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Sample records for early growth response

  1. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2014-02-22

    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity.

  2. The early antitumor immune response is necessary for tumor growth

    OpenAIRE

    Parmiani, Giorgio; Maccalli, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Early events responsible of tumor growth in patients with a normal immune system are poorly understood. Here, we discuss, in the context of human melanoma, the Prehn hypothesis according to which a weak antitumor immune response may be required for tumor growth before weakly or non-immunogenic tumor cell subpopulations are selected by the immune system.

  3. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  4. MITOGENIC SIGNALS CONTROL TRANSLATION OF THE EARLY GROWTH-RESPONSE GENE-1 IN MYOGENIC CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAASS, A; GROHE, C; OBERDORF, S; SUKHATME, VP; VETTER, H; NEYSES, L

    1994-01-01

    Muscle is a major site of expression of the early growth reponse gene-1 (Egr-1). To investigate its role in muscle proliferation and/or differentiation we studied the effect of a variety of growth factors on cultured mouse muscle So18 cells. Three groups of responses could be distinguished: 1. AII,

  5. Early vs. asymptotic growth responses of herbaceous plants to elevated CO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

    1999-07-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant growth,'' the dynamics of growth involve at least two parameters, namely, an early rate of exponential size increase and an asymptotic size reached late in plant ontogeny. The common practice of quantifying CO[sub 2] responses as a single response ratio thus obscures two qualitatively distinct kinds of effects. The present experiment examines effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on both early and asymptotic growth parameters in eight C[sub 3] herbaceous plant species (Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia, Plantago major, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Panicum dichotomoflorum). Plants were grown for 118--172 d in a factorial design of CO[sub 2] (350 and 700 [micro]L/L) and plant density (individually grown vs. high-density monocultures) under edaphic conditions approximating those of coastal areas in Massachusetts. For Abutilon theophrasti, intraspecific patterns of plant response were also assessed using eight genotypes randomly sampled from a natural population and propagated as inbred lines.

  6. The Role of Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) in Brain Plasticity and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclot, Florian; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    It is now clearly established that complex interactions between genes and environment are involved in multiple aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, from determining an individual’s vulnerability to onset, to influencing its response to therapeutic intervention. In this perspective, it appears crucial to better understand how the organism reacts to environmental stimuli and provide a coordinated and adapted response. In the central nervous system, neuronal plasticity and neurotransmission are among the major processes integrating such complex interactions between genes and environmental stimuli. In particular, immediate early genes (IEGs) are critical components of these interactions as they provide the molecular framework for a rapid and dynamic response to neuronal activity while opening the possibility for a lasting and sustained adaptation through regulation of the expression of a wide range of genes. As a result, IEGs have been tightly associated with neuronal activity as well as a variety of higher order processes within the central nervous system such as learning, memory and sensitivity to reward. The immediate early gene and transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) has thus been revealed as a major mediator and regulator of synaptic plasticity and neuronal activity in both physiological and pathological conditions. In this review article, we will focus on the role of EGR1 in the central nervous system. First, we will summarize the different factors influencing its activity. Then, we will analyze the amount of data, including genome-wide, that has emerged in the recent years describing the wide variety of genes, pathways and biological functions regulated directly or indirectly by EGR1. We will thus be able to gain better insights into the mechanisms underlying EGR1’s functions in physiological neuronal activity. Finally, we will discuss and illustrate the role of EGR1 in pathological states with a particular interest in cognitive functions

  7. Arecoline stimulated early growth response-1 production in human buccal fibroblasts: suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Ping; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Deng, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein plays an important role in many human fibrotic diseases. Areca nut chewing is the most important risk factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Egr-1 protein expression in OSF was examined using antibody to Egr-1. Arecoline-induced Egr-1 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Elevated Egr-1 staining was observed in epithelial cells, fibroblast, and inflammatory cells in 7 of 10 OSF cases. Arecoline, a main alkaloid found in the areca nut, stimulated Egr-1 synthesis in BMFs. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 significantly reduced arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis and collagen gel contraction in a dose-responsive manner. Constitutive Egr-1 expression during areca nut chewing may play a role in the pathogenesis of OSF. EGCG could be a good candidate for prevention or treatment of OSF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Family-based association study of early growth response gene 3 with child bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitano, Amelia L; Tillman, Rebecca; Dinu, Valentin; Geller, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    The risk for relapse of child bipolar I disorder (BP-I) is highly correlated with environmental factors. Immediate early genes of the early growth response (EGR) gene family are activated at high levels in the brain in response to environmental events, including stress, and mediate numerous neurobiological processes that have been associated with mental illness risk. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EGR genes are associated with the risk to develop child bipolar I disorder. To investigate whether EGR genes may influence susceptibility to child bipolar I disorder (BP-I), we used Family Based Association Tests to examine whether SNPs in each of the EGR genes were associated with illness in 49 families. Two SNPs in EGR3 displayed nominally significant associations with child BP-I (p=0.027 and p=0.028); though neither was statistically significant following correction for multiple comparisons. Haplotype association analysis indicated that these SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium (LD). None of the SNPs tested in EGR1, EGR2, or EGR4 was associated with child BP-I. This study was limited by small sample size, which resulted in it being underpowered to detect a significant association after correction for multiple comparisons. Our study revealed a preliminary finding suggesting that EGR3, a gene that translates environmental stimuli into long-term changes in the brain, warrants further investigation for association with risk for child BP-I disorder in a larger sample. Such studies may help reveal mechanisms by which environment can interact with genetic predisposition to influence this severe mental illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. HTLV-1 Tax upregulates early growth response protein 1 through nuclear factor-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingsong; Niu, Zhiguo; Han, Jingxian; Liu, Xihong; Lv, Zhuangwei; Li, Huanhuan; Yuan, Lixiang; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Shuming; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xinxiang

    2017-08-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in susceptible individuals. The HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax induces persistent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. Here, we showed that both Tax expression and HTLV-1 infection promoted EGR1 overexpression. Loss of the NF-κB binding site in the EGR1 promotor or inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced Tax-induced EGR1 upregulation. Tax mutants unable to activate NF-κB induced only slight EGR1 upregulation as compared with wild-type Tax, confirming NF-κB pathway involvement in EGR1 regulation. Tax also directly interacted with the EGR1 protein and increased endogenous EGR1 stability. Elevated EGR1 in turn promoted p65 nuclear translocation and increased NF-κB activation. These results demonstrate a positive feedback loop between EGR1 expression and NF-κB activation in HTLV-1-infected and Tax-expressing cells. Both NF-κB activation and Tax-induced EGR1 stability upregulated EGR1, which in turn enhanced constitutive NF-κB activation and facilitated ATL progression in HTLV-1-infected cells. These findings suggest EGR1 may be an effective anti-ATL therapeutic target.

  10. Stimulation of the human CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase gene by early growth response protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Johnson, Christa; Bakovic, Marica

    2008-10-01

    Change in phosphoethanolamine pool size in tumor tissues is an important indicator of tumor prognosis and drug therapy efficacy. Phosphoethanolamine is the substrate of the regulatory enzyme CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT) in the de novo biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Metabolic labeling with [14C]ethanolamine revealed a reduced ECT activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which led to an accumulation of phosphoethanolamine and a decrease in PE synthesis in comparison with MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells. The enhanced ECT activity in MCF-10A cells was due to significantly elevated CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase gene (PCYT2) expression, at the level of promoter activity, mRNA, and protein content. The early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) could account for most of the elevated ECT activity in MCF-10A cells relative to MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by promoter-luciferase reporter assays, gel-shift analyses, and by alterations in the EGR1 gene expression. In MCF-7 cells, EGR1 is present at lower levels and the basal PCYT2 promoter activity is maintained by proximal CAAT and GC regions and by elevated nuclear NFkappaB activity. Together, these data demonstrate that EGR1 is an important transcriptional stimulator of the human PCYT2 and that conditions that modify EGR1 also affect the function of ECT and consequently PE synthesis.

  11. Genetic evidence for the association between the early growth response 3 (EGR3 gene and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, two genome scan meta-analysis studies have found strong evidence for the association of loci on chromosome 8p with schizophrenia. The early growth response 3 (EGR3 gene located in chromosome 8p21.3 was also found to be involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. However, subsequent studies failed to replicate this finding. To investigate the genetic role of EGR3 in Chinese patients, we genotyped four SNPs (average interval ∼2.3 kb in the chromosome region of EGR3 in 470 Chinese schizophrenia patients and 480 healthy control subjects. The SNP rs35201266 (located in intron 1 of EGR3 showed significant differences between cases and controls in both genotype frequency distribution (P = 0.016 and allele frequency distribution (P = 0.009. Analysis of the haplotype rs35201266-rs3750192 provided significant evidence for association with schizophrenia (P = 0.0012; a significant difference was found for the common haplotype AG (P = 0.0005. Furthermore, significant associations were also found in several other two-, and three-SNP tests of haplotype analyses. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant association between rs35201266 and schizophrenia (P = 0.0001. In summary, our study supports the association of EGR3 with schizophrenia in our Han Chinese sample, and further functional exploration of the EGR3 gene will contribute to the molecular basis for the complex network underlying schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  12. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant species differ in early seedling growth and tissue nutrient responses to arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Ellen K; Kobe, Richard K; Gehring, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Experiments with plant species that can host both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are important to separating the roles of fungal type and plant species and understanding the influence of the types of symbioses on plant growth and nutrient acquisition. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal fungal type on the growth and tissue nutrient content of two tree species (Eucalyptus grandis and Quercus costaricensis) grown under four nutrient treatments (combinations of low versus high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) with different N:P ratios) in the greenhouse. Trees were inoculated with unidentified field mixtures of AMF or EMF species cultivated on root fragments of AMF- or EMF-specific bait plants. In E. grandis, inoculation with both AMF and EMF positively affected belowground plant dry weight and negatively affected aboveground dry weight, while only inoculation with AMF increased tissue nutrient content. Conversely, Q. costaricensis dry weight and nutrient content did not differ significantly among inoculation treatments, potentially due to its dependence on cotyledon reserves for growth. Mineral nutrition of both tree species differed with the ratio of N to P applied while growth did not. Our results demonstrate that both tree species' characteristics and the soil nutrient environment can affect how AMF and EMF interact with their host plants. This research highlights the importance of mycorrhizal fungal-tree-soil interactions during early seedling growth and suggests that differences between AMF and EMF associations may be crucial to understanding forest ecosystem functioning.

  14. Hormonal induction of an immediate-early gene response in myogenic cell lines--a paradigm for heart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, A; Grohé, C; Kubisch, C; Wollnik, B; Vetter, H; Neyses, L

    1995-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by growth of myocardial cells without proliferation. Many endo- paracrine stimuli such as angiotensin II, endothelin, alpha 1-adrenergic agonists, and insulin have been shown to be able to induce cardiac hypertrophy either in vivo or in vitro. We have used the myoblast model of differentiation and proliferation to determine nuclear signal transduction mechanisms in muscle and (by analogy) cardiac growth. The first nuclear event known to occur when a growth stimulus acts upon a cell is induction of a family of immediate-early genes. Our group focused on the role of one of these genes, the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1). We have shown that this gene is induced in isolated adult cardiac myocytes in the presence of endothelin. An anti-sense oligonucleotide complementary to the first six codons of the Egr-1 mRNA abolishes the stimulation of protein synthesis induced by endothelin. In the present study we further characterized paracrine growth stimuli in the myogenic cell line Sol8, which was used as a paradigm to further investigate mechanisms of paracrine growth induction. We demonstrated that a variety of candidate endo- paracrine stimuli for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy induced the Egr-1 messenger RNA in the myogenic cell line Sol8. Among these are endothelin, insulin, basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB). We conclude: (1) In analogy to the myocardium, these growth factors act upon myoblasts. (2) This line appears to be a suitable model for the molecular characterization of Egr-1 target genes.

