Sample records for early human development

  1. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria


    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  2. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development. (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin


    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic gene profile in early human fetal heart development. (United States)

    Iruretagoyena, J I; Davis, W; Bird, C; Olsen, J; Radue, R; Teo Broman, A; Kendziorski, C; Splinter BonDurant, S; Golos, T; Bird, I; Shah, D


    The primitive cardiac tube starts beating 6-8 weeks post fertilization in the developing embryo. In order to describe normal cardiac development during late first and early second trimester in human fetuses this study used microarray and pathways analysis and created a corresponding 'normal' database. Fourteen fetal hearts from human fetuses between 10 and 18 weeks of gestational age (GA) were prospectively collected at the time of elective termination of pregnancy. RNA from recovered tissues was used for transcriptome analysis with Affymetrix 1.0 ST microarray chip. From the amassed data we investigated differences in cardiac development within the 10-18 GA period dividing the sample by GA in three groups: 10-12 (H1), 13-15 (H2) and 16-18 (H3) weeks. A fold change of 2 or above adjusted for a false discovery rate of 5% was used as initial cutoff to determine differential gene expression for individual genes. Test for enrichment to identify functional groups was carried out using the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Array analysis correctly identified the cardiac specific genes, and transcripts reported to be differentially expressed were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Single transcript and Ontology analysis showed first trimester heart expression of myosin-related genes to be up-regulated >5-fold compared with second trimester heart. In contrast the second trimester hearts showed further gestation-related increases in many genes involved in energy production and cardiac remodeling. In conclusion, fetal heart development during the first trimester was dominated by heart-specific genes coding for myocardial development and differentiation. During the second trimester, transcripts related to energy generation and cardiomyocyte communication for contractile coordination/proliferation were more dominant. Transcripts related to fatty acid metabolism can be seen as early as 10 weeks and clearly increase as the heart matures. Retinol

  4. Dynamics of thymus organogenesis and colonization in early human development (United States)

    Farley, Alison M.; Morris, Lucy X.; Vroegindeweij, Eric; Depreter, Marianne L. G.; Vaidya, Harsh; Stenhouse, Frances H.; Tomlinson, Simon R.; Anderson, Richard A.; Cupedo, Tom; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Blackburn, C. Clare


    The thymus is the central site of T-cell development and thus is of fundamental importance to the immune system, but little information exists regarding molecular regulation of thymus development in humans. Here we demonstrate, via spatial and temporal expression analyses, that the genetic mechanisms known to regulate mouse thymus organogenesis are conserved in humans. In addition, we provide molecular evidence that the human thymic epithelium derives solely from the third pharyngeal pouch, as in the mouse, in contrast to previous suggestions. Finally, we define the timing of onset of hematopoietic cell colonization and epithelial cell differentiation in the human thymic primordium, showing, unexpectedly, that the first colonizing hematopoietic cells are CD45+CD34int/-. Collectively, our data provide essential information for translation of principles established in the mouse to the human, and are of particular relevance to development of improved strategies for enhancing immune reconstitution in patients. PMID:23571219

  5. Tridimensional Visualization and Analysis of Early Human Development. (United States)

    Belle, Morgane; Godefroy, David; Couly, Gérard; Malone, Samuel A; Collier, Francis; Giacobini, Paolo; Chédotal, Alain


    Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early childhood development: impact of national human development, family poverty, parenting practices and access to early childhood education. (United States)

    Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J


    This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Investing in Early Human Development: Timing and Economic Efficiency (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P.; Heckman, James J.; Tremblay, Richard E.


    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the “antenatal investment hypothesis”. We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate. PMID:19213617

  8. Early stages in human and mouse T-cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.


    One important question in lymphopoiesis is where stem cells commit to T-, B- and natural killer (NK)-cell lineages. Recent findings in human and mouse systems suggest that the thymus is seeded by a yet uncommitted progenitor cell. The earliest murine thymic progenitor cells have the capacity to

  9. Structuring the analysis of human concerns at an early stage of system development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belyavin, A.J.; Tyler, S.; Lotens, W.A.


    This paper describes the development of a new approach to risk analysis applied to the investigation of how inserting new technologies in systems may induce positive and negative human impacts. The current approach employed by the UK Ministry of Defence, and embodied in the Early Human Factors

  10. Sex-specific chromosome instability in early human development. (United States)

    Kovaleva, Natalia V


    The predominance of females segregating chromosome aberrations to their offspring has been explained mostly by selection disadvantage of unbalanced products of spermatogenesis. However, analysis of data from the literature supports the idea that somatic cells of early female embryos are similar to female germ cells in that they are prone to malsegregation. The goal of this study was to compare the sex ratio (male to female ratio) of carriers of presumably mitotic-occurring chromosome abnormalities to identify any sex biases. In examining the literature, we found a female prevalence in cases of mosaicism associated with uniparental disomy (UPD) (26 male individuals/conceptions and 45 female individuals/conceptions, sex ratio is 0.58, significantly different from 1.06 in newborn population, P = 0.0292). This predominance was highest at gestational age X mosaics over 46,XY/45,X mosaics in prenatally diagnosed cases, which also suggests a gender-specific postzygotic chromosome loss. The male prevalence in Prader-Willi syndrome with maternal UPD of chromosome 15 also can be explained by sex-specific trisomy correction, with predominant loss of a maternal chromosome causing biparental inheritance and therefore, complete correction of trisomy in females (without UPD). Finally, there is a female predominance in carriers of chromosome rearrangement with pericentromere break (mosaicism for Robertsonian translocation/isochromosome, centric fission, nonacrocentric isochromosome, and whole arm rearrangement), in both prenatal (21 males and 36 females, sex ratio is 0.58, P < 0.0184) and postnatal ill-defined cases (14 males and 35 females, sex ratio is 0.40, P = 0.001). Thus, the findings presented in this paper suggest that, in addition to reduction in male fertility, and to probable selection against abnormal cell line(s), there are two mechanisms that contribute to female preponderance among carriers of mosaicism: sex-specific chromosome loss and sex-specific centromere

  11. New insights into human primordial germ cells and early embryonic development from single-cell analysis. (United States)

    Otte, Jörg; Wruck, Wasco; Adjaye, James


    Human preimplantation developmental studies are difficult to accomplish due to associated ethical and moral issues. Preimplantation cells are rare and exist only in transient cell states. From a single cell, it is very challenging to analyse the origination of the heterogeneity and complexity inherent to the human body. However, recent advances in single-cell technology and data analysis have provided new insights into the process of early human development and germ cell specification. In this Review, we examine the latest single-cell datasets of human preimplantation embryos and germ cell development, compare them to bulk cell analyses, and interpret their biological implications. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Immunohistochemical markers for corneal stem cells in the early developing human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngholm, Mikkel; Høyer, Poul E; Vorum, Henrik


    markers and potential markers for LSCs and early transient amplifying cells in human adults. In this study, we describe the development of the ectodermally derived LSCs and the mesodermally derived niche cells from the time at which the cornea is defined (week 6) until the formation of the early limbal...... niche (week 14) in human embryos and fetuses. The expression of SOD2 and CK15 was investigated together with other recently identified limbal proteins. Previously suggested LSC and differentiation markers (PAX6, aquaporin-1 and nestin) were also investigated. Both SOD2 and CK15 were present...

  13. Global gene expression profiling of individual human oocytes and embryos demonstrates heterogeneity in early development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shaw

    Full Text Available Early development in humans is characterised by low and variable embryonic viability, reflected in low fecundity and high rates of miscarriage, relative to other mammals. Data from assisted reproduction programmes provides additional evidence that this is largely mediated at the level of embryonic competence and is highly heterogeneous among embryos. Understanding the basis of this heterogeneity has important implications in a number of areas including: the regulation of early human development, disorders of pregnancy, assisted reproduction programmes, the long term health of children which may be programmed in early development, and the molecular basis of pluripotency in human stem cell populations. We have therefore investigated global gene expression profiles using polyAPCR amplification and microarray technology applied to individual human oocytes and 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. In order to explore the basis of any variability in detail, each developmental stage is replicated in triplicate. Our data show that although transcript profiles are highly stage-specific, within each stage they are relatively variable. We describe expression of a number of gene families and pathways including apoptosis, cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, which are variably expressed and may be reflective of embryonic developmental competence. Overall, our data suggest that heterogeneity in human embryo developmental competence is reflected in global transcript profiles, and that the vast majority of existing human embryo gene expression data based on pooled oocytes and embryos need to be reinterpreted.

  14. Human amniotic fluid contaminants alter thyroid hormone signalling and early brain development in Xenopus embryos (United States)

    Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Mughal, Bilal B.; Le Mével, Sébastien; Leemans, Michelle; Lettmann, Mélodie; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Affaticati, Pierre; Jenett, Arnim; Demeneix, Barbara A.


    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with decreased offspring IQ and modified brain structure. As numerous environmental chemicals disrupt thyroid hormone signalling, we questioned whether exposure to ubiquitous chemicals affects thyroid hormone responses during early neurogenesis. We established a mixture of 15 common chemicals at concentrations reported in human amniotic fluid. An in vivo larval reporter (GFP) assay served to determine integrated thyroid hormone transcriptional responses. Dose-dependent effects of short-term (72 h) exposure to single chemicals and the mixture were found. qPCR on dissected brains showed significant changes in thyroid hormone-related genes including receptors, deiodinases and neural differentiation markers. Further, exposure to mixture also modified neural proliferation as well as neuron and oligodendrocyte size. Finally, exposed tadpoles showed behavioural responses with dose-dependent reductions in mobility. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture of ubiquitous chemicals at concentrations found in human amniotic fluid affect thyroid hormone-dependent transcription, gene expression, brain development and behaviour in early embryogenesis. As thyroid hormone signalling is strongly conserved across vertebrates the results suggest that ubiquitous chemical mixtures could be exerting adverse effects on foetal human brain development.

  15. Early childhood development in Rwanda: a policy analysis of the human rights legal framework. (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Scott, Kirstin W; Harward, Sardis H


    Early childhood development (ECD) is a critical period that continues to impact human health and productivity throughout the lifetime. Failing to provide policies and programs that support optimal developmental attainment when such services are financially and logistically feasible can result in negative population health, education and economic consequences that might otherwise be avoided. Rwanda, with its commitment to rights-based policy and program planning, serves as a case study for examination of the national, regional, and global human rights legal frameworks that inform ECD service delivery. In this essay, we summarize key causes and consequences of the loss of early developmental potential and how this relates to the human rights legal framework in Rwanda. We contend that sub-optimal early developmental attainment constitutes a violation of individuals' rights to health, education, and economic prosperity. These rights are widely recognized in global, regional and national human rights instruments, and are guaranteed by Rwanda's constitution. Recent policy implementation by several Rwandan ministries has increased access to health and social services that promote achievement of full developmental potential. These ECD-centric activities are characterized by an integrated approach to strengthening the services provided by several public sectors. Combining population level activities with those at the local level, led by local community health workers and women's councils, can bolster community education and ensure uptake of ECD services. Realization of the human rights to health, education, and economic prosperity requires and benefits from attention to the period of ECD, as early childhood has the potential to be an opportunity for expedient intervention or the first case of human rights neglect in a lifetime of rights violations. Efforts to improve ECD services and outcomes at the population level require multisector collaboration at the highest echelons

  16. Primary cortical folding in the human newborn: an early marker of later functional development (United States)

    Benders, M.; Borradori-Tolsa, C.; Cachia, A.; Lazeyras, F.; Ha-Vinh Leuchter, R.; Sizonenko, S. V.; Warfield, S. K.; Mangin, J. F.; Hüppi, P. S.


    In the human brain, the morphology of cortical gyri and sulci is complex and variable among individuals, and it may reflect pathological functioning with specific abnormalities observed in certain developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Since cortical folding occurs early during brain development, these structural abnormalities might be present long before the appearance of functional symptoms. So far, the precise mechanisms responsible for such alteration in the convolution pattern during intra-uterine or post-natal development are still poorly understood. Here we compared anatomical and functional brain development in vivo among 45 premature newborns who experienced different intra-uterine environments: 22 normal singletons, 12 twins and 11 newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dedicated post-processing tools, we investigated early disturbances in cortical formation at birth, over the developmental period critical for the emergence of convolutions (26–36 weeks of gestational age), and defined early ‘endophenotypes’ of sulcal development. We demonstrated that twins have a delayed but harmonious maturation, with reduced surface and sulcation index compared to singletons, whereas the gyrification of IUGR newborns is discordant to the normal developmental trajectory, with a more pronounced reduction of surface in relation to the sulcation index compared to normal newborns. Furthermore, we showed that these structural measurements of the brain at birth are predictors of infants’ outcome at term equivalent age, for MRI-based cerebral volumes and neurobehavioural development evaluated with the assessment of preterm infant's behaviour (APIB). PMID:18587151

  17. Defining the genomic signature of totipotency and pluripotency during early human development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Galan

    Full Text Available The genetic mechanisms governing human pre-implantation embryo development and the in vitro counterparts, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, still remain incomplete. Previous global genome studies demonstrated that totipotent blastomeres from day-3 human embryos and pluripotent inner cell masses (ICMs from blastocysts, display unique and differing transcriptomes. Nevertheless, comparative gene expression analysis has revealed that no significant differences exist between hESCs derived from blastomeres versus those obtained from ICMs, suggesting that pluripotent hESCs involve a new developmental progression. To understand early human stages evolution, we developed an undifferentiation network signature (UNS and applied it to a differential gene expression profile between single blastomeres from day-3 embryos, ICMs and hESCs. This allowed us to establish a unique signature composed of highly interconnected genes characteristic of totipotency (61 genes, in vivo pluripotency (20 genes, and in vitro pluripotency (107 genes, and which are also proprietary according to functional analysis. This systems biology approach has led to an improved understanding of the molecular and signaling processes governing human pre-implantation embryo development, as well as enabling us to comprehend how hESCs might adapt to in vitro culture conditions.

  18. Fake news and post-truth pronouncements in general and in early human development. (United States)

    Grech, Victor


    Fake news and post-truth pronouncements are increasingly common, and are unfortunately also progressively being applied to the sciences, including the medical sciences. This editorial briefly reviews this unsavoury trend and highlights recent debunking of fake truths in early human development. Science is arguably the last metanarrative with any significant cachet in the postmodern period. We, as scientists, must strive to ensure that our work is transparent and of the highest possible standard so as to continue to uphold science's integrity and probity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The European Society of Human Genetics: beginnings, early history and development over its first 25 years. (United States)

    Harper, Peter S


    The European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) was founded on 15 March 1967, after preliminary discussions at the International Human Genetics Congress in Chicago the previous year and in Copenhagen in early 1967. Its initial meeting was held on 18-19 November 1967, also in Copenhagen, and annual meetings have been held from that time until the present, apart from years in which the International Congress of Human Genetics was also being held. The character of the Society during its early years was strongly influenced by its founding and permanent Secretary, Jan Mohr, head of the Copenhagen Institute of Medical Genetics, whose records are archived in the Tage Kemp/Jan Mohr Archive, now part of the Danish National Archives. These records show Jan Mohr's determination to keep the activities of the Society limited to the holding of an annual meeting to enhance contacts between European human geneticists, and to resist expansion to other activities. Pressures for a wider role of ESHG became irresistible in the late 1980s and a revised constitution, adopted in 1991, reshaped the Society into a more conventional and less restrictive structure. This has allowed it to play a wider and increasingly influential role in the development of human and medical genetics across Europe, with its own Journal, a range of committees covering different aspects of the field and a series of valuable reports on specific important topics, to be described in a forthcoming article on the Society's more recent history.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 May 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.34.

  20. Early variability in the conceptualisation of "sustainable development and human factors". (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew


    The sub-discipline of "sustainable development and human factors" is relatively new, first being used in 2006 with a Technical Committee of the IEA being established only in 2009 and a similar special interest group on "green ergonomics" at the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors being established in 2010. In general though, the definitions and practice of "sustainable development" is highly contentious and ambiguous across a range of disciplines. This paper examines the diversity of definitions and approaches to sustainable development and human factors in the early papers in this sub-discipline. An examination of 45 chapters and papers (from 2008 to 2011) reveals a surprising consistency in the definitions used for sustainable development but also a large proportion of the papers where no definitions are given at all. The majority of papers were, however, biased towards an economic capital and social capital emphasis, which is to be expected of work traditionally in the ergonomics paradigm. Further, most papers were theoretical in nature demonstrating a great opportunity for empirical work. The variability in definitions is discussed in relation to the future challenges facing the growth of this emergent sub-discipline and opportunities for further theoretical and empirical work.

  1. Human in vitro reporter model of neuronal development and early differentiation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdahn Ulrich


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During developmental and adult neurogenesis, doublecortin is an early neuronal marker expressed when neural stem cells assume a neuronal cell fate. To understand mechanisms involved in early processes of neuronal fate decision, we investigated cell lines for their capacity to induce expression of doublecortin upon neuronal differentiation and develop in vitro reporter models using doublecortin promoter sequences. Results Among various cell lines investigated, the human teratocarcinoma cell line NTERA-2 was found to fulfill our criteria. Following induction of differentiation using retinoic acid treatment, we observed a 16-fold increase in doublecortin mRNA expression, as well as strong induction of doublecortin polypeptide expression. The acquisition of a neuronal precursor phenotype was also substantiated by the establishment of a multipolar neuronal morphology and expression of additional neuronal markers, such as Map2, βIII-tubulin and neuron-specific enolase. Moreover, stable transfection in NTERA-2 cells of reporter constructs encoding fluorescent or luminescent genes under the control of the doublecortin promoter allowed us to directly detect induction of neuronal differentiation in cell culture, such as following retinoic acid treatment or mouse Ngn2 transient overexpression. Conclusion Induction of doublecortin expression in differentiating NTERA-2 cells suggests that these cells accurately recapitulate some of the very early events of neuronal determination. Hence, the use of reporter genes under the control of the doublecortin promoter in NTERA-2 cells will help us to investigate factors involved early in the course of neuronal differentiation processes. Moreover the ease to detect the induction of a neuronal program in this model will permit to perform high throughput screening for compounds acting on the early neuronal differentiation mechanisms.

  2. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe


    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  3. The Early Development of Human Mirror Mechanisms: Evidence from Electromyographic Recordings at 3 and 6 Months (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Natale, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Picozzi, Marta; Longhi, Elena; Cassia, Viola Macchi


    In primates and adult humans direct understanding of others' action is provided by mirror mechanisms matching action observation and action execution (e.g. Casile, Caggiano & Ferrari, 2011). Despite the growing body of evidence detailing the existence of these mechanisms in the adult human brain, their origins and early development are…

  4. Early adolescent childbearing in low- and middle-income countries: associations with income inequity, human development and gender equality. (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Kalamar, Amanda; Tunçalp, Özge; Hindin, Michelle J


    Reducing unwanted adolescent childbearing is a global priority. Little is known about how national-level economic and human development indicators relate to early adolescent childbearing. This ecological study evaluates associations of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GINI index, Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender-related Development Index (GDI; i.e. the HDI adjusted for gender disparities) with early adolescent childbearing in 27 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) across three time periods. Among women ages 18–24, prevalence estimates for early birth (<16 years) were calculated by nation, and weighted linear regressions evaluated associations between national indicators and early childbearing. To examine temporal trends, analyses were stratified by year groupings. Early adolescent childbearing declined over time, with the greatest change observed in Bangladesh (31.49% in 1996/7 to 19.69% in 2011). In adjusted models, GDI was negatively associated with early childbearing, i.e. early childbearing prevalence decreased as GDI increased. In the most recent time period, relative to the lowest GDI group, the average prevalence of early childbearing was significantly lower in the middle (-12.40, P < 0.00) and upper (-10.96, P = 0.03) tertiles after adjustment for the other indicators. These other indicators showed no consistent association with early childbearing. As national-level GDI increased, early adolescent childbearing declined. The GDI, which reflects human development adjusted for gender disparities in educational and economic prospects, was more consistently related to early adolescent childbearing than the absolute development prospects as given by the HDI. While creating gender equality is an important goal in and of itself, the findings emphasize the potential for improved national-level gender equitable development as a means to improve adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health.

  5. [Association of human chorionic gonadotropin level in embryo culture media with early embryo development]. (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Renli; Han, Dong; Liu, Caixia; Cai, Jiajie; Bi, Yanling; Wen, Anmin; Quan, Song


    To investigate the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level on day 3 of embryo culture with embryo development. Spent culture media were collected from individually cultured embryos on day 3 of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. HCG concentration in the culture media was measured using an ELISA kit and its association with embryo development was assessed. In the 163 samples of embryo culture media from 60 patients, HCG was positive in 153 sample (93.8%) with a mean level of 0.85 ± 0.43 mIU/ml. The concentration of hCG in the culture media increased gradually as the number of blastomeres increased (F=2.273, P=0.03), and decreased as the morphological grade of the embryo was lowered (F=3.900, P=0.02). ELISA is capable of detecting HCG levels in spent culture media of embryos on day 3 of in vitro culture. The concentration of HCG in spent culture media is positively correlated with the status of early embryo development and implantation rate and thus serves as a useful marker for embryo selection in IVF-ET procedure.

  6. [Pathology of amniogenesis in the early prenatal period of human development]. (United States)

    Kulazhenko, V P; Bragina, Z N


    Morphological and, in a number of cases, cytogenetical investigation has been performed in 420 intact embryonal sacs and in embryos 7-8-week-old, obtained at spontaneous abortions (272) and at tubal pregnancy (148). Among these cases 202 (48.1%) intact empty embryonal sacs, 75 (17.9%) embryos with panorganodysplasia, 25 (6%) embryos with isolated developmental defects and 118 (28%) phenotypically normal embryos have been revealed. Pathology of amniogenesis such as aplasia or hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity is noted in 136 (32.4%) cases. Among 75 embryos with panorganodysplasia anomalies such as hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity in combination with a partial extra-amniotic++ position of the embryos in exocelom (10.7%), aplasia (5.3%) or hypoplasia (17.3%) amniotic peduncle is present in 43 (57.3%) observations. Out of 40 such cases at spontaneous abortions, cytogenetically investigated, in 27 (67.5%) chromosomal disorders (tetraploidy, triploidy, autosomal trisomy and monosomy) are revealed. Aplasia and hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity are considered as pathology of histogenesis at the tissue stage of the early human ontogenesis, that most evidently occurs as a result of asplasia, destruction or anomaly of embryoblast during the first phase of gastrulation on the 7th-11th day of the intrauterine development.

  7. Early Development of Functional Network Segregation Revealed by Connectomic Analysis of the Preterm Human Brain. (United States)

    Cao, Miao; He, Yong; Dai, Zhengjia; Liao, Xuhong; Jeon, Tina; Ouyang, Minhui; Chalak, Lina; Bi, Yanchao; Rollins, Nancy; Dong, Qi; Huang, Hao


    Human brain functional networks are topologically organized with nontrivial connectivity characteristics such as small-worldness and densely linked hubs to support highly segregated and integrated information processing. However, how they emerge and change at very early developmental phases remains poorly understood. Here, we used resting-state functional MRI and voxel-based graph theory analysis to systematically investigate the topological organization of whole-brain networks in 40 infants aged around 31 to 42 postmenstrual weeks. The functional connectivity strength and heterogeneity increased significantly in primary motor, somatosensory, visual, and auditory regions, but much less in high-order default-mode and executive-control regions. The hub and rich-club structures in primary regions were already present at around 31 postmenstrual weeks and exhibited remarkable expansions with age, accompanied by increased local clustering and shortest path length, indicating a transition from a relatively random to a more organized configuration. Moreover, multivariate pattern analysis using support vector regression revealed that individual brain maturity of preterm babies could be predicted by the network connectivity patterns. Collectively, we highlighted a gradually enhanced functional network segregation manner in the third trimester, which is primarily driven by the rapid increases of functional connectivity of the primary regions, providing crucial insights into the topological development patterns prior to birth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  8. From stem cells to human development: a distinctly human perspective on early embryology, cellular differentiation and translational research. (United States)

    Craft, April M; Johnson, Matthew


    Over 100 scientists with common interests in human development, disease and regeneration gathered in late September 2016 for The Company of Biologists' second 'From Stem Cells to Human Development' meeting held in historic Southbridge. In this Meeting Review, we highlight some of the exciting new findings that were presented, and discuss emerging themes and convergences in human development and disease that arose during these discussions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  10. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra. (United States)

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society

  11. The early human germ cell lineage does not express SOX2 during in vivo development or upon in vitro culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Rebecca M; Turnpenny, Lee; Eckert, Judith J


    NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2 are required by the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and act cooperatively to maintain pluripotency in both mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Inadequacy of any one of them causes loss of the undifferentiated state. Mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs), from which...... of redundancy within the group B family of human SOX genes. Although lacking SOX2, proliferative human germ cells can still be identified in situ during early development and are capable of culture in vitro. Surprisingly, with the exception of FGF4, many stem cell-restricted SOX2 target genes remained detected...

  12. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors. (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W


    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  13. Human Neutrophil Peptides 1-3 – Early Markers in Development of Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Mothes


    Full Text Available Expression of Human Neutrophil Peptides (HNP 1–3 was recently found to be associated with development of colorectal cancer. Raised defensin-expression in tumours is believed to stem from increased infiltration of neutrophils into tumour environment.

  14. Spatiotemporal distribution of proliferation, proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors in the early human limb development. (United States)

    Bečić, Tina; Bilan, Kanito; Mardešić, Snježana; Vukojević, Katarina; Saraga-Babić, Mirna


    Involvement of proliferation and apoptosis in the human limb development was analyzed electronmicroscopically and immunohistochemically in histological sections of 8 human embryos, 4(th) -10(th) week old, using apoptotic (caspase-3, AIF, BAX), anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and proliferation (Ki-67) markers, and TUNEL method. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post hoc test. Initially, developing human limbs consisted of mesenchymal core and surface ectoderm with apical ectodermal ridge (AER). During progression of development, strong proliferation activity gradually decreased in the mesenchyme (from 78% to 68%) and in the epithelium (from 62% to 42%), while in the differentiating finger cartilages proliferation was constantly low (26-7%). Apoptotic caspase-3 and AIF-positive cells characterized mesenchyme and AER at earliest stages, while during digit separation they appeared in interdigital mesenchyme as well. Strong Bcl-2 expression was observed in AER, subridge mesenchyme and phalanges, while BAX expression charaterized limb areas undergoing apoptosis. Ultrastructurally, proliferating cells showed mitotic figures, while apoptotic cells were characterized by nuclear fragmentation. Macrophages were observed around the apoptotic cells. We suggest that intense proliferation enables growth and elongation of human limb primordia, and differential growth of digits. Both caspase-3 and AIF-dependant pathways of cell death control the extent of AER and numer of cells in the subridge mesenchyme at earliest developmental stages, as well as process of digit separation at later stages of limb development. Spatio-temporal co-expresson of Bcl-2 and BAX indicates their role in suppression of apoptosis and selective stimulation of growth during human limb morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards a CRISPR view of early human development: applications, limitations and ethical concerns of genome editing in human embryos. (United States)

    Plaza Reyes, Alvaro; Lanner, Fredrik


    Developmental biologists have become increasingly aware that the wealth of knowledge generated through genetic studies of pre-implantation mouse development might not easily be translated to the human embryo. Comparative studies have been fueled by recent technological advances in single-cell analysis, allowing in-depth analysis of the human embryo. This field could shortly gain more momentum as novel genome editing technologies might, for the first time, also allow functional genetic studies in the human embryo. In this Spotlight article, we summarize the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system and discuss its potential applications and limitations in human pre-implantation embryos, and the ethical considerations thereof. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Early experience and brain development. (United States)

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A


    Healthy brain development takes place within the context of individual experience. Here, we describe how certain early experiences are necessary for typical brain development. We present evidence from multiple studies showing that severe early life neglect leads to alterations in brain development, which compromises emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. We also show how early intervention can reverse some of the deleterious effects of neglect on brain development. We conclude by emphasizing that early interventions that start at the earliest possible point in human development are most likely to support maximal recovery from early adverse experiences. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1387. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Expression of the homeobox genes OTX2 and OTX1 in the early developing human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B; Lutterodt, Melissa C; Møllgård, Kjeld


    In rodents, the Otx2 gene is expressed in the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and cerebellum and is crucial for the development of these brain regions. Together with Otx1, Otx2 is known to cooperate with other genes to develop the caudal forebrain and, further, Otx1 is also involved in differentiati...... in the neocortex, and OTX2 in the archicortex, diencephalon, rostral brain stem, and cerebellum.......In rodents, the Otx2 gene is expressed in the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and cerebellum and is crucial for the development of these brain regions. Together with Otx1, Otx2 is known to cooperate with other genes to develop the caudal forebrain and, further, Otx1 is also involved in differentiation...... of young neurons of the deeper cortical layers. We have studied the spatial and temporal expression of the two homeobox genes OTX2 and OTX1 in human fetal brains from 7 to 14 weeks postconception by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. OTX2 was expressed in the diencephalon, mesencephalon...

  18. When Humans Become Animals: Development of the Animal Category in Early Childhood (United States)

    Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.


    The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-human animals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-human animals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we…

  19. Early Marjolin's ulcer developing in a penile human bite scar of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjolin's ulcer is a rare but well documented cutaneous malignancy that arises in a scar or chronic ulcer, and is characterized by an aggressive course. The latent period from the injury to the appearance of cancer has been reported to be 25-40 years. Early occurring Marjolin's ulcer has rarely been described in the ...

  20. Early Developments, 2002. (United States)

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.


    This document consists of the three 2002 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center (FPG) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Articles in the Winter 2002 issue highlight some current work at FPG on factors that enhance or inhibit social and…

  1. A human apoB100 transgenic mouse expresses human apoB100 in the RPE and develops features of early AMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujihara, Masashi; Bartels, Emil; Nielsen, Lars B


    changes consistent with early human AMD including loss of basal infoldings and accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the RPE, and basal laminar deposits containing long-spacing collagen and heterogeneous debris in Bruch membrane of apoB100 mice. In apoB100 mice given a high-fat diet, basal linear...... transgenic for a human genomic fragment encoding the full length human apoB ("apoB100" mice) and litter-mate control mice were given a normal chow or high-fat diet for 12 months. Mice were evaluated for human apoB mRNA expression in the RPE/choroid and liver by RT-qPCR. Phenotypic changes associated......-like deposits were identified in 12-month-old mice. Linear regression analysis showed that the genotype (human apoB transgene) was a stronger influencing factor than high-fat diet in producing AMD-like lesions used in this study. Human apoB100 transgenic mice overexpress apoB in RPE and, with time, develop...

  2. Early stages in the development of human T, natural killer and thymic dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.; Blom, B.; Jaleco, A. C.; Weijer, K.; Verschuren, M. C.; van Dongen, J. J.; Heemskerk, M. H.; Res, P. C.


    T-cell development is initiated when CD34+ pluripotent stem cells or their immediate progeny leave the bone marrow to migrate to the thymus. Upon arrival in the thymus the stem cell progeny is not yet committed to the T-cell lineage as it has the capability to develop into T, natural killer (NK) and

  3. Epigenetics of Early Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eMurgatroyd


    Full Text Available Comprehensive clinical studies show that adverse conditions in early life can severely impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. During early postnatal life the brain exhibits high plasticity which allows environmental signals to alter the trajectories of rapidly developing circuits. Adversity in early life is able to shape the experience-dependent maturation of stress-regulating pathways underlying emotional functions and endocrine responses to stress, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system, leading to long-lasting altered stress responsivity during adulthood.To date, the study of gene-environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene-environment interactions can predispose individuals towards psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene-environment dialogue in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give raise to lasting epigenetic memories conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions.

  4. The early prenatal development of the dentition and vestibulum oris in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovořáková, Mária; Lesot, H.; Peterka, Miroslav; Peterková, Renata


    Roč. 14, Supplement 2 (2007), s. 88-88 ISSN 1473-2262. [International Conference on Tooth Morphogenesis and Differentiation /9./. 04.09.2007-08.09.2007, Zürich] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC B23.002; GA ČR GA304/05/2665 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Resilience of the Nexus of Competitive Water Consumption between Human Society and Environment Development: Regime Shifts and Early Warning Signals (United States)

    Li, Z.; Liu, P.; Feng, M.; Zhang, J.


