were selected as the study population in a random sample. There were 1278 eligible study families. The data were provided of the children at the ages of 9 and 18 months and 3, 5, 12, 15 and 18 years by health care professionals, parents, and adolescents (themselves. Results At the age of 9 months, the prevalence of allergy suspicions was distinctly higher than that of allergy diagnoses. At the age of five years suspected allergy approaches were nil, and the prevalence of diagnosed allergy was about 9%. During the adolescence, the prevalence of self-reported allergy increases steadily up to the age of 18 years, and that of asthma remains at approximately 5%. Suspected allergy at the age of 9 or 18 months and at the 5 years of age does not predict allergy at adolescence. Compared with non-allergic children, children with definite allergy at the age of 5 were over 8 times more likely to have allergy and nearly 7 times more likely to have asthma in adolescence. Conclusion An early ascertained diagnosis of allergy, but not suspicions of allergy, predicts prevailing allergy in adolescence. Efforts need to be focused on accurate diagnosis of early childhood allergies.

  9. The relationship between nutrition in infancy and cognitive performance during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett eNyaradi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the long term associations between breastfeeding duration during infancy, diet quality as measured by a diet score at one year of age and cognitive performance during adolescence.Methods: Participants (n= 717 were recruited from the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study, a prospective longitudinal study of 2868 children and their families based in Perth, Western Australia. Breastfeeding duration and an early diet score at age one year were used as the main predictor variables, while a computerized cognitive battery (CogState was used to assess adolescents’ cognitive performance at 17 years. The diet score, which has seven food group components, was based on a 24-hour recall questionnaire completed by the mother at one year of age. A higher diet score represents a better, more nutritious eating pattern. Associations between breastfeeding duration, diet score and cognitive performance were assessed in multivariable regression models.Results: Higher diet scores at one year representing better diet quality were significantly associated with faster reaction times in cognitive performance at 17 years (Detection Task: β= -0.004, 95% CI: -0.008; 0.000, p= 0.036; Identification Task: β= -0.004, 95% CI: -0.008; 0.000, p= 0.027. Breastfeeding duration (≥ 4 months was also significantly associated with a shorter reaction time, but only for males (Detection Task: β= -0.026, 95% CI: -0.046; -0.006, p= 0.010. Conclusion: Nutrition in early childhood may have a long term association with fundamental cognitive processing speed, which is likely to be related to enhanced brain development in the first year of life.

  10. Low-molecular-weight heparin added to aspirin in the prevention of recurrent early-onset pre-eclampsia in women with inheritable thrombophilia : the FRUIT-RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, J. I. P.; Van Pampus, M. G.; Hague, W. M.; Bezemer, P. D.; Joosten, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    . Background: Early-onset hypertensive disorders (HD) of pregnancy and small-for-gestational age infants (SGA) are associated with placental vascular thrombosis, these often recur and are also associated with inheritable thrombophilia. Aspirin reduces the recurrence risk. Objectives: Adding low-mole

  11. Childhood BMI in relation to microbiota in infancy and lifetime antibiotic use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Zijlmans, M.A.C.; Kuitunen, M.; Kukkonen, K.; Savilahti, E.; Salonen, A.; Weerth, de C.; Vos, de Willem

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with high body mass index (BMI) at preschool age are at risk of developing obesity. Early identification of factors that increase the risk of excessive weight gain could help direct preventive actions. The intestinal microbiota and antibiotic use have been identified as

  12. Childhood BMI in relation to microbiota in infancy and lifetime antibiotic use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.E.; Zijlmans, M.A.C.; Kuitunen, M.; Kukkonen, A.K.; Savilahti, E.; Salonen, A.; Weerth, C. de; Vos, W.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with high body mass index (BMI) at preschool age are at risk of developing obesity. Early identification of factors that increase the risk of excessive weight gain could help direct preventive actions. The intestinal microbiota and antibiotic use have been identified as

  13. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T

    2013-02-01

    research has linked together whether the children who receive non-authoritative parenting and are overweight in infancy are the same children who are overweight in adolescence. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: • Evidence for 3 different prototypes of BMI percentile growth over the course of childhood approaching adolescence. • Adds complexity re the influence of parenting styles as an influence on patterns of weight gain. • Buttresses existing research as to early and lasting effects of SES on patterns of BMI. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Effect of birth size and proportionality on BMI and skinfold thickness in early adolescence: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, C L; Hallal, P C; Nader, G A; Neutzling, M B; deFátima Vieira, M; Menezes, A M B; Victora, C G

    2009-05-01

    To assess the effect of birth weight, length and ponderal index at birth on body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness in early adolescence. Population-based, prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. Out of 5249 cohort members, 87.5% were traced at 11 years of age. Birth weight, length and ponderal index (birth weight/birth length(3) x 100) -- treated as continuous variable and divided into fourths -- were the exposure variables. BMI at 11 years, triceps and subscapular skinfolds were the outcomes. Confounders included sex, gestational age, parity, maternal schooling, family income, maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal BMI. All three exposure variables were significantly associated with BMI in early adolescence, but the strongest effect was observed for birth weight. Each unit (Z-score) increase in birth weight was associated with 0.46 kg m(-2) increase in BMI at 11 years. The equivalent coefficients for ponderal index and birth length were 0.22 and 0.21 kg m(-2), respectively. High birth weight, length and ponderal index were also associated with increased values for triceps and subscapular skinfolds at 11 years, and with increased prevalence of obesity. Of the three birth exposures studied, birth weight presented the strongest effect on anthropometry in early adolescence. Ponderal index, a proportionality indicator associated with infant mortality, hospitalizations and anthropometry in infancy, was also associated with anthropometry in early adolescence, but its predictive value for the latter is lower than that of birthweight alone. All three birth size indicators studied presented poor predictability of the later risk of obesity.