  15. Identifying predictors of early growth response and adverse radiation effects of vestibular schwannomas to radiosurgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Larjani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether pre-treatment growth rate of vestibular schwannomas (VS predict response to radiosurgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all VS patients treated with 12Gy prescription dose between September 2005 and June 2011 at our institution using the Leksell Model 4C Gamma Knife Unit was conducted. Patients who had a minimum of 12-months clinical and radiological assessment before and after radiosurgery were included in this study. Tumor growth rates were calculated using specific growth rate (SGR. Tumor volumes were measured on FIESTA-MRI scans using ITK-SNAP v2.2. RESULTS: Following radiosurgery, twenty-seven (42.9% patients showed a significant decrease in volume after one year, twenty-nine (46.0% stabilized, and seven (11.1% continued to grow. There was no correlation between VS pre-treatment SGRs with post-treatment SGRs (p = 0.34, and incidence of adverse radiation effects (ARE. The reduction in tumors' SGRs after radiosurgery was proportional to pre-treatment SGRs, although this correlation was not statistically significant (p = 0.19. Analysis of risk factors revealed a positive correlation between post-treatment SGRs and incidence of non-auditory complications, most of which were attributed to ARE (p = 0.047. CONCLUSION: Pre-treatment growth rate of VS does not predict tumor response to radiosurgery or incidence of ARE. VS with higher SGRs post-radiosurgery are more likely to experience ARE.

  16. Transfected Early Growth Response Gene-1 DNA Enzyme Prevents Stenosis and Occlusion of Autogenous Vein Graft In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the inhibitory action of the early growth response gene-1 DNA enzyme (EDRz as a carrying agent by liposomes on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. An autogenous vein graft model was established. EDRz was transfected to the graft vein. The vein graft samples were obtained on each time point after surgery. The expression of the EDRz transfected in the vein graft was detected using a fluorescent microscope. Early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1 mRNA was measured using reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. And the protein expression of Egr-1 was detected by using western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. EDRz was located at the media of the vein graft from 2 to 24 h, 7 h after grafting. The Egr-1 protein was mainly located in the medial VSMCs, monocytes, and endothelium cells during the early phase of the vein graft. The degree of VSMC proliferation and thickness of intima were obviously relieved compared with the no-gene therapy group. EDRz can reduce Egr-1 expression in autogenous vein grafts, effectively restrain VSMC proliferation and intimal hyperplasia, and prevent vascular stenosis and occlusion after vein graft.

  17. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Activate Tristetraprolin Expression through Induction of Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Sobolewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP promotes rapid decay of mRNAs bearing 3' UTR AU-rich elements (ARE. In many cancer types, loss of TTP expression is observed allowing for stabilization of ARE-mRNAs and their pathologic overexpression. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (Trichostatin A, SAHA and sodium butyrate promote TTP expression in colorectal cancer cells (HCA-7, HCT-116, Moser and SW480 cells and cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa. We found that HDAC inhibitors-induced TTP expression, promote the decay of COX-2 mRNA, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors were found to promote TTP transcription through activation of the transcription factor Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1. Altogether, our findings indicate that loss of TTP in tumors occurs through silencing of EGR1 and suggests a therapeutic approach to rescue TTP expression in colorectal cancer.

  18. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Espinoza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don.Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering.Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles, root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed.Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local landrace of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity.Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio.Key words: early testing; environmental interaction; ontogeny; plasticity index; water stress.

  19. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses of Hyssop, Sweet Basil and Oregano to Temperature Levels

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    Sajad MIJANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this survey were to determine the effect of temperature on germination and seedling growth of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae family as well as comparing species regarding germination behavior and growth characteristics. Seeds were germinated on a temperature-gradient bar varying between 5 and 40 °C (with 5 °C intervals. Results indicated that the highest germination percentage of hyssop (92-98%, sweet basil (86-90% and oregano (74-77% occurred at 20-30 °C, 25-30 °C and 20-30 °C, respectively; therefore, moderate and warm temperatures are proper for germination of all species. In all species the maximum germination rate obtained at 30 °C. Among all species, Day 10 % of Sweet basil Germination had the lowest value, which indicates faster germination. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling or maximum were estimated by the segmented model. Base temperature (Tb was calculated for hyssop, sweet basil and oregano as 3.42, 5.70 and 5.46 °C, respectively. Optimal temperature (To calculated for all species was approximately 30°C, So warmer temperatures are much more proper for them. The species showed different maximum temperatures (Tm from 42.91 (Oregano to 48.05 °C (Hyssop. In Hyssop and Sweet basil optimum growth of seedlings were observed at 30°C while Oregano reached its best growth at 25°C. The difference between maximum and minimum temperatures of germination knowing as temperature range (TR index could show adaptation capability to broad sites for planting and domestication. Regarding this index Hyssop stood in the first place.

  20. Early Growth Response gene 1 (Egr-1) regulates HSV-1 ICP4 and ICP22 gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam R Bedadala; Rajeswara C Pinnoji; Shao-Chung V Hsia

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene silencing during latent infection are not clear. Five copies of early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1) binding elements were identified in the intron of HSV-1 ICP22 (infected cell protein No. 22) gene, leading to the hypothesis that Egr-1 binds to the viral genome and regulates the viral gene expression. Transient co-transfection assays indicated that Egr-1 negatively regulated the transcription of both full-length and intron-removed ICP22 promoters. The same assays also revealed that Egr-1 repressed ICP4 (infected cell protein No. 4) promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner but showed less inhibition when the intron was removed.Histone deacetylation was not involved in this regulation since histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A did not exhibit any effect on Egr-1-mediated repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Egr-1 reduced the binding of Sp1 to the promoters and that the co-repressor Nab2 (NGFI-A/EGR1-binding protein) was recruited to the proximity of ICP4 in the presence of Egr-1. These results suggested that the multi functional transcription factor Egr-1 can repress HSV-1 immediate-early gene expression through the recruitment of co-repressor Nab2 and reduction of Sp1 occupancy,and thus may play a critical role in HSV-1 gene silencing during latency.

  1. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days' tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content.

  2. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, S. E.; Magni, C. R.; Martinez, V. A.; Ivkovic, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don. Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering. Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles), root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed. Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local land race of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity. Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio. (Author) 46 refs.

  3. Imipramine activates glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor via early growth response gene 1 in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeni; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Young Han; Ha, Kyooseob; Shin, Soon Young

    2011-06-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that deficits in glial plasticity contribute to the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The present study explored early growth response 1 (EGR-1) transcriptional regulation of imipramine-induced glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in astrocytes. After we observed the induction of GDNF mRNA expression in rat astrocytes in response to imipramine, deletion mutant studies showed that the proximal region between -493 and -114 of the GDNF promoter, which contains three binding sites for EGR-1, was essential for maximal imipramine-induced activation of GDNF promoter. The dose-dependent upregulation of EGR-1 by imipramine, the activation of GDNF by the over-expression of EGR-1 without imipramine and the reduction in the imipramine-induced GDNF mRNA expression after silencing of endogenous EGR-1 demonstrated that EGR-1 is upregulated by imipramine to activate the GDNF promoter. Furthermore, imipramine-induced GDNF mRNA expression was strongly attenuated in primary astrocytes from Egr-1(-/-) mice, and the immunoreactivity to an anti-GDNF antibody in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells was lower in imipramine-treated astrocytes from Egr-1(-/-) mice than in those from Egr-1(+/-) mice. To determine whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were associated with imipramine-induced EGR-1 expression, we examined the induction of MAPK phosphorylation in response to imipramine. Pretreatment of rat primary astrocytes with the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 strongly inhibited imipramine-stimulated EGR-1 expression. In conclusion, we found that imipramine induction of EGR-1 upregulated GDNF in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. This upregulation may occur through the MEK/ERK and JNK MAPK pathways, which suggests a new therapeutic mechanism of action for depressive disorders.

  4. Early Growth Response-1 Plays a Non-redundant Role in the Differentiation of B Cells into Plasma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon-Kyung; Jang, Eunkyeong; Paik, Doo-Jin; Youn, Jeehee

    2015-06-01

    Early growth response (Egr)-1 is a Cys2-His2-type zincfinger transcription factor. It has been shown to induce survival and proliferation of immature and mature B cells, respectively, but its role in the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells remains unclear. To examine the effects of Egr-1 deficiency on the activation of B cells, naive B cells from Egr1 (-/-) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were activated to proliferate and differentiate, and then assayed by FACS. Proportions of cells undergoing proliferation and apoptosis did not differ between Egr1 (-/-) and WT mice. However, Egr1 (-/-) B cells gave rise to fewer plasma cells than WT B cells. Consistently, Egr1 (-/-) mice produced significantly lower titer of antigen-specific IgG than their WT littermates upon immunization. Our results demonstrate that Egr-1 participates in the differentiation program of B cells into plasma cells, while it is dispensable for the proliferation and survival of mature B cells.

  5. Radiation Induced Apoptosis of Murine Bone Marrow Cells Is Independent of Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oben, Karine Z.; Gachuki, Beth W.; Alhakeem, Sara S.; McKenna, Mary K.; Liang, Ying; St. Clair, Daret K.; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Bondada, Subbarao

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of how each individual 5q chromosome critical deleted region (CDR) gene contributes to malignant transformation would foster the development of much needed targeted therapies for the treatment of therapy related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs). Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) is a key transcriptional regulator of myeloid differentiation located within the 5q chromosome CDR that has been shown to regulate HSC (hematopoietic stem cell) quiescence as well as the master regulator of apoptosis—p53. Since resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant transformation, we investigated the role of EGR1 in apoptosis of bone marrow cells; a cell population from which myeloid malignancies arise. We evaluated radiation induced apoptosis of Egr1+/+ and Egr1-/- bone marrow cells in vitro and in vivo. EGR1 is not required for radiation induced apoptosis of murine bone marrow cells. Neither p53 mRNA (messenger RNA) nor protein expression is regulated by EGR1 in these cells. Radiation induced apoptosis of bone marrow cells by double strand DNA breaks induced p53 activation. These results suggest EGR1 dependent signaling mechanisms do not contribute to aberrant apoptosis of malignant cells in myeloid malignancies. PMID:28081176

  6. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  7. Expression of early growth response factor-1 in rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Bo Gong; Li He; Yang Liu; Xue-Qing Chen; Bo Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the expressions of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-L) and tissue factor (TF) in rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and to explore its significance.METHODS: A large dose of cerulein was used to create the experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats. The changes of Egr-1 mRNA and protein in rats were observed during 30 min to 4 h after the treatment and immunohistochemical method was used to observe the localized expression of Egr-1 in tissues. In addition to the mRNA expression of Egr-1 target gene, TF was also observed. A blank control group, and a bombesinadministered group were used for comparison.RESULTS: After the stimulation of a large dose of cerulein,the rats showed typical inflammatory changes of acute pancreatitis. Thirty minutes after the stimulation, the mRNA expression of Egr-1 in the pancreatic tissue reached its peak and then declined, while the expression of Egr-1protein reached its peak 2 h after the stimulation.Histologically, 2 h after the stimulation, almost all pancreatic acinar cells had the expression of Egr-1 protein,which was focused in the nuclei. The mRNA expression of TF occurred 1 h after the stimulation and gradually increased within 4 h. However, a large dose of bombesin only stimulated the pancreatic tissue to produce a little mRNA expression of Egr-1 and no mRNA expression of Egr-1 protein and TF.CONCLUSION: Egr-1 as a pro-inflammatory transcription factor may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis by modulating the expression of TF.

  8. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa

  9. Early radiographic response to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John WC Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The time schedules for response evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase Inhibitor (EGFR-TKI in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients are still ill-defined. Methods: Stage IIIB/IV patients with histologically proven NSCLC were enrolled in this study if the tumor cells bore EGFR mutations other than T790M. Eligible patients were treated with either 250 mg of gefitinib or 150 mg of erlotinib once daily. The early response rate [computed tomography (CT scan on Day 14], definitive response rate determined on Day 56, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and toxicity profile were assessed prospectively. Results: Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. A total of 29 patients (29/39, 74.4% achieved partial response (PR. Twenty-one patients (21/39, 53.8% had early radiological response on Day 14. The early radiological response rate in patients with PR was 72.4% (21/29. Only eight patients without a PR on early CT still ended with PR. Among the 29 patients with PR, the PFS (8.1 months and OS (18.3 months of the 21 patients with early CT response were shorter than those of the 8 patients without early CT response (11.9 and 24.0 months for PFS and OS, respectively. But the survival differences were statistically non-significant. Conclusions: A very high percentage (72.4%, 21/29 of NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations with PR demonstrates early radiological response to EGFR-TKIs, which would advocate early radiological examination for EGFR-TKI therapy in NSCLC patients.