    Based on the modeling of the water supply, power generation and environment (WPE) nexus by Feng et al. (2016), a refined theoretical model of competitive water consumption between human society and environment has been presented in this study, examining the role of technology advancement and social environmental awareness growth-induced pollution mitigation to the environment as a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of the coexistence of both higher social water consumption and improved environment condition. By coupling environmental and social dynamics, both of which are represented by water consumption quantity, this study shows the possibility of sustainable situation of the social-environmental system when the benefit of technology offsets the side effect (pollution) of social development to the environment. Additionally, regime shifts could be triggered by gradually increased pollution rate, climate change-induced natural resources reduction and breakdown of the social environmental awareness. Therefore, in order to foresee the pending abrupt regime shifts of the system, early warning signals, including increasing variance and autocorrelation, have been examined when the system is undergoing stochastic disturbance. ADDIN EN.REFLIST Feng, M. et al., 2016. Modeling the nexus across water supply, power generation and environment systems using the system dynamics approach: Hehuang Region, China. J. Hydrol., 543: 344-359.

  6. Energy status and HIF signalling in chorionic villi show no evidence of hypoxic stress during human early placental development. (United States)

    Cindrova-Davies, T; van Patot, M Tissot; Gardner, L; Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J; Charnock-Jones, D S


    Early human placental and embryonic development occurs in a physiologically low oxygen environment supported by histiotrophic secretions from endometrial glands. In this study, we compare the placental metabolomic profile in the first, second and third trimesters to determine whether the energy demands are adequately met in the first trimester. We investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and/or HIF-2α, might regulate transcription during the first trimester. First and second trimester tissue was collected using a chorionic villus sampling-like (CVS) technique. Part of each villus sample was frozen immediately and the remainder cultured under 2 or 21% O2 ± 1 mM H2O2, and ±the p38 MAPK pathway inhibitor, PD169316. Levels of HIF-1α were assessed by western blotting and VEGFA, PlGF and GLUT3 transcripts were quantified by RT-PCR. Term samples were collected from normal elective Caesarean deliveries. There were no significant differences in concentrations of ADP, NAD(+), lactate, and glucose, and in the ATP/ADP ratio, across gestational age. Neither HIF-1α nor HIF-2α could be detected in time-zero CVS samples. However, culture under any condition (2 or 21% O2 ± 1 mM H2O2) increased HIF-1α and HIF-2α. HIF-1α and HIF-2α were additionally detected in specimens retrieved after curettage. HIF-1α stabilization was accompanied by significant increases in VEGFA and GLUT3 and a decrease in PlGF mRNAs. These effects were suppressed by PD169316. In conclusion, our data suggest that first trimester placental tissues are not energetically compromised, and that HIF-1α is unlikely to play an appreciable role in regulating transcriptional activity under steady-state conditions in vivo. However, the pathway may be activated by stress conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  7. Early Events in Xenograft Development from the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line HS181 - Resemblance with an Initial Multiple Epiblast Formation (United States)

    Jamil, Seema; Ali, Rouknuddin; Imreh, Marta P.; Gulyas, Miklos; Sandstedt, Bengt; Ährlund-Richter, Lars


    Xenografting is widely used for assessing in vivo pluripotency of human stem cell populations. Here, we report on early to late events in the development of mature experimental teratoma from a well-characterized human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line, HS181. The results show an embryonic process, increasingly chaotic. Active proliferation of the stem cell derived cellular progeny was detected already at day 5, and characterized by the appearance of multiple sites of engraftment, with structures of single or pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding small cavities. The striking histological resemblance to developing embryonic ectoderm, and the formation of epiblast-like structures was supported by the expression of the markers OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4 and KLF4, but a lack of REX1. The early neural marker NESTIN was uniformly expressed, while markers linked to gastrulation, such as BMP-4, NODAL or BRACHYURY were not detected. Thus, observations on day 5 indicated differentiation comparable to the most early transient cell populations in human post implantation development. Confirming and expanding on previous findings from HS181 xenografts, these early events were followed by an increasingly chaotic development, incorporated in the formation of a benign teratoma with complex embryonic components. In the mature HS181 teratomas not all types of organs/tissues were detected, indicating a restricted differentiation, and a lack of adequate spatial developmental cues during the further teratoma formation. Uniquely, a kinetic alignment of rare complex structures was made to human embryos at diagnosed gestation stages, showing minor kinetic deviations between HS181 teratoma and the human counterpart. PMID:22140465

  8. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update (United States)

    Schiller, Pam


    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  9. Family Influences on Early Development. (United States)

    Silber, Sharon


    The article reviews the literature concerning family influences on early childhood development. Implications of this literature for intervention planning with high risk children and families are suggested. Topics covered include the early parent-child relationship, disciplinary strategies, stimulation, parental instruction and expectations, the…

  10. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...... or not. Manuscript I examines the composition and stability of vaginal microbiota, as well as how the mothers’ microbiota contribute to the early bacterial colonization of their infants. In this study, we first confirmed that the vaginal microbiota of the women in the COPSAC2010 cohort represent...

  11. A novel aragonite-based scaffold for osteochondral regeneration: early experience on human implants and technical developments. (United States)

    Kon, Elizaveta; Robinson, Dror; Verdonk, Peter; Drobnic, Matej; Patrascu, Jenel Mariano; Dulic, Oliver; Gavrilovic, Gordon; Filardo, Giuseppe


    Chondral and osteochondral lesions represent a debilitating disease. Untreated lesions remain a risk factor for more extensive joint damage. The objective of this clinical study is to evaluate safety and early results of an aragonite-based scaffold used for osteochondral unit repair, by analysing both clinical outcome and MRI results, as well as the benefits of the procedure optimization through novel tapered shaped implants. A crystalline aragonite bi-phasic scaffold was implanted in patients affected by focal chondral-osteochondral knee lesions of the condyle and trochlea. Twenty-one patients (17 men, 4 women with a mean age of 31.0 ± 8.6 years) without severe OA received tapered shaped implants for the treatment of 2.5 ±1.7 cm 2 sized defects. The control group consisted of 76 patients selected according to the same criteria from a database of patients who previously underwent implantation of cylindrical-shaped implants. The clinical outcome of all patients was evaluated with the IKDC subjective score, the Lysholm score, and all 5 KOOS subscales administered preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months after surgery, while MRI evaluation was performed at the 12 month follow-up. A statistically significant improvement in all clinical scores was documented both in the tapered implants and the cylindrical group. No difference could be detected in the comparison between the improvement obtained with the two implant types, neither in the clinical nor in imaging evaluations. A difference could be detected instead in terms of revision rate, which was lower in the tapered implant group with no implant removal - 0% vs 8/76-10.5% failures in the cylindrical implants. This study highlighted both safety and potential of a novel aragonite-based scaffold for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions in humans. A tapered shape relative to the cylindrical shaped implant design, improved the scaffold's safety profile. Tapered scaffolds maintain the clinical improvement

  12. The emergence of functional architecture during early brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, Kristin; Counsell, Serena J.; Benders, Manon J.N.L.


    Early human brain development constitutes a sequence of intricate processes resulting in the ontogeny of functionally operative neural circuits. Developmental trajectories of early brain network formation are genetically programmed and can be modified by epigenetic and environmental influences. Such

  13. Development of a cytotoxic T-cell assay in rabbits to evaluate early immune response to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. (United States)

    Haynes, Rashade A H; Phipps, Andrew J; Yamamoto, Brenda; Green, Patrick; Lairmore, Michael D


    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATL) following a prolonged clinical incubation period, despite a robust adaptive immune response against the virus. Early immune responses that allow establishment of the infection are difficult to study without effective animal models. We have developed a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay to monitor the early events of HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Rabbit skin fibroblast cell lines were established by transformation with a plasmid expressing simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and used as autochthonous targets (derived from same individual animal) to measure CTL activity against HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) constructs expressing either HTLV-1 envelope surface unit (SU) glycoprotein 46 or Tax proteins were used to infect fibroblast targets in a (51)Cr-release CTL assay. Rabbits inoculated with Jurkat T cells or ACH.2 cells (expressing ACH HTLV-1 molecule clone) were monitored at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 21, and 34 wk post-infection. ACH.2-inoculated rabbits were monitored serologically and for viral infected cells following ex vivo culture. Proviral load analysis indicated that rabbits with higher proviral loads had significant CTL activity against HTLV-1 SU as early as 2 wk post-infection, while both low- and high-proviral-load groups had minimal Tax-specific CTL activity throughout the study. This first development of a stringent assay to measure HTLV-1 SU and Tax-specific CTL assay in the rabbit model will enhance immunopathogenesis studies of HTLV-1 infection. Our data suggest that during the early weeks following infection, HTLV-1-specific CTL responses are primarily targeted against Env-SU.

  14. Pipette-based Method to Study Embryoid Body Formation Derived from Mouse and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Partially Recapitulating Early Embryonic Development Under Simulated Microgravity Conditions (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Brungs, Sonja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Sachinidis, Agapios


    The in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells partially recapitulates early in vivo embryonic development. More recently, embryonic development under the influence of microgravity has become a primary focus of space life sciences. In order to integrate the technique of pluripotent stem cell differentiation with simulated microgravity approaches, the 2-D clinostat compatible pipette-based method was experimentally investigated and adapted for investigating stem cell differentiation processes under simulated microgravity conditions. In order to keep residual accelerations as low as possible during clinorotation, while also guaranteeing enough material for further analysis, stem cells were exposed in 1-mL pipettes with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells inside the pipettes resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies at normal gravity (1 g) after 24 h and 3 days. Differentiation of the mouse pluripotent stem cells on a 2-D pipette-clinostat for 3 days also resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies. Interestingly, the expression of myosin heavy chain was downregulated when cultivation was continued for an additional 7 days at normal gravity. This paper describes the techniques for culturing and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and exposure to simulated microgravity during culturing or differentiation on a 2-D pipette clinostat. The implementation of these methodologies along with -omics technologies will contribute to understand the mechanisms regulating how microgravity influences early embryonic development.

  15. Early executive function predicts reasoning development. (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R


    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  16. In Vitro Biotransformation of Two Human CYP3A Probe Substrates and Their Inhibition during Early Zebrafish Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Verbueken


    Full Text Available At present, the zebrafish embryo is increasingly used as an alternative animal model to screen for developmental toxicity after exposure to xenobiotics. Since zebrafish embryos depend on their own drug-metabolizing capacity, knowledge of their intrinsic biotransformation is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP—a group of drug-metabolizing enzymes—in microsomes from whole zebrafish embryos (ZEM of 5, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-fertilization (hpf by means of a mammalian CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR. The same CYP activity assays were performed in adult zebrafish liver microsomes (ZLM to serve as a reference for the embryos. In addition, activity assays with the human CYP3A4-specific Luciferin isopropyl acetal (Luciferin-IPA as well as inhibition studies with ketoconazole and CYP3cide were carried out to identify CYP activity in ZLM. In the present study, biotransformation of BOMR was detected at 72 and 96 hpf; however, metabolite formation was low compared with ZLM. Furthermore, Luciferin-IPA was not metabolized by the zebrafish. In conclusion, the capacity of intrinsic biotransformation in zebrafish embryos appears to be lacking during a major part of organogenesis.

  17. In Vitro Biotransformation of Two Human CYP3A Probe Substrates and Their Inhibition during Early Zebrafish Development. (United States)

    Verbueken, Evy; Alsop, Derek; Saad, Moayad A; Pype, Casper; Van Peer, Els M; Casteleyn, Christophe R; Van Ginneken, Chris J; Wilson, Joanna; Van Cruchten, Steven J


    At present, the zebrafish embryo is increasingly used as an alternative animal model to screen for developmental toxicity after exposure to xenobiotics. Since zebrafish embryos depend on their own drug-metabolizing capacity, knowledge of their intrinsic biotransformation is pivotal in order to correctly interpret the outcome of teratogenicity assays. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to assess the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-a group of drug-metabolizing enzymes-in microsomes from whole zebrafish embryos (ZEM) of 5, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-fertilization (hpf) by means of a mammalian CYP substrate, i.e., benzyloxy-methyl-resorufin (BOMR). The same CYP activity assays were performed in adult zebrafish liver microsomes (ZLM) to serve as a reference for the embryos. In addition, activity assays with the human CYP3A4-specific Luciferin isopropyl acetal (Luciferin-IPA) as well as inhibition studies with ketoconazole and CYP3cide were carried out to identify CYP activity in ZLM. In the present study, biotransformation of BOMR was detected at 72 and 96 hpf; however, metabolite formation was low compared with ZLM. Furthermore, Luciferin-IPA was not metabolized by the zebrafish. In conclusion, the capacity of intrinsic biotransformation in zebrafish embryos appears to be lacking during a major part of organogenesis.

  18. Immunoglobulin kappa variable region gene selection during early human B cell development in health and systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Hehle, Verena; Fraser, Louise D; Tahir, Romeeza; Kipling, David; Wu, Yu-Chang; Lutalo, Pamela M K; Cason, John; Choong, LeeMeng; D'Cruz, David P; Cope, Andrew P; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Spencer, Jo


    The unique specificity of the B cell receptor is generated by an ordered sequence of gene rearrangement events. Once IGH genes have rearranged, rearrangement at the IGK locus is initiated followed by the IGL locus if functional IGK rearrangement is not achieved. Receptor specificity can subsequently be altered by secondary light chain editing based on the features of the heavy and light chain combination. The final profile of expressed genes is not random and biases in this profile are associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, how and when biases are created is not known. To increase our understanding of the processes of selection and editing of IGK rearrangements, we compared four groups of rearrangements of IGK acquired by next generation sequencing. First, expressed rearrangements of IGK from cDNA of IGK expressing B cells. Second, productive rearrangements of IGK from DNA of the same kappa expressing B cells. Third, non-productive rearrangements of IGK from DNA of IGK and IGL expressing B cells, and fourth productively rearranged IGK from DNA of IGL expressing B cells. The latter group would have been rejected during B cell development in favour of rearrangement at the IGL locus and are therefore selected against. We saw evidence that rearranged IGK segments can be selected at a checkpoint where the decision to rearrange the IGL locus is made. In addition, our data suggest that mechanisms regulating the expression or not of IGK rearrangements may also contribute to repertoire development and also that this latter component of the selection process is defective in SLE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early first trimester maternal ‘high fish and olive oil and low meat’ dietary pattern is associated with accelerated human embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parisi, Francesca; Rousian, Melek; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Cetin, Irene; Steegers, Eric A.P.


    Background/objectives: Maternal dietary patterns were associated with embryonic growth and congenital anomalies. We aim to evaluate associations between early first trimester maternal dietary patterns and embryonic morphological development among pregnancies with non-malformed outcome.

  20. Human Pre-gastrulation Development. (United States)

    Wamaitha, Sissy E; Niakan, Kathy K


    Understanding the progression of early human embryonic development prior to implantation is of fundamental biological importance. Greater insights into early developmental events may lead to clinical improvements, not only via the establishment of novel stem cell models with increased potential or more physiological relevance, but also by uncovering some underlying causes of infertility, miscarriages, and developmental disorders. The majority of human embryos available for study are those donated to research once they are surplus to family building following in vitro fertilization, though in some countries it is also possible to create embryos using donated gametes. As human embryo development is surprisingly inefficient, with only 40% reaching the blastocyst stage in vitro (French, Sabanegh, Goldfarb, & Desai, 2010; Gardner, Lane, Stevens, Schlenker, & Schoolcraft, 2000), many embryos may not develop to a stage suitable for study. Where legally permitted, the oversight of human embryo research is subject to either ethics approval from a local institutional review board (i.e., China and the United States) or both a national regulator as well as a regional research ethics committee (i.e., the United Kingdom). The study of human development has historically been by necessity comparative, relying on model organisms and stem cell lines to inform analyses. Preimplantation mouse and human embryos in particular exhibit remarkably similar gross morphologies at these early stages of development, although key differences have been identified in gene expression patterns and developmental timing. While recent advances in high-resolution transcriptomic analyses at the single cell level have improved our capability to interrogate expression patterns directly in the human embryo, we still lack an understanding of basic molecular events in the human embryo, including how the first cell lineages become specified. Here, we present a current overview of the major developmental events

  1. Inflammation is present in early human tendinopathy. (United States)

    Millar, Neal L; Hueber, Axel J; Reilly, James H; Xu, Yinghua; Fazzi, Umberto G; Murrell, George A C; McInnes, Iain B


    The cellular mechanisms of tendinopathy remain unclear particularly with respect to the role of inflammation in early disease. The authors previously identified increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in an early human model of tendinopathy and sought to extend these studies to the cellular analysis of tissue. To characterize inflammatory cell subtypes in early human tendinopathy, the authors explored the phenotype and quantification of inflammatory cells in torn and control tendon samples. Controlled laboratory study. Torn supraspinatus tendon and matched intact subscapularis tendon samples were collected from 20 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Control samples of subscapularis tendon were collected from 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic stabilization surgery. Tendon biopsy samples were evaluated immunohistochemically by quantifying the presence of macrophages (CD68 and CD206), T cells (CD3), mast cells (mast cell tryptase), and vascular endothelium (CD34). Subscapularis tendon samples obtained from patients with a torn supraspinatus tendon exhibited significantly greater macrophage, mast cell, and T-cell expression compared with either torn supraspinatus samples or control subscapularis-derived tissue (P shoulders with supraspinatus ruptures. This study provides evidence for an inflammatory cell infiltrate in early mild/moderate human tendinopathy. In particular, the authors demonstrate significant infiltration of mast cells and macrophages, suggesting a role for innate immune pathways in the events that mediate early tendinopathy. Clinical Relevance Further mechanistic studies to evaluate the net contribution and hence therapeutic utility of these cellular lineages and their downstream processes may reveal novel therapeutic approaches to the management of early tendinopathy.

  2. Human pancreas development. (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A


    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Marketing Human Resource Development. (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.


    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  4. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security


    Gasper, D.R.


    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  5. Behavior-Based Early Language Development on a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varshavskaya, Paulina


    We are exploring the idea that early language acquisition could be better modelled on an artificial creature by considering the pragmatic aspect of natural language and of its development in human infants...

  6. Building human capacity through early childhood intervention: the Child Development Research Programme at the Tropical Medicine Research Institute, the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. (United States)

    Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Powell, C A; Baker-Henningham, H


    Research conducted by the Child Development Research Group in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute has made significant contributions to the understanding of the importance of early nutrition and the home environment for children's development and the impact of psychosocial stimulation for disadvantaged and/or undernourished children. The work has provided critical evidence that has contributed to the increasing attention given to early childhood development in the work and policies of agencies such as the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). This review concerns research which documented the impact of malnutrition on children's development and for the first time demonstrated the benefits and necessity of psychosocial stimulation for improvement in development. Subsequent research was critical in establishing the importance of linear growth retardation (stunting) as a risk factor for poor child development. A twenty-two-year study of stunted children has demonstrated benefits through to adulthood in areas such as educational attainment, mental health and reduced violent behaviour from an early childhood home visiting programme that works through mothers to promote their children's development. The group's research has also demonstrated that it is feasible and effective to integrate the stimulation intervention into primary care services with benefits to children's development and mothers'child rearing knowledge and practices. The group is currently conducting a study to provide information needed for scaling-up of parenting programmes through evaluation of a new approach to improving parenting through health centres and a modified home visit programme.

  7. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael


    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...

  8. Environment and Climate of Early Human Evolution (United States)

    Levin, Naomi E.


    Evaluating the relationships between climate, the environment, and human traits is a key part of human origins research because changes in Earth's atmosphere, oceans, landscapes, and ecosystems over the past 10 Myr shaped the selection pressures experienced by early humans. In Africa, these relationships have been influenced by a combination of high-latitude ice distributions, sea surface temperatures, and low-latitude orbital forcing that resulted in large oscillations in vegetation and moisture availability that were modulated by local basin dynamics. The importance of both climate and tectonics in shaping African landscapes means that integrated views of the ecological, environmental, and tectonic histories of a region are necessary in order to understand the relationships between climate and human evolution.

  9. Analysis of expression of transcription factors in early human retina. (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ma, Lixiang; Wang, Songtao; Wang, Xiaobing; Sun, Yan; Gao, Lu; Li, Jin; Zhou, Guomin


    The retina originates in the central nervous system. Due to its accessibility and simplicity, the retina has become an invaluable model for studying the basic mechanisms involved in development. To date, considerable knowledge regarding the interactions among genes that coordinate retinal development has been gained from extensive research in model animals. However, our understanding of retinal development in humans remains undeveloped. Here, we analyze the expression of transcription factors that are involved in the early development of the retina in human embryos at 6-12 weeks post-conception. Our work demonstrates that early developing neural retinas can be divided into two layers, the outer and inner neuroblast layers. Eye-field transcription factors and those related to the early development of the retina have distinct expression patterns in the two layers. Cell-type-specific transcription factors emerge at 8 weeks. These data provide clear and systemic structures for early retinal development in human. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development. (United States)


    ... parents to appreciate the importance of physical development, provide opportunities for children's outdoor... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  11. Do macromorphological features of the human placenta influence somatic and psychomotor development of the newborn and early infant? A historic question revisited. (United States)

    Westhof, Gregor; Deerberg, Jost C; Schad, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Ralf C; Hatzmann, Hendrike


    We examined the meaning of placental weight, form (massive and thick or extended and flat) and circumference for early somatic and psychomotor childhood development. In this prospective study, fresh placentas (n = 265) were measured for weight and circumference and correlated with neonatal data. A subset of placentas statistically defined as 'massive' (circumference 90th percentile) was correlated with somatic and basic psychomotor variables during the first 4 years of life. A 'medium' category (circumference 45-55th percentile) served as control. Placental weight correlated with birth weight (r = 0.53, p psychomotor development (first sitting, crawling, running, one- and two-word sentences) were not related with placental weight or circumference nor with extremes of placental morphology. Placental weight and circumference seem to influence very early somatic but not psychomotor development. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Risks and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling patterns of attachment at age three years in the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. (United States)

    O'connor, Erin; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Mccartney, Kathleen; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen


    Disorganized/controlling attachment in preschool has been found to be associated with maternal and child maladjustment, making it of keen interest in the study of psychopathology. Additional work is needed, however, to better understand disorganized/controlling attachment occurring as early as age 3 years. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling behavior at age 3 years and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes differentiating the four subtypes of disorganized/controlling attachment. Analyses were conducted with the first two phases of the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth. At 36 months of age, across the attachment-relevant domains of maternal well-being, mother-child interactions, and child social adaptation, the disorganized/controlling group evidenced the most maladaptive patterns in comparison to both secure and insecure-organized groups. At 54 months of age, the disorganized/controlling group displayed the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, as rated by mothers and teachers, and the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Significant differences found among the disorganized/controlling subtypes indicated that the behaviorally disorganized and controlling-punitive subtypes had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the controlling-caregiving and controlling-mixed subtypes. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Micro-dosing for early biokinetic studies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, K.; Sydoff, M.; Mattsson, S.


    Micro-dosing is a new concept in drug development that-if implemented in the pharmaceutical industry-would mean that new drugs can be tested earlier in humans than done today. The human micro-dosing concept-or 'Phase 0'-may offer improved candidate selection, reduced failure rates in the drug development line and a reduction in the use of laboratory animals in early drug development, factors which will help to speed up drug development and also reduce the costs. Micro-dosing utilises sub-pharmacological amounts of the substance to open opportunities for early studies in man. Three technologies are used for micro-dosing: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), positron emission tomography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This paper focuses on the principle of AMS and discusses the current status of micro-dosing with AMS. (authors)

  14. Gender equity & human development. (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S


    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  15. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L


    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  16. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  17. Variability in early communicative development. (United States)

    Fenson, L; Dale, P S; Reznick, J S; Bates, E; Thal, D J; Pethick, S J


    Data from parent reports on 1,803 children--derived from a normative study of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)--are used to describe the typical course and the extent of variability in major features of communicative development between 8 and 30 months of age. The two instruments, one designed for 8-16-month-old infants, the other for 16-30-month-old toddlers, are both reliable and valid, confirming the value of parent reports that are based on contemporary behavior and a recognition format. Growth trends are described for children scoring at the 10th-, 25th-, 50th-, 75th-, and 90th-percentile levels on receptive and expressive vocabulary, actions and gestures, and a number of aspects of morphology and syntax. Extensive variability exists in the rate of lexical, gestural, and grammatical development. The wide variability across children in the time of onset and course of acquisition of these skills challenges the meaningfulness of the concept of the modal child. At the same time, moderate to high intercorrelations are found among the different skills both concurrently and predictively (across a 6-month period). Sex differences consistently favor females; however, these are very small, typically accounting for 1%-2% of the variance. The effects of SES and birth order are even smaller within this age range. The inventories offer objective criteria for defining typicality and exceptionality, and their cost effectiveness facilitates the aggregation of large data sets needed to address many issues of contemporary theoretical interest. The present data also offer unusually detailed information on the course of development of individual lexical, gestural, and grammatical items and features. Adaptations of the CDIs to other languages have opened new possibilities for cross-linguistic explorations of sequence, rate, and variability of communicative development.

  18. Population Dynamics of Early Human Migration in Britain (United States)

    Vahia, Mayank N.; Ladiwala, Uma; Mahathe, Pavan; Mathur, Deepak


    Background Early human migration is largely determined by geography and human needs. These are both deterministic parameters when small populations move into unoccupied areas where conflicts and large group dynamics are not important. The early period of human migration into the British Isles provides such a laboratory which, because of its relative geographical isolation, may allow some insights into the complex dynamics of early human migration and interaction. Method and Results We developed a simulation code based on human affinity to habitable land, as defined by availability of water sources, altitude, and flatness of land, in choosing the path of migration. Movement of people on the British island over the prehistoric period from their initial entry points was simulated on the basis of data from the megalithic period. Topographical and hydro-shed data from satellite databases was used to define habitability, based on distance from water bodies, flatness of the terrain, and altitude above sea level. We simulated population movement based on assumptions of affinity for more habitable places, with the rate of movement tempered by existing populations. We compared results of our computer simulations with genetic data and show that our simulation can predict fairly accurately the points of contacts between different migratory paths. Such comparison also provides more detailed information about the path of peoples’ movement over ~2000 years before the present era. Conclusions We demonstrate an accurate method to simulate prehistoric movements of people based upon current topographical satellite data. Our findings are validated by recently-available genetic data. Our method may prove useful in determining early human population dynamics even when no genetic information is available. PMID:27148959

  19. Nutrition and brain development in early life. (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G


    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  20. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  1. Weight-of-evidence analysis of human exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and associations with thyroid hormone levels during early development. (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Kerper, Laura E; Boyce, Catherine Petito; Prueitt, Robyn L; Rhomberg, Lorenz R


    Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the proper development of brain function and cell growth. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted to assess potential associations between pre- and post-natal exposure to dioxins or dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and the levels of circulating thyroid hormones during early development. Dioxins and DLCs include chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans, and mono- and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We identified a total of 23 relevant epidemiological studies (21 cohort studies and 1 case-control study) that measured exposures to various types of dioxins and DLCs as well as markers of thyroid function, such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (T4), free T4, total triiodothyroxine (T3), free T3, and thyroid-binding globulin concentrations in cord blood or circulation. While some of the studies reported associations between concentrations of dioxins and/or DLCs and some biomarkers of thyroid function, the majority of the observed associations were not statistically significant. Moreover, there were no clear and consistent effects across studies for any of the hormone levels examined, and while a number of studies showed a statistically significant association with exposure for a given marker of thyroid function, other studies showed either no change or changes in the opposite direction for the same thyroid function marker. Similarly, when the results were analyzed considering developmental stage, there generally were no clear and consistent effects at any age from birth through 12 years of age. The absence of a clear correlation between background exposures to dioxins and DLCs and thyroid function biomarkers during development is not consistent with the hypothesis that background exposures to these chemicals cause effects on thyroid function during development. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early molecular assessment of osseointegration in humans. (United States)

    Thalji, Ghadeer N; Nares, Salvador; Cooper, Lyndon F


    To determine the early temporal-wide genome transcription regulation by the surface topography at the bone-implant interface of implants bearing microroughened or superimposed nanosurface topology. Four commercially pure titanium implants (2.2 × 5.0 mm) with either a moderately roughened surface (TiOblast) or super-imposed nanoscale topography (Osseospeed) were placed (n = 2/surface) in edentulous sites of eleven systemically healthy subjects and subsequently removed after 3 and 7 days. Total RNA was isolated from cells adherent to retrieved implants. A whole-genome microarray using the Affymetrix Human gene 1.1 ST Array was used to describe the gene expression profiles that were differentially regulated by the implant surfaces. There were no significant differences when comparing the two implant surfaces at each time point. However, the microarray identified several genes that were differentially regulated at day 7 vs. day 3 for both implant surfaces. Functionally relevant categories related to the extracellular matrix (ECM), collagen fibril organization, and angiogenesis were upregulated at both surfaces (day7 vs. day3). Abundant upregulation of several differential markers of alternative activated macrophages was observed (e.g., MRC1, MSR1, MS4A4A, SLC38A6, and CCL18). The biological processes involved with the inflammatory/immune response gene expression were concomitantly downregulated. Gene regulation implicating collagen fibrillogenesis and ECM organization as well as the inflammatory/immune responses involving the alternative activated pathway are observed in implant adherent cells at early (3-7 days) after implantation. These gene expression events may indicate a pivotal role of collagen fibrillogenesis as well as immunomodulation in altering bone accrual and biomechanical physical properties of the implant-bone interface. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evolutionary origins and early development of number processing

    CERN Document Server

    Geary, David C; Mann Koepke, Kathleen


    The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition.The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant

  4. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements. (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha


    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  5. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard


    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system. The m...... of the early anlagen of the circular body wall muscles does not show the anterior-posterior mode of formation that is typical for annelids, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a non-segmented ancestry of Mollusca....

  6. Lessons from early experience in reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.


    This paper deals with several issues in U.S. reactor development and demonstration experience. The focus is on the period between 1946 and 1963 during which the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) guided early reactor research and development (R and D) and conducted the Power Reactor Demonstration Program

  7. The history of human-induced soil erosion: Geomorphic legacies, early descriptions and research, and the development of soil conservation—A global synopsis (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus


    This paper presents a global synopsis about the geomorphic evidence of soil erosion in humid and semihumid areas since the beginning of agriculture. Historical documents, starting from ancient records to data from the mid-twentieth century and numerous literature reviews form an extensive assortment of examples that show how soil erosion has been perceived previously by scholars, land surveyors, farmers, land owners, researchers, and policy makers. Examples have been selected from ancient Greek and Roman Times and from central Europe, southern Africa, North America, the Chinese Loess Plateau, Australia, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Furthermore, a comprehensive collection on the development of soil erosion research and soil conservation has been provided, with a particular focus on Germany and the USA. Geomorphic evidence shows that most of the agriculturally used slopes in the Old and New Worlds had already been affected by soil erosion in earlier, prehistoric times. Early descriptions of soil erosion are often very vague. With regard to the Roman Times, geomorphic evidence shows seemingly opposing results, ranging from massive devastation to landscapes remaining stable for centuries. Unfortunately, historical documentation is lacking. In the following centuries, historical records become more frequent and more precise and observations on extreme soil erosion events are prominent. Sometimes they can be clearly linked to geomorphic evidence in the field. The advent of professional soil conservation took place in the late eighteenth century. The first extensive essay on soil conservation known to the Western world was published in Germany in 1815. The rise of professional soil conservation occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Soil remediation and flood prevention programs were initiated, but the long-term success of these actions remains controversial. In recent years, increasing interest is to recover any traditional knowledge of soil

  8. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.


    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  9. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme (United States)

    Pence, Alan


    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  10. Early Childhood Development: Trends and Likely Scenarios. (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    The following trends have been in motion in the field of early childhood development (ECD) for some time: (1) the concept of ECD is increasingly taking on additional connotations; (2) in Europe children are becoming a minority group and other age groups, such as the elderly, see them as competitors for the same limited resources; (3) the downward…

  11. Gender development and the human brain. (United States)

    Hines, Melissa


    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  12. Early human settlements in the southern Qinling Mountains, central China (United States)

    Sun, Xuefeng; Lu, Huayu; Wang, Shejiang; Yi, Liang; Li, Yongxiang; Bahain, Jean Jacques; Voinchet, Pierre; Hu, Xuzhi; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Wenchao; Zhuo, Haixin


    China is a key area of early human settlement in East Asia, with numerous Paleolithic localities indicating an early Pleistocene presence of hominins in northern and southern China. Considerable research has been devoted to determining possible migration routes for hominins linking the two areas. In this paper, we report the discovery of several loess-covered Paleolithic sites in the Hanzhong and Ankang Basins along the Hanjiang River in the southern piedmont of the Qinling Mountains (QLM) in central China. A chronology is developed for these sections using a combination of detailed optically stimulated luminescence dating, magnetostratigraphic analyses, and pedostratigraphic correlation with the well-dated loess-paleosol sequence of the central Chinese Loess Plateau. The results indicate that the age of the oldest lithic assemblage at the Longgangsi locality 3 Paleolithic site in Hanzhong Basin is ∼1.20 Ma, thus making this locality as one of the oldest sites in central China. Our work also indicates that hominins occupied the Hanjiang valley at several times: ∼1.2, 0.9, ∼0.6, and ∼0.1 Ma. We propose that the Hanjiang River Valley was a probable hominin routeway through the QLM because many sites corresponding to these different phases were also discovered to the north of the QLM. Future study on the Hanjiang River Valley is important for verifying the hypothesis of an early human migration route between southern and northern China.