  15. Analysis of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants%超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余华娟

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症的发生情况。方法对2010年3月~2012年12月本院出生的129例超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症进行临床分析。结果新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS),呼吸暂停,肺部感染,气漏,支气管肺发育不良(BPD)3组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其中<1000 g组发生率最高,1250~1499 g组发生率最低。3组痊愈率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症进行密切监护和针对治疗,可提高患儿的成活率,提高生存质量。%Objective To investigate the occurrence of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants. Methods Early respiratory complications of 129 cases with extremely low and very low birth weight infants born in our hospital from March 2010 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results There were significant differences in NRDS,apnea,pulmonary infection,gas leakage and BPD among the three groups(P<0.05).The incidence of the group with birth weight less than 1000 g was the highest,while the incidence of the group with birth weight ranged from 1250 g to 1499 g was the lowest.There was significant difference in the cure rate among the three groups(P<0.05). Concluson Close monitoring and corresponding treatment of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants can improve the survival rate and life quality of infants.

  16. 早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育的影响%Effect of early intervention on low birth weight infant physical development and nerve behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of early intervention on low birth weight infant physical development and nerve behavior. Methods 96 cases of low birth weight infants as the discussion object, randomly divided into the intervention group and the non intervention group two group, and selected 42 cases of normal term infants as control group, the implementation of infant massage, nutrition guidance, early education, motion perception, language training in the intervention group, three groups of infant weight, body length, head circumference were measured. Results the intervention group weight, length, head circumference was better than the untreated group, the intervention had no significant difference between group and control group. Conclusion early intervention on low birth weight infants physical and neurobehavioral development is obviously promote.%目的分析讨论早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育的影响。方法选取96例低出生体重儿为讨论对象,随机分为干预组和未干预组两组,同期选择42例正常足月的婴儿为对照组,对干预组实施婴儿抚触、营养指导、早期教育、感知运动、语言等训练,对三组婴儿六个月之后的体重、身长、头围等进行检查测量。结果干预组的体重、身长、头围明显优于未干预组,干预组和对照组之间无显著性差异。结论早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育有明显的促进作用。

  17. Novel developmental analyses identify longitudinal patterns of early gut microbiota that affect infant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A White

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that some obesity trajectories are set early in life, and that rapid weight gain in infancy is a risk factor for later development of obesity. Identifying modifiable factors associated with early rapid weight gain is a prerequisite for curtailing the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Recently, much attention has been given to findings indicating that gut microbiota may play a role in obesity development. We aim at identifying how the development of early gut microbiota is associated with expected infant growth. We developed a novel procedure that allows for the identification of longitudinal gut microbiota patterns (corresponding to the gut ecosystem developing, which are associated with an outcome of interest, while appropriately controlling for the false discovery rate. Our method identified developmental pathways of Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli that were associated with expected growth, and traditional methods indicated that the detection of Bacteroides species at day 30 was associated with growth. Our method should have wide future applicability for studying gut microbiota, and is particularly important for translational considerations, as it is critical to understand the timing of microbiome transitions prior to attempting to manipulate gut microbiota in early life.

  18. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides in early life: ontogeny and translational opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jane Battersby

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst developing adaptive immune responses, young infants are especially vulnerable to serious infections including sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (APPs are key effectors that function as broad-spectrum anti-infectives. This review seeks to summarise the clinically relevant functional qualities of APPs and the increasing clinical trial evidence for their use to combat serious infections in infancy. Levels of APPs are relatively low in early life, especially in infants born preterm or with low birth weight (LBW. There are several rationales for the potential clinical utility of APPs in the prevention and treatment of infections in infants: (a APPs may be most helpful in those with reduced levels; (b during sepsis microbial products signal via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs causing potentially harmful inflammation which APPs may counteract; and (c in the era of antibiotic resistance, development of new anti-infective strategies is essential. Evidence supports the potential clinical utility of exogenous APPs to reduce infection-related morbidity in infancy. Further studies should characterize the ontogeny of antimicrobial activity in mucosal and systemic compartments, and examine the efficacy of exogenous-APP formulations to inform translational development of APPs for infant groups.

  19. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... were similar for nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that maternal smoking reduces eNOS activity in the fetal vascular bed, contributing to retarded fetal growth caused by the reduction of vasodilatory capacity, and suggest that smoking cessation early in pregnancy...