  10. Molecular characterization of two ferritins of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus and gene expressions in association with early development, immune response and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coba de la Peña, Teodoro; Cárcamo, Claudia B; Díaz, María I; Brokordt, Katherina B; Winkler, Federico M

    2016-08-01

    Ferritin is involved in several iron homoeostasis processes in molluscs. We characterized two ferritin homologues and their expression patterns in association with early development, growth rate and immune response in the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, a species of economic importance for Chile and Peru. Two ferritin subunits (Apfer1 and Apfer2) were cloned. Apfer1 cDNA is a 792bp clone containing a 516bp open reading frame (ORF) that corresponds to a novel ferritin subunit in A. purpuratus. Apfer2 cDNA is a 681bp clone containing a 522bp ORF that corresponds to a previously sequenced EST. A putative iron responsive element (IRE) was identified in the 5'-untranslated region of both genes. The deduced protein sequences of both cDNAs possessed the motifs and domains characteristic of functional ferritin subunits. Both genes showed differential expression patterns at tissue-specific and early development stage levels. Apfer1 expression level increased 40-fold along larval developmental stages, decreasing markedly after larval settlement. Apfer1 expression in mantle tissue was 2.8-fold higher in fast-growing than in slow-growing scallops. Apfer1 increased 8-fold in haemocytes 24h post-challenge with the bacterium Vibrio splendidus. Apfer2 expression did not differ between fast- and slow-growing scallops or in response to bacterial challenge. These results suggest that Apfer1 and Apfer2 may be involved in iron storage, larval development and shell formation. Apfer1 expression may additionally be involved in immune response against bacterial infections and also in growth; and thus would be a potential marker for immune capacity and for fast growth in A. purpuratus.

  11. Decreased c-Abl activity in PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells overexpressing the early growth response-1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Eduardo; Ferreira, Jorge; Gutierrez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) and the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) are 2 response genes that can act as regulators of cell growth and apoptosis in response to stress. Both Egr-1 and c-Abl regulate cell proliferation and survival in different types of cancer cells. To study the effect of overexpression of EGR-1 on the activity of c-Abl in prostate cancer cells, human PC-3 and LNCaP cells were transfected with a control vector or a vector containing the murine Egr-1 cDNA and assessed for the expression of the c-Abl gene. Cells overexpressing Egr-1 were studied with respect to apoptosis (Annexin V)/DEVDase activity, Egr-1/c-Abl activation (western blotting) and cell proliferation (MTT assay). The cells were exposed to tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a known inductor of Egr-1, to c-Abl inhibitor STI-571 and to small interfering RNA (siRNA)-Egr-1, respectively. The results from our studies strongly suggest that overexpression of Egr-1 decreased c-Abl activity independent of endogenous Egr-1 inhibition by siRNA-Egr-1.

  12. 早期生长反应因子-1与糖尿病肾病%Early growth response factor-1 and diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 关美萍; 薛耀明

    2014-01-01

    早期生长反应因子-1(Egr-1)是一种具有锌指结构的转录因子,能被多种刺激因素诱导,并能调控下游多种基因的表达,参与细胞的生长、分化、增殖和凋亡.研究发现,高血糖可引起肾脏Egr-1表达增加,促进系膜细胞增殖、血管内皮功能损伤、细胞外基质积聚、转化生长因子-β过表达和肾纤维化,表明Egr-1与糖尿病肾病的发生、发展密切相关.%Early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) is a zinc finger transcription factor,which can be induced by a variety of stimulus and can also regulate the expression of multiple downstream genes.Egr-1 involves in cell growth,differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis.Studies have found that hyperglycemia can lead to an increase of Egr-1 expression which contributes to mesangial cells proliferation,endothelial dysfunction,extracellular matrix accumulating,overexpression of transformation growth factor-β and renal fibrosis.Therefore Egr-1 is closely related to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. MicroRNA-132 and early growth response-1 in nucleus basalis of Meynert during the course of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Unmehopa, U.A.; Bossers, K.; Hu, Yu-Ting; Verwer, R.W.H.; Balesar, R.A.; Zhao, Juan; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    The cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is important for memory functions, shows neuronal activation ('up-phase') during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and neurodegeneration ('down-phase') in later stages of Alzheimer's disease. MicroRNA-132 (miR-132) and the transcription factor

  14. Effects of different levels of protein supplements in the diet of early-weaned yaks on growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP supplements to the diet of early-weaned yaks on their growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response. Forty 3-month-old weaned yaks were selected and assigned to four dietary groups (Control, 17, 19 and 21% CP. Dietary CP supplements had a significant effect on average daily gain (ADG, crypt depth (CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum, villous height (VH (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and CD/VH (jejunum and ileum. Average daily gain, CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and VH (ileum showed quadratic increases as the dietary CP increased, whereas CD/VH (jejunum and ileum ratios showed quadratic decreases. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, glucose (GLU, immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ concentrations increased significantly, whereas albumin (ALB, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST decreased significantly with dietary CP supplements. Dietary CP supplements significantly increased the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and the nuclear factor of activated T cell transcription factor (NFAT for gene expression. As the dietary CP supplements increased, IL-6, IFN-γ and NF-AT gene expression showed quadratic increases. These results showed that the appropriate dietary CP supplementation improved the growth performance and intestinal development of earlyweaned yaks and thus that the CP supplements were beneficial and enhanced the humoral immunity response of yaks.

  15. Lytic HSV-1 infection induces the multifunctional transcription factor Early Growth Response-1 (EGR-1 in rabbit corneal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFerrin Harris E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1 infections can cause a number of diseases ranging from simple cold sores to dangerous keratitis and lethal encephalitis. The interaction between virus and host cells, critical for viral replication, is being extensively investigated by many laboratories. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HSV-1 lytic infection triggers the expression of important multi-functional transcription factor Egr1. The mechanisms of induction are mediated, at least in part, by signaling pathways such as NFκB and CREB. Methods SIRC, VERO, and 293HEK cell lines were infected with HSV-1, and the Egr-1 transcript and protein were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The localization and expression profile of Egr-1 were investigated further by immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. The recruitment of transcription factors to the Egr-1 promoter during infection was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. Various inhibitors and dominant-negative mutant were used to assess the mechanisms of Egr-1 induction and their effects were addressed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Western blot analyses showed that Egr-1 was absent in uninfected cells; however, the protein was detected 24-72 hours post treatment, and the response was directly proportional to the titer of the virus used for infection. Using recombinant HSV-1 expressing EGFP, Egr-1 was detected only in the infected cells. ChIP assays demonstrated that NFкB and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB were recruited to the Egr-1 promoter upon infection. Additional studies showed that inhibitors of NFкB and dominant-negative CREB repressed the Egr-1 induction by HSV-1 infection. Conclusion Collectively, these results demonstrate that Egr-1 is expressed rapidly upon HSV-1 infection and that this novel induction could be due to the NFкB/CREB-mediated transactivation. Egr-1 induction might play a key role in the viral gene

  16. A key role for early growth response-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB in mediating and maintaining GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Khachigian, Levon M; Esau, Luke; Birrer, Michael J; Zhao, Xiaohang; Parker, M Iqbal; Hendricks, Denver T

    2009-05-01

    Although early growth response-1 (EGR-1) has been shown as a key transcription factor in controlling cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis, its role in the development of esophageal cancer is poorly understood despite the high frequency of this disease in many parts of the world. Here, immunohistochemistry showed that EGR-1 is overexpressed in 80% of esophageal tumor tissues examined. Furthermore, EGR-1 is constitutively expressed in all esophageal cancer cell lines analyzed. Esophageal squamous carcinoma WHCO1 cells stably transfected with EGR-1 short hairpin RNA displayed a 55% reduction in EGR-1 protein levels, 50% reduction in cell proliferation, a 50% reduction in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 levels, and a 2-fold induction in p27(Kip1) levels associated with a G(2)-M cell cycle arrest. EGR-1 knockdown also caused a marked induction in IkappaBalpha expression, an effect also observed in GRObeta RNA interference-expressing WHCO1 cells, because EGR-1 lies downstream of GRO/CXCR2 signaling. Furthermore, p65 mRNA levels were also reduced in cells treated with either short hairpin RNA EGR-1 or small interfering RNA EGR-1. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that p65 is elevated in 78% (n = 61) of esophageal tumor sections analyzed. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition with either sodium salicylate or p65 RNA interference led to a significant reduction in GROalpha and GRObeta expression. These results indicate that EGR-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB mediate GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer and may represent potential target molecules for therapeutic intervention.

  17. MicroRNA-17-5p promotes gastric cancer proliferation, migration and invasion by directly targeting early growth response 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhao, Huasi; Huang, Jingjing; Yan, Xizhong; Zhang, Yunfei; Gao, Yongshun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) has previously been reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression. However, it functions differently regarding different kinds of malignant tumor, and its role and mechanism in gastric cancer (GC) still lacks investigation. In this study, we detected the relationship between miR-17-5p and the development of GC by qRT-PCR, and it turned out that the level of miR-17-5p was significantly higher in GC patients than that in normal controls, and the aberrant expression of miR-17-5p was correlated with lymph node metastasis. After that, we examined the effect of miR-17-5p taking on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of GC cells and the underlying mechanism. Experiments indicated that knockdown of miR-17-5p inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration, while promoting apoptosis of SGC7901 cells. Early Growth Response 2 (EGR2) protein or mRNA levels were downregulated or upregulated after overexpression or knockdown of miR-17-5p, respectively. By using dual luciferase assay and Western blot, we identified EGR2 as a functional target of miR-17-5p. As far as we know, this could be the first study to demonstrate that miR-17-5p is associated with tumor stage of GC and that it could possibly become a new therapeutic method for the treatment of GC.

  18. Early growth response gene-1 decoy oligonucleotides inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia of autogenous vein graft in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xisheng; Mei, Yunqing; Ji, Qiang; Feng, Jing; Cai, Jianzhi; Xie, Shiliang

    2015-07-01

    The excess proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the development of intimal hyperplasia is a hallmark of vein graft failure. This study aimed to verify that a single intraoperative transfection of early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) decoy oligonucleotide (ODN) can suppress vein graft proliferation of VSMCs and intimal hyperplasia. In a rabbit model, jugular veins were treated with Egr-1 decoy ODN, scrambled decoy ODN, Fugene6, or were left untreated, then grafted to the carotid artery. The vein graft samples were obtained 48 h, 1, 2 or 3 weeks after surgery. The thickness of the intima and intima/media ratio in the grafts was analysed by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expression of the Egr-1 decoy ODN transfected in the vein was analysed using fluorescent microscopy. Egr-1 mRNA was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of Egr-1 protein was analysed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Transfection efficiency of the ODN was confirmed by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. In the grafts treated with Egr-1 decoy ODN, our study achieved statistically significant inhibition of intimal hyperplasia by ∼58% at 3 weeks. Transfection of Egr-1 decoy ODNs decreased the protein expression of Egr-1 and Egr-1 mRNA. We confirmed that gene therapy using in vivo transfection of an Egr-1 decoy ODN significantly inhibits proliferation of VSMC and intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts in a rabbit model. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Pheasant sexual ornaments reflect nutritional conditions during early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Thomas; Smith, Henrik G; Råberg, Lars; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Differences in growth conditions during early life have been suggested to cause long-lasting effects on morphology and quality of adult birds. We experimentally investigated the effect of early growth conditions on the expression of sexual ornaments later in life in male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We also investigated the effects on immune function, as it could be a functional link between early nutrition and ornament expression. We manipulated the dietary protein intake during the first eight weeks post hatching. Males receiving fodder with 27% protein during the first three weeks of life grew larger and more colourful wattles when sexually mature than males receiving a low-protein diet (20.5% protein). Spur length was unaffected by diet treatment. Manipulation of food protein levels during weeks 4-8 after hatching had no effect on the development of ornaments. The different protein treatments had no long-term effect on either humoral or cell-mediated immune responses. There was, however, a positive relationship between spur length and cell-mediated immune responsiveness. Our study shows that expression of a sexual ornament in adult pheasants reflects nutritional conditions early in life. Because the expression of secondary sexual ornaments is affected by conditions during early growth, by selecting more ornamented males, females would choose mates that are superior at handling early nutritional stress. If the susceptibility to early nutritional stress also has a hereditary basis, females may benefit by obtaining 'good genes'.