  13. Globalization, Development and Human Security


    Bogdan Ștefanachi


    The conjunction between globalization, development and human security is absolutely necessary and extremely useful to understand and to explain the contemporary space of international relations. The globalization process, even more obvious after the end of Cold War, offers the conditions to define human development and human security, focusing on the normative priority of the impact of policies on the individual. The international space, transformed under the pressure of globalization, become...

  14. Early adaptive developments of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after the transition from life in the environment to persistent colonization in the airways of human cystic fibrosis hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Martin Holm; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Johansen, H. K.


    cases of the initial stages of infection in order to characterize the early adaptive processes in the colonizing bacteria. A combination of global gene expression analysis and phenotypic characterization of longitudinal isolates from cystic fibrosis patients revealed well-known characteristics...

  15. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini


    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  16. Four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis. (United States)

    Howsepian, A A


    In this essay, I attempt to provide answers to the following four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis. (1) Following its first cellular fission, is it coherent to claim that one and only one of two "blastomeric" twins of a human zygote is identical with that zygote? (2) Following the fusion of two human pre-embryos, is it coherent to claim that one and only one pre-fusion pre-embryo is identical with that postfusion pre-embryo? (3) Does a live human being come into existence only when its brain comes into existence? (4) At implantation, does a pre-embryo become a mere part of its mother? I argue that either if things have quidditative properties or if criterialism is false, then queries (1) and (2) can be answered in the affirmative; that in light of recent developments in theories of human death and in light of a more "functional" theory of brains, query (3) can be answered in the negative; and that plausible mereological principles require a negative answer to query (4).

  17. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Embodiment and Human Development. (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J


    We are recognizing increasingly that the study of cognitive, social, and emotional processes must account for their embodiment in living, acting beings. The related field of embodied cognition (EC) has coalesced around dissatisfaction with the lack of attention to the body in cognitive science. For developmental scientists, the emphasis in the literature on adult EC on the role of the body in cognition may not seem particularly novel, given that bodily action was central to Piaget's theory of cognitive development. However, as the influence of the Piagetian account waned, developmental notions of embodiment were shelved in favor of mechanical computational approaches. In this article, I argue that by reconsidering embodiment, we can address a key issue with computational accounts: how meaning is constructed by the developing person. I also suggest that the process-relational approach to developmental systems can provide a system of concepts for framing a fully embodied, integrative developmental science.

  19. Early development and regression in Rett syndrome. (United States)

    Lee, J Y L; Leonard, H; Piek, J P; Downs, J


    This study utilized developmental profiling to examine symptoms in 14 girls with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome and whose families were participating in the Australian Rett syndrome or InterRett database. Regression was mostly characterized by loss of hand and/or communication skills (13/14) except one girl demonstrated slowing of skill development. Social withdrawal and inconsolable crying often developed simultaneously (9/14), with social withdrawal for shorter duration than inconsolable crying. Previously acquired gross motor skills declined in just over half of the sample (8/14), mostly observed as a loss of balance. Early abnormalities such as vomiting and strabismus were also seen. Our findings provide additional insight into the early clinical profile of Rett syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Investigations on early reactions of lymphocyte proteins on gamma irradiation of human blood and their dose dependence. Preconditions for the development of an individual radiobiological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtoi, Andrei


    The present thesis is concerned with the issues involved in obtaining reliable experimental data permitting a retrospective assessment of radiation-induced doses at the time of application or contamination. In order to provide prompt medical treatment of those injured in accidents with ionizing radiation, biological procedures that can be implemented swiftly and at an early stage are required both to determine the radiation dose originally received as well as to assess the course of the dosedependent biological reactions on the basis of individual sensitivity to radiation. To this end, in the present thesis the lymphocyte proteins (phosphoproteins and total proteins) in blood taken from test subjects who had been exposed to γ-radiation (applied dose: 0-4 Gy) were analysed just 15 minutes after completing irradiation by means of 2D gel electrophoresis. Only those early-response proteins (ERPROs) that displayed a significant radiation-induced change were identified by nano-HPLC-MS/MS. For validation purposes, the dose-dependent gene expression of some of these proteins was determined by RT-qPCR. The following ERPROs displayed pronounced early reactions in the form of changes of concentration in comparison to unirradiated control samples: talin-1, talin-2, β-actin, mutant β-actin, peroxin-1 and also the phosphoproteins annexin-A6, MHCbinding protein-2, zyxin-2, interleukin-17E and phosphoglycerate kinase-1. The majority of the lymphocyte ERPROs represent proteins responsible for changes to the cytoskeleton, proliferation and cell cycle, modulation of immunoreactions as well as protein degradation and energy production. Other cellular processes may not have been determined due to the sensitivity restrictions of the 2DPAGE and MS methods, but cannot be excluded. Gene expression studies revealed that a combination of methods, comprising RT-qPCR and 2D-PAGE as well as DNA microarray and Western blot, may in future be able to overcome these restrictions. The slopes of

  1. Globalization, Development and Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ștefanachi


    Full Text Available The conjunction between globalization, development and human security is absolutely necessary and extremely useful to understand and to explain the contemporary space of international relations. The globalization process, even more obvious after the end of Cold War, offers the conditions to define human development and human security, focusing on the normative priority of the impact of policies on the individual. The international space, transformed under the pressure of globalization, becomes relevant in the extent that an alternative discourse that encompasses all these transformations comes out. This new narration transforms the individual in the referent object of development and security, as well.

  2. QCD development in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: [Komi Science Center of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)


    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  3. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  4. The development of a human calcitonin radioimunoassay, with 'in house' reagent production, for application to the early diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbo, E.K.


    Reagent production for human Calcitonin (hCT) Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was carried out in our laboratory starting from a kind donation of human synthetic preparation from CIBA (Basel, Switzerland). This product was used for anti-hCT antibody production in rabbits and guinea-pigs and for radioiodination, according to two different methods: classical and stoichiometric Chloramine T techniques. The use of Sephadex G-50 in tracer purification allowed the obtainement of 125 I-hCT free of high molecular weight contaminats. A repurification on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis provided 125 I-hCT of higher specific activity that presented specific binginds, to good quality antisera, of the same order of imported tracers (∼ 45%). Different antisera were obtained in rabbits and quinea-pigs, but only one (GP 2 -IPEN) could be used in such a dilution (1:4000) to provide highly sensitive curves (minimal detectable concentration [pt

  5. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development. (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James


    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  6. Early colonial health developments in Mauritius. (United States)

    Parahoo, K A


    The historical development of Mauritius and in particular the early developments in health care are crucial to an understanding of the contemporary health system. The introduction of major epidemic diseases through the movements of French soldiers to and from India and the immigration of indentured laborers from India account for the high mortality and morbidity rates in the 18th and 19th centuries and later. The colonial economy created and fortified the dependence on a single cash crop and on imported food. It also contributed toward the impoverization of large sections of the Mauritian population. The colonial era is also responsible for initiating a three tier system of health care.

  7. Early life factors that affect allergy development. (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett


    The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization.

  8. Disseminated Histoplasmosis in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. (United States)

    Bagla, Prabhava; Sarria, Juan C


    Early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to transient immunosuppression followed by a quasi-homeostatic state with slow progression towards AIDS. Histoplasmosis has never been reported in early HIV. We present a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with documented recent seroconversion and review the literature regarding other opportunistic infections in early HIV. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Circular Migration and Human Development


    Newland, Kathleen


    This paper explores the human development implications of circular migration — both where it occurs naturally and where governments work to create it. The paper discusses various conceptions and definitions of circular migration, and concludes that circular migration is not intrinsically positive or negative in relation to human development; its impact depends upon the circumstances in which it occurs, the constraints that surround it and—above all—the degree of choice that ind...

  10. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville


    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  11. Signaling in Early Maize Kernel Development. (United States)

    Doll, Nicolas M; Depège-Fargeix, Nathalie; Rogowsky, Peter M; Widiez, Thomas


    Developing the next plant generation within the seed requires the coordination of complex programs driving pattern formation, growth, and differentiation of the three main seed compartments: the embryo (future plant), the endosperm (storage compartment), representing the two filial tissues, and the surrounding maternal tissues. This review focuses on the signaling pathways and molecular players involved in early maize kernel development. In the 2 weeks following pollination, functional tissues are shaped from single cells, readying the kernel for filling with storage compounds. Although the overall picture of the signaling pathways regulating embryo and endosperm development remains fragmentary, several types of molecular actors, such as hormones, sugars, or peptides, have been shown to be involved in particular aspects of these developmental processes. These molecular actors are likely to be components of signaling pathways that lead to transcriptional programming mediated by transcriptional factors. Through the integrated action of these components, multiple types of information received by cells or tissues lead to the correct differentiation and patterning of kernel compartments. In this review, recent advances regarding the four types of molecular actors (hormones, sugars, peptides/receptors, and transcription factors) involved in early maize development are presented. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Complicating Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Muffly


    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this case is to review the zoonotic infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, presenting with pyrexia. Case. A 22-year-old multigravid female presented to the emergency department with a painful skin rash, high fever, and severe myalgias. The patient underwent a diagnostic evaluation for zoonotic infections due to her geographical and seasonal risk factors. Treatment of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis was successful though the patient spontaneously aborted presumably due to the severity of the acute illness. Conclusion. Treatment of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in pregnancy presents unique challenges. Management of pyrexia during pregnancy is limited to external cooling in the setting of thrombocytopenia and elevated aminotransferases. Extensive counseling regarding teratogenic potential of medications allows the patient to weigh the pros and cons of treatment.

  13. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.


    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters-individuals who profit without cooperating themselves-have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making

  14. Spatiotemporal distribution of PAX6 and MEIS2 expression and total cell numbers in the ganglionic eminence in the early developing human forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B; Lutterodt, Melissa C; Laursen, Henning


    zones and controls the differentiation and neurogenetic fate of these cells in the dorsal telencephalon in rodents. Animal studies on the Meis2 gene have revealed expression in the developing telencephalon and Meis2 is known to regulate the expression of Pax6 in the eye and pancreas. Because...

  15. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann


    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  16. Smallest channel in early human vision. (United States)

    Marr, D; Poggio, T; Hildreth, E


    We suggest from the psychophysical data on two-point and line acuity that the smallest foveal channel in human vision must have an excitatory center with a diameter of around 1' 20". Taking into account the optics of the eye and the finite size of the receptors, we show that this would correspond well to the properties of a retinal ganglion cell receiving excitatory input from a single cone.

  17. The morphological development of newly inundated intertidal areas: the mechanisms driving the early evolution of an estuarine environment designed and constructed by humans (United States)

    Dale, Jonathan; Burgess, Heidi; Cundy, Andrew


    Intertidal saltmarsh and mudflat habitats are of global importance due to the ecosystem, economic and cultural services they provide. These services include wildlife habitat provision and species diversity, immobilisation of pollutants and protection from coastal flooding. Saltmarsh and mudflat environments are, however, being lost and degraded due to erosion caused by rising sea levels and increased storminess. These losses are exacerbated by anthropogenic influences including land reclamation, increased coastal development and the construction of coastal flood defences which prevent the landwards migration of saltmarsh and mudflat environments, resulting in coastal squeeze. To compensate for saltmarsh and mudflat losses areas of the coastal hinterland are being inundated by breaching defences and constructing new defences inland, thus extending or constructing new estuarine environments; a processes known as de-embankment or managed realignment. Morphological engineering and landscaping within managed realignment sites prior to site inundation varies depending on the aims of the scheme. However, there is a shortage of data on the morphological evolution within these sites post site inundation impeding the ability of coastal engineers to effectively design and construct future sites. To date there has been a focus on the colonisation of marine macro fauna and flora within newly inundated managed realignment sites, which can be relatively rapid and easily quantified. Little is known of the morphological evolution in response to altered sedimentary processes, its driving mechanisms and therefore the success and ecological sustainability of these sites. This study evaluates the post-inundation morphological development of the largest open coast managed realignment site in Europe, at Medmerry on the south coast of the United Kingdom. Inundated in September 2013, the Medmerry Managed Realignment Site consists of a mosaic of former agricultural land and areas of lower


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The phrase "human settlements system" is a concern for researchers in various fields as geography, economics, regional planning and for those responsible for formulating and implementing spatial development policies. The research covers various aspects of human settlements and is a meeting place of many disciplines and humanities. It is natural, as human settlements, either as isolated or in territorial systems they belong, are where manifests are transformed and develop human communities and societies as a whole. Problems national system of settlements in Romania are varied and complex. The evolution and consolidation of a stable and balanced is a continuous and dynamic process that goes through a series of steps, some characterized by profound transformations that can be called critical. One such step is the present one, where the influence of the changes in the economy and social and political life, the very development of settlements, be they urban or rural, knows a turning point, a certain vulnerability when the progressive or regressive of evolution is may change at any time. Industry restructuring on the one hand and reîmproprietărirea owners, are factors that can create shock effects unchecked urban and rural areas. On the other hand the development of trade, multiplying special services, urban (banks, insurers, etc. and can foster diversity of choices population compared to a net urban areas where living conditions and financial incentives for farmers are still far to be attractive

  19. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  20. Development of Life on Early Mars (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.


    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  1. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia


    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell–cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species. (paper)

  2. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development. (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M


    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women's underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression.

  3. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  4. Development of Human System Integration at NASA (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McGuire, Kerry; Thompson, Shelby; Vos, Gordon


    Human Systems Integration seeks to design systems around the capabilities and limitations of the humans which use and interact with the system, ensuring greater efficiency of use, reduced error rates, and less rework in the design, manufacturing and operational deployment of hardware and software. One of the primary goals of HSI is to get the human factors practitioner involved early in the design process. In doing so, the aim is to reduce future budget costs and resources in redesign and training. By the preliminary design phase of a project nearly 80% of the total cost of the project is locked in. Potential design changes recommended by evaluations past this point will have little effect due to lack of funding or a huge cost in terms of resources to make changes. Three key concepts define an effective HSI program. First, systems are comprised of hardware, software, and the human, all of which operate within an environment. Too often, engineers and developers fail to consider the human capacity or requirements as part of the system. This leads to poor task allocation within the system. To promote ideal task allocation, it is critical that the human element be considered early in system development. Poor design, or designs that do not adequately consider the human component, could negatively affect physical or mental performance, as well as, social behavior. Second, successful HSI depends upon integration and collaboration of all the domains that represent acquisition efforts. Too often, these domains exist as independent disciplines due to the location of expertise within the service structure. Proper implementation of HSI through participation would help to integrate these domains and disciplines to leverage and apply their interdependencies to attain an optimal design. Via this process domain interests can be integrated to perform effective HSI through trade-offs and collaboration. This provides a common basis upon which to make knowledgeable decisions. Finally

  5. Sustainable development, human and endogenous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Brunet Icart


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the dispersion of the conceptualizations of development linked to the “Second Development Decade”. This dispersion took place within a context of knowledge-based economy, which is shaped by learning and powered by innovation. A context dominated by neoclassical economics, which marked the globalized and financial capitalism of the late twentieth century and the early twenty first century. This neoclassical hegemony results from Keynesian analysis’ discredit, the Latin-American structuralism crisis and the decadence of the critical views —de-velopment neo-Marxists.

  6. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) (United States)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan


    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  7. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu


    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  8. Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria: Challenges And Prospects. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Consequently, the paper recommended; improved investment in education, implementable policies on human resource development, involvement of private organization in human ...

  9. Growth charts of human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van


    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate

  10. Human factors in software development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, B.


    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  11. Phenotypic and functional analysis of T-cell precursors in the human fetal liver and thymus: CD7 expression in the early stages of T- and myeloid-cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bárcena, A.; Muench, M. O.; Galy, A. H.; Cupp, J.; Roncarolo, M. G.; Phillips, J. H.; Spits, H.


    It has been proposed that the CD7 molecule is the first antigen expressed on the membrane of cells committed to the T-cell lineage during human fetal T-cell ontogeny. To further identify the pre-T cell subpopulation that migrates to the thymus early in ontogeny, we analyzed the phenotypic and

  12. Circadian rhythms in early human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmiran, M.; Kok, J. H.


    The body temperature, heart rate and rest-activity cycles of 12 low-risk preterm infants (29-35 weeks) were continuously recorded in the neonatal intensive care unit over a period of 1-2 weeks. Throughout the recordings the light was on continuously, the feeding was done intra-gastrically every 2 h

  13. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.


    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging for understanding brain development in early life. (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I


    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination.

  15. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek


    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  16. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec. (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang


    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  17. Accessibility of services for early infant diagnosis of Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accessibility of services for early infant diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. ... infants who received a virological test within the first 2 months of life in sub-Saharan Africa varied from 3 to 58%, far below the 80% recommended level by the World Health Organization.

  18. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Francino


    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction.

  19. Function of FEZF1 during early neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Su, Pei; Lu, Lisha; Feng, Zicen; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiaxi


    The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development. FEZF1 is rapidly up-regulated during neural differentiation in hESCs and expressed before PAX6, a well-established marker of early human neural induction. We generated FEZF1-knockout H1 hESC lines using CRISPR-CAS9 technology and found that depletion of FEZF1 abrogates neural differentiation of hESCs. Moreover, loss of FEZF1 impairs the pluripotency exit of hESCs during neural specification, which partially explains the neural induction defect caused by FEZF1 deletion. However, enforced expression of FEZF1 itself fails to drive neural differentiation in hESCs, suggesting that FEZF1 is necessary but not sufficient for neural differentiation from hESCs. Taken together, our findings identify one of the earliest regulators expressed upon neural induction and provide insight into early neural development in human.

  20. Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to early antigen(s) of human cytomegalovirus.


    Waner, J L; Kong, N; Biano, S


    The lymphocytes of asymptomatic, seropositive donors demonstrated blastogenic responses to early antigens of human cytomegalovirus whether or not antibodies to early antigens were detectable. The lymphocytes of six of nine patients with active cytomegalovirus infections gave stimulation indexes of greater than or equal to 2.00 with antigens of productively infected cells, whereas only two patients demonstrated comparable stimulation indexes with early antigens. Four patients with stimulation ...

  1. Human development in societal context. (United States)

    Huston, Aletha C; Bentley, Alison C


    Low family socioeconomic position is a net of related conditions-low income, material deprivation, single-parent family structure, low educational level, minority ethnic group membership, and immigrant status. According to ecological theory, proximal contexts experienced by children, including family, material resources, out-of-school experiences, schools, neighborhoods, and peers, are mediators of poverty effects. Developmental timing of exposure to poverty conditions and the processes by which effects occur differ for cognitive and social domains of development. Understanding how contexts combine and interact is as important as understanding their independent influences. Effects may be cumulative, but advantages in one context can also ameliorate disadvantages in others. Although research is typically based on unidirectional causal models, the relations between the developing child and the contexts he or she experiences are reciprocal and transactional. Finally, although income inequality has increased greatly, little is known about the influences of relative poverty and social inequality on human development.

  2. Human development index: a critique. (United States)

    Chowdhury, O H


    This discussion focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of constructing a summary measure of the multidimensional and dynamic concept of development. 2 indexes are referred to: the UN Development Programme; human development index (HDI) and the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI). PQLI weights equally life expectancy at 1 year, infant mortality, and literacy, regardless of the correlation of variables and the arbitrariness of the weights. PQLI also is assumed to measure the quantity of life, not the quality. HDI measures quantity and quality and includes life expectancy, literacy, and real GDP/capita, and may include a measure of human freedom. Objectivity is a major problem with any index. Assignment of weights is an example of arbitrariness without justification and the index is sensitive the weights assigned. There is a paradox between defending weights on the 1 hand and, if robustness of the index is assumed and components are correlated, then any single component could suffice. A more serious criticism of the HDI is the weighting of each rank order of the country by 1/3 and summing the weighted ranking of the 3 indicators. The flaw here is the problem of application of ratio scales on ordinal magnitudes. The rank correlation coefficient between real GDP/capita and life expectancy, real GDP/capita and literacy; and literacy and life expectancy are .90, .80, and .89, respectively. HDI is also correlated with GDP/capita (.87). Composite indexes are not sensitive to variability in components or the imbalance in components, e.g., a country with low means but high literacy. The goal should continue to be to develop a conceptually and methodologically acceptable summary measure. It is suggested that a necessary component is economic development. Countries may be ranked according to their level of economic development in order to measure their achievements in human development. A weighted distribution of income/capita is a better indicator of the economic well

  3. Astronomical Theory of Early Human Migration (Milutin Milankovic Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias


    Our climate system varies on a wide range of timescales, from seasons to several millions of years. A large part of this variability is internally generated as a result of instabilities of the coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice-carbon cycle system. Other modes of variability, such as glacial cycles, are caused by astronomical forcings with periods of 20, 40, 100 thousand years. These so-called Milankovitch Cycles are associated with earth's axis wobble, axis obliquity and shifts in the eccentricity of earth's orbit around the sun, respectively. When these cycles conspire, they can cause the climate system to plunge into an ice-age. This happened last time 110,000 years ago, when Northern Hemisphere summer radiation decreased substantially and ice-sheets started to form as a result. Around 100,000 years ago northern Hemisphere summer moved again closer to the sun and Homo sapiens started to leave Africa across vegetated corridors in Northeastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. This first migration wave must have been relatively weak, but it left unequivocal traces in the fossil and archaeological record. Why Homo sapiens embarked on its grand journey across our planet during glacial climate conditions has been subject of an intense debate in various scientific communities. Moreover, the archaeological records of an early exodus around 100 thousand years ago seem to be at odds with paleo-genetic evidences, that place the first dispersal out of Africa around 70-60 thousand years ago. To elucidate what role climate and environmental conditions played in the dispersal of Anatomically Modern Humans out of Africa, we have developed and applied one of the first integrated climate/human migration computer models. The model simulates ice-ages, abrupt climate change, the "peopling" of our planet and captures the arrival time of Homo sapiens in the Levant, Arabian Peninsula, Southern China and Australia in close agreement with paleo climate reconstructions, fossil and

  4. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development. (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L


    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L


    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 1, 2017 ... country as bilingualism is highly fostered for a fuller development of the human person. This study is based on Maslow„s theory of human needs and Mahbub‟s human development theory. Consequently, for a better development of the human person via French language, we propose an action-based ...

  7. Development of the human heart. (United States)

    Sylva, Marc; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Moorman, Antoon F M


    Molecular and genetic studies around the turn of this century have revolutionized the field of cardiac development. We now know that the primary heart tube, as seen in the early embryo contains little more than the precursors for the left ventricle, whereas the precursor cells for the remainder of the cardiac components are continuously added, to both the venous and arterial pole of the heart tube, from a single center of growth outside the heart. While the primary heart tube is growing by addition of cells, it does not show significant cell proliferation, until chamber differentiation and expansion starts locally in the tube, by which the chambers balloon from the primary heart tube. The transcriptional repressors Tbx2 and Tbx3 locally repress the chamber-specific program of gene expression, by which these regions are allowed to differentiate into the distinct components of the conduction system. Molecular genetic lineage analyses have been extremely valuable to assess the distinct developmental origin of the various component parts of the heart, which currently can be unambiguously identified by their unique molecular phenotype. Despite the enormous advances in our knowledge on cardiac development, even the most common congenital cardiac malformations are only poorly understood. The challenge of the newly developed molecular genetic techniques is to unveil the basic gene regulatory networks underlying cardiac morphogenesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth. (United States)

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne


    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. The Proteomic Signature of Aspergillus fumigatus During Early Development* (United States)

    Cagas, Steven E.; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Perlin, David S.


    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that causes a range of diseases in humans including invasive aspergillosis. All forms of disease begin with the inhalation of conidia, which germinate and develop. Four stages of early development were evaluated using the gel free system of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation to determine the full proteomic profile of the pathogen. A total of 461 proteins were identified at 0, 4, 8, and 16 h and fold changes for each were established. Ten proteins including the hydrophobin rodlet protein RodA and a protein involved in melanin synthesis Abr2 were found to decrease relative to conidia. To generate a more comprehensive view of early development, a whole genome microarray analysis was performed comparing conidia to 8 and 16 h of growth. A total of 1871 genes were found to change significantly at 8 h with 1001 genes up-regulated and 870 down-regulated. At 16 h, 1235 genes changed significantly with 855 up-regulated and 380 down-regulated. When a comparison between the proteomics and microarray data was performed at 8 h, a total of 22 proteins with significant changes also had corresponding genes that changed significantly. When the same comparison was performed at 16 h, 12 protein and gene combinations were found. This study, the most comprehensive to date, provides insights into early pathways activated during growth and development of A. fumigatus. It reveals a pathogen that is gearing up for rapid growth by building translation machinery, generating ATP, and is very much committed to aerobic metabolism. PMID:21825280

  10. Human development: from conception to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri


    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a of parental origin (father and mother, including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery, during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.

  11. Early Development and the Brain: Teaching Resources for Educators (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda, Ed.; Klein, Rebecca, Ed.


    This nine-unit curriculum translates current scientific research on early brain development into practical suggestions to help early childhood professionals understand the reciprocal link between caregiving and brain development. The curriculum was created and extensively field-tested by the Erikson Institute Faculty Development Project on the…

  12. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood (United States)

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.


    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  13. Deformable human body model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  14. Early Pregnancy Development and Obstetric Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.F. van Oppenraaij


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The following research objectives were defined: 1. To determine an unambiguous Dutch terminology to describe events in early pregnancy (Chapter 1.2) 2. To explore whether determining the due date by the last period is influenced by preference for certain dates,

  15. High early life mortality in free-ranging dogs is largely influenced by humans


    Manabi Paul; Sreejani Sen Majumder; Shubhra Sau; Anjan K. Nandi; Anindita Bhadra


    Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of popul...

  16. Household human development index in Lakshadweep


    I, Sahadudheen


    Since the evolution of the human development index in 1990 there has been a vivacious debate on measurement related issues of quality of human life among the nations. It is a long-established verity that the existing HDI presents averages and thus conceals wide discrepancy and disproportion in distribution of human development in overall population and does not take into account the distribution of human development within a population subgroup. This study is intended to look in to human ...

  17. Integrating Early Child Development and Violence Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.


    Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…

  18. Human resource development for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi


    This paper summarized the features of decommissioning work and the methods how to develop human resources. The general flow of decommissioning includes the following steps: (1) evaluation of facility characteristics, (2) planning, (3) decontamination and disassembly of equipment and structures contaminated with radioactivity, (4) radioactivity measurement, (5) treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, and (6) release from legal restrictions (termination of decommissioning). For this purpose, techniques in various fields are required. In the evaluation of facility characteristics, radiation measurement and calculation of activation amount in the core part are required. In decontamination and dismantling, cutting technology (mechanical cutting, thermal cutting, etc.), decontamination technology, and remote control technology are required. In the nuclear power education in the past, the fields related to design, construction, operation, and maintenance among the plant life cycle were the main parts. Much attention was not payed to decommissioning and the treatment/disposal of radioactive waste in the second half of life cycle. As university education, Hokkaido University and Fukui University have lectures on decommissioning. Furthermore, the education and research for students are proceeding at seven universities, with a focus on common reactors including those of Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. It is a key for promoting decommissioning, to incorporate project management, risk analysis, cost evaluation, and decision making into education, and to foster human resources heading toward challenging problems including social problems. (A.O.)

  19. The neonatal brain : early connectome development and childhood cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, K.


    The human brain is a vastly complex system that develops rapidly during human gestation. Its developmental pace is unprecedented in any other period of human development. By the time of normal birth the brain's layout verges on the adult human brain. All major structures have come into place,

  20. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise


    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  1. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday


    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  2. Specificity in Early Development and Experience. (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    This paper presents observational and research evidence to refute two widely held beliefs about psychological development: the belief in predetermined development and the belief in the simultaneous development of all behavioral systems. Studies suggesting the plasticity of development through environmental deprivation and intervention are…

  3. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL


    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  4. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum


    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  5. Growth factors FGF8 and FGF2 and their receptor FGFR1, transcriptional factors Msx-1 and MSX-2, and apoptotic factors p19 and RIP5 participate in the early human limb development. (United States)

    Becic, Tina; Kero, Darko; Vukojevic, Katarina; Mardesic, Snjezana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna


    The expression pattern of fibroblast growth factors FGF8 and FGF2 and their receptor FGFR1, transcription factors MSX-1 and MSX-2, as well as cell proliferation (Ki-67) and cell death associated caspase-3, p19 and RIP5 factors were analyzed in histological sections of eight 4th-9th-weeks developing human limbs by immunohistochemistry and semi-thin sectioning. Increasing expression of all analyzed factors (except FGF8) characterized both the multilayered human apical ectodermal ridge (AER), sub-ridge mesenchyme (progress zone) and chondrocytes in developing human limbs. While cytoplasmic co-expression of MSX-1 and MSX-2 was observed in both limb epithelium and mesenchyme, p19 displayed strong cytoplasmic expression in non-proliferating cells. Nuclear expression of Ki-67 proliferating cells, and partly of MSX-1 and MSX-2 was detected in the whole limb primordium. Strong expression of factors p19 and RIP5, both in the AER and mesenchyme of human developing limbs indicates their possible involvement in control of cell senescence and cell death. In contrast to animal studies, expression of FGFR1 in the surface ectoderm and p19 in the whole limb primordium might reflect interspecies differences in limb morphology. Expression of FGF2 and downstream RIP5 gene, and transcription factors Msx-1 and MSX-2 did not show human-specific changes in expression pattern. Based on their spatio-temporal expression during human limb development, our study indicates role of FGFs and Msx genes in stimulation of cell proliferation, limb outgrowth, digit elongation and separation, and additionally MSX-2 in control of vasculogenesis. The cascade of orchestrated gene expressions, including the analyzed developmental factors, jointly contribute to the complex human limb development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. High early life mortality in free-ranging dogs is largely influenced by humans. (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita


    Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of population growth and factors affecting early life mortality in free-ranging dogs. We observed high rates of mortality, with only ~19% of the 364 pups from 95 observed litters surviving till the reproductive age; 63% of total mortality being human influenced. While living near people increases resource availability for dogs, it also has deep adverse impacts on their population growth, making the dog-human relationship on streets highly complex.

  7. Effects of Fluoxetine on Human Embryo Development. (United States)

    Kaihola, Helena; Yaldir, Fatma G; Hreinsson, Julius; Hörnaeus, Katarina; Bergquist, Jonas; Olivier, Jocelien D A; Åkerud, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger


    The use of antidepressant treatment during pregnancy is increasing, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in pregnant women. Serotonin plays a role in embryogenesis, and serotonin transporters are expressed in two-cell mouse embryos. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fluoxetine, one of the most prescribed SSRI antidepressant world-wide, exposure influences the timing of different embryo developmental stages, and furthermore, to analyze what protein, and protein networks, are affected by fluoxetine in the early embryo development. Human embryos (n = 48) were randomly assigned to treatment with 0.25 or 0.5 μM fluoxetine in culture medium. Embryo development was evaluated by time-lapse monitoring. The fluoxetine-induced human embryo proteome was analyzed by shotgun mass spectrometry. Protein secretion from fluoxetine-exposed human embryos was analyzed by use of high-multiplex immunoassay. The lower dose of fluoxetine had no influence on embryo development. A trend toward reduced time between thawing and start of cavitation was noted in embryos treated with 0.5 μM fluoxetine (p = 0.065). Protein analysis by shotgun mass spectrometry detected 45 proteins that were uniquely expressed in fluoxetine-treated embryos. These proteins are involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, and inflammatory response. Culturing with 0.5 μM, but not 0.25 μM fluoxetine, caused a significant increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the culture medium. In conclusion, fluoxetine has marginal effects on the timing of developmental stages in embryos, but induces expression and secretion of several proteins in a manner that depends on dose. For these reasons, and in line with current guidelines, the lowest possible dose of SSRI should be used in pregnant women who need to continue treatment.

  8. Psychological preconditions of game activity development in the early childhood


    Valeriya Spitsyna; Ekaterina Saraykina


    The article is devoted for detection the psychological preconditions of game activity development at early age and interrelation of game formation with the development of subject actions, informative activity and procedural game.

  9. Dendritic Cell Lineage Potential in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Helft


    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs are thought to descend from a DC precursor downstream of the common myeloid progenitor (CMP. However, a mouse lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor has been shown to generate cDCs following a DC-specific developmental pathway independent of monocyte and granulocyte poiesis. Similarly, here we show that, in humans, a large fraction of multipotent lymphoid early progenitors (MLPs gives rise to cDCs, in particular the subset known as cDC1, identified by co-expression of DNGR-1 (CLEC9A and CD141 (BDCA-3. Single-cell analysis indicates that over one-third of MLPs have the potential to efficiently generate cDCs. cDC1s generated from CMPs or MLPs do not exhibit differences in transcriptome or phenotype. These results demonstrate an early imprinting of the cDC lineage in human hematopoiesis and highlight the plasticity of developmental pathways giving rise to human DCs.

  10. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea (United States)

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G.; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer


    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000–22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene “symbolic” artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia. PMID:28373568

  11. Dual language exposure and early bilingual development* (United States)



    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1;10 to 2;6. The monolingually developing children were significantly more advanced than the bilingually developing children on measures of both vocabulary and grammar in single language comparisons, but they were comparable on a measure of total vocabulary. Within the bilingually developing sample, all measures of vocabulary and grammar were related to the relative amount of input in that language. Implications for theories of language acquisition and for understanding bilingual development are discussed. PMID:21418730

  12. Hardware development process for Human Research facility applications (United States)

    Bauer, Liz


    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. .

  13. Risk Management for Human Support Technology Development (United States)

    jones, Harry


    NASA requires continuous risk management for all programs and projects. The risk management process identifies risks, analyzes their impact, prioritizes them, develops and carries out plans to mitigate or accept them, tracks risks and mitigation plans, and communicates and documents risk information. Project risk management is driven by the project goal and is performed by the entire team. Risk management begins early in the formulation phase with initial risk identification and development of a risk management plan and continues throughout the project life cycle. This paper describes the risk management approach that is suggested for use in NASA's Human Support Technology Development. The first step in risk management is to identify the detailed technical and programmatic risks specific to a project. Each individual risk should be described in detail. The identified risks are summarized in a complete risk list. Risk analysis provides estimates of the likelihood and the qualitative impact of a risk. The likelihood and impact of the risk are used to define its priority location in the risk matrix. The approaches for responding to risk are either to mitigate it by eliminating or reducing the effect or likelihood of a risk, to accept it with a documented rationale and contingency plan, or to research or monitor the risk, The Human Support Technology Development program includes many projects with independently achievable goals. Each project must do independent risk management, considering all its risks together and trading them against performance, budget, and schedule. Since the program can succeed even if some projects fail, the program risk has a complex dependence on the individual project risks.

  14. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan


    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  15. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions (United States)

    Richman, Nicole


    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  16. Why did humans develop a large brain?


    Muscat Baron, Yves


    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'.

  17. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig


    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  18. Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration. (United States)

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias


    On the basis of fossil and archaeological data it has been hypothesized that the exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Eurasia between ~50-120 thousand years ago occurred in several orbitally paced migration episodes. Crossing vegetated pluvial corridors from northeastern Africa into the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant and expanding further into Eurasia, Australia and the Americas, early H. sapiens experienced massive time-varying climate and sea level conditions on a variety of timescales. Hitherto it has remained difficult to quantify the effect of glacial- and millennial-scale climate variability on early human dispersal and evolution. Here we present results from a numerical human dispersal model, which is forced by spatiotemporal estimates of climate and sea level changes over the past 125 thousand years. The model simulates the overall dispersal of H. sapiens in close agreement with archaeological and fossil data and features prominent glacial migration waves across the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant region around 106-94, 89-73, 59-47 and 45-29 thousand years ago. The findings document that orbital-scale global climate swings played a key role in shaping Late Pleistocene global population distributions, whereas millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events, had a more limited regional effect.

  19. NKT cell depletion in humans during early HIV infection. (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Kelleher, Anthony D; Finlayson, Robert; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J


    Natural killer T (NKT) cells bridge across innate and adaptive immune responses and have an important role in chronic viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NKT cells are depleted during chronic HIV infection, but the timing, drivers and implications of this NKT cell depletion are poorly understood. We studied human peripheral blood NKT cell levels, phenotype and function in 31 HIV-infected subjects not on antiretroviral treatment from a mean of 4 months to 2 years after HIV infection. We found that peripheral CD4(+) NKT cells were substantially depleted and dysfunctional by 4 months after HIV infection. The depletion of CD4(+) NKT cells was more marked than the depletion of total CD4(+) T cells. Further, the early depletion of NKT cells correlated with CD4(+) T-cell decline, but not HIV viral levels. Levels of activated CD4(+) T cells correlated with the loss of NKT cells. Our studies suggest that the early loss of NKT cells is associated with subsequent immune destruction during HIV infection.

  20. The Status of Early Childhood Care and Development in Aboadze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the unavailability of facilities to promote quality childhood care, government's and community's poor involvement in preschool education and lack of training of the. Kindergarten teachers. Keywords: Early Childhood Care and Development, Early Childhood Care Education, Pre-School. International Journal of Educational ...

  1. Yemen Early Childhood Development : SABER Country Report 2013


    World Bank


    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Yemen. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the SABER-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social and child protection policies and interventions in Yemen, along with regional and intern...

  2. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development (United States)

    Messonnier, Nancy


    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  3. Access to Early Childhood Development: Strategies for Enhancing Social Integration. (United States)

    Wazir, Rekha; van Oudenhoven, Nico

    Access to early childhood education and social exclusion are issues currently of importance for policy and program development in Europe. This paper explores links between early education access and social exclusion in regard to profound and rapid changes in Europe that are forcing families to find new ways to remain integrated within their…

  4. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    Objectives The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  5. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Derksen, E.; Prevoo, M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.


    OBJECTIVES: The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  6. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.


    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  7. Framing Early Childhood Development: Strategic Communications and Public Preferences (United States)

    Gilliam, Franklin D.; Bales, Susan Nall


    This brief focuses on the potential role that strategic communications can play in helping state (Maternal Child Health) MCH programs and their collaborating partners frame their message to enhance the public's understanding of the importance of early child development and the need for a comprehensive and integrated early childhood system. The…

  8. ECR-MAPK Regulation in Liver Early Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ju Zhao


    Full Text Available Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  9. Early Human Evolution in the Western Palaearctic: Ecological Scenarios (United States)

    Carrión, José S.; Rose, James; Stringer, Chris


    This review presents the themes of a special issue dealing with environmental scenarios of human evolution during the Early Pleistocene (2.6-0.78 Ma; MIS 103-MIS 19) and early Middle Pleistocene (0.78-0.47 Ma; MIS 19-base of MIS 12) within the western Palaearctic. This period is one of dramatic changes in the climates and the distribution of Palaearctic biota. These changes have played their role in generating adaptive and phyletic patterns within the human ancestry, involving several species such as Homo habilis, "Homo georgicus", Homo erectus, Homo antecessor and Homo heidelbergensis. In the archaeological record, these species include the Oldowan (Mode 1) and Acheulian (Mode 2) lithic technologies. Taphonomic considerations of palaeoecological research in hominin-bearing sites are provided and evaluated. Syntheses are provided for north Africa, western Asia, the Mediterranean Basin, Britain, and continental Europe. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on multidisciplinary data are given for Ain Boucherit, Ain Hanech and El-Kherba in Algeria, Dmanisi in Georgia, Atapuerca, Cueva Negra, and the Orce Basin in Spain, Monte Poggiolo and Pirro Nord in Italy, Pont-de-Lavaud in France, and Mauer in Germany. The state of the art with the Out of Africa 1 dispersal model is reviewed. A source-sink dynamics model for Palaeolithic Europe is described to explain the morphological disparity of H. heidelbergensis (we will sometimes use the informal name "Heidelbergs") and early Neanderthals. Other aspects debated here are the selective value of habitat mosaics including reconstructions based on mammal and avian databases, and the role of geological instability combined with topographic complexity. This review is completed by addressing the question of whether the appearance of evolutionary trends within hominins is concentrated in regions of highest worldwide biological diversity (biodiversity hotspots). It is concluded that the keys for the activation of evolutionary

  10. Pharmacometrics in early clinical drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.J.


    Pharmacometrics, the science of quantitative clinical pharmacology, has been recognized as one of the main research fields able to improve efficiency in drug development, and to reduce attrition rates on the route from drug discovery to approval. This field of drug research, which builds heavily on

  11. Early gonad development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 13, 2014 ... secondary gonadogenesis. While the mechanisms of this phenomenon in zebrafish ovaries are not well addressed, here it can be seen in the context of an apoptotic regulation. Key words: Danio rerio, gonad, mitotic/meiotic transition, development, sex inversion. INTRODUCTION. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is ...

  12. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents) (United States)

    ... get both in and out of the home. Preschool (Ages 3 to 5) By preschool, most kids have developed a strong sense of ... swim together. Issues that parents of elementary school-age kids might face include: Bad language. Children will pick up bad language and inappropriate ...

  13. Apoptotic cell elimination during early tooth development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Míšek, Ivan; Chovancová, Eva


    Roč. 72, č. 7 (2003), s. 34 ISSN 0001-7213. [Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists/24./. 21.07.2002-25.07.2002, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : tooth development Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  14. Effects of pacifiers on early oral development. (United States)

    Poyak, James


    Pacifier use and its effects on the developing cranio-facial structures has long been debated and filled with controversy. The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate whether pacifiers have a harmful effect on the developing dentition, and if so, what those effects are and at what age they begin. The existing literature was researched using PubMed and NLM for articles published in English between Jan-Feb 1992 and Oct 2003. The search utilized the words or phrases "pacifiers," "nonnutritive sucking", "pacifiers and malocclusion", "effects ofpacifiers", and "pacifier sucking". The book Essentials of Facial Growth by Enlow and Hans was also included because of the classic research on growth and development. Several articles showed that pacifier use beyond age 3 has an increasingly harmful effect on the developing dentition. The most notable changes are an increase in the prevalence of an anterior open bite, posterior cross bite, narrow intercuspid width of the maxillary arch, and a high narrow palate. If the pacifier was used beyond the age of 5, the effects became more severe. Pacifier use is prevalent in most countries and does not alter the dentition if its use is stopped by age 2 to 3. Pacifier use beyond the age of 3 contributes to a higher incidence in anterior open bite, posterior cross bite and narrow intercuspid width. The greater the longevity and duration ofpacifier use, the greater the potential for harmful results.

  15. Maternal DNA Methylation Regulates Early Trophoblast Development. (United States)

    Branco, Miguel R; King, Michelle; Perez-Garcia, Vicente; Bogutz, Aaron B; Caley, Matthew; Fineberg, Elena; Lefebvre, Louis; Cook, Simon J; Dean, Wendy; Hemberger, Myriam; Reik, Wolf


    Critical roles for DNA methylation in embryonic development are well established, but less is known about its roles during trophoblast development, the extraembryonic lineage that gives rise to the placenta. We dissected the role of DNA methylation in trophoblast development by performing mRNA and DNA methylation profiling of Dnmt3a/3b mutants. We find that oocyte-derived methylation plays a major role in regulating trophoblast development but that imprinting of the key placental regulator Ascl2 is only partially responsible for these effects. We have identified several methylation-regulated genes associated with trophoblast differentiation that are involved in cell adhesion and migration, potentially affecting trophoblast invasion. Specifically, trophoblast-specific DNA methylation is linked to the silencing of Scml2, a Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 protein that drives loss of cell adhesion in methylation-deficient trophoblast. Our results reveal that maternal DNA methylation controls multiple differentiation-related and physiological processes in trophoblast via both imprinting-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Education of Youth, Human Rights and Human Development (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio


    This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a human right and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights…

  17. Early development of Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Pisces: Gempylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Gosuke


    Full Text Available Thyrsitops lepidopoides larvae were caught with Bongo nets in the upper 200 m of the ocean from the coast of southern Brazil during 1975-1978. Based on a serie of 271 specimens ranging from 2.5 to 24.0 mm body lenght, morphological and osteological development of the larvae and juveniles is described. Small larvae (2.5-12.0 mm NL can be distinguished from all known gempylid larvae by the presence of a distinct melanophore at the base of the dorsal and anal fins. The larvae have well developed dorsal and ventral spines. It is the only gempylid with six preopercular spines and non-serrated dorsal and ventral spines during the larval stage.

  18. A Calibrated Index of Human Development (United States)

    Lind, Niels


    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  19. Annals of Humanities and Development Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of Humanities and Development Studies publishes papers in all aspects of humanities and rural, social and cultural development, including peace and international cooperation activities related to societal transformation in developing countries. Papers arising from original research and case studies or forming ...

  20. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development. (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise


    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investing in Early Childhood Development : Essential Interventions, Family Contexts, and Broader Policies


    Wodon, Quentin


    Access to quality early childhood development (ECD), care, and pre-primary education is essential for child development and is now recognized as a priority under the Sustainable Development Goals. Investments in ECD by major donors have been rising rapidly in recent years. This makes the task of understanding better what works to promote ECD, and what may not work as well, a priority. The objective of this special issue of the Journal of Human Development and Capabilities is to contribute to ...

  2. Immunity through early development of coral larvae. (United States)

    Palmer, C V; Graham, E; Baird, A H


    As a determinant of survival, immunity is likely to be significant in enabling coral larvae to disperse and successfully recruit, however, whether reef-building coral larvae have immune defenses is unknown. We investigated the potential presence and variation in immunity in the lecithotrophic larvae of Acropora tenuis through larval development. Enzymes indicative of tyrosinase and laccase-type melanin-synthesis were quantified, and the concentration of three coral fluorescent proteins was measured over six developmental stages; egg, embryo, motile planula, planula post-exposure to crustose coralline algae (CCA; settlement cue), settled, settled post-exposure to Symbiodinium (endosymbiont). Both types of melanin-synthesis pathways and the three fluorescent proteins were present in A. tenuis throughout development. Laccase-type activity and red fluorescence increased following exposure of planula to CCA, whereas tyrosinase-type activity and cyan fluorescence increased following settlement. No change was detected in the measured parameters following exposure to Symbiodinium. This study is the first to document coral larval immune responses and suggests the melanin-synthesis pathways have disparate roles-the laccase-type potentially non-immunological and the tyrosinase-type in cytotoxic defense. Our results indicate that corals have the potential to resist infection from the earliest life history phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality Communication For human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mayor Zaragoza


    Full Text Available In the digital age, the Media are today, fortunately, affordable instruments that progressively allow all human beings –up to now confined and silent– to know what is happening anywhere in the world, being able, in addition, to express their own views and opinions. This article insists on the value of Communication to achieve the equality of the human being in all the senses. “The same dignity –writes the author– as the foundation of the world we long for.”

  4. Assessment of early child development: what, why, and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Brajović


    Full Text Available Motor skills, language, social and personal development as well as cognitive abilities are often the focus of early child development assessment and monitoring. The article presents some of the developmental milestones in these areas of child development. At the same time the article demonstrates that early child development assessment surpasses merely the orientation acording to developmental milestones. As a part of primary health prevention in Slovenia, identification of children with potential developmental delays is performed with the Denver developmental screening test II and the Systematical psychological examination of the three-year-old procedure. The purpose of applying developmental screening tests is early identification of children with developmental problems, as well as preparation of effective early interventions. By applying an appropriate psychological test material, a psychologist is able to assess the type and the stage of child' s psychological problems and delays in different developmental domains. Only psychometrically sound, and standardized tests should be applied in the process of early child development assessment. The work presents some of the practical and theoretical difficulties which practitioners are facing in the process of early child development assessment. Some feasible solutions are provided as well.

  5. Young children's understanding of stages of human development


    濱田, 祥子; 杉村, 伸一郎


    The self-concept is composed through the interaction with others (Mead,1934). As selfconceptual study in early childhood, most targets the same age others. However, it is thought that the existence of the others at other stages of development brings the influence to the self-concept if the self-concept is composed by the interaction with others. The present study aimed to search for children's understanding of stages of human development and children's self-concept by the comparisons between ...

  6. Approaching Development Projects from a Human Development and Capability Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Frediani (Alexandre); A. Boni (Alejandro); D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractThis paper discusses the relevance of the human development and capability approach for development project planning, management and evaluation. With reference to the set of five other studies that it introduces, the paper suggests in which areas insights from human development and

  7. Early Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Reprograms Human Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Chiribao


    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has the peculiarity, when compared with other intracellular parasites, that it is able to invade almost any type of cell. This property makes Chagas a complex parasitic disease in terms of prophylaxis and therapeutics. The identification of key host cellular factors that play a role in the T. cruzi invasion is important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. In Chagas disease, most of the focus is on the response of macrophages and cardiomyocytes, since they are responsible for host defenses and cardiac lesions, respectively. In the present work, we studied the early response to infection of T. cruzi in human epithelial cells, which constitute the first barrier for establishment of infection. These studies identified up to 1700 significantly altered genes regulated by the immediate infection. The global analysis indicates that cells are literally reprogrammed by T. cruzi, which affects cellular stress responses (neutrophil chemotaxis, DNA damage response, a great number of transcription factors (including the majority of NFκB family members, and host metabolism (cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids. These results raise the possibility that early host cell reprogramming is exploited by the parasite to establish the initial infection and posterior systemic dissemination.

  8. Social deprivation and the HPA axis in early development. (United States)

    Koss, Kalsea J; Hostinar, Camelia E; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R


    Growing evidence suggests that early social deprivation impacts the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Early adverse care in the form of institutional or orphanage care provides a human model for early social deprivation. The present study examined changes in diurnal cortisol during the transition to family care in the first 2 years post-adoption. Children adopted between 15 and 36 months from institutional care were examined four times during their first 2 years post-adoption (N=58). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N=50) and children adopted during their first year from overseas foster care (N=47). Children provided daily cortisol samples at roughly 2, 9, 17, and 25 months post-adoption. Post-institutionalized and post-foster care children exhibited less steep diurnal cortisol compared to non-adopted same-aged peers; these differences did not diminish across the 2 year period. For post-institutionalized children, lower social care quality in institutions was associated with less steep cortisol slopes. Lastly, shallower diurnal cortisol was a mediator between adoption status and increased behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. Consistent with the non-human primate literature, early social deprivation may contribute to early programming of the HPA axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Resources Development through "Work Design" (United States)

    Peterson, Richard O.


    Human resources development must be oriented toward the achievement of all objectives of organizational performance: Quality, efficiency, societal impact, employee impact. Three fundamental phases in developing a work design strategy (for improving organizational effectiveness) are explained. (BM)

  10. Function of JARID2 in bovines during early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Fu


    Full Text Available Histone lysine modifications are important epigenetic modifications in early embryonic development. JARID2, which is a member of the jumonji demethylase protein family, is a regulator of early embryonic development and can regulate mouse development and embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation by modifying histone lysines. JARID2 can affect early embryonic development by regulating the methylation level of H3K27me3, which is closely related to normal early embryonic development. To investigate the expression pattern of JARID2 and the effect of JARID2-induced H3K27 methylation in bovine oocytes and early embryonic stages, JARID2 mRNA expression and localization were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos via qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence in the present study. The results showed that JARID2 is highly expressed in the germinal vesicle (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell and blastocyst stages, but the relative expression level of JARID2 in bovine GV oocytes is significantly lower than that at other oocyte/embryonic stages (p < 0.05, and JARID2 is expressed primarily in the nucleus. We next detected the mRNA expression levels of embryonic development-related genes (OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc after JARID2 knockdown through JARID2-2830-siRNA microinjection to investigate the molecularpathwayunderlying the regulation of H3K27me3 by JARID2 during early embryonic development. The results showed that the relative expression levels of these genes in 2-cell embryos weresignificantly higher than those in the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were significantly increased after JARID2 knockdown. In summary, the present study identified the expression pattern of JARID2 in bovine oocytes and at each early embryonic stage, and the results suggest that JARID2 plays a key role in early embryonic development by regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc via modification of H3K27me3 expression. This work provides new data for improvements in the

  11. The Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale: A Validation Study. (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Ma, Kitty; Becher, Yvonne; Lee, Diana; Lau, Carrie; Zhang, Li; Chow, Chun Bong; Ip, Patrick


    This paper reports on the development and validation of the Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale (HKECDS), a holistic measure of child development designed specifically for preschool children in Hong Kong. Scale development was an iterative process and the first version of the scale contained 190 items whereas the final version includes only 95. Children ranging in age from three to six years were administered trial versions of the HKECDS in Studies 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 240). Item analyses indicated that it is a developmental scale and that it has an appropriate level of difficulty for preschool children. It also discriminates between three- to six-year-olds from different social backgrounds in Hong Kong. The final version of the HKECDS includes items from the following eight subscales: Personal, Social and Self-Care (7 items), Language Development (13 items), Pre-academic Learning (27 items), Cognitive Development (10 items), Gross Motor (12 items), Fine Motor (9 items), Physical Fitness, Health and Safety (7 items), and Self and Society (10 items). The HKECDS is the first early child development scale which considers both the holistic development of preschool children and incorporates current expectations of early child development in Hong Kong. In this era of evidence-based decision making, it can be used to evaluate both the efficacy of targeted interventions and broader child-related public policies on early child development in Hong Kong.

  12. Eine evolutionsbiologische Betrachtung der menschlichen Fruhentwicklung (An Evolution-Biological Perspective on the Child's Early Development). (United States)

    Keller, Heidi


    Presents an evolutionary-biological perspective on the course of human life. Discusses early development during the first few months of a child's life in the context of bonding with regard to the differentiation of diverse strategies of reproduction. Tries to integrate developmental-psychological knowledge and sociobiological assumptions. (DSK)

  13. Formative Interventions in Leadership Development in Early Childhood Education: The Potential of Double Stimulation (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise; Henderson, Linda


    This article critiques the usefulness of double stimulation, a key concept in Vygotskian analyses of human development, with leaders in early childhood services in Australia. A series of formative interventions was conducted to identify and address systemic tensions that were confounding leaders' attempts to realise a central object of activity in…

  14. Fetal brain development in chimpanzees versus humans.


    Sakai, Tomoko; Hirata, Satoshi; Fuwa, Kohki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Makishima, Haruyuki; Eguchi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Shigehito; Ogihara, Naomichi; Takeshita, Hideko


    It is argued that the extraordinary brain enlargement observed in humans is due to not only the human-specific pattern of postnatal brain development, but also to that of prenatal brain development [1, 2]. However, the prenatal trajectory of brain development has not been explored in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), even though they are our closest living relatives. To address this lack of information, we tracked fetal development of the chimpanzee brain from approximately 14 to 34 weeks of ges...

  15. Philosophy, Human Development and National Question | Ekei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the solution to this dilemma is still being sought, Socrates shifted the attention of philosophy (with obvious reasons) from nature to ethical-political question, that is, to the issue of human development. It interests this essay, to find out, what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after Socrates considers ...

  16. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit


    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  17. 2008 Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Samaru Journal of Information Studies Vol.8 (2)2008. 38. Human Resources ... Abstract. The purpose of this study was to assess Human Resources Development (HRD) programmes of librarians ... training and development programmes while in FUTO they were sponsored by the university management. The research ...

  18. Particularly human development regions in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Kravchenko


    Full Text Available One of the leading doctrines of present time is that people are both the goal and driving force of socio-economic development. This conceptual idea is the basis of the theory of human development. The complexity and multidimensionality of the category of "human capital" has led the authors to conclude that the methodology for assessing human development should be based on a multiplicative model calculating the human development index. The authors gave a rationale for the use of dynamic normalization rate of per capita gross regional product in the calculation of constituting the index of income. In this research, a method for the analysis of structural changes in human development is presented. Criterial attributes of typology, which allows to reveal the specifics of human development regions of Russia at the present stage, are identified. The rate of incremental effectiveness, which was designed in this study, allowed to assess the efficiency and results rating of human development in the studied areas. Basing on the analysis of empirical data from the past ten years, the authors concluded that human development has an intensive nature.

  19. Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.


    Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

  20. Facilitated early cortical processing of nude human bodies. (United States)

    Alho, Jussi; Salminen, Nelli; Sams, Mikko; Hietanen, Jari K; Nummenmaa, Lauri


    Functional brain imaging has identified specialized neural systems supporting human body perception. Responses to nude vs. clothed bodies within this system are amplified. However, it remains unresolved whether nude and clothed bodies are processed by same cerebral networks or whether processing of nude bodies recruits additional affective and arousal processing areas. We recorded simultaneous MEG and EEG while participants viewed photographs of clothed and nude bodies. Global field power revealed a peak ∼145ms after stimulus onset to both clothed and nude bodies, and ∼205ms exclusively to nude bodies. Nude-body-sensitive responses were centered first (100-200ms) in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas, and subsequently (200-300ms) in affective-motivational areas including insula and anterior cingulate cortex. We conclude that visibility of sexual features facilitates early cortical processing of human bodies, the purpose of which is presumably to trigger sexual behavior and ultimately ensure reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.


    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  2. Early and Late Damages in Chromosome 3 of Human Lymphocytes After Radiation Exposure (United States)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Kahdim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu


    Tumor formation in humans or animals is a multi-step process. An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. GI is defined as elevated or persistent genetic damages occurring many generations after the cells are exposed. While early studies have demonstrated radiation-induced GI in several cell types as detected in endpoints such as mutation, apoptosis and damages in chromosomes, the dependence of GI on the quality of radiation remains uncertain. To investigate GI in human lymphocytes induced by both low- and high-LET radiation, we initially exposed white blood cells collected from healthy subjects to gamma rays in vitro, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis post irradiation and at several intervals during the culture period. Among a number of biological endpoints planned for the project, the multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) allows identification of inversions that were expected to be stable. We present here early and late chromosome aberrations detected with mBAND in chromosome 3 after gamma exposure. Comparison of chromosome damages in between human lymphocytes and human epithelial cells is also discussed

  3. Early Retinoic acid deprivation in developing zebrafish results in microphthalmia


    Le, Hong-Gam T.; Dowling, John E.; Cameron, D. Joshua


    Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired vision and blindness in millions of children around the world. Previous studies in zebrafish have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the acid form of vitamin A, plays a vital role in early eye development. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of early RA deficiency by treating zebrafish with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB), a potent inhibitor of the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) that converts retinal to RA. Zebrafish embr...

  4. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa. (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L


    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  5. Molecular Anatomy of the Developing Human Retina. (United States)

    Hoshino, Akina; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Brooks, Matthew J; Chaitankar, Vijender; Wilken, Matthew S; Zhang, Chi; Starostik, Margaret R; Gieser, Linn; La Torre, Anna; Nishio, Mario; Bates, Olivia; Walton, Ashley; Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia; Glass, Ian A; Wong, Rachel O L; Swaroop, Anand; Reh, Thomas A


    Clinical and genetic heterogeneity associated with retinal diseases makes stem-cell-based therapies an attractive strategy for personalized medicine. However, we have limited understanding of the timing of key events in the developing human retina, and in particular the factors critical for generating the unique architecture of the fovea and surrounding macula. Here we define three key epochs in the transcriptome dynamics of human retina from fetal day (D) 52 to 136. Coincident histological analyses confirmed the cellular basis of transcriptional changes and highlighted the dramatic acceleration of development in the fovea compared with peripheral retina. Human and mouse retinal transcriptomes show remarkable similarity in developmental stages, although morphogenesis was greatly expanded in humans. Integration of DNA accessibility data allowed us to reconstruct transcriptional networks controlling photoreceptor differentiation. Our studies provide insights into human retinal development and serve as a resource for molecular staging of human stem-cell-derived retinal organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L.


    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  7. Immunohistochemical markers of neural progenitor cells in the early embryonic human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vinci


    Full Text Available The development of the human central nervous system represents a delicate moment of embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of multiple immunohistochemical markers in the stem/progenitor cells in the human cerebral cortex during the early phases of development.  To this end, samples from cerebral cortex were obtained from 4 human embryos of 11 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained with several markers including GFAP, WT1, Nestin, Vimentin, CD117, S100B, Sox2, PAX2, PAX5, Tβ4, Neurofilament, CD44, CD133, Synaptophysin and Cyclin D1. Our study shows the ability of the different immunohistochemical markers to evidence different zones of the developing human cerebral cortex, allowing the identification of the multiple stages of differentiation of neuronal and glial precursors. Three important markers of radial glial cells are evidenced in this early gestational age: Vimentin, Nestin and WT1. Sox2 was expressed by the stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone, whereas the postmitotic neurons of the cortical plate were immunostained by PAX2 and NSE. Future studies are needed to test other important stem/progenitor cells markers and to better analyze differences in the immunohistochemical expression of these markers during gestation.

  8. Development of Early Warning Methods for Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    This thesis concerns the development of methods that can provide, in realtime, an early warning for an emerging blackout in electric power systems. The blackout in E-Denmark and S-Sweden on September 23, 2003 is the main motivation for the method development. The blackout was caused by occurrence...

  9. Time Development in the Early History of Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian


    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who...

  10. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan


    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  11. Helping Families Connect Early Literacy with Social-Emotional Development (United States)

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage


    Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…

  12. The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, C; Mauricio, J; Pettitt, PB; Souto, P; Trinkaus, E; van der Plicht, H; Zilhao, J; Pettitt, Paul B.


    The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia, The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a;approximate to 4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca,

  13. Financial globalisation and human development


    Singh, Ajit


    ABSTRACT This paper is concerned essentially with the question, how does financial globalisation affect economic welfare? Orthodox theory suggests that because of greater risk-sharing between countries that financial liberalisation entails, there should be no welfare losses. Greater risk sharing should lead to greater smoothing of consumption and/or growth trajectories for developing countries. Yet there is widespread evidence of crises following liberalisation. Apart from these intern...

  14. Podocyte number and density changes during early human life. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masao; Wickman, Larysa; Rabah, Raja; Wiggins, Roger C


    Podocyte depletion, which drives progressive glomerulosclerosis in glomerular diseases, is caused by a reduction in podocyte number, size or function in the context of increasing glomerular volume. Kidneys obtained at autopsy from premature and mature infants who died in the first year of life (n = 24) were used to measure podometric parameters for comparison with previously reported data from older kidneys. Glomerular volume increased 4.6-fold from 0.13 ± 0.07 μm 3 x10 6 in the pre-capillary loop stage, through 0.35 μm 3 x10 6 at the capillary loop, to 0.60 μm 3 x10 6 at the mature glomerular stage. Podocyte number per glomerulus increased from 326 ± 154 per glomerulus at the pre-capillary loop stage to 584 ± 131 per glomerulus at the capillary loop stage of glomerular development to reach a value of 589 ± 166 per glomerulus in mature glomeruli. Thus, the major podocyte number increase occurs in the early stages of glomerular development, in contradistinction to glomerular volume increase, which continues after birth in association with body growth. As glomeruli continue to enlarge, podocyte density (number per volume) rapidly decreases, requiring a parallel rapid increase in podocyte size that allows podocyte foot processes to maintain complete coverage of the filtration surface area. Hypertrophic stresses on the glomerulus and podocyte during development and early rapid growth periods of life are therefore likely to play significant roles in determining how and when defects in podocyte structure and function due to genetic variants become clinically manifest. Therapeutic strategies aimed at minimizing mismatch between these factors may prove clinically useful.

  15. Risk factors for early metachronous tumor development after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yong Park

    Full Text Available Metachronous gastric tumor (MGT is one of major concerns after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD for early gastric cancer (EGC. Optimal follow-up strategy has not been yet well-established. The aim of this study was to identify the different clinical features of the patients according to the time interval to development of MGT.Among 1,780 consecutive patients with EGC who underwent ESD between 2005 and 2014, 115 patients with MGT were retrospectively reviewed. MGT was defined as secondary gastric cancer or dysplasia detected > 1 year after initial ESD. Clinicopathological factors associated with early development of MGT were evaluated.The median interval to development of MGT was 37 months. In univariate analysis, the median interval to MGT was shorter if EGC lesion was non-elevated type (39.4 vs 57.0 months, p = 0.011, or synchronous primary lesion was absent (39.8 vs 51.4 months, p = 0.050. In multivariate Cox's proportional hazards analysis, the hazard ratios for early occurrence of MGT were 1.966 (95% CI: 1.141-3.386, p = 0.015 and 1.911 (95% CI: 1.163-3.141, p = 0.011, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall survival after diagnosis of MGT between the early occurrence group and the late occurrence group.Non-elevated gross type and absence of synchronous gastric tumor were independent risk factors for early development of MGT. Meticulous endoscopic inspection is especially important for the detection of MGT during the early follow-up period in patients with these initial tumor characteristics.

  16. Vocational Preparation: Human Resource Development Specialists' Assessment. (United States)

    Piland, William E.; Rives, W. Steven


    Describes a study of the perceptions of 245 human resource development specialists concerning the technical, human relations, problem-solving, and basic skills of Illinois community college vocational/technical graduates. Nursing and allied health program graduates received the highest ratings. Overall, graduates were rated highest in human…

  17. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)


    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the

  18. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera


    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  19. Enhancing Human Development Through Realignment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for optimizing human life and productivity. It periscopes the concepts of human development, tripodally, through the instrumentality of media or communication infrastructure: electronic, celluloid, stage and related aspects, affirming or redefining some authoritative views, all within the ambits of developmental imperatives.