  20. The amazing growth of the early church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The church grew rapidly during the first centuries. The question is: Why? Generations of scholars approached this question from different perspectives and with different methods. Historical research, analysis of early Christian texts and theological reflection were the most common methods used to shed light on the growth of the church. In this contribution five different models of growth were discussed, using the approach of A.M. Schor as a point of departure. These models of church growth were put under the headings of an apostolic mission model, values reproduction model, social reaction model, network model with an institutional model added.

  1. Association of immune response to endothelial cell growth factor with early disseminated and late manifestations of Lyme disease but not posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin S; Klempner, Mark S; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Alaedini, Armin

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial cell growth factor has been recently proposed as a potential autoantigen in manifestations of Lyme disease that are thought to involve immune-mediated mechanisms. Our findings indicate that a humoral immune response to this protein is not associated with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Early growth response 4 is involved in cell proliferation of small cell lung cancer through transcriptional activation of its downstream genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Matsuo

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is aggressive, with rapid growth and frequent bone metastasis; however, its detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the critical role of early growth factor 4 (EGR4, a DNA-binding, zinc-finger transcription factor, in cell proliferation of SCLC. EGR4 overexpression in HEK293T cells conferred significant upregulation of specific splice variants of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP gene, resulting in enhancement of the secretion of PTHrP protein, a known mediator of osteolytic bone metastasis. More importantly, depletion of EGR4 expression by siRNA significantly suppressed growth of the SCLC cell lines, SBC-5, SBC-3 and NCI-H1048. On the other hand, introduction of EGR4 into NIH3T3 cells significantly enhanced cell growth. We identified four EGR4 target genes, SAMD5, RAB15, SYNPO and DLX5, which were the most significantly downregulated genes upon depletion of EGR4 expression in all of the SCLC cells examined, and demonstrated the direct recruitment of EGR4 to their promoters by ChIP and luciferase reporter analysis. Notably, knockdown of the expression of these genes by siRNA remarkably suppressed the growth of all the SCLC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that EGR4 likely regulates the bone metastasis and proliferation of SCLC cells via transcriptional regulation of several target genes, and may therefore be a promising target for the development of anticancer drugs for SCLC patients.

  3. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted......Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity...... with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 268C), one (HC; 168C to 268C) or no (CC; 168C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity...

  4. Does Early Responsive Parenting Have a Special Importance for Children's Development or Is Consistency across Early Childhood Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Mike A.; Vellet, Sonya

    2001-01-01

    Examined the role of early versus ongoing maternal responsiveness in predicting cognitive and social development for full-term and preterm children (low- and high-risk) at five ages. Found that children, especially preterm children, showed faster cognitive growth when mothers were consistently responsive. Social growth was similar in the…

  5. Implications of Fiscal Responsibility on Economic Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anca Florentina Gavriluţă (Vatamanu)

    2017-01-01

    ... preserving fiscal discipline. This study tests the implications of fiscal responsibility on economic growth with the scope to analyze and find out the major issue of responsible public finances...

  6. The human analog of murine cystein rich protein 61 [correction of 16] is a 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 responsive immediate early gene in human fetal osteoblasts: regulation by cytokines, growth factors, and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, N; Lechner, A; Groll, C; Siggelkow, H; Hüfner, M; Köhrle, J; Jakob, F

    1998-04-01

    1Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) is a potent mediator of differentiation and maintenance of specific functions of osteoblasts. To detect novel targets for 1,25-(OH)2D3 action, we applied differential display PCR to human fetal osteoblast-like cells and identified the human analog of murine cystein rich protein 61 (hCYR61) as a 1,25-(OH)2D3-responsive immediate early gene in differentiated fetal osteoblast-like cells. The murine gene CYR61 is important for cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and it belongs to an emerging gene family of cysteine-rich proteins. hCYR61 messenger RNA (mRNA) steady-state levels were stimulated 11-fold by 10 nM 1,25-(OH)2D3 by 1 h and declined to control levels by 4 h. This transient stimulation of hCYR61 mRNA was not inhibited by cycloheximide but was prevented by actinomycin D, indicating that the 1,25-(OH)2D3 effect involves transcriptional events and does not require de novo protein synthesis. hCYR61 mRNA stability was not influenced by 1,25(OH)2D3, whereas cycloheximide treatment stabilized hCYR61 mRNA. FCS, as well as growth factors and cytokines such as basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1, strongly elevated hCYR61 mRNA steady-state levels within 1 h. hCYR61 mRNA was expressed also in primary human osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cell lines. Using a commercial tissue blot, hCYR61 mRNA was only observed in skeletal muscle. The fast and transient response of hCYR 61 to 1,25-(OH)2D3, serum, growth factors, and cytokines suggests an important role of hCYR61 for osteoblast function and differentiation.

  7. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  8. A Single Dose of LSD Does Not Alter Gene Expression of the Serotonin 2A Receptor Gene (HTR2A) or Early Growth Response Genes (EGR1-3) in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C.; Grünblatt, Edna; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan J.; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Renewed interest has been seen in the use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in psychiatric research and practice. The repeated use of LSD leads to tolerance that is believed to result from serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A receptor downregulation. In rats, daily LSD administration for 4 days decreased frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding. Additionally, a single dose of LSD acutely increased expression of the early growth response genes EGR1 and EGR2 in rat and mouse brains through 5-HT2A receptor stimulation. No human data on the effects of LSD on gene expression has been reported. Therefore, we investigated the effects of single-dose LSD administration on the expression of the 5-HT2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and EGR1-3 genes. Methods: mRNA expression levels were analyzed in whole blood as a peripheral biomarker in 15 healthy subjects before and 1.5 and 24 h after the administration of LSD (100 μg) and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Results: LSD did not alter the expression of the HTR2A or EGR1-3 genes 1.5 and 24 h after administration compared with placebo. Conclusion: No changes were observed in the gene expression of LSD’s primary target receptor gene or genes that are implicated in its downstream effects. Remaining unclear is whether chronic LSD administration alters gene expression in humans. PMID:28701958

  9. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic re

  10. Transcriptomic profile of leg muscle during early growth in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Zhang, Genxi; Li, Tingting; Ling, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xiangqian; Wang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth. In total, 978 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 2; false discovery rate growth, muscle development, and cellular activities (such as junction, migration, assembly, differentiation, and proliferation). Many of the DEGs are well known to be related to chicken growth, such as MYOD1, GH, IGF2BP2, IGFBP3, SMYD1, CEBPB, FGF2, and IGFBP5. KEGG pathway analysis identified that the DEGs were significantly enriched in five pathways (P growth and development: extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, tight junction, insulin signaling pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. A total of 42 DEGs assigned to these pathways are potential candidate genes inducing the difference in growth among the three developmental stages, such as MYH10, FGF2, FGF16, FN1, CFL2, MAPK9, IRS1, PHKA1, PHKB, and PHKG1. Thus, our study identified a series of genes and several pathways that may participate in the regulation of early growth in chicken. These results should serve as an important resource revealing the molecular basis of chicken growth and development.

  11. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Photoperiodic lighting (16 hours of light:8 hours of dark) programs during incubation: 1. Effects on growth and circadian physiological traits of embryos and early stress response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S; Yalçin, S; Babacanoglu, E; Kozanoglu, H; Karadas, F; Uysal, S

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a 16L:8D photoperiod during incubation, either during the whole incubation period (Inc(0-21d)) or the last week of incubation (Inc(14-21d)), on embryo growth, incubation performance, and light:dark rhythm of plasma melatonin and corticosterone in relation to early stress responses of newly hatched chicks to the posthatching environment. A dark incubation condition (Inc(Dark)) served as control. Three batches of eggs (n = 1,080, 1,320, 720) from Ross 308 broiler breeders were used in the experiment. Embryos from Inc(0-21d) presented a daily rhythm of melatonin at internal pipping and hatching, but Inc(Dark) embryos did not. The Inc(14-21d) group had rhythmic plasma melatonin at hatching only. A L:D rhythm of corticosterone was apparent at hatching. A significant incubation × sampling time interaction suggested that a lower increment in blood corticosterone level in Inc(0-21d) at 8 h posthatching (light period), as compared with hatching (dark period) values, might be associated with probable changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Inc(0-21d) through incubation lighting. This finding may also suggest improved adaptation to the posthatching environment. Incubation lighting did not consistently affect brain malondialdehyde concentration; the only difference between groups was higher concentrations at hatching in Inc(14-21d), whereas incubation groups at the internal pipping stage had similar values. Mean relative asymmetry (RA) did not differ with incubation lighting. The malondialdehyde and RA results indicate that neither lighting nor darkness during the overall incubation exacerbated embryo oxidative and developmental stress. An increased breast muscle weight was observed at hatching only in Inc(14-21d). The Inc(0-21d) group had increased embryo weights relative to egg weight and decreased residual yolk but had no effect on chick weight, relative heart and liver (% of embryo weight), hatchability

  13. Microbial growth responses upon rewetting dry soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Annelein; Rousk, Johannes; Bååth, Erland

    2015-04-01

    Increased rainfall and drought periods are expected to occur with current climate change, leading to fluctuations in soil moisture. Changes in soil moisture are known to affect carbon cycling. A pulse of carbon dioxide release (respiration) is often observed after rewetting a dry soil and a drying threshold is observed before this pulse emerges. Increased microbial activity is often assumed to be the cause for the pulse in respiration. Yet, the microbial growth responses that underlie this pulse are often not studied. The following questions will be addressed in this presentation. 1) Do fungal and bacterial growth explain the pulse in respiration upon rewetting a dry soil? 2) How does microbial growth respond to different drying intensities before rewetting? To answer the research questions, soils from Sweden, U.K. and Greenland were put in microcosms, air-dried for four days, a prolonged period or to different moisture content before rewetting. We measured soil respiration, fungal growth rates and/or bacterial growth rates at high temporal resolution during one week after rewetting. Our results suggest that the respiration pulse upon rewetting dry soil is not due to high microbial growth rates. During the first hours after rewetting, bacterial and fungal growth rates were low whereas the respiration rates were high. As such, there was a decoupling between the pulse in respiration and microbial growth rates. Two patterns of bacterial growth were observed upon rewetting the three different soils. In "pattern 1", bacteria started growing immediately in a linear pattern up to values similar as the moist control. In "pattern 2", bacteria started growing exponentially after a lag period of no growth with a second pulse of respiration occurring at the start of bacterial growth. Manipulating the drying intensity changed the patterns. Soils with "pattern 1" were changed to "pattern 2" when subjected to more extensive drying periods whereas soils with "pattern 2" were

  14. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  15. Genetic selection for fast growth generates bone architecture characterised by enhanced periosteal expansion and limited consolidation of the cortices but a diminution in the early responses to mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, Simon C F; Murray, Dianne H; Mosley, John R; Wright, Chris D P; Bredl, John C; Saxon, Leanne K; Loveridge, Nigel; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Farquharson, Colin; Pitsillides, Andrew A

    2009-08-01

    Bone strength is, in part, dependent on a mechanical input that regulates the (re)modelling of skeletal elements to an appropriate size and architecture to resist fracture during habitual use. The rate of longitudinal bone growth in juveniles can also affect fracture incidence in adulthood, suggesting an influence of growth rate on later bone quality. We have compared the effects of fast and slow growth on bone strength and architecture in the tibiotarsi of embryonic and juvenile birds. The loading-related biochemical responses (intracellular G6PD activity and NO release) to mechanical load were also determined. Further, we have analysed the proliferation and differentiation characteristics of primary tibiotarsal osteoblasts from fast and slow-growing strains. We found that bones from chicks with divergent growth rates display equal resistance to applied loads, but weight-correction revealed that the bones from juvenile fast growth birds are weaker, with reduced stiffness and lower resistance to fracture. Primary osteoblasts from slow-growing juvenile birds proliferated more rapidly and had lower alkaline phosphatase activity. Bones from fast-growing embryonic chicks display rapid radial expansion and incomplete osteonal infilling but, importantly, lack mechanical responsiveness. These findings are further evidence that the ability to respond to mechanical inputs is crucial to adapt skeletal architecture to generate a functionally appropriate bone structure and that fast embryonic and juvenile growth rates may predispose bone to particular architectures with increased fragility in the adult.