  20. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Early Blind Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold eBurton


    Full Text Available Task-based neuroimaging studies in early blind humans (EB have demonstrated heightened visual cortex responses to non-visual paradigms. Several prior functional connectivity studies in EB have shown altered connections consistent with these task-based results. But these studies generally did not consider behavioral adaptations to lifelong blindness typically observed in EB. Enhanced cognitive abilities shown in EB include greater serial recall and attention to memory. Here, we address the question of the extent to which brain intrinsic activity in EB reflects such adaptations. We performed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study contrasting 14 EB with 14 age/gender matched normally sighted controls (NS. A principal finding was markedly greater functional connectivity in EB between visual cortex and regions typically associated with memory and cognitive control of attention. In contrast, correlations between visual cortex and non-deprived sensory cortices were significantly lower in EB. Thus, the available data, including that obtained in prior task-based and resting state fMRI studies, as well as the present results, indicate that visual cortex in EB becomes more heavily incorporated into functional systems instantiating episodic recall and attention to non-visual events. Moreover, EB appear to show a reduction in interactions between visual and non-deprived sensory cortices, possibly reflecting suppression of inter-sensory distracting activity.

  1. Odontometric sex estimation in humans using measurements on permanent canines. A comparison of an early Neolithic and an early medieval assemblage from Germany. (United States)

    Flohr, Stefan; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst

    This study analyzed whether cervical canine dimensions measured at the enamel-cement junction can provide a basis for sex estimation in human skeletal remains and whether discriminant functions developed for one assemblage can be successfully applied also to others. Cervical canine dimensions were recorded for an Early Neolithic (Linear Pottery Culture) and an early medieval skeletal assemblage from Germany. Only individuals in whom sex estimation based on standard diagnostic criteria could be performed with a high degree of certainty were included. Sexual dimorphism in cervical canine dimensions was higher in the early medieval assemblage. Values in females of the Early Neolithic assemblage exceeded those of the early medieval assemblage, while there were no significant differences in males. Discriminant analysis led to a maximum correct classification of sex (cross validation results) of 94.0% in the early medieval and of 79.2% in the Early Neolithic assemblage. Applying the discriminant functions developed on one assemblage to the other led to poor classification results. Cervical canine dimensions are highly correlated with sexually dimorphic skeletal traits and may provide a good basis for sexing archaeological individuals. It is suggested that due to population differences in canine dimensions, either assemblage specific discriminant functions should be developed or the applicability of existing formulae obtained on other assemblages to the assemblage under study should be carefully checked.

  2. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus


    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  3. Causal effects of the early caregiving environment on development of stress response systems in children. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Tibu, Florin; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A


    Disruptions in stress response system functioning are thought to be a central mechanism by which exposure to adverse early-life environments influences human development. Although early-life adversity results in hyperreactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rodents, evidence from human studies is inconsistent. We present results from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project examining whether randomized placement into a family caregiving environment alters development of the autonomic nervous system and HPA axis in children exposed to early-life deprivation associated with institutional rearing. Electrocardiogram, impedance cardiograph, and neuroendocrine data were collected during laboratory-based challenge tasks from children (mean age = 12.9 y) raised in deprived institutional settings in Romania randomized to a high-quality foster care intervention (n = 48) or to remain in care as usual (n = 43) and a sample of typically developing Romanian children (n = 47). Children who remained in institutional care exhibited significantly blunted SNS and HPA axis responses to psychosocial stress compared with children randomized to foster care, whose stress responses approximated those of typically developing children. Intervention effects were evident for cortisol and parasympathetic nervous system reactivity only among children placed in foster care before age 24 and 18 months, respectively, providing experimental evidence of a sensitive period in humans during which the environment is particularly likely to alter stress response system development. We provide evidence for a causal link between the early caregiving environment and stress response system reactivity in humans with effects that differ markedly from those observed in rodent models.

  4. On culture and human development: Interview with Barbara Rogoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre


    In this interview Professor Barbara Rogoff explores the many ways in which culture shapes the course of human development, and illustrates this with several findings from her past as well as most recent work. These reveal the vital importance of growing up in a family and a community for the human...... child and participating, from early on, in their various rituals and practices. Building on and enriching cultural psychological sources, Professor Rogoff offers us a comprehensive framework with which to understand both cultural and developmental phenomena and, above all, their multiple intersections...

  5. Human Resources Development in the 70s (United States)

    Ludeman, Bart L.


    Discusses five major objectives (put forth by the behavioral scientist, Dr. Gordon Lippitt) for human resource development which focus on the need for teamwork among future leaders, company management, and top educators. (LAS)

  6. Ionising radiation and the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.


    This article reviews the effects of radiation exposure of the developing human brain. Much of the evidence has come from the prenatally exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The effects on development age, mental retardation, head size, neuromuscular performance, intelligence tests, school performance and the occurrence of convulsions are discussed. Other topics covered include the biological nature of the damage to the brain, risk estimates in human and problems in radiation protection. (UK)

  7. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger


    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  8. Career Planning and Development for Early-Career Scientists (United States)

    Early career development can be looked at as being of two major phases. The first phase is the formal educational process leading to an awarded degree, postdoctoral training, and potentially formal certification in a scientific discipline. The second phase is the informal educa...

  9. Early development and larval behaviour of a minnow, Barbus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chubbyhead barb, Barbus anoplus, underwent a population explosion in the early phases of filling of Lake be Roux on the Orange River. This successful colonization was possibly related to the survival strategy of the young stages of this minnow. It is suggested that some of the development traits of B. anoplus enabled ...

  10. Ovarian activity and early embryonic development in the rusty bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...

  11. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...

  12. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions. (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara


    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  13. Early Journals and Their Influences on the Development of Gerontology (United States)

    Mercer, Lorraine; Carter, Lorraine


    This examination of early gerontology journals identifies the multidisciplinary backgrounds of contributors, methods of investigation, nascent theory development, and formative themes and controversies. Through use of content, thematic, and critical analyses of second year issues of "The Gerontologist," "Educational Gerontology," "Research on…

  14. Early molecular events in the development of the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monkemann, H.; Vriese, A.S. de; Blom, H.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Schild, H.H.; Golubnitschaja, O.


    Oxidative damage to DNA has been well documented in cardiac cells isolated from diabetic patients and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). This study evaluates possible molecular mechanisms for early events in the development of DM-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods: To analyze the

  15. Nutrition, Health and Safety in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the nutrition, health and safety status in Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes and its impact thereof on the quality of care and education in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The study is part of a larger study on assessing the quality of ...

  16. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland (United States)

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna


    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  17. Teacher Efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School (United States)

    Epstein, Ann; Willhite, Gary L.


    Teacher efficacy is the belief teachers have in their ability to impact student learning. Efficacy includes teacher confidence in instructional, management and collaboration skills. The following study addresses teacher efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School (PDS). The PDS experience provides an opportunity for mentor…

  18. Effects of early starvation on the development and survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots) has been identified as a crustacean species with great culture potential. The effects of starvation on development and survival of early larval stages of the African river prawn M. vollenhovenii were investigated. As an aspect of the ongoing effort to determine the culturability of the ...

  19. Changing the Perspective on Early Development of Rett Syndrome (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Wolin, Thomas; Zhang, Dajie; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pini, Giorgio; Zappella, Michele; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Einspieler, Christa; Johnston, Michael V.


    We delineated the achievement of early speech-language milestones in 15 young children with Rett syndrome ("MECP2" positive) in the first two years of life using retrospective video analysis. By contrast to the commonly accepted concept that these children are normal in the pre-regression period, we found markedly atypical development of…

  20. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn


    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  1. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.


    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  2. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra


    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  3. The development of human behaviour analysis techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Cheon, Se Woo; Shu, Sang Moon; Park, Geun Ok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Han Yeong; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Eu Jin; Lee, Seung Hee


    This project has two major areas ; one is the development of an operator task simulation software and another is the development of human error analysis and application technologies. In this year project, the second year, for the development of an operator task simulation software, we studied the followings: - analysis of the characteristics of operator tasks, - development of operator task structures : Macro Structures, - development of an operator task simulation analyzes, - analysis of performance measures. And the followings for the development of human error analysis and application technologies : - analysis of human error mechanisms, - analysis of human error characteristics in tasks, - analysis of human error occurrence in Korean Nuclear Power Plants, - establishment of an experimental environment for human error data collection with Compact Nuclear Simulator, - basic design of a Multimedia-based Human Error Representing System. (Author)

  4. Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents. (United States)

    Hodel, Amanda S; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cowell, Raquel A; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E; Gunnar, Megan R; Thomas, Kathleen M


    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12-14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early human experience with per-oral endoscopic pyloromyotomy (POP). (United States)

    Shlomovitz, Eran; Pescarus, Radu; Cassera, Maria A; Sharata, Ahmed M; Reavis, Kevin M; Dunst, Christy M; Swanström, Lee L


    Gastroparesis is a condition characterized by delayed gastric emptying, and a constellation of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and bloating. Although current surgical options such as pyloroplasty have been shown to be effective, an endoscopic submucosal myotomy technique may be applied to divide the pyloric sphincter without surgical access. Such endoscopic technique may provide the benefits of a natural orifice procedure, and improve gastric emptying in gastroparetic patients. Per-oral pyloromyotomy (POP) was performed in seven female patients aged 33-65 years (mean 51 years). All patients had a pre-operative work-up that included upper endoscopy, and a gastric emptying study. A pH study, and esophageal manometry were also performed when a concomitant fundoplication was considered. POP was technically successful in all seven cases. There were no immediate procedural complications. Perioperative, complications included: one patient with an upper GI bleed 2 weeks post-procedure, necessitating transfusions, and endoscopic clipping of a pyloric channel ulcer; one patient who experienced difficulty swallowing post operatively, delaying discharge by 1 day; and one patient who developed a hospital-acquired pneumonia, delaying discharge by several days. Six of the seven patients experienced significant symptomatic improvement following the procedure. Three month follow-up nuclear medicine solid-phase gastric emptying studies are currently available for 5 of the 7 patients. Normal gastric emptying at 4 h was noted in four of five patients (80 %). One patient did not respond to endoscopic management subsequently underwent an uneventful laparoscopic pyloroplasty, which also failed to significantly improve her symptoms. POP is a technically safe and feasible endoscopic procedure. Early follow-up suggests promising symptomatic improvement as well as objective improvement in gastric emptying. Additional clinical experience is required to establish the role

  6. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mateus


    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  7. Altered anterior visual system development following early monocular enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista R. Kelly


    Conclusions: The novel finding of an asymmetry in morphology of the anterior visual system following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation indicates altered postnatal visual development. Possible mechanisms behind this altered development include recruitment of deafferented cells by crossing nasal fibres and/or geniculate cell retention via feedback from primary visual cortex. These data highlight the importance of balanced binocular input during postnatal maturation for typical anterior visual system morphology.

  8. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul


    The Objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, Human factors engineering program review model' and '26, Review criteria for human actors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides be ing performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we well update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  9. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity (United States)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.


    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  11. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    . Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...... influence development of allergies later in childhood.   The work has recently (July 2015) been accepted for publication in BMC Microbiology...

  12. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri


    Full Text Available Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation, can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction.

  13. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ... (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  14. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development. (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B


    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  15. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants. (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila


    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  16. Networking and professional development among teachers of Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mérida Serrano


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the professional development of 24 teachers involved in the Early Childhood Education-CPD Centre for Teachers-University Network ([blind review]. Collaborative research-action is carried out with teachers and pupils of Early Childhood Education, an adviser from the Continuing Professional Development (CPD Centre for Teachers, researchers, and teacher training undergraduates from the University of [blind review] ([blind review]. Taking a qualitative approach, through interviews, focus groups, and research journals, the benefits obtained by the teachers through their involvement in the [blind review] network are identified: (1 Their colleagues offer them emotional support and provide examples of good practices; (2 The teacher training undergraduates provide technological resources and the possibility of calmly observing what goes on in the classroom; (3 The researchers foster processes of reflection about practice and endorse the validity of the Project Approach; (4 The adviser provides continuing professional development.

  17. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  18. 2008 Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    personnel aids in organisational development. The library as an organisation argues. Ranganathan “is a growing organism”. Kent,. (2003) stated that it needs proper organisation, management and development of both the resources and ..... administration. New York: McGraw-Hill. Egungwu, V.N. (1992). Human resource.

  19. Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian Academic Libraries: A Comparative Study of Universities in Imo State. ... In Imo State University, librarians and para-professionals sponsored themselves for training and development programmes while in FUTO they were sponsored by the university management.

  20. Gene expression analyses of the spatio-temporal relationships of human medulloblastoma subgroups during early human neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M Hooper

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common form of malignant paediatric brain tumour and is the leading cause of childhood cancer related mortality. The four molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma that have been identified - WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4 - have molecular and topographical characteristics suggestive of different cells of origin. Definitive identification of the cell(s of origin of the medulloblastoma subgroups, particularly the poorer prognosis Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma, is critical to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, and ultimately for the development of more effective treatment options. To address this issue, the gene expression profiles of normal human neural tissues and cell types representing a broad neuro-developmental continuum, were compared to those of two independent cohorts of primary human medulloblastoma specimens. Clustering, co-expression network, and gene expression analyses revealed that WNT and SHH medulloblastoma may be derived from distinct neural stem cell populations during early embryonic development, while the transcriptional profiles of Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma resemble cerebellar granule neuron precursors at weeks 10-15 and 20-30 of embryogenesis, respectively. Our data indicate that Group 3 medulloblastoma may arise through abnormal neuronal differentiation, whereas deregulation of synaptic pruning-associated apoptosis may be driving Group 4 tumorigenesis. Overall, these data provide significant new insight into the spatio-temporal relationships and molecular pathogenesis of the human medulloblastoma subgroups, and provide an important framework for the development of more refined model systems, and ultimately improved therapeutic strategies.

  1. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier


    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  2. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem


    Ample empirical evidence links adverse conditions during early childhood (the period from conception to age five) to worse health outcomes and lower academic achievement in adulthood. Can early-life medical care and public health interventions ameliorate these effects? Recent research suggests th...

  3. Early determination of somatosensory cortex in the human brain. (United States)

    Juenger, Hendrik; de Haan, Bianca; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin; Karnath, Hans-Otto


    The developing brain possesses a high potential for neuroplasticity. Yet, this remarkable potential of (re-)organization is not a general principle. It seems to vary among different functional systems. Here, we show that distinct brain structures involved in somatosensory processing are already prenatally determined so that a pre- or perinatally acquired (congenital) brain damage of such structures results in a persistent somatosensory deficit. Eleven patients with hemiparesis due to congenital cortico-subcortical unilateral stroke who showed versus not showed a somatosensory deficit were contrasted with magnetic resonance imaging lesion-behavior mapping. The brain areas which were typically damaged in patients with a somatosensory deficit but typically spared in patients without a somatosensory deficit were located in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1, S2) as well as the inferior parietal cortex directly neighboring S1 and S2. The results argue for an early functional determination of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, without substantial capacities for (re-)organization. They demonstrate that cortical damage of these areas cannot be compensated by shifting the functional representation to undamaged parts of the cortex.

  4. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study]. (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria


    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Heatwave early warning systems and adaptation advice to reduce human health consequences of heatwaves. (United States)

    Lowe, Dianne; Ebi, Kristie L; Forsberg, Bertil


    With climate change, there has been an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heatwave events. In response to the devastating mortality and morbidity of recent heatwave events, many countries have introduced heatwave early warning systems (HEWS). HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations. To identify the key characteristics of HEWS in European countries to help inform modification of current, and development of, new systems and plans. We searched the internet to identify HEWS policy or government documents for 33 European countries and requested information from relevant organizations. We translated the HEWS documents and extracted details on the trigger indicators, thresholds for action, notification strategies, message intermediaries, communication and dissemination strategies, prevention strategies recommended and specified target audiences. Twelve European countries have HEWS. Although there are many similarities among the HEWS, there also are differences in key characteristics that could inform improvements in heatwave early warning plans.

  6. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.


    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  7. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures (United States)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.


    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  8. Early development of Chondrus ocellatus holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta) (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin


    Chondrus is an economically important red algae widely used for food and biochemical purpose. It early development is crucial for the culture and seedling propagation. We chose tetraspores and carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus as examples for experiment of the culture, induction and release in laboratory condition, aiming to understand early development of C. ocellatus and to apply in seedling production. Mature C. ocellatus were collected in Qingdao, China, from Nov. to Dec. 2004. After the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte were brushed and washed with sterilized seawater, the algal materials were treated in 1.5% KI for 20 min, then were dried for 1h to stimulate the releasing of spores. After the spores released overnight, it were cultured in PES medium, incubated at 18 °C, 10±2 μmol/(m2·s1) in 12∶12h (light: dark). The observation and recording under microscope were carried out. Continuous observation of the early development showed that both tetraspore and carpospore are similar to each other. In general, three stages of the early development were shown being division, discoid crust and seedling stages. To the division stage, the most obvious feature was the increasing of cell number; during the discoid crust stage, the discoid crust had a three-dimensional axis, and it began to differentiate into two types of cells: the basal cells and the apical cells; and to the seedling stage, several protuberances-like appeared on the discoid crusts and formed juvenile seedlings. Carpospores and tetraspores exhibited a similar development process that included division stage, discoid crust stage and seedling stage.

  9. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children. (United States)

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico


    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  10. Developing Entrepreneurial Resilience: Implications for Human Resource Development (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Wang, Jia


    Purpose: Leadership development has attracted much research attention within the human resource development (HRD) community. However, little scholarly effort has been made to study a special group of leaders--entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill in this knowledge gap by taking a close look at entrepreneurial resilience, a key ability of…

  11. The early Cambrian fossil embryo Pseudooides is a direct-developing cnidarian, not an early ecdysozoan. (United States)

    Duan, Baichuan; Dong, Xi-Ping; Porras, Luis; Vargas, Kelly; Cunningham, John A; Donoghue, Philip C J


    Early Cambrian Pseudooides prima has been described from embryonic and post-embryonic stages of development, exhibiting long germ-band development. There has been some debate about the pattern of segmentation, but this interpretation, as among the earliest records of ecdysozoans, has been generally accepted. Here, we show that the 'germ band' of P. prima embryos separates along its mid axis during development, with the transverse furrows between the 'somites' unfolding into the polar aperture of the ten-sided theca of Hexaconularia sichuanensis , conventionally interpreted as a scyphozoan cnidarian; co-occurring post-embryonic remains of ecdysozoans are unrelated. We recognize H. sichuanensis as a junior synonym of P. prima as a consequence of identifying these two form-taxa as distinct developmental stages of the same organism. Direct development in P. prima parallels the co-occuring olivooids Olivooides, and Quadrapyrgites and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a novel phenotype dataset indicates that, despite differences in their tetra-, penta- and pseudo-hexa-radial symmetry, these hexangulaconulariids comprise a clade of scyphozoan medusozoans, with Arthrochites and conulariids, that all exhibit direct development from embryo to thecate polyp. The affinity of hexangulaconulariids and olivooids to extant scyphozoan medusozoans indicates that the prevalence of tetraradial symmetry and indirect development are a vestige of a broader spectrum of body-plan symmetries and developmental modes that was manifest in their early Phanerozoic counterparts. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang


    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  13. [Plasticity of neuroendocrine and immune systems in early development]. (United States)

    Zakharova, L A


    This article provides an analysis of our own and published data on the reciprocal morphogenetic influence of the neiuroendocriie and imnimune systems on their formation and function in mammals. It is substantiated that, in early ontogeny, neurohormones regulate the growth and differentiation of various tissues in the body, including the lymphoid tissue. Thymicpeptides, in turn, affect the development of the hypothalamic-pitiitary-adrenal and gonadal-systems. Various adverse factors and changes in the physiological concentrations of hormones in the critical periods of development of these systems change their functions, and the plasticity of physiological systems in early ontogeny allows the body to adapt to new conditions. Disturbances in the interaction of the neuroendocrineand immune systems in the perinatal period induce apredisposition to various diseases in progeny.

  14. Trace minerals in human growth and development. (United States)

    Castillo-Durán, C; Cassorla, F


    Trace mineral deficiencies may affect several biological functions in humans, including physical growth, psychomotor development and immunity. We have reviewed the mechanisms whereby several trace mineral deficiencies may affect these biological functions at different ages (fetal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence), as well as the evidence supporting this association. We describe the effects of zinc deficiency on the hormonal regulation of growth and sexual development in both humans and animal models. We provide data regarding the effects of iron deficiency on growth and psychomotor development. We mention the effects of copper, manganese, selenium and iodine deficiencies on growth and development. We conclude that iron deficiency may affect psychomotor development, but does not appear to affect growth. Zinc deficiency may cause growth retardation and psychomotor delay.

  15. [Early development: some data about autism and language disorders]. (United States)

    Martos Perez, J; Ayuda Pascual, R


    The early development of children who have been diagnosed as suffering from autism and children with specific language disorder (SLD) is still an area of research that receives little attention. There is a need for descriptive patterns of the early stages in the development of the two groups that foster the formation of reliable early diagnoses. Aims. In this study we attempt to determine the incidence of different symptoms in the first two years in the life of children who were later diagnosed as suffering from autism or SLD and to confirm or refute the data that suggests a pattern of onset of the disorder that differs from one group to the other. We compare the data concerning the development of a sample made up of 42 children with autism and 41 children with SLD, which was carried out by means of a retrospective analysis of the information obtained from the families in the evaluation and diagnosis processes that were conducted in our centre. More specifically, we compare information about the following variables: family history, parents' age at the time of pregnancy, parents' profession, position at birth and incidence by sex, information about prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects, eating and sleeping problems, the presence or absence of signs of passivity, traces of alarm during the first year, age of the child when the first suspicions appeared, symptoms or difficulties that are described, data linked to medical neurological explorations carried out and data related to motor development. Although there are numerous similarities in many of the variables studied in both groups, it seems that the earlier onset of symptoms, passivity and the absence of pointing behaviour are more frequent in the group with autism than in children with SLD. The latter present a specific difficulty in language, tantrums and poorer motor competencies. At present there is no single symptom in early development that is exclusive to any of the disorders described above, although it

  16. Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah


    There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.

  17. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang


    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Site investigation of operator tasks, 2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, 3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, 4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. 1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, 2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, 3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, 4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author)

  18. Early embryonic chromosome instability results in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Mkrtchyan

    Full Text Available The discovery of copy number variations (CNV in the human genome opened new perspectives on the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the aetiology of common diseases. Here, a single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human tissues led us to uncover the phenomenon of mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. The CNV mosaic ratios were different between the 10 individuals studied. However, they were stable in the T lymphocytes, immortalized B lymphoblastoid cells, and skin fibroblasts analyzed in each individual. Because these cell types have a common origin in the connective tissues, we suggest that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and occur only once, after which the stable mosaic ratio is maintained throughout the differentiated tissues. This concept is further supported by a unique study of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year difference from two subjects. We provide the first evidence of somatic mosaicism for CNV, with stable variation ratios in different cell types of one individual leading to the hypothesis of early embryonic chromosome instability resulting in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues. This concept has the potential to open new perspectives in personalized genetic diagnostics and can explain genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to better understand the aetiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic mutations.

  19. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter


    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  20. The role of early auditory development in attachment and communication. (United States)

    Moon, Christine


    Auditory perception and learning take place during the third trimester of gestation. Fetuses and newborns who lack typical auditory experience can go on to develop typical socioemotional attachment and language, given a supportive environment. For hospitalized preterm infants in developmentally sensitive neonatal intensive care units, detrimental effects of deviant early auditory experience may be remediated by later experience, but much is unknown about the causes of language deficits of prematurity. Prenatal auditory stimulation programs that incorporate audio speakers against the maternal belly should be discouraged because of possible overstimulation effects on the developing auditory system and sleep/wake state organization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and the evolvability of human limbs. (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Wagner, Günter P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt


    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primates and demonstrate that both humans and apes exhibit significantly reduced integration between limbs when compared to quadrupedal monkeys. This result indicates that fossil hominins likely escaped constraints on independent limb variation via reductions to genetic pleiotropy in an ape-like last common ancestor (LCA). This critical change in integration among hominoids, which is reflected in macroevolutionary differences in the disparity between limb lengths, facilitated selection for modern human limb proportions and demonstrates how development helps shape evolutionary change.

  2. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology (United States)

    Xu, Jingwen


    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  3. Globalization, Universities and Sustainable Human Development


    Robert Forrant; Jean L Pyle


    Robert Forrant and Jean L. Pyle look at the fast changing global economy and discuss what can be the role for the university, as an institution, to promote sustainable human development. They contend that the university is an important civil society institution, whose power could be considerable in promoting sustainability. The authors explore ways the university can play a role in fostering a development approach that countervails the preponderant power of institutions advocating a ‘market-d...

  4. Ca2+ signalling and early embryonic patterning during zebrafish development. (United States)

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L


    1. It has been proposed that Ca2+ signalling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern-forming events during early vertebrate development. 2. With reference to the embryo of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), herein we review the Ca2+ transients reported from the cleavage to segmentation periods. This time-window includes most of the major pattern-forming events of early development, which transform a single-cell zygote into a complex multicellular embryo with established primary germ layers and body axes. 3. Data are presented to support our proposal that intracellular Ca2+ waves are an essential feature of embryonic cytokinesis and that propagating intercellular Ca2+ waves (both long and short range) may play a crucial role in: (i) the establishment of the embryonic periderm and the coordination of cell movements during epiboly, convergence and extension; (ii) the establishment of the basic embryonic axes and germ layers; and (iii) definition of the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen. 4. The potential downstream targets of these Ca2+ transients are also discussed, as well as how they may integrate with other pattern-forming signalling pathways known to modulate early developmental events.

  5. Early motor development of children with a congenital cytomegalovirus infection. (United States)

    De Kegel, Alexandra; Maes, Leen; Dhooge, Ingeborg; van Hoecke, Helen; De Leenheer, Els; Van Waelvelde, Hilde


    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most important etiology of non-hereditary childhood hearing loss and an important cause of neurodevelopmental delay. The current study aimed to investigate the early motor development of symptomatic and asymptomatic cCMV infected children with and without sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Sixty-four children with a cCMV infection, without cerebral palsy, were compared to a control group of 107 normal hearing children. They were assessed around the ages of 6, 12, and 24 months with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2), Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS), and Ghent Developmental Balance Test (GDBT). The cCMV infected children were subdivided into a symptomatic (n=26) and asymptomatic cCMV group (n=38) but also into a cCMV group with SNHL (n=19) and without SNHL (n=45). Symptomatic cCMV infected children and cCMV infected children with SNHL performed significantly weaker for all gross motor outcome measures. A congenital CMV infection is a risk factor for a delay in the early motor development. Follow-up will be necessary to gain insight into the exact cause of this motor delay and to define the predictive value of early motor assessment of cCMV infected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Children's health and development: approaches to early identification and intervention. (United States)

    Oberklaid, Frank; Baird, Gillian; Blair, Mitch; Melhuish, Edward; Hall, David


    Many children arrive at school with problems of development and behaviour which affect their educational achievement and social interaction and can have lifelong consequences. There is a strong association between developmental vulnerability at school entry and a well-documented series of parent and family risk factors, often linked to social disadvantage. Strategies which are likely to make a difference to these children and improve outcomes include family support, high-quality early education and care programmes in the preschool years, and early detection of emerging problems and risk factors. The evidence suggests that these services and programmes are best delivered within a framework of progressive universalism--a universal basket of services for all children and families, with additional support commensurate with additional needs. This provides the best opportunity for early identification and appropriate intervention for emerging developmental problems and family issues that impact on children's development. While there are a number of challenges that need to be addressed and overcome, such an approach is an important investment that will yield measurable educational, social and economic benefits over the long term.

  7. An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development (United States)

    Gottwald, Janna M.; Achermann, Sheila; Marciszko, Carin; Lindskog, Marcus; Gredebäck, Gustaf


    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks—involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition—and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants’ performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life. PMID:27765900

  8. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary. (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja


    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. BMP regulates vegetal pole induction centres in early xenopus development. (United States)

    Nachaliel, N; Re'Em-Kalma, Y; Eshed, O; Elias, S; Frank, D


    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in mesoderm patterning in Xenopus. The ectopic expression of BMP-4 protein hyperventralizes embryos, whereas embryos expressing a BMP-2/4 dominant-negative receptor (DNR) are hyperdorsalized. Mesoderm is initially induced in the marginal zone by cells in the underlying vegetal pole. While much is known about BMP's expression and role in patterning the marginal zone, little is known about its early role in regulating vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation. The role of BMP in regulating formation of vegetal mesoderm inducing centres during early Xenopus development was examined. Ectopic BMP-4 expression in vegetal pole cells inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction but increased ventral mesoderm induction when recombined with animal cap ectoderm in Nieuwkoop explants. 32-cell embryos injected with BMP-4 RNA in the most vegetal blastomere tier were not hyperdorsalized by LiCl treatment. The ectopic expression of Smad or Mix.1 proteins in the vegetal pole also inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. Expression of the BMP 2/4 DNR in the vegetal pole increased dorsal mesoderm induction and inhibited ventral mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. These results support a role for BMP signalling in regulating ventral vegetal and dorsal vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation during early Xenopus development.

  10. Explaining the Early Development and Health of Teen Mothers’ Children* (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Dennis, Jeff A.


    The transmission of social disadvantage from teenage mothers to their children is well established, but when and why do these disparities emerge in the early life course? Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study investigated the relationship between teen childbearing and children’s cognition, behavior, and health from infancy through preschool. Developmental disparities between teenage mothers’ children and others were largely nonexistent at 9 months but accumulated with age. Having a teenage mother predicted compromised development across several domains by age 4½. Our conceptual model expected preexisting disadvantage, ongoing resource disadvantage, and compromised parenting quality to explain the association between teen childbearing and child outcomes. Preexisting social disadvantage accounted for much of this relationship. Financial, social, and material resources in the child’s household partially or fully explained each of the remaining significant relationships between teenage childbearing and child outcomes. Parenting quality explained a smaller proportion of these relationships than did resources, and these factors’ influences were largely independent. Because children of teenage mothers with a modest set of resources were not predicted to have compromised development, resources provided in early childhood may have the potential to reduce developmental disparities for teenage mothers’ children. PMID:23630407

  11. Explaining the Early Development and Health of Teen Mothers' Children. (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Dennis, Jeff A


    The transmission of social disadvantage from teenage mothers to their children is well established, but when and why do these disparities emerge in the early life course? Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study investigated the relationship between teen childbearing and children's cognition, behavior, and health from infancy through preschool. Developmental disparities between teenage mothers' children and others were largely nonexistent at 9 months but accumulated with age. Having a teenage mother predicted compromised development across several domains by age 4½. Our conceptual model expected preexisting disadvantage, ongoing resource disadvantage, and compromised parenting quality to explain the association between teen childbearing and child outcomes. Preexisting social disadvantage accounted for much of this relationship. Financial, social, and material resources in the child's household partially or fully explained each of the remaining significant relationships between teenage childbearing and child outcomes. Parenting quality explained a smaller proportion of these relationships than did resources, and these factors' influences were largely independent. Because children of teenage mothers with a modest set of resources were not predicted to have compromised development, resources provided in early childhood may have the potential to reduce developmental disparities for teenage mothers' children.

  12. Education and Human Capital Development through Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    descriptive analysis of the state of education and human development in. Delta state and assesses the ... Education is an extremely important element in the organisation of modern society. There is now growing ... process of learning and training, instruction as impacted in schools, colleges and universities. In the light of the ...

  13. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  14. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development. (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  15. Human rights and sustainable spatial development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallemaerts, M.


    What is the relationship between spatial planning and human rights? Though this question may seem highly theoretical at first glance, closer analysis will reveal that there are in fact a number of ways in which public policies in the area of territorial planning and development and the imperative of

  16. Achieving Human Development in Nigeria through Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arguably, with the perceived Nigerian existential circumstances of maladministration that has led to extreme poverty, poor infrastructure, fallen standard of education, negative political proclivity in terms of ethnic chauvinism and religious bigotry, serve as albatross to authentic human development. The intent of this paper, ...

  17. Entrepreneurship and human capital development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Kasper; Rutasitara, Longinus; Selejio, Onesmo

    This paper explores the link between entrepreneurship and child human capital development. We specifically examine how operating a non-farm enterprise (NFE) as opposed to working in agriculture relates to child labour and schooling outcomes. Accounting for timeinvariant unobservable characteristics...

  18. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan


    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  19. Developing Human Performance Measures (PSAM8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey C. Joe


    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC's risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: (1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, (2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  20. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy identifies early lineage commitment in differentiating human embryonic stem cells. (United States)

    Heraud, Philip; Ng, Elizabeth S; Caine, Sally; Yu, Qing C; Hirst, Claire; Mayberry, Robyn; Bruce, Amanda; Wood, Bayden R; McNaughton, Don; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G


    Human ESCs (hESCs) are a valuable tool for the study of early human development and represent a source of normal differentiated cells for pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications and ultimately for cell replacement therapies. For all applications, it will be necessary to develop assays to validate the efficacy of hESC differentiation. We explored the capacity for FTIR spectroscopy, a technique that rapidly characterises cellular macromolecular composition, to discriminate mesendoderm or ectoderm committed cells from undifferentiated hESCs. Distinct infrared spectroscopic "signatures" readily distinguished hESCs from these early differentiated progeny, with bioinformatic models able to correctly classify over 97% of spectra. These data identify a role for FTIR spectroscopy as a new modality to complement conventional analyses of hESCs and their derivatives. FTIR spectroscopy has the potential to provide low-cost, automatable measurements for the quality control of stem and differentiated cells to be used in industry and regenerative medicine. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Psl economy in early P. aeruginosa biofilm development (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Tseng, Boo Shan; Jin, Fan; Gibiansky, Max; Harrison, Joe; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard


    Psl from P. aeruginosa (PAO1) is a mannose- and galactose-rich exopolysaccharide (EPS). It has been shown that Psl plays an important role in bacterial surface adhesion. Here, we examine role of Psl in controlling motility and microcolony formation during early biofilm development, by translating video microscopy movies into searchable databases of bacterial trajectories. We use a massively-parallel cell tracking algorithm to extract the full motility history of every cell in a large community. We find that at early stages of growth, P. aeruginosa motility is guided by Psl and self-organize in a manner analogous to a capitalist economic system, resulting in a power law bacterial distribution where a small number of bacteria are extremely ``rich'' in communally produced Psl. By comparing overproducers and underproducers of Psl, we find that local Psl levels determine post-division cell fates: High local Psl levels drive the formation of sessile microcolonies that grow exponentially.

  2. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Social and Emotional Development. (United States)


    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Cell-mediated immunity is important in maintaining the virus-host equilibrium in persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. The HCMV 72-kDa major immediate early 1 protein (IE1) is a target for CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in humans, as is the equivalent 89-kDa protein in mouse. Less is known

  4. Human resource development for management of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichi


    This paper described the contents of 'Human resource development for the planning and implementation of safe and reasonable nuclear power plant decommissioning' as the nuclear human resource development project by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant takes 30 to 40 years for its implementation, costing tens of billions of yen. As the period of decommissioning is almost the same as the operation period, it is necessary to provide a systematic and continuous supply of engineers who understand the essence of the decommissioning project. The engineers required here should have project management ability to take charge of preparation, implementation, and termination of decommissioning, and have the ability to perform not only technology, but also factor management, cost management, and the like. As the preconditions of these abilities, it is important to develop human resources who possess qualities that can oversee decommissioning in the future. The contents of human resource education are as follows; (1) desk training (teaching materials: facilities of nuclear power plants, management of nuclear fuels, related laws, decommissioning work, decontamination, dismantling, disposal of waste, etc.), (2) field training (simulators, inspection of power station under decommissioning, etc.), (3) practical training (radiation inventory evaluation, and safety assessment), and (4) inspection of overseas decommissioning, etc. (A.O.)

  5. Hallmarks of Human Small Antral Follicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine G; Mamsen, Linn S; Jeppesen, Janni V


    Regulation of human ovarian steroidogenesis differs from other species and precise knowledge on how human small antral follicles (hSAF) develop and acquire competence for continued growth and steroid output is still incomplete. The present study has characterized almost 1,000 normal hSAF collected...... in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation. The antral follicles (ranging from 3 to 13 mm) were generally aspirated from one ovary surgically removed during the natural cycle, and the follicular fluid (FF) and the granulosa cells (GC) were isolated and snap-frozen. In FF...

  6. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita


    Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...... opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human...

  7. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical ...

  8. Aspect of the early human occupation in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castineira, C.


    This work is about the studies carried out in the geological sedimentary formation called So pa which is located in the basaltic basin in the north of Uruguay. The results obtained allow to recognize characteristics of the late pleistocene - early holocene as well as geometric morpho metrics aspects

  9. Friend or Foe? Early Social Evaluation of Human Interactions (United States)

    Buon, Marine; Jacob, Pierre; Margules, Sylvie; Brunet, Isabelle; Dutat, Michel; Cabrol, Dominique; Dupoux, Emmanuel


    We report evidence that 29-month-old toddlers and 10-month-old preverbal infants discriminate between two agents: a pro-social agent, who performs a positive (comforting) action on a human patient and a negative (harmful) action on an inanimate object, and an anti-social agent, who does the converse. The evidence shows that they prefer the former to the latter even though the agents perform the same bodily movements. Given that humans can cause physical harm to their conspecifics, we discuss this finding in light of the likely adaptive value of the ability to detect harmful human agents. PMID:24586355

  10. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood. (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong


    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  11. Regional early development and eruption of permanent teeth: case report. (United States)

    Al Mullahi, A M; Bakathir, A; Al Jahdhami, S


    Early development and eruption of permanent teeth are rarely reported in scientific literature. Early eruption of permanent teeth has been reported to occur due to local factors such as trauma or dental abscesses in primary teeth, and in systemic conditions. Congenital diffuse infiltrating facial lipomatosis (CDIFL) is a rare condition that belongs to a group of lipomatosis tumours. In this disorder, the mature adipocytes invade adjacent soft and hard tissues in the facial region. Accelerated tooth eruption is one of the dental anomalies associated with CDIFL. A 3-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the lower lip localised early development and eruption of permanent teeth and dental caries involving many primary teeth. The planned treatment included biopsy of the swollen lower lip to confirm the diagnosis, surgical reduction and reconstruction of lip aesthetics. The management of the carious primary teeth included preventative and comprehensive dental care and extractions. These procedures were completed under general anaesthesia due to the child's young age and poor cooperation. The lip biopsy showed features of CDIFL such as the presence of infiltrating adipose tissue, prominent number of nerve bundles and thickened vessels. The high recurrence rate of CDIFL mandates long-term monitoring during the facial growth period of the child. Follow-up care by the paediatric dentist and maxillofacial surgeon has been required to manage all aspects of this congenital malformation. This rare disorder has many implications affecting child's facial aesthetics, psychological well being, developing occlusion and risk of dental caries. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for management of this condition.

  12. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.


    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  13. Gross motor development is delayed following early cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H; Harris, Susan R; Eldridge, Beverley J; Galea, Mary P


    To describe the gross motor development of infants who had undergone cardiac surgery in the neonatal or early infant period. Gross motor performance was assessed when infants were 4, 8, 12, and 16 months of age with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. This scale is a discriminative gross motor outcome measure that may be used to assess infants from birth to independent walking. Infants were videotaped during the assessment and were later evaluated by a senior paediatric physiotherapist who was blinded to each infant's medical history, including previous clinical assessments. Demographic, diagnostic, surgical, critical care, and medical variables were considered with respect to gross motor outcomes. A total of 50 infants who underwent elective or emergency cardiac surgery at less than or up to 8 weeks of age, between July 2006 and January 2008, were recruited to this study and were assessed at 4 months of age. Approximately, 92%, 84%, and 94% of study participants returned for assessment at 8, 12, and 16 months of age, respectively. Study participants had delayed gross motor development across all study time points; 62% of study participants did not have typical gross motor development during the first year of life. Hospital length of stay was associated with gross motor outcome across infancy. Active gross motor surveillance of all infants undergoing early cardiac surgery is recommended. Further studies of larger congenital heart disease samples are required, as are longitudinal studies that determine the significance of these findings at school age and beyond.

  14. Proteomic analysis of early seed development in Pinus massoniana L. (United States)

    Zhen, Yan; Zhao, Zhen-Zhou; Zheng, Ren-Hua; Shi, Jisen


    Understanding seed development is important for large-scale propagation and germplasm conservation for the Masson pine. We undertook a proteomic analysis of Masson pine seeds during the early stages of embryogenesis. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) was used to quantify the differences in protein expression during early seed development. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, we identified proteins from 43 gel spots that had been excised from preparative "pick" gels. Proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified and were predominantly expressed at higher levels during the cleavage polyembryony and columnar embryo stages. Functional annotation of one seed protein revealed it involvement in programmed cell death and translation of selective mRNAs, which may play an important role in subordinate embryo elimination and suspensor degeneration in polyembryonic seed gymnosperms. Other identified proteins were associated with protein folding, nitrogen metabolism, disease/defense response, and protein storage, synthesis and stabilization. The comprehensive protein expression profiles generated by this study will provide new insights into the complex developmental process of seed development in Masson pine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. APECS: A Network for Polar Early Career Scientist Professional Development (United States)

    Enderlin, E. M.


    The Association of Polar Early Career Researchers (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in the polar regions, alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. APECS is a scientific, non-profit organization with free individual membership that aims to stimulate research collaborations and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education, and outreach. APECS grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (2007-08), which emphasized the need to stimulate and nurture the next generation of scientists in order to improve the understanding and communication of the polar regions and its global connections. The APECS organizational structure includes a Council and an elected Executive Committee that are supported by a Directorate. These positions are open to all individual members through a democratic process. The APECS Directorate is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Polar Institute and is hosted by the University of Tromsø. Early career scientists benefit from a range of activities hosted/organized by APECS. Every year, numerous activities are run with partner organizations and in conjunction with major polar conferences and meetings. In-person and online panels and workshops focus on a range of topics, from developing field skills to applying for a job after graduate school. Career development webinars are hosted each fall and topical research webinars are hosted throughout the year and archived online ( The APECS website also contains abundant information on polar news, upcoming conferences and meetings, and job postings for early career scientists. To better respond to members' needs, APECS has national/regional committees that are linked to the international overarching organization. Many of these committees organize regional meetings or

  16. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y.


    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  17. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar


    in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...... the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...

  18. IAEA Nuclear Security Human Resource Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunegger-Guelich, A.


    The IAEA is at the forefront of international efforts to strengthen the world's nuclear security framework. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009 was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 2005. This Plan has three main points of focus: needs assessment, prevention, detection and response. Its overall objective is to achieve improved worldwide security of nuclear and other radioactive material in use, storage and transport, and of their associated facilities. This will be achieved, in particular, through the provision of guidelines and recommendations, human resource development, nuclear security advisory services and assistance for the implementation of the framework in States, upon request. The presentation provides an overview of the IAEA nuclear security human resource development program that is divided into two parts: training and education. Whereas the training program focuses on filling gaps between the actual performance of personnel working in the area of nuclear security and the required competencies and skills needed to meet the international requirements and recommendations described in UN and IAEA documents relating to nuclear security, the Educational Program in Nuclear Security aims at developing nuclear security experts and specialists, at fostering a nuclear security culture and at establishing in this way sustainable knowledge in this field within a State. The presentation also elaborates on the nuclear security computer based learning component and provides insights into the use of human resource development as a tool in achieving the IAEA's long term goal of improving sustainable nuclear security in States. (author)

  19. Early sonographic findings suggestive of the human fetal tail. (United States)

    Zimmer, E Z; Bronshtein, M


    The prenatal diagnosis of a human tail was suggested in six fetuses with ultrasound findings of an echogenic protrusion in the lumbo-sacral region. All fetuses were at 14-16 weeks' gestation. The ultrasound findings disappeared in all cases at 22-23 weeks. Dermal abnormalities such as pilonidal sinus, deep dimples, and scarred tissue were found in all six newborns. It is possible that the late regression of the embryonic human tail was the cause of these dermal findings.

  20. Early Childhood Education Curricula: Human Rights and Citizenship in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Sounoglou, Marina; Michalopoulou, Aikaterini


    This study examines the human rights and the notion of citizenship under the prism of pedagogical science. The methodology that was followed was the experimental method. In a sample of 100 children-experimental group and control group held an intervention program with deepening axes of human rights and the concept of citizenship. The analysis of…

  1. Microstructural Changes of the Human Brain from Early to Mid-Adulthood


    Tian, Lixia; Ma, Lin


    Despite numerous studies on the microstructural changes of the human brain throughout life, we have indeed little direct knowledge about the changes from early to mid-adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructural changes of the human brain from early to mid-adulthood. We performed two sets of analyses based on the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of 111 adults aged 18–55 years. Specifically, we first correlated age with skeletonized fractional anisotropy (FA), mea...

  2. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: development of SACOM> (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. development of human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  3. Human Disturbance during Early Life Impairs Nestling Growth in Birds Inhabiting a Nature Recreation Area. (United States)

    Remacha, Carolina; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Bulaic, Mateja; Pérez-Tris, Javier


    Nature recreation conflicts with conservation, but its impacts on wildlife are not fully understood. Where recreation is not regulated, visitors to natural areas may gather in large numbers on weekends and holidays. This may increase variance in fitness in wild populations, if individuals whose critical life cycle stages coincide with periods of high human disturbance are at a disadvantage. We studied nestling development of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in a natural area where recreation activities intensify during weekends and other public holidays at picnic and leisure facilities, but not in the surrounding woods. In nests located near recreation facilities, blue tit nestlings that hatched during holidays developed slowly, and fledged with low body mass and poor body condition. However, nestlings that hatched outside of holidays and weekends in these nest boxes developed normally, eventually attaining similar phenotypes as those hatching in the surrounding woods. Within-brood variance in body mass was also higher in broods that began growing during holidays in disturbed areas. Our results show that early disturbance events may have negative consequences for wild birds if they overlap with critical stages of development, unveiling otherwise cryptic impacts of human activities. These new findings may help managers better regulate nature recreation.

  4. Human Disturbance during Early Life Impairs Nestling Growth in Birds Inhabiting a Nature Recreation Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Remacha

    Full Text Available Nature recreation conflicts with conservation, but its impacts on wildlife are not fully understood. Where recreation is not regulated, visitors to natural areas may gather in large numbers on weekends and holidays. This may increase variance in fitness in wild populations, if individuals whose critical life cycle stages coincide with periods of high human disturbance are at a disadvantage. We studied nestling development of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus in a natural area where recreation activities intensify during weekends and other public holidays at picnic and leisure facilities, but not in the surrounding woods. In nests located near recreation facilities, blue tit nestlings that hatched during holidays developed slowly, and fledged with low body mass and poor body condition. However, nestlings that hatched outside of holidays and weekends in these nest boxes developed normally, eventually attaining similar phenotypes as those hatching in the surrounding woods. Within-brood variance in body mass was also higher in broods that began growing during holidays in disturbed areas. Our results show that early disturbance events may have negative consequences for wild birds if they overlap with critical stages of development, unveiling otherwise cryptic impacts of human activities. These new findings may help managers better regulate nature recreation.

  5. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment. (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond


    The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an assistant nurse while training to be a doctor may offer valuable learning experiences, but may also present the student with difficulties with respect to identity and identification issues. The aim of the present study was to describe first-year medical students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors before and after a nursing attachment. A questionnaire containing open questions concerning students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n=347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes. We carried out two confirmatory focus group interviews. We analysed the data using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The questionnaire was completed by 316 students (response rate 91%). Before starting the attachment students regarded nurses as empathic, communicative and responsible. After the attachment students reported nurses had more competencies and responsibilities than they had expected. Students' views of doctors were ambivalent. Before and after the attachment, doctors were seen as interested and reliable, but also as arrogant, detached and insensible. However, students maintained positive views of their own future roles as doctors. Students' perceptions were influenced by age, gender and place of attachment. An early nursing attachment engenders more respect for the nursing profession. The ambivalent view of doctors needs to be explored further in relation to students' professional development. It would seem relevant to attune supervision to the age and gender differences revealed in this study.

  6. Development and the evolvability of human limbs


    Young, Nathan M.; Wagner, Günter P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt


    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primate...

  7. Essays in Human Development and Public Policy


    Nandi, Arindam


    Despite strong recent economic growth, gender inequality remains a major concern for India. This dissertation examines the effectiveness of public policy in improving some important human development outcomes, with a focus on gender issues. The national Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostics Techniques (PNDT) Act of 1994, implemented in 1996, banned sex-selective abortions in the Indian states which hitherto had not legislated such a policy. Using village-level and town-level longitudinal d...

  8. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation


    Ho, Wai-Hong


    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  9. Early Requestive Development in Consecutive Third Language Learning (United States)

    Safont-Jorda, Maria-Pilar


    While research on early simultaneous bilingual acquisition is well-documented, studies on multiple language acquisition in early childhood are still needed. Existing studies have mainly focused on early simultaneous acquisition of three or more languages. Some attention has already been paid to early pragmatic differentiation and cross-linguistic…

  10. Liriodenine alkaloid in Annona diversifolia during early development. (United States)

    de la Cruz Chacón, I; González-Esquinca, A R


    Plants of the Annonaceae family produce a series of alkaloids, including liriodenine oxoaporphine. Its distribution in these primitive angiosperms suggests that it plays an important role, but very little is known about which plant organs it accumulates in, or in which developmental stages it is synthesised. Accordingly, liriodenine production was studied during the early stages of germination and seedling development in Annona diversifolia Saff. Liriodenine samples were obtained from the roots and were characterised on the basis of spectroscopic data. Quantification was done by HPLC in the organs and tissues of newly collected seeds, seeds following 1-, 2-, 5- and 10-day imbibitions, upon emergence of the radicle and at the seedling stage. According to our results, liriodenine could not have originated from the parent plant, nor during embryogenesis because it appears for the first time in the endosperm approximately 5 days after the start of imbibition. Therefore, its synthesis does not depend directly on photosynthesis. During the seedling stage it is found in the root and the stem but it is absent from the cotyledonary leaves and the first true leaves. Liriodenine biosynthesis begins during the early stages of development in the endosperm and seed radicles.

  11. Does bilingual experience affect early visual perceptual development? (United States)

    Schonberg, Christina; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Tsang, Tawny; Johnson, Scott P.


    Visual attention and perception develop rapidly during the first few months after birth, and these behaviors are critical components in the development of language and cognitive abilities. Here we ask how early bilingual experiences might lead to differences in visual attention and perception. Experiments 1–3 investigated the looking behavior of monolingual and bilingual infants when presented with social (Experiment 1), mixed (Experiment 2), or non-social (Experiment 3) stimuli. In each of these experiments, infants' dwell times (DT) and number of fixations to areas of interest (AOIs) were analyzed, giving a sense of where the infants looked. To examine how the infants looked at the stimuli in a more global sense, Experiment 4 combined and analyzed the saccade data collected in Experiments 1–3. There were no significant differences between monolingual and bilingual infants' DTs, AOI fixations, or saccade characteristics (specifically, frequency, and amplitude) in any of the experiments. These results suggest that monolingual and bilingual infants process their visual environments similarly, supporting the idea that the substantial cognitive differences between monolinguals and bilinguals in early childhood are more related to active vocabulary production than perception of the environment. PMID:25566116

  12. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario (United States)

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.


    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  13. Modeling and managing risk early in software development (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Thomas, William M.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.


    In order to improve the quality of the software development process, we need to be able to build empirical multivariate models based on data collectable early in the software process. These models need to be both useful for prediction and easy to interpret, so that remedial actions may be taken in order to control and optimize the development process. We present an automated modeling technique which can be used as an alternative to regression techniques. We show how it can be used to facilitate the identification and aid the interpretation of the significant trends which characterize 'high risk' components in several Ada systems. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of our technique based on a comparison with logistic regression based models.

  14. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant


    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  15. Brain Development and Early Learning: Research on Brain Development. Quality Matters. Volume 1, Winter 2007 (United States)

    Edie, David; Schmid, Deborah


    For decades researchers have been aware of the extraordinary development of a child's brain during the first five years of life. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped crystallize earlier findings, bringing new clarity and understanding to the field of early childhood brain development. Children are born ready to learn. They cultivate 85…

  16. Assessment of Language Development of Preschoolers: Validating Morrow's Checklist for Assessing Early Literacy Development (United States)

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Hazel Mei Yung


    This study aimed to establish the validity of the Language Development Rating Scale and the Attitudes toward Reading and Voluntary Reading Behaviour Rating Scale in Morrow's Checklist for Assessing Early Literacy Development for use with preschool children in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 2619 preschool children aged three-five years who were…

  17. Early Effects of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation on Foetal Brain Development in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Ghiani


    Full Text Available Studies in humans and animal models link maternal infection and imbalanced levels of inflammatory mediators in the foetal brain to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In a number of animal models, it was shown that exposure to viral or bacterial agents during a period that corresponds to the second trimester in human gestation triggers brain and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. However, little is known about the early cellular and molecular events elicited by inflammation in the foetal brain shortly after maternal infection has occurred. In this study, maternal infection was mimicked by two consecutive intraperitoneal injections of 200 μg of LPS (lipopolysaccharide/kg to timed-pregnant rats at GD15 (gestational day 15 and GD16. Increased thickness of the CP (cortical plate and hippocampus together with abnormal distribution of immature neuronal markers and decreased expression of markers for neural progenitors were observed in the LPS-exposed foetal forebrains at GD18. Such effects were accompanied by decreased levels of reelin and the radial glial marker GLAST (glial glutamate transporter, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in maternal serum and foetal forebrains. Foetal inflammation elicited by maternal injections of LPS has discrete detrimental effects on brain development. The early biochemical and morphological changes described in this work begin to explain the sequelae of early events that underlie the neurobehavioural deficits reported in humans and animals exposed to prenatal insults.

  18. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chun Lin


    Full Text Available To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = −0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = −0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = −0.091, se = 0.034. Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC levels during the second and third trimesters (β = −8.742, se = 3.512. Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age.

  19. Early life precursors, epigenetics, and the development of food allergy. (United States)

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin


    Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of nongenetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birth weight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the interrelationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations, and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA.

  20. The early noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Kristiansen, Karen; Durand, Marjorie


    (CPEs). We show here that a fragment of the early 3'end comprising four of the five CPE-like regions when inserted downstream of a reporter gene confers regulation of the gene expression. A key protein involved in cytoplasmic polyadenylation is CPEB. We show that the human CPEB1 can repress the activity...... of the reporter construct containing the HPV-16 early sequences. This repression can be counteracted by a human cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase, hGLD-2 fused to CPEB1. The hGLD-2/CPEB1 fusion protein facilitates furthermore poly(A) elongation of early HPV transcripts....

  1. Interchromatidal central ridge and transversal symmetry in early metaphasic human chromosome one. (United States)

    Argüello-Miranda, Orlando; Sáenz-Arce, Giovanni


    The topographic structure of Giemsa-banded (G-banded) early metaphase human chromosomes adsorbed on glass was analyzed by atomic force microscope using amplitude modulation mode (AM-AFM). Longitudinal height measurements for early metaphasic human chromosomes showed a central ridge that was further characterized by transversal height measurements. The heterochromatic regions displayed a high level of transversal symmetry, while the euchromatic ones presented several peaks across the transversal height measurements. We suggest that this central ridge and symmetry patterns point out a transitional arrangement of the early metaphase chromosome and support evidence for interchromatidal interactions prior to disjunction. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  2. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.


    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  3. Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogeographic distribution of human mitochondrial DNA variations allows a genetic approach to the study of modern Homo sapiens dispersals throughout the world from a female perspective. As a new contribution to this study we have phylogenetically analysed complete mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA sequences from 42 human lineages, representing major clades with known geographic assignation. Results We show the relative relationships among the 42 lineages and present more accurate temporal calibrations than have been previously possible to give new perspectives as how modern humans spread in the Old World. Conclusions The first detectable expansion occurred around 59,000–69,000 years ago from Africa, independently colonizing western Asia and India and, following this southern route, swiftly reaching east Asia. Within Africa, this expansion did not replace but mixed with older lineages detectable today only in Africa. Around 39,000–52,000 years ago, the western Asian branch spread radially, bringing Caucasians to North Africa and Europe, also reaching India, and expanding to north and east Asia. More recent migrations have entangled but not completely erased these primitive footprints of modern human expansions.

  4. Ethylene, an early marker of systemic inflammation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, L.M.; Bogaart, G. van den; Kox, M.; Dingjan, I.; Neerincx, A.H.; Bendix, M.B.; Beest, M.T.; Harren, F.J.M; Risby, T.; Pickkers, P.; Marczin, N.; Cristescu, S.M.


    Ethylene is a major plant hormone mediating developmental processes and stress responses to stimuli such as infection. We show here that ethylene is also produced during systemic inflammation in humans and is released in exhaled breath. Traces of ethylene were detected by laser spectroscopy both in

  5. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Woon [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Changyong [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Jin [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Ik [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sook-Young [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul 135-081 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dawon, E-mail: [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)


    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  6. Development of Smart Grid for Community and Cyber based Landslide Hazard Monitoring and Early Warning System (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Fathani, T. F.; Fukuoka, H.; Andayani, B.


    A Smart Grid is a cyber-based tool to facilitate a network of sensors for monitoring and communicating the landslide hazard and providing the early warning. The sensor is designed as an electronic sensor installed in the existing monitoring and early warning instruments, and also as the human sensors which comprise selected committed-people at the local community, such as the local surveyor, local observer, member of the local task force for disaster risk reduction, and any person at the local community who has been registered to dedicate their commitments for sending reports related to the landslide symptoms observed at their living environment. This tool is designed to be capable to receive up to thousands of reports/information at the same time through the electronic sensors, text message (mobile phone), the on-line participatory web as well as various social media such as Twitter and Face book. The information that should be recorded/ reported by the sensors is related to the parameters of landslide symptoms, for example the progress of cracks occurrence, ground subsidence or ground deformation. Within 10 minutes, this tool will be able to automatically elaborate and analyse the reported symptoms to predict the landslide hazard and risk levels. The predicted level of hazard/ risk can be sent back to the network of electronic and human sensors as the early warning information. The key parameters indicating the symptoms of landslide hazard were recorded/ monitored by the electrical and the human sensors. Those parameters were identified based on the investigation on geological and geotechnical conditions, supported with the laboratory analysis. The cause and triggering mechanism of landslide in the study area was also analysed in order to define the critical condition to launch the early warning. However, not only the technical but also social system were developed to raise community awareness and commitments to serve the mission as the human sensors, which will

  7. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development. (United States)

    Isaacs, Elizabeth B


    Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system (CNS), and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of "programming" where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism's structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programming stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behavior, in animal studies that were able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually conducted in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  8. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Isaacs


    Full Text Available Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system, and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of programming where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism’s structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programing stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behaviour, in animal studies that were also able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomised controlled trials and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

  9. Macrosomia has its roots in early placental development. (United States)

    Schwartz, N; Quant, H S; Sammel, M D; Parry, S


    We sought to determine if early placental size, as measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography, is associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic or large-for-gestational age (LGA) infant. We prospectively collected 3-dimensional ultrasound volume sets of singleton pregnancies at 11-14 weeks and 18-24 weeks. Birth weights were collected from the medical records. After delivery, the ultrasound volume set were used to measure the placental volume (PV) and placental quotient (PQ = PV/gestational age), as well as the mean placental and chorionic diameters (MPD and MCD, respectively). Placental measures were analyzed as predictors of macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g) and LGA (birth weight ≥90th percentile). The 578 pregnancies with first trimester volumes included 44 (7.6%) macrosomic and 43 (7.4%) LGA infants. 373 subjects also had second trimester volumes available. A higher PV and PQ were both significantly associated with macrosomia and LGA in both the first and second trimesters. Second trimester MPD was significantly associated with both outcomes as well, while second trimester MCD was only associated with LGA. The above associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal demographic variables such as race, ethnicity, age and diabetes. Adjusted models yielded moderate prediction of macrosomia and LGA (AUC: 0.71-0.77). Sonographic measurement of the early placenta can identify pregnancies at greater risk of macrosomia and LGA. Macrosomia and LGA are already determined in part by early placental growth and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology, conflict early warning systems, public health, and human rights. (United States)

    Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick


    Public health and conflict early warning are evolving rapidly in response to technology changes for the gathering, management, analysis and communication of data. It is expected that these changes will provide an unprecedented ability to monitor, detect, and respond to crises. One of the potentially most profound and lasting expected change affects the roles of the various actors in providing and sharing information and in responding to early warning. Communities and civil society actors have the opportunity to be empowered as a source of information, analysis, and response, while the role of traditional actors shifts toward supporting those communities and building resilience. However, by creating new roles, relationships, and responsibilities, technology changes raise major concerns and ethical challenges for practitioners, pressing the need for practical guidelines and actionable recommendations in line with existing ethical principles. Copyright © 2012 Pham and Vinck. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  11. Early warning signals of regime shifts in coupled human-environment systems. (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Sigdel, Ram; Pharaon, Joe; Anand, Madhur


    In complex systems, a critical transition is a shift in a system's dynamical regime from its current state to a strongly contrasting state as external conditions move beyond a tipping point. These transitions are often preceded by characteristic early warning signals such as increased system variability. However, early warning signals in complex, coupled human-environment systems (HESs) remain little studied. Here, we compare critical transitions and their early warning signals in a coupled HES model to an equivalent environment model uncoupled from the human system. We parameterize the HES model, using social and ecological data from old-growth forests in Oregon. We find that the coupled HES exhibits a richer variety of dynamics and regime shifts than the uncoupled environment system. Moreover, the early warning signals in the coupled HES can be ambiguous, heralding either an era of ecosystem conservationism or collapse of both forest ecosystems and conservationism. The presence of human feedback in the coupled HES can also mitigate the early warning signal, making it more difficult to detect the oncoming regime shift. We furthermore show how the coupled HES can be "doomed to criticality": Strategic human interactions cause the system to remain perpetually in the vicinity of a collapse threshold, as humans become complacent when the resource seems protected but respond rapidly when it is under immediate threat. We conclude that the opportunities, benefits, and challenges of modeling regime shifts and early warning signals in coupled HESs merit further research.

  12. Simulation of developing human neuronal cell networks. (United States)

    Lenk, Kerstin; Priwitzer, Barbara; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Tietz, Lukas H B; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K


    Microelectrode array (MEA) is a widely used technique to study for example the functional properties of neuronal networks derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-NN). With hESC-NN, we can investigate the earliest developmental stages of neuronal network formation in the human brain. In this paper, we propose an in silico model of maturating hESC-NNs based on a phenomenological model called INEX. We focus on simulations of the development of bursts in hESC-NNs, which are the main feature of neuronal activation patterns. The model was developed with data from developing hESC-NN recordings on MEAs which showed increase in the neuronal activity during the investigated six measurement time points in the experimental and simulated data. Our simulations suggest that the maturation process of hESC-NN, resulting in the formation of bursts, can be explained by the development of synapses. Moreover, spike and burst rate both decreased at the last measurement time point suggesting a pruning of synapses as the weak ones are removed. To conclude, our model reflects the assumption that the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory neurons during the maturation of a neuronal network and the spontaneous emergence of bursts are due to increased connectivity caused by the forming of new synapses.