  16. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  17. Infant Responsiveness, Alertness, Hemoglobin and Growth in Rural Sidama, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Thomas, David G.; Kennedy, Tay S.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition (e.g. Dempsey 2008, Wachs et al 2005) in addition to investigating infant behavior within the context of changes in iron status over time (e.g. Black et al. 2004, Murray-Kolb & Beard 2009). Existing research is typically limited to investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behavior and nutritional status may be bidirectional (Hulthén 2003). The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, hemoglobin, the frequency of alertness, and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month hemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared to responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, though weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery [Lab-TAB]) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia. PMID:22233352

  18. Integrating Frameworks from Early Childhood Intervention and School Psychology to Accelerate Growth for All Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.; Snyder, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Knowing what behaviors adults can engage in to accelerate child growth toward desired outcomes is fundamental to achieving the promise of early education and intervention. Once adequate progress-monitoring measures are developed, patterns of child performance over time and in response to certain interventions can be quantified. The ability to…

  19. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  20. A comparison of different definitions of growth response in short prepubertal children treated with growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, P; Bjerknes, R; Dahlgren, J

    2011-01-01

    How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response.......How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response....

  1. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, C. C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, F.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, C. M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Valcamonico, A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  2. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental.

  3. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  4. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L

    2016-01-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes (BHs) at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early BH formation and growth. Here we review the emerging picture of how the first massive BHs formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed BHs, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive BHs over the course of the first billion years following the Big Bang.

  5. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  6. Fibroblast growth factor signaling during early vertebrate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Ralph T; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been implicated in diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and proliferation. This review presents our current understanding on the roles of FGF signaling, the pathways employed, and its regulation. We focus on FGF signaling during early embryonic processes in vertebrates, such as induction and patterning of the three germ layers as well as its function in the control of morphogenetic movements.

  7. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  8. Near-criticality underlies the behavior of early tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Guillaume; Cluzel, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The controlling factors that underlie the growth of tumors have often been hard to identify because of the presence in this system of a large number of intracellular biochemical parameters. Here, we propose a simplifying framework to identify the key physical parameters that govern the early growth of tumors. We model growth by means of branching processes where cells of different types can divide and differentiate. First, using this process that has only one controlling parameter, we study a one cell type model and compute the probability for tumor survival and the time of tumor extinction. Second, we show that when cell death and cell division are perfectly balanced, stochastic effects dominate the growth dynamics and the system exhibits a near-critical behavior that resembles a second-order phase transition. We show, in this near-critical regime, that the time interval before tumor extinction is power-law distributed. Finally, we apply this branching formalism to infer, from experimental growth data, the number of different cell types present in the observed tumor.

  9. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .1. EARLY GROWTH-PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    Early embryonic and fetal growth were followed longitudinally in 23 women with type-1 diabetes to investigate whether there was any evidence of early growth delay and, if so, when it originated and when catch-up growth occurred. Weekly crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were taken between 7 and 14

  10. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .1. EARLY GROWTH-PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    Early embryonic and fetal growth were followed longitudinally in 23 women with type-1 diabetes to investigate whether there was any evidence of early growth delay and, if so, when it originated and when catch-up growth occurred. Weekly crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were taken between 7 and 14

  11. Early neonatal morbidity and mortality in growth-discordant twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam Machado, Rita De Cássia; Brizot, Maria De Lourdes; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Krebs, Vera Lucia Jornada; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate early neonatal morbidity and mortality in twin pregnancies with growth discordance. Retrospective study. Tertiary teaching hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 151 twin pregnancies managed and delivered at the Multiple Pregnancy Unit at Sao Paulo University Hospital between 1998 and 2004. METHODS; Comparison between twin pregnancies with weight discordance > or =20% and pregnancies concordant for fetal weight. Cases with fetal death, abnormalities, twin-to-twin transfusion and delivery before 26 weeks or in another hospital were excluded. Early neonatal morbidity (Apgar at 5 minutes pregnancies presented discordance > or =20% and 111 (73.5%) were concordant. In the discordant group, 75% of pregnancies had at least one growth restricted fetus (pregnancies, monochorionic cases (22.5%) presented with lower gestational age (34.3 vs. 36.2 weeks), lower birthweight (2,067 vs. 2,334 g) and a longer period of hospital stay (5.5 vs. 3.0) compared to dichorionic concordant twins. No differences between monochorionic and dichorionic subgroups were observed in discordant twins. Pregnancies in which at least one baby was born with a birthweight below the 10th centile showed that discordant pregnancies had a lower gestational age at delivery (35.2 vs. 36.8 weeks) and a longer period of hospital stay (9 vs. 4 weeks) compared to concordant cases. Neonatal mortality was similar in discordant (3.7%) and concordant (4.5%) twins. Early perinatal morbidity is increased in twin pregnancies with birthweight discordance > or =20% only when associated with fetal growth restriction and low birthweight.

  12. Telmisartan inhibits human urological cancer cell growth through early apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUYAMA, MASAHIDE; FUNAO, KIYOAKI; KURATSUKURI, KATSUYUKI; TANAKA, TOMOAKI; KAWAHITO, YUTAKA; SANO, HAJIME; CHARGUI, JAMEL; TOURAINE, JEAN-LOUIS; YOSHIMURA, NORIO; YOSHIMURA, RIKIO

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used as hypertensive therapeutic agents. In addition, studies have provided evidence that ARBs have the potential to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer cells. It was reported that telmisartan (a type of ARB) has peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activation activity. We previously reported that the PPAR-γ ligand induces growth arrest in human urological cancer cells through apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of telmisartan and other ARBs on cell proliferation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and testicular cancer (TC) cell lines. The inhibitory effects of telmisartan and other ARBs (candesartan, valsartan, irbesartan and losartan) on the growth of the RCC, BC, PC and TC cell lines was investigated using an MTT assay. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to determine whether the ARBs induced apoptosis. Telmisartan caused marked growth inhibition in the urological cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Urological cancer cells treated with 100 μM telmisartan underwent early apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. However, the other ARBs had no effect on cell proliferation in any of the urological cancer cell lines. Telmisartan may mediate potent anti-proliferative effects in urological cancer cells through PPAR-γ. Thus, telmisartan is a potent target for the prevention and treatment of human urological cancer. PMID:22993542

  13. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  14. Translational and structural requirements of the early nodulin gene enod40, a short-open reading frame-containing RNA, for elicitation of a cell-specific growth response in the alfalfa root cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C; Johansson, C; Charon, C; Manyani, H; Sautter, C; Kondorosi, A; Crespi, M

    2001-01-01

    A diversity of mRNAs containing only short open reading frames (sORF-RNAs; encoding less than 30 amino acids) have been shown to be induced in growth and differentiation processes. The early nodulin gene enod40, coding for a 0.7-kb sORF-RNA, is expressed in the nodule primordium developing in the root cortex of leguminous plants after infection by symbiotic bacteria. Ballistic microtargeting of this gene into Medicago roots induced division of cortical cells. Translation of two sORFs (I and II, 13 and 27 amino acids, respectively) present in the conserved 5' and 3' regions of enod40 was required for this biological activity. These sORFs may be translated in roots via a reinitiation mechanism. In vitro translation products starting from the ATG of sORF I were detectable by mutating enod40 to yield peptides larger than 38 amino acids. Deletion of a Medicago truncatula enod40 region between the sORFs, spanning a predicted RNA structure, did not affect their translation but resulted in significantly decreased biological activity. Our data reveal a complex regulation of enod40 action, pointing to a role of sORF-encoded peptides and structured RNA signals in developmental processes involving sORF-RNAs.

  15. De-Escalation Strategies in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-Positive Early Breast Cancer (BC): Final Analysis of the West German Study Group Adjuvant Dynamic Marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy Trial Optimizing Risk Assessment and Therapy Response Prediction in Early BC HER2- and Hormone Receptor-Positive Phase II Randomized Trial-Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Markers for 12 Weeks of Neoadjuvant Trastuzumab Emtansine With or Without Endocrine Therapy (ET) Versus Trastuzumab Plus ET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Nadia; Gluz, Oleg; Christgen, Matthias; Kates, Ronald Ernest; Braun, Michael; Küemmel, Sherko; Schumacher, Claudia; Potenberg, Jochem; Kraemer, Stefan; Kleine-Tebbe, Anke; Augustin, Doris; Aktas, Bahriye; Forstbauer, Helmut; Tio, Joke; von Schumann, Raquel; Liedtke, Cornelia; Grischke, Eva-Maria; Schumacher, Johannes; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Kreipe, Hans Heinrich; Nitz, Ulrike Anneliese

    2017-09-10

    Purpose Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive/hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer is a distinct subgroup associated with lower chemotherapy sensitivity and slightly better outcome than HER2-positive/HR-negative disease. Little is known about the efficacy of the combination of endocrine therapy (ET) with trastuzumab or with the potent antibody-cytotoxic, anti-HER2 compound trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) with or without ET for this subgroup. The West German Study Group trial, ADAPT (Adjuvant Dynamic Marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy Trial Optimizing Risk Assessment and Therapy Response Prediction in Early Breast Cancer) compares pathologic complete response (pCR) rates of T-DM1 versus trastuzumab with ET in early HER2-positive/HR-positive breast cancer. Patients and Methods In this prospective, neoadjuvant, phase II trial, 375 patients with early breast cancer with HER2-positive and HR-positive status (n = 463 screened) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of T-DM1 with or without ET or to trastuzumab with ET. The primary end point was pCR (ypT0/is/ypN0). Early response was assessed in 3-week post-therapeutic core biopsies (proliferation decrease ≥ 30% Ki-67 or cellularity response). Secondary end points included safety and predictive impact of early response on pCR. Adjuvant therapy followed national standards. Results Baseline characteristics were well balanced among the arms. More than 90% of patients completed the therapy per protocol. pCR was observed in 41.0% of patients treated with T-DM1, 41.5% of patients treated with T-DM1 and ET, and 15.1% with trastuzumab and ET ( P < .001). Early responders (67% of patients with assessable response) achieved pCR in 35.7% compared with 19.8% in nonresponders (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.19). T-DM1 was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of grade 1 to 2 toxicities, especially thrombocytopenia, nausea, and elevation of liver enzymes. Overall toxicity was low; seventeen

  16. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    OpenAIRE

    PERONI, CIBELE N.; Cesar Y. Hayashida; Nancy Nascimento; LONGUINI, VIVIANE C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Paolo Bartolini; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo,Sergio P. A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those ...

  17. Provenances and fertilizer on early growth cedar seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the initial development of different provenances and the influence of base fertilizer and coverage on growth of Cedrela fissilis seedlings. Provenances of seeds were collected in Lapa, PR, Fernandes Pinheiro, PR and Itaara, RS. After germination, the seedlings were transplanted to plastic bags of 500 cm³, filled with commercial substrate. Total height (h, stem diameter (sd, and ratio h/sd seedlings were measured after 150 days of transplanting. Seedlings of Fernandes Pinheiro received basic fertilization after transplantation (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g dm-3  Osmocote® and cover (3 and 6 g L-1, respectively, of Peter’s® and urea. The provenance and doses of controlled-release fertilizer influenced early development of Cedrela fissilis seedlings. Itaara provenance showed better seedlings growth. Cedar seedlings showed good growth when incorporated into the substrate 5 g dm-3 Osmocote® and, in addition, applied in topdressing 3 g L-1 of Peter’s®. Urea topdressing is rarely recommended for cedar seedlings.