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of pathologist Clarence Lushbaugh, M.D., conducted October 5, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report provides a transcript of an interview with Dr. Clarance Lushbaugh by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Lushbaugh was chosen for this interview because of his research involving experimental use of irradiation with human beings at Los Alamos and at the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Science (ORINS). After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Lushbaugh and his assistant Mrs. Ann Swipe defend their use of total body irradiation using the LETBI (Low Exposure Total Body Irradiation) and the LETBI (Medium Energy Total Body Irradiator). Dr. Lushbaugh also discusses his earlier experiments involving use of nitrogen mustards in chemotherapy application, his early interest in the LD50 for man, his early impressions of low-level spray radiation as introduced by Heubline, anedotal information for his duties a pathologist for Los Alamos, and his developing interest in establishing safer radiation limits for human exposure

  14. An early modern human from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Moldovan, Oana; Milota, Ştefan; Bîlgǎr, Adrian; Sarcina, Laurenţiu; Athreya, Sheela; Bailey, Shara E.; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Mircea, Gherase; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Van der Plicht, Johannes


    The 2002 discovery of a robust modern human mandible in the Peştera cu Oase, southwestern Romania, provides evidence of early modern humans in the lower Danubian Corridor. Directly accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (14C)-dated to 34,00036,000 14C years B.P., the Oase 1 mandible is the oldest

  15. No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serre


    Full Text Available The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

  16. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals. (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P


    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  17. Maternal age and serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy. (United States)

    Haavaldsen, Camilla; Fedorcsak, Peter; Tanbo, Tom; Eskild, Anne


    To study whether maternal age is associated with serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Oslo University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. All vital pregnancies in gestational week 8 conceived by in vitro fertilization between February 1996 and February 2013 (n = 4472). Serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin were measured on day 12 after embryo transfer/day 16 following ovulation induction. Trends in geometric means of human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations by maternal age group were tested by linear regression analysis. We also studied the association of maternal age (years) with log-transformed human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations, and adjustments were made for number of embryos transferred, method of in vitro fertilization and year (period) of embryo transfer. Serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin. Geometric mean concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin decreased with increasing maternal age (p = 0.024, test for trend by weighted linear regression). Also, we estimated a significant negative association of maternal age with log-transformed human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (adjusted regression coefficient -0.011, standard error 0.003, p human chorionic gonadotropin in very early pregnancy decreased with maternal age. Since human chorionic gonadotropin is synthesized in trophoblast cells only, the lower human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in women of advanced age may reflect functional impairment or delayed proliferation of trophoblast cells in early pregnancy in these women. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. DIALOG: Fostering Early Career Development Across the Aquatic Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Susan Weiler, PhD


    year increasing numbers of graduates take advantage of the opportunity to be part of this international collection, and more scientists, employers and administrators use this resource to identify recent graduates and get an overview of their work. Dissertation abstracts are submitted on line and immediately posted on the ASLO web site in a format that can be searched by year, name, and key words ( In addition to the recognition, program participants receive a compilation of abstracts, a directory, and a demographic profile of their cohort. An electronic distribution list keeps recent grads informed about job opportunities, resources, recent advances across the aquatic sciences, and-other research and professional news. Finally, the interdisciplinary symposium offers a unique opportunity for grads to get to know each other and share common experiences, and address the challenges and opportunities facing new professionals. The DIALOG Program is a long-term investment in human resources and science infrastructure. The most interesting and important questions in aquatic and other sciences are increasingly interdisciplinary and this program brings together scientists from across the full spectrum of biologically relevant aquatic science. The DIALOG database will become increasingly useful as more graduates participate. While the full impact of the program will probably not be realized for many years, there have already been many tangible results. Several interdisciplinary (including some international) research collaborations have been started; an international student exchange program has been set up at two institutions; several workshops and meeting sessions have been organized; and the entire group continues to communicate about research, education, and science policy issues via an electronic distribution list. The goal of the DIALOG symposium is to foster cross-disciplinary and international understanding and interactions at an early career stage

  19. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja


    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter...... of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts....... Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone...

  20. Investigational drugs in early development for treating dengue infection. (United States)

    Beesetti, Hemalatha; Khanna, Navin; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam


    Dengue has emerged as the most significant arboviral disease of the current century. A drug for dengue is an urgent unmet need. As conventional drug discovery efforts have not produced any promising clinical candidates, there is a shift toward re-positioning pre-existing drugs for dengue to fast-track dengue drug development. This article provides an update on the current status of recently completed and ongoing dengue drug trials. All dengue drug trials described in this article were identified from a list of >230 trials that were returned upon searching the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform web portal using the search term 'dengue' on December 31(st), 2015. None of the handful of drugs tested so far has yielded encouraging results. Early trial experience has served to emphasize the challenge of drug testing in the short therapeutic time window available, the need for tools to predict 'high-risk' patients early on and the limitations of the existing pre-clinical model systems. Significant investment of efforts and resources is a must before the availability of a safe, effective and inexpensive dengue drug becomes a reality. Currently, supportive fluid therapy remains the only option available for dengue treatment.

  1. Radioimmunoassay for human health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyasena, R.D.; Airey, P.L.; Ganatra, R.D.; Nofal, M.


    Since first introduced in the early 1960s, radioimmunoassay (RIA) has gained wide acceptance as an analytical method adopted by an increasing number of developing countries as an appropriate technology that can be managed within the capabilities of local infrastructures. An informed estimate would be that there are, at present, more than 500 hospitals, university, or other laboratories in the developing world engaged in RIA on some scale. In the developing world, RIA is used primarily for patient management, but research activity is also increasing as expertise and resources improve. The majority of patient samples processed are in relation to thyroid disorders. However, the technique also is used widely in the investigation of other endocrine conditions and public health problems. Some developing countries have gained the capability to perform radioisotopic microassays in areas of clinical and research importance such as steroid receptor quantification in breast tissue; diagnosis of bacterial and parasitic disorders; investigation of infertility and sterility; narcotic drug abuse; and organ transplantation. 1 fig

  2. Dengue human infection models supporting drug development. (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Van, Vinh Chau Nguyen; Simmons, Cameron P


    Dengue is a arboviral infection that represents a major global health burden. There is an unmet need for effective dengue therapeutics to reduce symptoms, duration of illness and incidence of severe complications. Here, we consider the merits of a dengue human infection model (DHIM) for drug development. A DHIM could allow experimentally controlled studies of candidate therapeutics in preselected susceptible volunteers, potentially using smaller sample sizes than trials that recruited patients with dengue in an endemic country. In addition, the DHIM would assist the conduct of intensive pharmacokinetic and basic research investigations and aid in determining optimal drug dosage. Furthermore, a DHIM could help establish proof of concept that chemoprophylaxis against dengue is feasible. The key challenge in developing the DHIM for drug development is to ensure the model reliably replicates the typical clinical and laboratory features of naturally acquired, symptomatic dengue. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. HIV / AIDS, human rights and development. (United States)

    Patterson, D


    AIDS is killing more people worldwide than any other infectious disease. Given the expensive treatments for AIDS, preventing new infections is the only way to stem the growing tide of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Yet in almost every developing country, prevention programs have no effect in preventing new infections, and are often narrow in scope and applicability. In many cases, interventions focus on the individual and on individual behavioral change. Socioeconomic and political factors such as gender-based inequalities, poverty, corruption and government inaction are not addressed. The paper discusses the link between HIV/AIDS, development and human rights. It presents case studies and other examples of rights-based projects and activities that provide models for rights-based programming that can be adapted to different national contexts.

  4. Early development of the thymus in Xenopus laevis (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hoon; Williams, Allison; Hong, Chang-Soo; You, Youngjae; Senoo, Makoto; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre


    Background Although Xenopus laevis has been a model of choice for comparative and developmental studies of the immune system, little is known about organogenesis of the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ in vertebrates. Here we examined the expression of three transcription factors that have been functionally associated with pharyngeal gland development, gcm2, hoxa3 and foxn1, and evaluated the neural crest contribution to thymus development. Results In most species Hoxa3 is expressed in the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm where it directs thymus formation. In Xenopus, the thymus primordium is derived from the second pharyngeal pouch endoderm, which is hoxa3-negative, suggesting that a different mechanism regulates thymus formation in frogs. Unlike other species foxn1 is not detected in the epithelium of the pharyngeal pouch in Xenopus, rather, its expression is initiated as thymic epithelial cell starts to differentiate and express MHC class II molecules. Using transplantation experiments we show that while neural crest cells populate the thymus primordia, they are not required for the specification and initial development of this organ or for T cell differentiation in frogs. Conclusions These studies provide novel information on early thymus development in Xenopus, and highlight a number of features that distinguish Xenopus from other organisms. PMID:23172757

  5. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry


    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  6. Oviduct: roles in fertilization and early embryo development. (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Winuthayanon, Wipawee


    Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients. Finally, the review compares different aspects of naturally occurring fertilization and assisted reproductive technology (ART)-achieved fertilization and embryo development, giving insight into potential areas for improvement in this technology. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Early-life environmental variation affects intestinal microbiota and immune development in new-born piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.L.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Heilig, H.G.H.J.; Smidt, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smits, M.A.


    Background - Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timin Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these

  8. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.; Irola, G.; Glynn, K.


    Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)

  9. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coppa


    Full Text Available This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these positions: to put technology at the service of desire. Although the conflict between desire and control was particularly thematized in Star Trek, most famously through the divided character of Spock, the practices of vidding are now applied to other visual texts. This essay examines the early history of vidding and demonstrates, through the close reading of particular vids made for Star Trek and Quantum Leap, how vidding heals the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

  10. Immuno-Oncology: The Third Paradigm in Early Drug Development. (United States)

    Martin-Liberal, Juan; Hierro, Cinta; Ochoa de Olza, Maria; Rodon, Jordi


    Clinical researchers in oncology face the difficulty of developing new drugs for treating cancer patients. This challenge nowadays extends towards new horizons since a high number of drugs are developed in each of the three paradigms: classical cytotoxics, new targeted agents, and emergent immunotherapeutic approaches. Over the last decade, there has been an unstoppable progress in this third paradigm, to the extent that in 2013 immunotherapy was granted the scientific breakthrough of the year. However, the novel mechanisms of action of these immunotherapeutic agents entail a whole new series of concepts, resulting in a number of unresolved questions to which clarification is crucial for their success: establishment of accurate preclinical models able to predict human toxicities, better selection of candidate populations, finding and validation of predictive biomarkers, definition of suitable endpoints, improvements in first-in-human study designs, proposal of more accurate radiological response criteria, management of novel immune-related toxicities and development of combinations based on a biological rationale. In this article, we review the major challenges to overcome in forthcoming years. The final role of immunotherapy in cancer will be determined by our capacity to shed some light on some of these key points.

  11. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood. (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H


    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Early human communication helps in understanding language evolution. (United States)

    Lenti Boero, Daniela


    Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities.

  13. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison


    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  14. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development. (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim


    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development. (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H


    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Proteoglycan and collagen expression during human air conducting system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Godoy-Guzmán


    Full Text Available The lung is formed from a bud that grows and divides in a dichotomous way. A bud is a new growth center which is determined by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions where proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM might be involved. To understand this protein participation during human lung development, we examined the expression and distribution of proteoglycans in relation to the different types of collagens during the period in which the air conducting system is installed. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry we evaluate the expression of collagens (I, III and VI and proteoglycans (decorin, biglycan and lumican between 8 to 10 weeks post fertilization and 11 to 14 weeks of gestational age of human embryo lungs. We show that decorin, lumican and all the collagen types investigated were expressed at the epithelium-mesenchymal interface, forming a sleeve around the bronchiolar ducts. In addition, biglycan was expressed in both the endothelial cells and the smooth muscle of the blood vessels. Thus, the similar distribution pattern of collagen and proteoglycans in the early developmental stages of the human lung may be closely related to the process of dichotomous division of the bronchial tree. This study provides a new insight concerning the participation of collagens and proteoglycans in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface during the period in which the air conducting system is installed in the human fetal lung.

  17. Anatomy, Development, and Function of the Human Pelvis. (United States)

    DeSilva, Jeremy M; Rosenberg, Karen R


    The pelvis is an anatomically complex and functionally informative bone that contributes directly to both human locomotion and obstetrics. Because of the pelvis' important role in obstetrics, it is one of the most sexually dimorphic bony elements of the human body. The complex intersection of pelvic dimorphism, locomotion, and obstetrics has been reenergized by exciting new research, and many papers in this special issue of the pelvis help provide clarity on the relationship between pelvic form (especially female) and locomotor function. Compared to the pelvis of our ape relatives, the human pelvis is uniquely shaped; it is superoinferiorly short and stout, and mediolaterally wide-critical adaptations for bipedalism that are already present in some form very early in the history of the hominin lineage. In this issue, 13 original research papers address the anatomy, development, variation, and function of the modern human pelvis, with implications for understanding the selection pressures that shaped and continue to shape this bone. This rich collection of scholarship moves our understanding of the pelvis forward, while raising dozens of new questions that we hope will serve as inspiration for colleagues and students (both current and future) puzzled by this fascinatingly complex bone. Anat Rec, 300:628-632, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer


    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Nascent entrepreneurship and the developing individual: Early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence and venture creation success during the career


    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Stuetzer, Michael


    What predicts a person's venture creation success over the course of the career, such as making progress in the venture creation process and multiple successful venture creations? Applying a life span approach of human development, this study examined the effect of early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence, which was gathered retrospectively by means of the Life History Calendar method. Human and social capitals during the founding process were investigated as mediators between adolesce...

  20. Time-lapse cinematography of dynamic changes occurring during in vitro development of human embryos. (United States)

    Mio, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Kazuo


    The purpose of this study was to clarify developmental changes of early human embryos by using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). For human ova, fertilization and cleavage, development of the blastocyst, and hatching, as well as consequent changes were repeatedly photographed at intervals of 5-6 days by using an inverse microscope under stabilized temperature and pH. Photographs were taken at 30 frames per second and the movies were studied. Cinematography has increased our understanding of the morphologic mechanisms of fertilization, development, and behavior of early human embryos, and has identified the increased risk of monozygotic twin pregnancy based on prolonged incubation in vitro to the blastocyst stage. Using TLC, we observed the fertilization of an ovum by a single spermatozoon, followed by early cleavages, formation of the morula, blastocyst hatching, changes in the embryonic plates, and the development of monozygotic twins from the incubated blastocysts.

  1. 78 FR 9396 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Alzheimer's Disease: Developing Drugs for the Treatment of Early... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Alzheimer's Disease... a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Alzheimer's Disease: Developing Drugs for the Treatment of... demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials in patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease that occur...

  2. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Developing Individual: Early Entrepreneurial Competence in Adolescence and Venture Creation Success during the Career (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Stuetzer, Michael


    What predicts a person's venture creation success over the course of the career, such as making progress in the venture creation process and multiple successful venture creations? Applying a life span approach of human development, this study examined the effect of early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence, which was gathered retrospectively…

  3. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    yet been developed. Looking ahead, it is recognized that these planetary protection policies will apply to both governmental and non-governmental entities for the more than 100 countries that are signatories to the Outer SpaceTreaty. Fortunately, planetary protection controls for human missions are supportive of many other important mission needs, such as maximizing closed-loop and recycling capabilities to minimize mass required, minimizing exposure of humans to planetary materials for multiple health reasons, and minimizing contamination of planetary samples and environments during exploration and science activities. Currently, there is progress on a number of fronts in translating the basic COSPAR PP Principles and Implementation Guidelines into information that links with early engineering and process considerations. For example, an IAA Study Group on Planetary Protection and Human Missions is engaging robotic and human mission developers and scientists in exploring detailed technical, engineering and operational approaches by which planetary protection objectives can be accomplished for human missions in synergism with robotic exploration and in view of other constraints. This on-going study aims to highlight important information for the early stages of planning, and identify key research and technology development (R&TD) areas for further consideration and work. Such R&TD challenges provide opportunities for individuals, institutions and agencies of emerging countries to be involved in international exploration efforts. In January 2014, the study group presented an Interim Report to the IAA Heads of Agencies Summit in Washington DC. Subsequently, the group has continued to work on expanding the initial technical recommendations and findings, focusing especially on information useful to mission architects and designers as they integrate PP considerations in their varied plans-- scientific, commercial and otherwise. Already the findings and recommendations

  4. Establishing operational stability--developing human infrastructure. (United States)

    Gomez, Max A; Byers, Ernest J; Stingley, Preston; Sheridan, Robert M; Hirsch, Joshua A


    Over the past year, Toyota has come under harsh scrutiny as a result of several recalls. These well publicized mishaps have not only done damage to Toyota's otherwise sterling reputation for quality but have also called into question the assertions from a phalanx of followers that Toyota's production system (generically referred to as TPS or Lean) is the best method by which to structure one's systems of operation. In this article, we discuss how Toyota, faced with the pressure to grow its business, did not appropriately cadence this growth with the continued development and maintenance of the process capabilities (vis a vis the development of human infrastructure) needed to adequately support that growth. We draw parallels between the pressure Toyota faced to grow its business and the pressure neurointerventional practices face to grow theirs, and offer a methodology to support that growth without sacrificing quality.

  5. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed


    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  6. Mathematical models of human cerebellar development in the fetal period. (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kędzia, Alicja


    The evaluation of cerebellar growth in the fetal period forms a part of a widely used examination to identify any features of abnormalities in early stages of human development. It is well known that the development of anatomical structures, including the cerebellum, does not always follow a linear model of growth. The aim of the study was to analyse a variety of mathematical models of human cerebellar development in fetal life to determine their adequacy. The study comprised 101 fetuses (48 males and 53 females) between the 15th and 28th weeks of fetal life. The cerebellum was exposed and measurements of the vermis and hemispheres were performed, together with statistical analyses. The mathematical model parameters of fetal growth were assessed for crown-rump length (CRL) increases, transverse cerebellar diameter and ventrodorsal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis in the transverse plane, and rostrocaudal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres in the frontal plane. A variety of mathematical models were applied, including linear and non-linear functions. Taking into consideration the variance between models and measurements, as well as correlation parameters, the exponential and Gompertz models proved to be the most suitable for modelling cerebellar growth in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the linear model gave a satisfactory approximation of cerebellar growth, especially in older fetuses. The proposed models of fetal cerebellar growth constructed on the basis of anatomical examination and objective mathematical calculations could be useful in the estimation of fetal development. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  7. Preschoolers Know, but How Do They Know? Developing a Framework for Early Epistemology Development (United States)

    Winsor, Denise L.; Blake, Sally


    Two areas that are lacking for the purpose of training high-quality preschool teachers; and constructing developmentally appropriate learning standards and curriculum for preschool children are awareness of early epistemic development (beliefs about knowledge and knowing) and understanding preschoolers' cognitive processes during epistemic…

  8. Development of methodology for early detection of BWR instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Petruzzi; Shin Chin; Kostadin Ivanov; Asok Ray; Fan-Bill Cheung


    Full text of publication follows: The objective of the work presented in this paper research, which is supported by the US Department of Energy under the NEER program, is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology in order to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, based on the US NRC coupled code TRACE/PARCS, is being utilized as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The concept of the methodology is based on the fact that nonlinear systems show bifurcation, which is a change in the qualitative behavior as the system parameters vary. Some of these parameters may change on their own accord and account for the anomaly, while certain parameters can be altered in a controlled fashion. The non-linear, non-autonomous BWR system model considered in this research exhibits phenomena at two time scales. Anomalies occur at the slow time scale while the observation of the dynamical behavior, based on which inferences are made, takes place at the fast time scale. It is assumed that: (i) the system behavior is stationary at the fast time scale; and (ii) any observable non-stationary behavior is associated with parametric changes evolving at the slow time scale. The goal is to make inferences about evolving anomalies based on the asymptotic behavior derived from the computer simulation. However, only sufficient changes in the slowly varying parameter may lead to detectable difference in the asymptotic behavior. The need to detect such small changes in parameters and hence early detection of an anomaly motivate the utilized stimulus-response approach. In this approach, the model

  9. Early Impacts of a Human-in-the-Loop Evaluation in a Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky; Vos, Gordon; Whitmore, Mihriban


    The development of a new space vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), provides Human Factors engineers an excellent opportunity to have an impact early in the design process. This case study highlights a Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluation conducted in a Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility and will describe the human-centered approach and how the findings are impacting design and operational concepts early in space vehicle design. The focus of this HITL evaluation centered on the activities that astronaut crewmembers would be expected to perform within the functional internal volume of the Crew Module (CM) of the space vehicle. The primary objective was to determine if there are aspects of a baseline vehicle configuration that would limit or prevent the performance of dynamically volume-driving activities (e.g. six crewmembers donning their suits in an evacuation scenario). A second objective was to step through concepts of operations for known systems and evaluate them in integrated scenarios. The functional volume for crewmember activities is closely tied to every aspect of system design (e.g. avionics, safety, stowage, seats, suits, and structural support placement). As this evaluation took place before the Preliminary Design Review of the space vehicle with some designs very early in the development, it was not meant to determine definitely that the crewmembers could complete every activity, but rather to provide inputs that could improve developing designs and concepts of operations definition refinement.

  10. Early processing of pitch in the human auditory system. (United States)

    Alho, Kimmo; Grimm, Sabine; Mateo-León, Sabina; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Escera, Carles


    Middle-latency auditory evoked potentials, indicating early cortical processing, elicited by pitch changes and repetitions in pure tones and by complex tones with a missing-fundamental pitch were recorded in healthy adults ignoring the sounds while watching a silenced movie. Both for the pure and for the missing-fundamental tones, the Nb middle-latency response was larger for pitch changes (tones preceded by tones of different pitch) than for pitch repetitions (tones preceded by tones of the same pitch). This Nb enhancement was observed even for missing-fundamental tones preceded by repeated tones that had a different missing-fundamental pitch but included all harmonics of the subsequent tone with another missing-fundamental pitch. This finding rules out the possibility that the Nb enhancement in response to a change in missing-fundamental pitch was simply attributable to the activity of auditory cortex neurons responding specifically to the harmonics of missing-fundamental tones. The Nb effect presumably indicates pitch processing at or near the primary auditory cortex, and it was followed by a change-related enhancement of the N1 response, presumably generated in the secondary auditory cortex. This N1 enhancement might have been caused by a mismatch negativity response overlapping with the N1 response. Processing of missing-fundamental pitch was also reflected by the distribution of Nb responses. Tones with a higher missing-fundamental pitch elicited more frontally dominant Nb responses than tones with a lower missing-fundamental pitch. This effect of pitch, not seen for the pure tones, might indicate that the exact location of the Nb generator source in the auditory cortex depends on the missing-fundamental pitch of the eliciting tone. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Impact of Early Postnatal Androgen Exposure on Voice Development (United States)

    Grisa, Leila; Leonel, Maria L.; Gonçalves, Maria I. R.; Pletsch, Francisco; Sade, Elis R.; Custódio, Gislaine; Zagonel, Ivete P. S.; Longui, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.


    Background The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT) in childhood. Methods The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0), vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years) and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years) female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. Results Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89%) had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5%) at 8.16 years, and 1 (5%) at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months) was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19) of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz) and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. Conclusions Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors. PMID:23284635

  12. Development of Water Resources Drought Early Warning System (United States)

    Chen, B. P. T.; Chen, C. H.


    Signs of impending drought are often vague and result from hydrologic uncertainty. Because of this, determining the appropriate time to enforce water supply restrictions is difficult. This study proposes a drought early warning index (DEWI) that can help water resource managers to anticipate droughts so that preparations can be made to mitigate the impact of water shortages. This study employs the expected-deficit-rate of normal water supply conditions as the drought early warning index. An annual-use-reservoir-based water supply system in southern Taiwan was selected as the case study. The water supply simulation was based on reservoir storage at the evaluation time and the reservoir inflow series to cope with the actual water supply process until the end of the hydrologic year. A variety of deficits could be realized during different hydrologic years of records and assumptions of initial reservoir storage. These deficits are illustrated using the Average Shortage Rate (ASR) and the value of the ASR, namely the DEWI. The ASR is divided into 5 levels according to 5 deficit-tolerance combinations of each kind of annual demand. A linear regression model and a Neuro-Fuzzy Computing Technique model were employed to estimate the DEWI using selected factors deduced from supply-demand traits and available information, including: rainfall, reservoir inflow and storage data. The chosen methods mentioned above are used to explain a significant index is useful for both model development and decision making. Tests in the Tsengwen-Wushantou reservoir system showed this DEWI to perform very well in adopting the proper mitigation policy at the end of the wet season.

  13. Developing an Early Warning System for Machu Picchu Pueblo, Peru. (United States)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony


    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, is linked to Ollantaytambo and Cusco by rail and serves as the main station for the 400,000+ tourists visiting Machu Picchu. Due to the tourist industry the town grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Today, due to the limited availability of low-lying ground, construction is occurring higher up on the unstable valley slopes. The town is located at 2000 m asl while the surrounding peaks rise to over 4000 m asl. Slopes range from 70° in the surrounding granite mountains. The town has grown on the downstream right bank of the Vilcanota River, at the confluence of the Alcamayo and the Aguas Calientes Rivers. Broadly, a dry winter season runs from May to August with a rainy summer season running from October to March. The rainy months provide around 80% of the annual rainfall average, which ranges from 1,600 to 2,300 mm. Seasonal temperature variations are considered modest. An assessment of the geohazards in and around the town has been undertaken. Those of particular concern to the town are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. To improve the existing municipal warning system a prototype early warning system incorporating suitable technologies that could monitor weather, river flow and slope satability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing most components to be installed, maintained, swapped, salvaged, repaired and/or replaced by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was deployed and evaluated. Most of the candidate technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  14. Differences in the early cognitive development of children and great apes. (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Herrmann, Esther; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard; Tomasello, Michael


    There is very little research comparing great ape and human cognition developmentally. In the current studies we compared a cross-sectional sample of 2- to 4-year-old human children (n=48) with a large sample of chimpanzees and bonobos in the same age range (n=42, hereafter: apes) on a broad array of cognitive tasks. We then followed a group of juvenile apes (n=44) longitudinally over 3 years to track their cognitive development in greater detail. In skills of physical cognition (space, causality, quantities), children and apes performed comparably at 2 years of age, but by 4 years of age children were more advanced (whereas apes stayed at their 2-year-old performance levels). In skills of social cognition (communication, social learning, theory of mind), children out-performed apes already at 2 years, and increased this difference even more by 4 years. Patterns of development differed more between children and apes in the social domain than the physical domain, with support for these patterns present in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal ape data sets. These results indicate key differences in the pattern and pace of cognitive development between humans and other apes, particularly in the early emergence of specific social cognitive capacities in humans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human Development report 2007/2008 - Fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21. Century. Failure to respond to that challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The poorest countries and most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country - however wealthy or powerful - will be immune to the impact of global warming. The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business-as-usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren. There is a window of opportunity for avoiding the most damaging climate change impacts, but that window is closing: the world has less than a decade to change course. Actions taken - or not taken - in the years ahead will have a profound bearing on the future course of human development. The world lacks neither the financial resources nor the technological capabilities to act. What is missing is a sense of urgency, human solidarity and collective interest. As the Human Development Report 2007/2008 argues, climate change poses challenges at many levels. In a divided but ecologically interdependent world, it challenges all people to reflect upon how we manage the environment of the one thing that we share in common: planet Earth. It challenges us to reflect on social justice and human rights across countries and generations. It challenges political leaders and people in rich nations to acknowledge their historic responsibility for the problem, and to initiate deep and

  16. Early modern humans and morphological variation in Southeast Asia: fossil evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Demeter

    Full Text Available Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1 from Tam Pa Ling's cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3.

  17. Early modern humans and morphological variation in Southeast Asia: fossil evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos. (United States)

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura; Westaway, Kira; Duringer, Philippe; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wu, Xiujie; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Barnes, Lani; Boyon, Marc; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Sénégas, Frank; Karpoff, Anne-Marie; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Coppens, Yves; Braga, José


    Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling's cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3.

  18. Delays in early neuropsychic development: Approaches to diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko


    Full Text Available The population frequency of neuropsychic developmental delays in infants is estimated at nearly 10%; that of global intellectual disability (mental retardation is at 1-3%. Delayed development is denned as a substantial retardation as compared to the standard indicators in any of the basic spheres: motor, communicative, cognitive, adaptive-behavioral, and socioemotional ones. Global developmental delay is characterized by a significant lag in two or more spheres. The use of current diagnostic techniques, such as the Bayley or Griffiths scales, can provide an objective quantitative assessment of both an infant's overall development and indicators in individual spheres. At the preliminary examination stage, it is expedient to carry out a Denver developmental screening test that may be directly used in a doctor's consulting room. The causes of global developmental delay/intellectual disability in infants may be perinatal central nervous system (CNS lesions; brain malformations; intrauterine infections; intrauterine intoxications; early-onset psychoneurological diseases (neuroinfections, CNS injuries, epilepsies, autism spectrum disorders, etc.; congenital hypothyroidism; genetic diseases. Among all genetic causes of global developmental delay/intellectual disability, there are chromosomal anomalies (25-30%, monogenic diseases (metabolic diseases, neuroectodermal syndromes, diseases with predominant grey and white matter involvement. The diagnostic possibilities of current genetic methods are considered.

  19. Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites (United States)

    Allwood, Abigail C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Burch, Ian W.; Anderson, Mark S.; Coleman, Max L.; Kanik, Isik


    The ≈3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology—namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics—has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans. PMID:19515817

  20. Validation study of the Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Li, Sophia Ling; Rao, Nirmala; Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Lau, Winnie Wai Sim; Chow, Chun Bong


    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a comprehensive instrument used to assess school readiness in preschool children. This study was carried out to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the EDI (CEDI) in Hong Kong. One hundred and sixty-seven children were purposefully sampled from kindergartens in two districts with very different socioeconomic statuses. The CEDI was assessed for concurrent validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The developmental vulnerability identified using the CEDI scores was further examined in relation to the socioeconomic status of the district and family. The CEDI displayed adequate internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.70 to 0.95 on its five domains. Concurrent validity was supported by moderate and significant correlations (0.25 to 0.49) on the relevant domains between the CEDI and a comparable measure. The level of test-retest reliability was good, with a kappa statistic of 0.89. In general, girls outperformed boys, particularly in the social, emotional and communication/general knowledge domains. After controlling for the uneven distribution of sex, children from socioeconomically disadvantaged districts and families were found to be at greater risk of developmental vulnerability than their more advantaged counterparts. The evidence gathered in this study supports the CEDI's use as a valid and reliable instrument in assessing school readiness and identifying developmentally vulnerable children in Chinese populations. Its preliminary findings on the socioeconomic gradients of child development suggest that the CEDI is a promising tool for leveraging evidence-based, context-sensitive policies and practices to foster the development of all children.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  2. An archaeological search for the emergence of early humans in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai


    Full Text Available Fossils of early humans and their ancestors dating back to millions of years have not yet been found in West Africa. Tools made of bones, stones, and wood suggesting use by early humans or their ancestors have however been found in some parts of West Africa. This research investigates the possible origins and West African indigenous influences on the manufacture and use of these tools. The purpose of this research is to stimulate interest into the study of West African archaeology and palaeontology.

  3. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  4. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H


    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  5. Effects of the in vitro chemical environment during early embryogenesis on subsequent development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, D. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Animal Biotechnology Embryo Lab.


    The development of the preimplantation embryo seems morphologically very simple, and embryologists previously assumed that an embryo that developed to the blastocyst stage was fully capable of normal development after transfer to the uterus of a recipient female. This complacency was disturbed by reports that exposure of early embryos to mutagens such as methylnitrosourea led to fetal abnormalities, decreased birth rates, and decreased life-span. Even more disturbing are recent reports that culture of early embryos in supposedly benign conditions can adversely affect their subsequent development. Techniques have been developed for the production of cattle and sheep embryos by in-vitro fertilization and by cloning. Such embryos must be cultured for several days before they can be transferred, and, in some cases, this has been related to abortion, very high birthweight, physical abnormalities and peri-natal mortality of the calves and lambs. This syndrome may result from an unbalanced development of the trophoblast relative to the inner-cell mass, possibly related to the presence of serum, glucose, or ammonium in the culture medium. An analogous phenomenon has been observed in human in-vitro fertilization where babies from single pregnancies have below-normal birth-weight. There is also evidence to suggest that the in-vitro environment of the gametes before fertilization can affect subsequent embryonal and fetal development. Exposure of mouse oocytes to vitrification solutions has been shown to lead to fetal malformations, and treatment of bull sperm with glutathione improves early embryo development. The common thread in these diverse observations is that development can be affected by events that occur long before any defect is apparent. Consequently, the production of a morphologically normal embryo is no guarantee that fetal development and post-natal life will be normal. This is of immediate concern in human reproductive medicine due to the increasing use of

  6. Early Human Development - Equity from the Start - Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Fraser Mustard


    Full Text Available En la actualidad sabemos, a partir de estudios en ciencias sociales y en neurobiología del desarrollo, que el medio ambiente en los primeros años del desarrollo humano determina el comportamiento de la salud (física y mental, el aprendizaje y el comportamiento del individuo para toda la vida. También entendemos cómo la experiencia regula, durante los primeros años de vida, la función de los genes normales. Las funciones de los genes determinadas en los primeros años de vida son muy difíciles de cambiar. Algunas sociedades están comenzando a valorar la importancia del desarrollo humano temprano para la calidad futura de su población. Las iniciativas deben ser compatibles con las recomendaciones presentes en el Capítulo 5 del Informe de la Comisión de la OMS sobre los Factores Determinantes de la Salud. Para lograrlo, debemos proveer equidad desde el principio.

  7. Activities of nuclear human resource development in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikura, Yonezo


    Since 2007, the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) had established the nuclear energy human resource development council to make analysis of the issue on nuclear human resource development. The author mainly contributed to develop its road map as a chairman of working group. Questionnaire survey to relevant parties on issues of nuclear human resource development had been conducted and the council identified the six relevant issues and ten recommendations. Both aspects for career design and skill-up program are necessary to develop nuclear human resource at each developing step and four respective central coordinating hubs should be linked to each sector participating in human resource development. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Occurring of In Vitro Functional Vasculogenic Pericytes from Human Circulating Early Endothelial Precursor Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cantoni


    Full Text Available Pericytes are periendothelial cells of the microcirculation which contribute to tissue homeostasis and hemostasis by regulating microvascular morphogenesis and stability. Because of their multipotential ex vivo differentiation capabilities, pericytes are becoming very interesting in regenerative medicine field. Several studies address this issue by attempting to isolate pericyte/mesenchymal-like cells from peripheral blood; however the origin of these cells and their culture conditions are still debated. Here we showed that early Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs expressing CD45+/CD146+/CD31+ can be a source of cells with pericyte/mesenchymal phenotype and function, identified as human Progenitor Perivascular Cells (hPPCs. We provided evidence that hPPCs have an immunophenotype consistent with Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs from human adipose tissue (hASCs and fetal membranes of term placenta (FM-hMSCs. In addition, hPPCs can be subcultured and exhibit expression of pluripotent genes (OCT-4, KLF-4, and NANOG as well as a remarkable vasculogenic potential. Our findings could be helpful to develop innovative cell-based therapies for future clinical applications with distinct therapeutic purposes.

  9. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G isoforms in maternal plasma in early and late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, Roberta; Andersen, Anita Sylvest; Lassen, Michael Rud


    PROBLEM: Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G is a class Ib gene located in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Several lines of investigation indicate that the HLA-G molecule is involved in the maternal acceptance of the semi-allogenic fetus during pregnancy and in the development...... of tolerance. Expression of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) is positively correlated with successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments, and aberrant expression of HLA-G in certain complications of pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion, has been reported. The main purpose of this study...... was to investigate the levels of different soluble HLA-G isoforms in maternal plasma in early and late pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: Soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) can be detected in maternal blood, and in this study, two different isoforms of sHLA-G, namely sHLA-G1 generated by shedding of membrane-bound HLA-G1 and HLA...

  10. Effects of obesity on human sexual development. (United States)

    Wagner, Isabel V; Sabin, Mathew A; Pfäffle, Roland W; Hiemisch, Andreas; Sergeyev, Elena; Körner, Antje; Kiess, Wieland


    Puberty is a period of physical and psychological maturation, with long-term effects on health. During the 20(th) century, a secular trend towards earlier puberty occurred in association with improvements in nutrition. The worldwide pandemic of childhood obesity has renewed interest in the relationship between body composition in childhood and the timing and tempo of puberty. Limited evidence suggests that earlier puberty is associated with a tendency towards central fat deposition; therefore, pubertal status needs to be carefully considered in the categorization of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity. In the other direction, rapid early weight gain is associated with advanced puberty in both sexes, and a clear association exists between increasing BMI and earlier pubertal development in girls. Evidence in boys is less clear, with the majority of studies showing obesity to be associated with earlier puberty and voice break, although a subgroup of boys with obesity exhibits late puberty, perhaps as a variation of constitutional delay in growth and puberty. The possible mechanisms linking adiposity with pubertal timing are numerous, but leptin, adipocytokines and gut peptides are central players. Other possible mediators include genetic variation and environmental factors such as endocrine disrupting chemicals. This Review presents current evidence on this topic, highlighting inconsistencies and opportunities for future research.

  11. The Development of Early Childhood Teachers' Language Knowledge in Different Educational Tracks (United States)

    Strohmer, Janina; Mischo, Christoph


    Early childhood teachers should have extensive knowledge about language and language development, because these facets of professional knowledge are considered as important requirements for fostering language development in early childhood education settings. It is assumed that early childhood teachers acquire this knowledge during pre-service…

  12. Development of Retinal Layers in Prenatal Human Retina. (United States)

    Hendrickson, Anita


    To determine the developmental sequence of retinal layers to provide information on where in utero pathologic events might affect retinal development. Qualitative and quantitative descriptive research. A histology collection of human eyes from fetal week (Fwk) 8 to postnatal (P) 10 weeks was analyzed. The length of the nasal and temporal retina was measured along the horizontal meridian in 20 eyes. The location of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and outer plexiform layer (OPL) was identified at each age, and its length measured. The human eye retinal length increased from 5.19 mm at Fwk 8 to 20.92 mm at midgestation to 32.88 mm just after birth. The IPL appeared in the presumptive fovea at Fwk 8, reached the eccentricity of the optic nerve by Fwk 12, and was present to both nasal and temporal peripheral edges by Fwk 18-21. By contrast, the OPL developed slowly. A short OPL was first present in the Fwk 11 fovea and did not reach the eccentricity of the optic nerve until midgestation. The OPL reached the retinal edges by Fwk 30. Laminar development of both IPL and OPL occurred before vascular formation. In human fetal retina, the IPL reached the far peripheral edge of the retina by midgestation and the OPL by late gestation. Only very early in utero events could affect IPL lamination in the central retina, but events occurring after Fwk 20 in the peripheral retina would overlap OPL laminar development in outer retina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between sleep position and early motor development. (United States)

    Majnemer, Annette; Barr, Ronald G


    To compare motor performance in infants sleeping in prone versus supine positions. Healthy 4-month-olds (supine: n = 71, prone: n = 12) and 6-month olds (supine: n = 50, prone: n = 22) were evaluated with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (PDMS), and parents completed a positioning diary. Infants were reassessed at 15 months. At 4 months, motor scores were lower in the supine group and were less likely to achieve prone extension (P motor PDMS (supine: 85.7 +/- 7.6, prone: 90.2 +/- 9.5, P = .03). Motor delays were documented in 22% of babies sleeping supine. Prone sleep-positioned infants were more likely to sit and roll. Daily exposure to awake prone positioning was predictive of motor performance in infants sleeping supine. At 15 months, sleep position continued to predict motor performance. Infants sleeping supine may exhibit early motor lags, associated with less time in prone while awake. This has implications for accurate interpretation of assessment of infants at risk and prevention of inappropriate referrals. Rate of infant motor development appears influenced by extrinsic factors such as positioning practices.

  14. Novel INHAT repressor (NIR) is required for early lymphocyte development. (United States)

    Ma, Chi A; Pusso, Antonia; Wu, Liming; Zhao, Yongge; Hoffmann, Victoria; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Fowlkes, B J; Jain, Ashish


    Novel inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase repressor (NIR) is a transcriptional corepressor with inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase activity and is a potent suppressor of p53. Although NIR deficiency in mice leads to early embryonic lethality, lymphoid-restricted deletion resulted in the absence of double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes, whereas bone-marrow-derived B cells were arrested at the B220(+)CD19(-) pro-B-cell stage. V(D)J recombination was preserved in NIR-deficient DN3 double-negative thymocytes, suggesting that NIR does not affect p53 function in response to physiologic DNA breaks. Nevertheless, the combined deficiency of NIR and p53 provided rescue of DN3L double-negative thymocytes and their further differentiation to double- and single-positive thymocytes, whereas B cells in the marrow further developed to the B220(+)CD19(+) pro-B-cell stage. Our results show that NIR cooperate with p53 to impose checkpoint for the generation of mature B and T lymphocytes.

  15. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design. (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David


    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  16. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway. (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas T


    The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway.

  17. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, L.C.


    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

  18. Interpersonal Development, Stability, and Change in Early Adulthood (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.


    Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462

  19. The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development (Human Development Report 2010)


    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP


    The 2010 Report continues the tradition of pushing the frontiers of development thinking. For the first time since 1990, the Report looks back rigorously at the past several decades and identifies often surprising trends and patterns with important lessons for the future. These varied pathways to human development show that there is no single formula for sustainable progress—and that impressive long-term gains can and have been achieved even without consistent economic growth.

  20. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility * (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Mosso, Stefano


    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

  1. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility. (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Mosso, Stefano


    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers.

  2. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development. (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna


    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hybrid embryos of Vicia faba develop enhanced sink strength, which is established during early development. (United States)

    Meitzel, Tobias; Radchuk, Ruslana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R; Link, Wolfgang; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans


    Selfed and crossed seeds of two homozygous Vicia faba lines served as models for the analysis of the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying embryo heterosis. Profiles of transcripts, metabolites and seed contents of developing embryos were analysed to compare the means of reciprocally crossed and selfed seeds growing on the same mother plants. The mean weight of mature hybrid seeds was demonstrably higher, revealing mid-parent heterosis. Hybrid embryos exhibited a prolonged early phase of development and delayed onset of storage activity. Accordingly, transcript profiling indicates stimulation of cell proliferation, an effect, which is potentially mediated by activation of auxin functions within a framework of growth-related transcription factors. At the transcript level, activated cell proliferation increased assimilate uptake activity and thereby seed sink strength. This situation might finally lead to the increased size of the hybrid seeds. We conclude that hybrid seeds are characterised by accelerated growth during early development, which increases storage capacity and leads to higher metabolic fluxes. These needs are, at least partially, met by increased assimilate uptake capacity. The stimulated growth of hybrid seeds shifted metabolite profiles and potentially depleted available pools. Such metabolic shifts are most likely secondary effects resulting from the higher storage capacity of hybrid seeds, a heterotic feature, which is itself established very early in seed development. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup


    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  5. 123 Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human development, conscious efforts are made to enlarge ... decent living. Obviously, sustained improvement in African human development still falls short of those experienced in other regions. Progress in African human development is majorly driven ..... who missed formal education at certain stage in life that they can.

  6. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePaulsen


    Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  7. 'Special' non-human actors in the 'inclusive' early childhood classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Karen; Millei, Zsuzsa; Petersen, Eva Bendix


    It is well established in research that early childhood classrooms are one of the most controlled environments during the human life course. When control is discussed, the enactment of regulatory frameworks and various discourses are analysed but less focus is paid on the materialities of classro......It is well established in research that early childhood classrooms are one of the most controlled environments during the human life course. When control is discussed, the enactment of regulatory frameworks and various discourses are analysed but less focus is paid on the materialities...... of classrooms. In this article, we pay attention to ‘special’ non-human actors present in an ‘inclusive’ early childhood classroom. These ‘special’ non-human actors are so named as they operate in the classroom as objects specific for the child with a diagnosis. The ‘special’ non-human actors, in the specific...... case the wrist band, the lock and the scooter board, take on meaning within discourses in the ‘inclusive’ classroom. We illuminate how these non-human actors contribute to the constitution of the ‘normal’ and the regulation of educators and children. To trouble the working of power and the control...

  8. Marabou 2005: nutrition and human development. (United States)

    James, Philip


    Nutrition is now becoming once more of intense interest to biological and medical scientists working on the control of development and human health. It is also now of ever greater public health interest. Few scientists, however, recognize that the same interest for those involved in fundamental science and public health developed a century ago focusing on the way in which nutrition and specific micronutrients, as well as general energy and protein intakes, were crucial to infant growth and appropriate development. The discovery of vitamins was matched by the proposition that stunted children in poor communities in the Western world were suffering from poverty-related poor diets. The critical role of nutrition was established by feeding studies, which then led to major food and agricultural policy changes during the Second World War, when food supplies were scarce throughout Europe. The success of these wartime policies led to a revolution in governmental thinking and a cheap food policy, together with a major boost in national agricultural production as an issue of national security. Nutritionists transferred their scientific interest to the study of childhood malnutrition in the developing world. The promotion of intensive agriculture and the food industry led to a revolution in food supplies, with the intense promotion of meat, milk, butter, and sugar production and consumption. The resulting escalation in cardiovascular disease related to the dietary change slowly altered public health policies, but as cardiovascular deaths decreased in the developed world, obesity and diabetes progressively increased. Now the lower- and middle-income countries (i.e., the developing world) have far more cardiovascular disease as Western diets and cultural habits are imported. The remarkable escalation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, particularly in populations currently and previously subjected to malnutrition, now reveals unusual susceptibility to these diseases. This

  9. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.


    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  10. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development. (United States)

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan


    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gonçalo AG


    mycelium with primordia and a second in basidiomata, confirming their distinctiveness. The number of transcripts of the gene for plerototolysin B increased in reddish-pink mycelium and indicated an activation of the initial basidiomata production even at this culturing stage. Expression of the glucose transporter gene increased in mycelium after the stress, coinciding with a decrease of adenylate cyclase gene transcription. This indicated that nutrient uptake can be an important signal to trigger fruiting in this fungus. Conclusion The identification of genes with increased expression in this phase of the life cycle of M. perniciosa opens up new possibilities of controlling fungus spread as well as of genetic studies of biological processes that lead to basidiomycete fruiting. This is the first comparative morphologic study of the early development both in vivo and in vitro of M. perniciosa basidiomata and the first description of genes expressed at this stage of the fungal life cycle.

  12. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes (United States)


    second in basidiomata, confirming their distinctiveness. The number of transcripts of the gene for plerototolysin B increased in reddish-pink mycelium and indicated an activation of the initial basidiomata production even at this culturing stage. Expression of the glucose transporter gene increased in mycelium after the stress, coinciding with a decrease of adenylate cyclase gene transcription. This indicated that nutrient uptake can be an important signal to trigger fruiting in this fungus. Conclusion The identification of genes with increased expression in this phase of the life cycle of M. perniciosa opens up new possibilities of controlling fungus spread as well as of genetic studies of biological processes that lead to basidiomycete fruiting. This is the first comparative morphologic study of the early development both in vivo and in vitro of M. perniciosa basidiomata and the first description of genes expressed at this stage of the fungal life cycle. PMID:19653910

  13. Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial. (United States)

    Walter, R C; Buffler, R T; Bruggemann, J H; Guillaume, M M; Berhe, S M; Negassi, B; Libsekal, Y; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; von Cosel, R; Néraudeau, D; Gagnon, M


    The geographical origin of modern humans is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. The 'multiregional evolution' hypothesis argues that modern humans evolved semi-independently in Europe, Asia and Africa between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago, whereas the 'out of Africa' hypothesis contends that modern humans evolved in Africa between 200 and 100 kyr ago, migrating to Eurasia at some later time. Direct palaeontological, archaeological and biological evidence is necessary to resolve this debate. Here we report the discovery of early Middle Stone Age artefacts in an emerged reef terrace on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, which we date to the last interglacial (about 125 kyr ago) using U-Th mass spectrometry techniques on fossil corals. The geological setting of these artefacts shows that early humans occupied coastal areas and exploited near-shore marine food resources in East Africa by this time. Together with similar, tentatively dated discoveries from South Africa this is the earliest well-dated evidence for human adaptation to a coastal marine environment, heralding an expansion in the range and complexity of human behaviour from one end of Africa to the other. This new, wide-spread adaptive strategy may, in part, signal the onset of modern human behaviour, which supports an African origin for modern humans by 125 kyr ago.

  14. Development of an early-stage toll revenue estimation model. (United States)


    With agencies and states increasingly considering tolls as a means to finance transportation infrastructure, : there is an increasing need to quickly assess the feasibility of potential tolling projects. In the early stages : of a project when an age...

  15. Analysis of the early development in first and backcross generations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the performance difference of reciprocal hybrids and backcrosses between Paralichthys olivaceus and Paralichthys dentatus. The fertilization and hatching rates, combined fitness measure, early developmental characteristics and chromosome number were analyzed. The crosses of P. olivaceus ...

  16. Losing Sight of the Child? Human Capital Theory and Its Role for Early Childhood Education and Care Policies in Finland and England since the Mid-1990s (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity; Nygård, Mikael


    The international interest in early childhood education and care (ECEC) by supranational organisations, including the European Union, has grown considerably due to its dual function of sustaining parental employment and fostering child development. Focussing primarily on child development debates around ECEC, this article argues that human capital…

  17. Delineation of early brain development from fetuses to infants with diffusion MRI and beyond. (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Dubois, Jessica; Yu, Qinlin; Mukherjee, Pratik; Huang, Hao


    Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter. The recent improvements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, especially diffusion MRI (dMRI), relaxometry imaging, and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) have provided unprecedented opportunities to non-invasively quantify and map the early developmental changes at whole brain and regional levels. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding early brain structural development during the second half of gestation and the first two postnatal years using modern MR techniques. Specifically, we review studies that delineate the emergence and microstructural maturation of white matter tracts, as well as dynamic mapping of inhomogeneous cortical microstructural organization unique to fetuses and infants. These imaging studies converge into maturational curves of MRI measurements that are distinctive across different white matter tracts and cortical regions. Furthermore, contemporary models offering biophysical interpretations of the dMRI-derived measurements are illustrated to infer the underlying microstructural changes. Collectively, this review summarizes findings that contribute to charting spatiotemporally heterogeneous gray and white matter structural development, offering MRI-based biomarkers of typical brain development and setting the stage for understanding aberrant brain development in neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Early life influences on cognition, behavior, and emotion in humans: from birth to age 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, B.R. Van den; Loomans, E.M.; Mennes, M.


    The long-lasting effects of fetal exposure to early life influences (ELI) such as maternal anxiety, stress, and micronutrient deficiencies as well as mediating and moderating factors are quite well established in animal studies, but remain unclear in humans. Here, we report about effects on

  19. Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital (United States)

    Lee, Yookyong


    Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

  20. The effects of military deployment on early child development. (United States)

    Nguyen, Dana R; Ee, Juliana; Berry-Cabán, Cristobal S; Hoedebecke, Kyle


    The purpose of this observational, point prevalence study is to determine if parental deployment affects the cognitive, social and emotional development of preschool age children in the military family. Demographic information was collected and an age-appropriate Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) and Ages and Stages Social-Emotional Inventory (ASQ:SE) were administered. The primary outcome measure was the failure rates on the developmental instruments. We identified 151 parents of eligible children; 95 children had a parent that deployed during their lifetime. We found a significant difference in ASQ-3 failure rates for children in the deployed group compared to those in the nondeployed group. Children of deployed parents were at least twice as often to fail the ASQ-3 or ASQ:SE developmental screen compared to children whose parents did not deploy. 30.5% of children in the deployed group failed the ASQ-3 screen while 12.5% of children who did not have a deployed parent failed (P=.009). On the ASQ:SE developmental screen, 16.8% of children who had a parent deploy failed versus 5.4% of children who did not have a parent deploy (P=.031). This study suggests that parental deployment is related to adverse risk for developmental delays in children in military families. The psychological burden on military children could be life-long or require significant resources to address. These adverse outcomes could be possibly mitigated by early detection of developmental delay and firm attention to aggressive screening techniques in military communities.

  1. The National Status of In-Service Professional Development Systems for Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Practitioners (United States)

    Bruder, Mary Beth; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dietrich, Sylvia L.


    Early intervention and preschool special education coordinators in the 50 states and territories were interviewed about the current status of professional development in-service systems in their state. A definition consisting of 8 components of an in-service professional development system was used to analyze the state systems. Twenty Part C early…

  2. Why are there lasting effects from exposure to stress during development? An analysis of current models of early stress. (United States)

    Chaby, Lauren E


    The potential for stressful experiences in early life to cause lasting changes in phenotype is well documented, but the functional and evolutionary context of these changes is not well understood. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of lasting effects of stress exposure during gestation and early development; the purpose of this review is to discuss these hypotheses in the context of human and non-human animal research in the last three decades in order to (i) further dialogues between those approaching early stress from biomedical and evolutionary/ecological perspectives, (ii) outline strengths and limitations of current hypotheses, with respect to species and context-specific effects of exposure to stress in early development, and (iii) address recent evidence suggesting that stress in early development can have beneficial effects in adulthood. It is suggested that the hypotheses discussed are not mutually exclusive, but the applicability of each hypothesis will depend upon the environmental conditions and stability a species, or perhaps even an individual, experiences in their lifetime. Potential investigations to clarify applications of the current hypotheses are discussed, including longitudinal studies that span multiple developmental stages and investigations of species where measures of fitness are possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The human right to sustainable development in solidarity with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Teresa Parrilla Díaz


    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of human development as a universal right subjected to the welfare of Nature. Nature is presented as supporter of life and supplier of the essential resources needed to achieve a complete human development. In light of the global ecological crisis, the author proposes sustainable development as the central framework for a new human development that can be fairer to Nature and to mankind. The challenge of sustainable human development consists in viewing Nature from an ethical perspective of human rights and solidarity.

  4. BODIL BEGTRUP AND THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Individual agency, transnationalism and intergovernmentalism in early UN human rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, K.


    The article investigates the individual agency of the little studied transnational, Bodil Begtrup, in the subfields of women's and minority rights, and refugee and asylum policy. Begtrup fulfilled many roles - as state representative, expert advisor, member of the United Nations' Commission on th...... shows how internationalism was a predominant feature in the early shaping of UN human rights. Transnationalism occurred when the subfield in question was not affected by national interest....

  5. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.


    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  6. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.


    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection

  7. Public Expenditure and Human Development in the Italian Regions


    Michele Capriati


    This study aims to analyze the relationship between public expenditure and human development in Italy’s administrative Regions. The main results show a geography of regional human development which is different from the one based on Gdp per capita. Convergence of wealth across the Regions appears for the period considered, although of a minor intensity. Regional human development seems to have close positive correlation with social security, the environment and human capital, while transfers ...

  8. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  9. The behavior of larval zebrafish reveals stressor-mediated anorexia during early vertebrate development (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Treviño, Mario; Ryu, Soojin


    The relationship between stress and food consumption has been well documented in adults but less so in developing vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that an encounter with a stressor can suppress food consumption in larval zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide indication that food intake suppression cannot be accounted for by changes in locomotion, oxygen consumption and visual responses, as they remain unaffected after exposure to a potent stressor. We also show that feeding reoccurs when basal levels of cortisol (stress hormone in humans and teleosts) are re-established. The results present evidence that the onset of stress can switch off the drive for feeding very early in vertebrate development, and add a novel endpoint for analyses of metabolic and behavioral disorders in an organism suitable for high-throughput genetics and non-invasive brain imaging. PMID:25368561

  10. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka


    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  11. Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology. (United States)

    Ward, Carol V; Tocheri, Matthew W; Plavcan, J Michael; Brown, Francis H; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo


    Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). Modern and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in early hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ∼1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of modern human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose early in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato.

  12. Aspects of Mono- and Multiple Dominant Follicle Development in the Human Ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P. Hohmann (Femke)


    textabstractChapter 1 The introduction of this thesis starts with general information on reproduction, sub­fertility and reproductive medicine. It continues with a brief overview of current knowledge regarding the function of the human ovary, describing ovarian development and early and advanced

  13. HIV-1 Tat biosensor: Current development and trends for early detection strategies. (United States)

    Fatin, M F; Ruslinda, A R; Arshad, M K Md; Tee, K K; Ayub, R M; Hashim, U; Kamarulzaman, A; Gopinath, Subash C B


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected almost 35 million people worldwide. Various tests have been developed to detect the presence of HIV during the early stages of the disease in order to reduce the risk of transmission to other humans. The HIV-1 Tat protein is one of the proteins present in HIV that are released abundantly approximately 2-4 weeks after infection. In this review, we have outlined various strategies for detecting the Tat protein, which helps transcribe the virus and enhances replication. Detection strategies presented include immunoassays, biosensors and gene expression, which utilize antibodies or aptamers as common probes to sense the presence of Tat. Alternatively, measuring the levels of gene transcription is a direct method of analysing the HIV gene to confirm the presence of Tat. By detection of the Tat protein, virus transmission can be detected in high-risk individuals in the early stages of the disease to reduce the risk of an HIV pandemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of genes differentially expressed in dorsal and ventral chick midbrain during early development. (United States)

    Chittka, A; Volff, Jn; Wizenmann, A


    During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), patterning processes along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the neural tube generate different neuronal subtypes. As development progresses these neurons are arranged into functional units with varying cytoarchitecture, such as laminae or nuclei for efficient relaying of information. Early in development ventral and dorsal regions are similar in size and structure. Different proliferation rates and cell migration patterns are likely to result in the formation of laminae or nuclei, eventually. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that establish these different structural arrangements are not well understood.We undertook a differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) screen to identify genes with distinct expression patterns between dorsal and ventral regions of the chick midbrain in order to identify genes which regulate the sculpturing of such divergent neuronal organisation. We focused on the DV axis of the early chick midbrain since mesencephalic alar plate and basal plate develop into laminae and nuclei, respectively. We identified 53 differentially expressed bands in our initial screen. Twenty-six of these could be assigned to specific genes and we could unambiguously show the differential expression of five of the isolated cDNAs in vivo by in situ mRNA expression analysis. Additionally, we verified differential levels of expression of a selected number of genes by using reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR method with gene-specific primers.One of these genes, QR1, has been previously cloned and we present here a detailed study of its early developmental time course and pattern of expression providing some insights into its possible function. Our phylogenetic analysis of QR1 shows that it is the chick orthologue of Sparc-like 1/Hevin/Mast9 gene in mice, rats, dogs and humans, a protein involved in cell adhesion. This study reveals some possible networks, which might be involved in directing

  15. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies. (United States)

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre


    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic analysis of protein profiles during early development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. (United States)

    Tay, Tuan Leng; Lin, Qingsong; Seow, Teck Keong; Tan, Keng Hwa; Hew, Choy Leong; Gong, Zhiyuan


    In the present study, profiles of protein expression were examined during early development of zebrafish, an increasingly popular experimental model in vertebrate development and human diseases. By 2-DE, an initial increase in protein spots from 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 8-10 hpf was observed. There was no dramatic change in protein profiles up to 18 hpf, but significant changes occurred in subsequent stages. Interestingly, 49% of the proteins detected at 6 hpf remained detectable by 1 week of age. To map the protein expression patterns in 2-D gels, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was employed to identify selected protein spots from early embryos. 108 protein spots were found to match known proteins and they were derived from 55 distinct genes. Interestingly, 11 (20%) of them produced multiple protein isoforms or distinct cleavage products. Although deyolked embryos were used in the analysis, a large number of vitellogenin derivatives remained prominently present in the embryos. Other than these, most of the identified proteins are cytosolic, cytoskeletal and nuclear proteins, which are involved in diversified functions such as metabolism, cytoskeleton, translation, protein degradation, etc. Some of the proteins with interesting temporal expression profiles during development are further discussed.

  17. The Development of Prosocial Behaviour in Early Childhood: Contributions of Early Parenting and Self-Regulation (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Berthelsen, Donna


    This research considers the role of parenting practices and early self-regulation, on children's prosocial behaviour when they begin school. Data for 4007 children were drawn from "Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). The analyses explored relations between self-reported parenting practices for…

  18. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović


    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  19. Can We Measure the Transition to Reading? General Outcome Measures and Early Literacy Development From Preschool to Early Elementary Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McConnell


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which existing measures met standards for a continuous suite of general outcome measures (GOMs assessing children’s early literacy from preschool through early elementary school. The study assessed 316 children from age 3 years (2 years prekindergarten through Grade 2, with 8 to 10 measures of language, alphabetic principle, phonological awareness, and beginning reading. We evaluated measures at each grade group against six standards for GOMs extracted from earlier work. We found that one measure of oral language met five or six standards at all grade levels, and several measures of phonological awareness and alphabetic principle showed promise across all five grade levels. Results are discussed in relation to ongoing research and development of a flexible and seamless system to assess children’s academic progress across time for effective prevention and remediation, as well as theoretical and empirical analyses in early literacy, early reading, and GOMs.

  20. Developing and Validating a Survey of Korean Early Childhood English Teachers' Knowledge (United States)

    Kim, Jung In


    The main purpose of this study is to develop and validate a valid measure of the early childhood (EC) English teacher knowledge. Through extensive literature review on second/foreign language (L2/FL) teacher knowledge, early childhood teacher knowledge and early childhood language teacher knowledge, and semi-structured interviews from current…

  1. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna


    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  2. The role of Human Capabilities in Economic Development | Amani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recognition of and adherence to human rights as accepted globally should be the backbone of people – centered development. Human rights include all those elements essential for human survival: physical security, liberty and the development of dignity. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.10(1) 2001: 1-7 ...

  3. 1 Philosophy, Human Development and National Question John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after. Socrates ... development has remained at the center stage of all philosophical inquiries. .... and development. iv) Human development also means the building of people's capacities, that is, the wide range of things people can do and achieve in life. v) This ...

  4. Annual Growth of Contract Costs for Major Programs in Development and Early Production (United States)


    Annual growth of contract costs (5-year moving average; adjusted for inflation ; development and early production ) 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 1985 1990 1995...2000 2005 2010 2015 Annual growth of contract costs (5-year moving average; adjusted for inflation ; development and early production ) ActualModel Fiscal...Buildup 31-year average War on Terror Contract Growth: Development and Early Production (scope growth + overruns; in dollars, after inflation ) 1 Page 6

  5. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Young Su; Son, Il Moon; Son, Byung Chang; Kwak, Hyo Yean


    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  6. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young Su [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il Moon [Dongmyung University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Byung Chang [Korea Nazarene University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Hyo Yean [Suwon Science Collage, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  7. Brain Development and the Role of Experience in the Early Years (United States)

    Tierney, Adrienne L.; Nelson, Charles A., III


    Research over the past several decades has provided insight into the processes that govern early brain development and how those processes contribute to behavior. In this article, the authors provide an overview of early brain development beginning with a summary of the prenatal period. They then turn to postnatal development and examine how brain…

  8. The Lin28/Let-7 system in early human embryonic tissue and ectopic pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lozoya

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs, in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7-9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤ 6-weeks and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤ 6-weeks of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (deregulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans.

  9. Human resource development in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, P.G.


    An organization, an enterprise or a movement is only as good as the people in it and these cannot be conceived without considering the people that make it, in other words its human resources (HR). The definition of HR includes the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of the work-force. Equally important it includes the values, attitudes and benefits of each of the individuals concerned. No development is possible without proper planning. HR planning is therefore a prerequisite for HRD in NM and no planning can be made without defining the objectives of Nuclear Medicine (NM) in developing countries (DC). It is also essential to forecast the future needs of NM in DC keeping in mind the stated objectives before laying out the strategies of the HRD. HRD in NM is best achieved when all the partners in the game play their part with commitment and sincerity of purpose. At the national level the partners are the government (ministries of health and education), professional bodies (national societies of NM) and academic bodies (colleges of NM physicians, physicists and technologists etc.). In the implementation of the HRD systems and processes, involvement of all the partners is essential for success. Creation of task forces to implement, monitor and evaluate HRD tools ensures the quality of these tools. The operation of some of these tools may have to be centralized, and others decentralized depending upon the exigencies of need, propriety and practicality. In summary, the aim of HRD should be to ensure the right people at the right time for the right job and in doing so nuclear medicine achieves its objectives and the individuals in the workforce realize their full potentials, and benefits in full

  10. Using cross-species comparisons and a neurobiological framework to understand early social deprivation effects on behavioral development. (United States)

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fleming, Alison S; Kraemer, Gary W; Drury, Stacy S


    Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal-infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence.

  11. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.


    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  12. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality (United States)

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.


    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  13. Relational and Representational Aspects of Early Number Development. (United States)

    Sophian, Catherine; And Others


    Two experiments examined children's early judgments about numerical relations. Found that children as young as three years old are already adept at reasoning about relations between sets, independently of their ability to form numerical representations. Results support the existence of protoquantitative schemas, or ways of thinking about relations…

  14. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff


    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…

  15. Dynamics of Learner Affective Development in Early FLL (United States)

    Mihaljevic Djigunovic, Jelena


    Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006) have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL). Current research into affective learner factors…

  16. Development and Use of Early Warning Systems. SLDS Spotlight (United States)

    Curtin, Jenny; Hurwitch, Bill; Olson, Tom


    An early warning system is a data-based tool that helps predict which students are on the right path towards eventual graduation or other grade-appropriate goals. Through such systems, stakeholders at the school and district levels can view data from a wide range of perspectives and gain a deeper understanding of student data. This "Statewide…

  17. Factors influencing the development of early- or late-onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsonfs disease (PD) contribute significantly to global disease burden. PD can be categorised into early-onset PD (EOPD) with an age at onset (AAO) of .50 years and late-onset PD (LOPD) with an AAO of >50 years. Aims. To identify factors influencing EOPD and ...

  18. Interleukin-23 in early disease development in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Hvid, M; Johansen, C


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the levels of interleukin (IL)-23 in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) and the effect of anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-α treatment on IL-23 levels. METHOD: Treatment-naïve eRA patients from the OPERA cohort were included (n = 151). Patients were...

  19. Boarding Neurath's Boat : The Early Development of Quine's Naturalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    W.V. Quine is arguably the intellectual father of contemporary naturalism, the idea that there is no distinctively philosophical perspective on reality. Yet even though Quine has always been a science-minded philosopher, he did not adopt a fully naturalistic perspective until the early 1950s. In

  20. Boarding Neurath's Boat : The Early Development of Quine's Naturalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander


    W.V. Quine is arguably the intellectual father of contemporary naturalism, the idea that there is no distinctively philosophical perspective on reality. Yet even though Quine has always been a science-minded philosopher, he did not adopt a fully naturalistic perspective until the early 1950s. In