  18. Early response genes in the pathogenesis of cancer of the cervix uteri: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kurmyshkina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early response genes are a group of proto-oncogenes that are the first to be activated in cell stimulation with different growth factors and to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Large amount of information supporting that altered expression of these genes is one of the central and earliest events of carcinogenesis has been accumulated. In this connection, it is promising to use early response genes as diagnostic and prognostic markers for the detection and combination therapy of cancer of the cervix uteri, one of the most common gynecological malignancies characterized by high mortality rates and difficulties in early diagnosis. The theoretical basis for these promises is the found mechanisms for the interaction of early response genes with human papillomavirus genome, the main cause of cervix uteri cancer.

  19. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    . However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity......, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity.......There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed...

  20. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  1. [Growth: responses to pathology. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, J; Bennani, K; Sebille, S; Caprioli, F

    2000-09-01

    Many pathologies involve face. Among them, many have craniofacial growth consequences. The authors' aims are to analyze some of these pathologies, where clinical observations emphasize the role of the different craniofacial growth patterns. Despite a complex relation between the malformative part and the deformative one, untreated observations provide a better understanding of some craniofacial growth defects. Syndromes can be classified in 4 categories, involving the primitive causes of the clinical finding: 1. organic abnormalities of one or many functional matrix, 2. localized abnormalities of the anatomical structures, 3. general abnormalities of the conjunctive tissue, 4. mixed syndromes. Many observations will presented.

  2. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals.

  3. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Michael B. Kane

    2004-01-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L...

  4. Growth of bubbles on a solid surface in response to a pressure reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Chen, H.; Zhou, W.; Wu, B.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Pelan, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    A diffusion-controlled method is presented to study the growth of bubbles on a solid surface. The bubbles are nucleated spontaneously on a hydrophobic smooth surface in response to a sudden pressure reduction and then grow with an expanding contact line. The evolution of the bubbles in the early sta

  5. Defining Clinical Response Criteria and Early Response Criteria for Precision Oncology: Current State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Subbiah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for “go” versus “no go” decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords “response assessment” and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016. In this article we review the commonly used response assessment criteria. We present a decision tree to facilitate selection of appropriate criteria. We also suggest methods for standardization of various response assessment criteria. The relevant response assessment criteria were further studied for rational of development, key features, proposed use and acceptance by various entities. We also discuss early response evaluation and provide specific case studies of early response to targeted therapy. With high-throughput, advanced computing programs and digital data-mining it is now possible to acquire vast amount of high quality imaging data opening up a new field of “omics in radiology”—radiomics that complements genomics for personalized medicine. Radiomics is rapidly evolving and is still in the research arena. This cutting-edge technology is poised to move soon to the mainstream clinical arena. Novel agents with new mechanisms of action require advanced molecular imaging as imaging biomarkers. There is an urgent need for development of standardized early response assessment criteria for evaluation of response to precision therapy.

  6. Insulin-responsiveness of tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, Ernst

    2009-05-01

    In October 2008, the 2nd International Insulin & Cancer Workshop convened roughly 30 researchers from eight countries in Düsseldorf/Germany. At this meeting, which was industry-independent like the preceding one in 2007, the following issues were discussed a) association between certain cancers and endogenous insulin production in humans, b) growth-promoting effects of insulin in animal experiments, c) mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activity of pharmaceutic insulin and insulin analogues in in vitro experiments, d) potential mechanisms of insulin action on cell growth, mediated by IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor signaling, and e) IGF-1 receptor targeting for inhibition of tumor growth. It was concluded that further research is necessary to elucidate the clinical effects of these observations, and their potential for human neoplastic disease and treatment.

  7. Characterization of early host responses in adults with dengue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult as patients rarely seek healthcare during the first days of benign fever and thus data are lacking. Methods In this study, focusing on early recruitment, we performed whole-blood transcriptional profiling on denguevirus PCR positive patients sampled within 72 h of self-reported fever presentation (average 43 h, SD 18.6 h and compared the signatures with autologous samples drawn at defervescence and convalescence and to control patients with fever of other etiology. Results In the early dengue fever phase, a strong activation of the innate immune response related genes were seen that was absent at defervescence (4-7 days after fever debut, while at this second sampling genes related to biosynthesis and metabolism dominated. Transcripts relating to the adaptive immune response were over-expressed in the second sampling point with sustained activation at the third sampling. On an individual gene level, significant enrichment of transcripts early in dengue disease were chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1, CCL8 (MCP-2, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL3 (MIP-1α, antimicrobial peptide β-defensin 1 (DEFB1, desmosome/intermediate junction component plakoglobin (JUP and a microRNA which may negatively regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in dengue infected peripheral blood cells, mIR-147 (NMES1. Conclusions These data show that the early response in patients mimics those previously described in vitro, where early assessment of transcriptional responses has been easily obtained. Several of the early transcripts identified may be affected by or mediate the pathogenesis and deserve further assessment at this timepoint in correlation to severe disease.

  8. Plant growth responses to polypropylene--biocontainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of bio-fillers incorporated into polypropylene (PP) on the growth of plants was evaluated. Biocontainers were created by injection molding of PP with 25-40% by weight of Osage orange tree, Paulownia tree, coffee tree wood or dried distillers grain and 5% by weight of maleated polypropy...

  9. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjaer, Anni; Molgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that factors in early life are important for the risk of developing overweight and obesity later in childhood. Among the postnatal factors, breastfeeding and complementary feeding are especially interesting because the pattern of these two factors can be changed. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity. However, some studies suggest that weight gain during the 6- to 12-month age period, when complementary feeding is introduced, is not associated with later obesity. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) values and body composition both play a role in the complex pattern between early diet and later obesity, but our present knowledge about how these factors are influenced by diet during infancy is limited. Future studies should include longitudinal data on IGF-1 and body composition during infancy to improve our understanding of how diet in early life can play a role in prevention of later obesity. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The public health challenge of early growth failure in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M F; Martorell, R

    2013-05-01

    Recent recognition of the early onset and high prevalence of wasting (30%) and stunting (20%) among infants 0-5 months in India draws attention to the need to understand the causes and develop prevention strategies. Such growth failure has dire consequences in the short (increased mortality) and long-term (loss of human capital and increased risk of chronic diseases). Food interventions before 6 months will increase morbidity/mortality through contamination in settings of poor sanitation and hygiene. Waiting to improve nutrition only after the initiation of complementary feeding at 6 months is a missed opportunity and may permanently alter life trajectory and potential. This underscores the importance of maternal nutrition. Iron and folic acid and protein energy supplementation during pregnancy are interventions that can improve maternal nutrition and birth outcomes. Maternal supplementation during lactation should be considered as a means to improve maternal and child outcomes, although the evidence needs strengthening. Support and counseling are also required to improve maternal diets and promote exclusive breastfeeding. Programs focused on improving maternal nutrition across the continuum of preconception, pregnancy and lactation are likely to have the greatest impact as mothers are central gatekeepers to the health and future of their children.

  11. Expression of early growth response factor 1 and intervention of silymarin in rat models of alcoholic fatty liver%乙醇性脂肪肝模型大鼠早期生长反应因子1表达及水飞蓟素的干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红星

    2015-01-01

    背景:促炎性转录因子以及炎性因子在乙醇性肝病的发生中起着重要作用,而早期生长反应因子1正是炎症启动的关键因子之一。目的:观察并分析水飞蓟素对乙醇性脂肪肝模型大鼠早期生长反应因子1的影响。方法:将大鼠采用高脂饮食联合乙醇灌胃方式建立脂肪肝动物模型,每次灌胃后分别给予水飞蓟素高、低剂量(200,100 mg/kg)干预,并设正常组进行对照,共灌胃8周。结果与结论:血清学指标检测和苏木精-伊红染色结果显示,与模型组相比,水飞蓟素高剂量组大鼠体质量增高(P <0.05),血清谷草转氨酶、谷丙转氨酶活性、肝组织早期生长反应因子1和肿瘤坏死因子α的表达降低(P <0.05),病理分级结果均占优(P <0.01)。结果证实,高剂量水飞蓟素能有效保护大鼠肝功能,减少肝功能损害的发生,可能与水飞蓟素抑制大鼠体内早期生长反应因子1,从而减少肿瘤坏死因子α的形成有关,但具体机制尚待进一步研究。%BACKGROUND:Proinflammatory transcription factors and inflammatory factors play an important role in the occurrence of alcoholic liver disease. However, early growth response factor 1 is one of the key factors of starting inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyze the effects of silymarin on early growth response factor1 in rat models of alcoholic fatty liver. METHODS:The rat models were established using the methods of feeding with high fat diet and intragastricaly administering alcohol, in total 8 weeks. Silymarin intervention at high and low doses (200,100 mg/kg) was given after each gavage. The normal group was set as comparison. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Serological indicator detection and hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that compared with the model group, the body weight of rats was increased (P < 0.05); serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activity, early growth

  12. Early adversity and brain response to faces in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieslehto, Johannes; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Mäki, Pirjo; Koivukangas, Jenni; Nordström, Tanja; Miettunen, Jouko; Barnett, Jennifer H; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Graham K; Moilanen, Irma; Paus, Tomáš; Veijola, Juha

    2017-09-01

    Early stressors play a key role in shaping interindividual differences in vulnerability to various psychopathologies, which according to the diathesis-stress model might relate to the elevated glucocorticoid secretion and impaired responsiveness to stress. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that individuals exposed to early adversity have deficits in emotion processing from faces. This study aims to explore whether early adversities associate with brain response to faces and whether this association might associate with the regional variations in mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1). A total of 104 individuals drawn from the Northern Finland Brith Cohort 1986 participated in a face-task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. A large independent dataset (IMAGEN, N = 1739) was utilized for reducing fMRI data-analytical space in the NFBC 1986 dataset. Early adversities were associated with deviant brain response to fearful faces (MANCOVA, P = 0.006) and with weaker performance in fearful facial expression recognition (P = 0.01). Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas) correlated with the degree of associations between early adversities and brain response to fearful faces (R(2)  = 0.25, P = 0.01) across different brain regions. Our results suggest that early adversities contribute to brain response to faces and that this association is mediated in part by the glucocorticoid system. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4470-4478, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in oil palm. ... conditions) and to two nutrient regimes (with or without fertilization) of oil ... Moreover, deficiency of both water and nutrients in combination had the greatest impact ...

  14. GH responses to growth hormone releasing factor in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Beer, R; Harris, B; John, R; Scanlon, M

    1989-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH), thyrotrophin (TSH) and prolactin response to growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) was investigated in 18 patients suffering from major depression with melancholia and in 18 age- and sex-matched normal controls. There was no significant difference in the GH response to GRF stimulation between the patients and controls and in neither subject group was there a demonstrable TSH or prolactin response to GRF. These findings indicate that the pathophysiology underlying the blunted GH response to pharmacological challenge, demonstrated in other studies, must lie at a suprapituitary level.

  15. Intercentrum versus pleurocentrum growth in early tetrapods: A paleohistological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, Marylène; Witzmann, Florian; Pierce, Stephanie E; Fröbisch, Nadia B

    2017-09-01

    A variety of vertebral centrum morphologies have evolved within early tetrapods which range from multipartite centra consisting of intercentra and pleurocentra in stem-tetrapods, temnospondyls, seymouriamorphs, and anthracosaurs up to monospondylous centra in lepospondyls. With the present study, we aim to determine the formation of both intercentrum and pleurocentrum and asked whether these can be homologized based on their bone histology. Both intercentra and pleurocentra ossified endochondrally and periosteal bone was subsequently deposited on the outer surface of the centra. Our observations indicate low histological variation between intercentrum and pleurocentrum in microstructural organization and growth which inhibits the determination of homologies. However, intercentrum and pleurocentrum development differs during ontogeny. As previously assumed, the intercentrum arises from ventrally located and initially paired ossification centers that fuse ventromedially to form the typical, crescentic, rhachitomous intercentrum. In contrast, presacral pleurocentra may be ancestrally represented by four ossification centers: a ventral and a dorsal pair. Subsequently, two divergent developmental patterns are observed: In stem-tetrapods and temnospondyls, the pleurocentrum evolves from the two dorsally located ossification centers which may occasionally fuse to form a dorsal crescent. In some dvinosaurian temnospondyls, the pleurocentrum may even ossify to full rings. In comparison, the pleurocentrum of stem-amniotes (anthracosaurs, chroniosuchids, seymouriamorphs, and lepospondyls) arises from the two ventrally located ossification centers whereby the ossification pattern is almost identical to that of temnospondyls but mirror-inverted. Thus, the ring-shaped pleurocentrum of Discosauriscus ossifies from ventral to dorsal. We also propose that the ossified portions of the intercentrum and pleurocentrum continued as cartilaginous rings or discs that surrounded the

  16. Maternal Antibody Protected Chicks from Growth Retardation and Immunosuppression Induced by Early Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-hong; GUI Zhi-zhong; QU Li-xin

    2007-01-01

    To determine if the maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with cell culture-adapted reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) could protect chicks from early REV infection, one-day-old chicks with or without anti-REV maternal antibodies were inoculated with REV, and then their growth rates and antibody tilers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, were compared. This study indicated that REV infection could cause growth retardation and severely inhibit immune reactions to inactivated vaccines against NDV and Avian influenza virus (AIV, H9 and H5) in one-day-old broilers without maternal antibodies specific to REV. Maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with an attenuated REV vaccine effectively protected REV-challenged birds from growth retardation and immunosuppression on antibody reactions to NDV and AIV vaccines. Four weeks after vaccination, the HI liters to NDV, AIV-H9, and AIV-H5 in maternal antibody positive and negative groups were 3.36±2.04 versus 1.58±1.69 (P<0.01), 6.27±3.87 versus 0.71±1.60(P<0.01), and 6.72 versus 0.54±1.44(p<0.01). Maternal antibodies from breeders vaccinated with REV vaccine could successfully protect chicks from REV infection and effectively prevent REV-induced growth retardation and immunosuppression in antibody responses to NDV and AIV.

  17. Immunization of mice with a recombinant adenovirus vaccine inhibits the early growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward O Ronan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection, immune responses are delayed compared to other respiratory infections, so that antigen-specific cells are not detected in the lungs earlier than day 14. Even after parenteral immunization with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG or a subunit vaccine, the immune response after Mtb challenge is only slightly accelerated and the kinetics of pulmonary Mtb growth do not differ between naïve and immunized animals up to day 14. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized intranasally with a recombinant adenovirus expressing mycobacterial antigen 85A (Ad85A, challenged by aerosol with Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. Intranasal immunization with Ad85A inhibits Mtb growth in the early phase of infection, up to day 8. Protection is sustained for at least 7 months and correlates with the presence of antigen-specific activated effector CD8 T cells in the lungs. Antigen 85A-specific T cells respond to antigen presenting cells from the lungs of mice immunized with Ad85A 23 weeks previously, demonstrating the persistence of antigen in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intranasal immunization with Ad85A can inhibit early growth of Mtb because it establishes a lung antigen depot and maintains an activated lung-resident lymphocyte population. We propose that an optimal immunization strategy for tuberculosis should aim to induce both lung and systemic immunity, targeting the early and late phases of Mtb growth.

  18. Genetic correlates of early accelerated infant growth associated with juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharagjitsingh, A.V.; de Ridder, M.A.J.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Veeze, H.J.; Bruining, G.J.; Roep, B.O.; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We previously showed that accelerated growth predisposing to development of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is restricted to the first year after birth. We assessed whether this phenomenon of increased early growth is associated with variants of two genes, insulin-like growth factor

  19. Genetic correlates of early accelerated infant growth associated with juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharagjitsingh, Av; de Ridder, Maj; Alizadeh, Bz; Veeze, Hj; Bruining, Gj; Roep, Bo; Koeleman, Bobby Pc

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We previously showed that accelerated growth predisposing to development of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is restricted to the first year after birth. We assessed whether this phenomenon of increased early growth is associated with variants of two genes, insulin-like growth factor

  20. Early redox, Src family kinase, and calcium signaling integrate wound responses and tissue regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sa Kan; Freisinger, Christina M; LeBert, Danny C; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2012-10-15

    Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H(2)O(2) at wounds in zebrafish larvae. In this paper, using zebrafish larval tail fins as a model, we find that wounding rapidly activated SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia. The immediate SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia was important for late epimorphic regeneration of amputated fins. Wound-induced activation of SFKs in epithelia was dependent on injury-generated H(2)O(2). A SFK member, Fynb, was responsible for fin regeneration. This work provides a new link between early wound responses and late regeneration and suggests that redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate "wound signals" that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration.

  1. Crystal growth in fluid flow: Nonlinear response effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. L.; Herlach, D. M.; Voigtmann, Th.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate crystal-growth kinetics in the presence of strong shear flow in the liquid, using molecular-dynamics simulations of a binary-alloy model. Close to the equilibrium melting point, shear flow always suppresses the growth of the crystal-liquid interface. For lower temperatures, we find that the growth velocity of the crystal depends nonmonotonically on the shear rate. Slow enough flow enhances the crystal growth, due to an increased particle mobility in the liquid. Stronger flow causes a growth regime that is nearly temperature-independent, in striking contrast to what one expects from the thermodynamic and equilibrium kinetic properties of the system, which both depend strongly on temperature. We rationalize these effects of flow on crystal growth as resulting from the nonlinear response of the fluid to strong shearing forces.

  2. Growth hormone does not stimulate early healing in rat tendons

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Growth Hormone stimulates bone growth and fracture repair. It acts mainly by increasing the systemic levels of IGF-1. Local treatment with IGF-1 appears to stimulate tendon healing. We therefore hypothesized that systemic treatment with Growth Hormone would also stimulate tendon healing. Rat Achilles tendons were transected and left to heal. 4 groups were studied. Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (Botox) were used to reduce loading in 2 groups. The animals were randomized to twic...

  3. Assessing the effect of phosphorus application on early growth of maize at Sunderbazar, Lamjung, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient element for maize production. A pot experiment was conducted during May-June, 2015 to assess the effects of different rates of P on early growth of maize plant at Sundarbazar, Lamjung. Two maize varieties (Rato Makai and Poshilo Makai-1 were subjected to four P levels (0 kg ha-1, 13 kg ha-1, 18 kg ha-1, and 23 kg ha-1 in randomized complete block design with four replications. The effects of different P level on root elongation, root biomass, plant height, root shoot biomass ratio and total dry matter were investigated at 45 days after sowing. For all parameters, the maximum value was obtained when soil was added with 18 kg P ha-1 & the minimum value under the control of 0 kg P ha-1. Maize varieties differed significantly in terms of all the parameters under study, and Poshilo Makai-1 performed better than Rato Makai at all P levels. So, from this result, it can be concluded that Poshilo Makai-1 appeared to be P efficient over Rato Makai at early growth stage. However, it would be necessary to look at the response of crop up to maturity and at wider range of P to have the better insight of their relative performance.

  4. Implementation of responsiveness to intervention in early education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; McGinty, Anita; Guo, Ying; Moore, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    This article provides an overview of how response to intervention (RTI) may be used effectively within early childhood settings. Discussion is organized to address such issues regarding RTI implementation as (1) how to design and implement a high-quality Tier 1 learning environment that systematically improves children's language and literacy outcomes, (2) how to design and implement a high-quality Tier 2 supplemental learning intervention that systematically improves the language and literacy outcomes of children who are unresponsive to Tier 1, and (3) how to design and implement a comprehensive and cohesive assessment system that appropriately identifies children who show inadequate response to the Tier 1 and Tier 2 learning opportunities. A model for implementing RTI using the supplemental curriculum by Justice and McGinty, READ IT AGAIN-PREK! (2008), is presented. This tool was developed to meet the needs of early childhood programs as they seek to implement RIA in a cost-effective and scalable manner.

  5. Early Growth Response 1 (Egr-1) Regulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR)-dependent Transcription of PSD-95 and α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole Propionic Acid Receptor (AMPAR) Trafficking in Hippocampal Primary Neurons*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xike; Jiang, Yongjun; Tse, Yiu Chung; Wang, Yunling; Wong, Tak Pan; Paudel, Hemant K.

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) controls synaptic plasticity and memory function and is one of the major inducers of transcription factor Egr-1 in the hippocampus. However, how Egr-1 mediates the NMDAR signal in neurons has remained unclear. Here, we show that the hippocampus of mice lacking Egr-1 displays electrophysiology properties and ultrastructure that are similar to mice overexpressing PSD-95, a major scaffolding protein of postsynaptic density involved in synapse formation, synaptic plasticity, and synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), which mediate the vast majority of excitatory transmission in the CNS. We demonstrate that Egr-1 is a transcription repressor of the PSD-95 gene and is recruited to the PSD-95 promoter in response to NMDAR activation. Knockdown of Egr-1 in rat hippocampal primary neurons blocks NMDAR-induced PSD-95 down-regulation and AMPAR endocytosis. Likewise, overexpression of Egr-1 in rat hippocampal primary neurons causes reduction in PSD-95 protein level and promotes AMPAR endocytosis. Our data indicate that Egr-1 is involved in NMDAR-mediated PSD-95 down-regulation and AMPAR endocytosis, a process important in the expression of long term depression. PMID:26475861

  6. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Early developmental conditions affect stress response in juvenile but not in adult house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Adám Z; Loiseau, Claire; Sorci, Gabriele; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term consequences of developmental conditions on fitness have received growing attention because the environmental conditions during early life may influence growth, condition at independence, recruitment, reproductive success or survival. We tested here, in a natural house sparrow population, if early conditions during nestling stage affected the stress response of the birds (i) shortly after fledging and (ii) next year, during their first breeding. We experimentally manipulated brood size to mimic different rearing conditions, creating reduced (-2 chicks) and enlarged broods (+2 chicks), while in a third group brood size was not manipulated. Nestling nutrition state decreased with post-manipulation brood sizes as indicated by lower body mass. Fledglings with higher body mass at the age of ten days showed lower stress response than birds that were leaner at the same age. Fledglings reared in large broods showed a higher response to stress protocol than chicks from small broods, and this effect was in significant interaction with the age of fledglings at capture. This interaction indicates that the effects of the brood size became gradually smaller as the fledglings grew older and were further from their nestling period. The effects of early conditions vanished by the next year: the stress response of adult first time breeders was unrelated to the brood size they fledged from. These results suggest that stress response may reflect the actual state of an individual, rather than its developmental history.

  8. Complex responses of spring vegetation growth to climate in a moisture-limited alpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Gao, Qingzhu; Schwartz, Mark W; Zhu, Wenquan; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Wan, Yunfan; Cao, Xujuan; Williamson, Matthew A; Jiangcun, Wangzha; Guo, Hongbao; Lin, Erda

    2016-03-17

    Since 2000, the phenology has advanced in some years and at some locations on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, whereas it has been delayed in others. To understand the variations in spring vegetation growth in response to climate, we conducted both regional and experimental studies on the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We used the normalized difference vegetation index to identify correlations between climate and phenological greening, and found that greening correlated negatively with winter-spring time precipitation, but not with temperature. We used open top chambers to induce warming in an alpine meadow ecosystem from 2012 to 2014. Our results showed that in the early growing season, plant growth (represented by the net ecosystem CO2 exchange, NEE) was lower in the warmed plots than in the control plots. Late-season plant growth increased with warming relative to that under control conditions. These data suggest that the response of plant growth to warming is complex and non-intuitive in this system. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that moisture limitation increases in early spring as temperature increases. The effects of moisture limitation on plant growth with increasing temperatures will have important ramifications for grazers in this system.

  9. The Early Endocrine Stress Response in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffer Nyberg

    Full Text Available In patients with severe illness, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, a physiologic stress response is triggered. This includes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the very early responses of these systems.A porcine animal model of aneurysmal SAH was used. In this model, blood is injected slowly to the basal cisterns above the anterior skull base until the cerebral perfusion pressure is 0 mm Hg. Sampling was done from blood and urine at -10, +15, +75 and +135 minutes from time of induction of SAH. Analyses of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol, aldosterone, catecholamines and chromogranin-A were performed.Plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma aldosterone increased in the samples following induction of SAH, and started to decline after 75 minutes. Urine cortisol also increased after SAH. Urine catecholamines and their metabolites were found to increase after SAH. Many samples were however below detection level, not allowing for statistical analysis. Plasma chromogranin-A peaked at 15 minutes after SAH, and thereafter decreased.The endocrine stress response after aneurysmal SAH was found to start within 15 minutes in the HPA axis with early peak values of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone. The fact that the concentrations of the HPA axis hormones decreased 135 minutes after SAH may suggest that a similar pattern exists in SAH patients, thus making it difficult to catch these early peak values. There were also indications of early activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the small number of valid samples made interpretation difficult.

  10. Evaluation of early imaging response criteria in glioblastoma multiforme

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    Millar Barbara-Ann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and accurate prediction of response to cancer treatment through imaging criteria is particularly important in rapidly progressive malignancies such as Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM. We sought to assess the predictive value of structural imaging response criteria one month after concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT in patients with GBM. Methods Thirty patients were enrolled from 2005 to 2007 (median follow-up 22 months. Tumor volumes were delineated at the boundary of abnormal contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images prior to and 1 month after RT. Clinical Progression [CP] occurred when clinical and/or radiological events led to a change in chemotherapy management. Early Radiologic Progression [ERP] was defined as the qualitative interpretation of radiological progression one month post-RT. Patients with ERP were determined pseudoprogressors if clinically stable for ≥6 months. Receiver-operator characteristics were calculated for RECIST and MacDonald criteria, along with alternative thresholds against 1 year CP-free survival and 2 year overall survival (OS. Results 13 patients (52% were found to have ERP, of whom 5 (38.5% were pseudoprogressors. Patients with ERP had a lower median OS (11.2 mo than those without (not reached (p 25% in volume or > 15% in area were most predictive of OS. Conclusions We show that while a subjective interpretation of early radiological progression from baseline is generally associated with poor outcome, true progressors cannot be distinguished from pseudoprogressors. In contrast, the magnitude of early imaging volumetric response may be a predictive and quantitative metric of favorable outcome.

  11. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum.

  12. Growth of bubbles on a solid surface in response to a pressure reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Zhou, Weizheng; Wu, Bo; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2014-04-22

    A diffusion-controlled method is presented to study the growth of bubbles on a solid surface. The bubbles are nucleated spontaneously on a hydrophobic smooth surface in response to a sudden pressure reduction and then grow with an expanding contact line. The evolution of the bubbles in the early stage is found to grow with a constant bubble radius and a decreasing contact angle, while the bubbles continue their growth with a constant contact angle and an increasing bubble radius after the contact angle reaches its equilibrium value. A total variation of about 60° of the contact angle is observed during the growth of the bubbles with the size scale of 10-100 μm in radius. The growing process is described by the diffusion theory with the validation of the growth constant.

  13. Early child growth: how do nutrition and infection interact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Mayers, Daniel R

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that the relationship between child nutrition and infection is bidirectional, i.e. frequent illness can impair nutritional status and poor nutrition can increase the risk of infection. What is less clear is whether infection reduces the effectiveness of nutrition interventions or, vice versa, whether malnutrition lessens the impact of infection control strategies. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence regarding this interaction between nutrition and infection with respect to child growth in low-income populations. Even when there are no obvious symptoms, physiological conditions associated with infections can impair growth by suppressing appetite, impairing absorption of nutrients, increasing nutrient losses and diverting nutrients away from growth. However, there is little direct evidence that nutrition interventions are less effective when infection is common; more research is needed on this question. On the other hand, evidence from four intervention trials suggests that the adverse effects of certain infections (e.g. diarrhoea) on growth can be reduced or eliminated by improving nutrition. Interventions that combine improved nutrition with prevention and control of infections are likely to be most effective for enhancing child growth and development.

  14. Gene regulation in the immediate-early response process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Shahram; Drabløs, Finn

    2016-09-01

    Immediate-early genes (IEGs) can be activated and transcribed within minutes after stimulation, without the need for de novo protein synthesis, and they are stimulated in response to both cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic signals. Extracellular signals are transduced from the cell surface, through receptors activating a chain of proteins in the cell, in particular extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and members of the RhoA-actin pathway. These communicate through a signaling cascade by adding phosphate groups to neighboring proteins, and this will eventually activate and translocate TFs to the nucleus and thereby induce gene expression. The gene activation also involves proximal and distal enhancers that interact with promoters to simulate gene expression. The immediate-early genes have essential biological roles, in particular in stress response, like the immune system, and in differentiation. Therefore they also have important roles in various diseases, including cancer development. In this paper we summarize some recent advances on key aspects of the activation and regulation of immediate-early genes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Identification of Determinate Growth Habit in Lablab Bean (Lablab purpureus (L..) Sweet)

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Nasreen; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Rapid and reliable information for early identification of determinate growth habit is highly desired in the high yielding determinate variety development program. This experiment was conducted to find out some effective morphological markers for the early identification of determinate growth habit of lablab bean. Both determinate and indeterminate plants were grown in 20℃ and 25℃ of phytotron in the summer and winter seasons of two consecutive years. The results of this experiment suggest th...

  16. Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...

  17. Offspring metabolomic response to maternal protein restriction in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Moyon, Thomas; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Coupé, Bérengère; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), along with postnatal growth trajectory, is closely linked with metabolic diseases and obesity at adulthood. The present study reports the time-dependent metabolomic response of male offspring of rat dams exposed to maternal adequate protein diet during pregnancy and lactation (CC) or protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth, RC) or through pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth, RR). Plasma LC-HRMS metabolomic fingerprints for 8 male rats per group, combined with multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA and HCA), were used to study the impact of IUGR and postnatal growth velocity on the offspring metabolism in early life (until weaning) and once they reached adulthood (8 months). Compared with CC rats, RR pups had clear-cut alterations in plasma metabolome during suckling, but none at adulthood; in contrast, in RC pups, alterations in metabolome were minimal in early life but more pronounced in the long run. In particular, our results pinpoint transient alterations in proline, arginine, and histidine in RR rats, compared to CC rats, and persistent differences in tyrosine and carnitine, compared to RC rats at adulthood. These findings suggest that the long-term deregulation in feeding behavior and fatty acid metabolism in IUGR rats depends on postnatal growth velocity.

  18. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  19. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  20. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko Nagy

    Full Text Available Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC, using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 ("T/I" mice. Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 ("T/I-het" dams that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and

  1. Growth Response of Silver Fir and Bosnian Pine from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Toromani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper explore the growth-climate relationships in total ring width chronologies of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ. The objective of this study is to quantify the climate influence on radial growth of both species. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growing years (called pointer years, simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients. The objectives of this study were: (1 to define the pattern of climatic response of each species, (2 to highlight the influence of local ecological conditions on tree's growth, and (3 to compare the response of silver fir and Bosnian pine to climate. Responses of total ring width to climate were estimated by establishing the mean relationship between growth and climate through simple correlations analysis and bootstrapped response functions. The response to climatic variability was also assessed by analyzing pointer years which correspond to abrupt changes in growth pattern and revealing the tree-growth response to extreme climatic events. For the period 1908-2008 the mean sensitivity (MS of total ring width chronology for Bosnian pine (0.209 was higher than silver fir (0.169 suggesting that Bosnian pine is more sensitive to climate (pointer years were more frequent in ring width chronology of Bosnian pine than in silver fir ring width chronology. The high values of first-order autocorrelations for Bosnian pine (0.674 indicated a strong dependence of current growth on the previous year’s growth. Pointer years analysis underlined the high sensitivity to spring temperatures and precipitation for both species. Radial growth for both species depends strongly on spring climate variables (temperatures and precipitation which play a significant role particularly for earlywood production. Material and Methods: We selected 12 silver fir trees and 15 Bosnian pine trees and took two 5

  2. Early Growth and Neurologic Outcomes of Infants with Probable Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jucelia Sousa Santos; Sousa, Patricia da Silva; Doriqui, Maria Juliana Rodvalho; Ribeiro, Marizelia Rodrigues Costa; Branco, Maria dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Pacheco, Maria de Jesus Torres; Vieira da Costa, Flavia Regina; Silva, Francelena de Sousa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Pacheco, Marcos Antonio Barbosa; Lamy-Filho, Fernando; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Soares de Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra

    2016-01-01

    We report the early growth and neurologic findings of 48 infants in Brazil diagnosed with probable congenital Zika virus syndrome and followed to age 1–8 months. Most of these infants had microcephaly (86.7%) and craniofacial disproportion (95.8%). The clinical pattern included poor head growth with increasingly negative z-scores, pyramidal/extrapyramidal symptoms, and epilepsy. PMID:27767931

  3. HSPRO controls early Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth during interaction with the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1(pro)(-)(1)) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica.

  4. Response to three years of growth hormone therapy in girls with Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Kyu; Lee, Hae Sang; Ko, Jung Hee; Hwang, Il Tae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Short stature is the most common finding in patients with Turner syndrome. Improving the final adult height in these patients is a challenge both for the patients and physicians. We investigated the clinical response of patients to growth hormone treatment for height improvement over the period of three years. Methods Review of medical records from 27 patients with Turner syndrome treated with recombinant human growth hormone for more than 3 years was done. Differences in the changes of height standard deviation scores according to karyotype were measured and factors influencing the height changes were analyzed. Results The response to recombinant human growth hormone was an increase in the height of the subjects to a mean value of 1.1 standard deviation for subjects with Turner syndrome at the end of the 3-year treatment. The height increment in the first year was highest. The height standard deviation score in the third year was negatively correlated with the age at the beginning of the recombinant human growth hormone treatment. Different karyotypes in subjects did not seem to affect the height changes. Conclusion Early growth hormone administration in subjects with Turner syndrome is helpful to improve height response to the treatment. PMID:24904845

  5. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  6. Early pregnancy alters the metabolic responses to restricted nutrition in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, C; Abecia, J A; Carriquiry, M; Forcada, F; Martin, G B; Palacín, I; Meikle, A

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether a 27-day period of nutrition at half-maintenance during early pregnancy (up to Day 14) could alter maternal endocrine responses. Forty-six ewes were fed all or half of their maintenance requirements and slaughtered on Day 14 of the oestrous cycle or pregnancy. We used real time RT-PCR to study gene expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin in adipose tissue and GHR, GHR1A and of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the liver. Blood profiles of metabolites and metabolic hormones were also determined. Throughout the experiment, underfed animals presented lower body weight and body condition, greater plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and lower plasma concentrations of leptin, compared to adequately fed animals. Undernutrition affected the patterns of gene expression in adipose and hepatic tissues, and the responses differed between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. In adequately fed ewes, pregnancy up-regulated leptin mRNA expression in adipose tissue, a response that was impaired in underfed ewes. The hepatic expression of IGF-I mRNA was increased by pregnancy in underfed animals while no effect was observed in adequately fed ewes. It remains to be determined whether the changes in the endocrine milieu are paralleled by modifications in uterine gene expression that could alter the environment of the embryo during early pregnancy.

  7. Growth plate cartilage shows different strain patterns in response to static versus dynamic mechanical modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Rosa; Londono, Irene; Parent, Stefan; Moldovan, Florina; Villemure, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Longitudinal growth of long bones and vertebrae occurs in growth plate cartilage. This process is partly regulated by mechanical forces, which are one of the underlying reasons for progression of growth deformities such as idiopathic adolescent scoliosis and early-onset scoliosis. This concept of mechanical modulation of bone growth is also exploited in the development of fusionless treatments of these deformities. However, the optimal loading condition for the mechanical modulation of growth plate remains to be identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro static versus dynamic modulation and of dynamic loading parameters, such as frequency and amplitude, on the mechanical responses and histomorphology of growth plate explants. Growth plate explants from distal ulnae of 4-week-old swines were extracted and randomly distributed among six experimental groups: baseline ([Formula: see text]), control ([Formula: see text]), static ([Formula: see text]) and dynamic ([Formula: see text]). For static and dynamic groups, mechanical modulation was performed in vitro using an Indexed CartiGen bioreactor. A stress relaxation test combined with confocal microscopy and digital image correlation was used to characterize the mechanical responses of each explant in terms of peak stress, equilibrium stress, equilibrium modulus of elasticity and strain pattern. Histomorphometrical measurements were performed on toluidine blue tissue sections using a semi-automatic custom-developed MATLAB toolbox. Results suggest that compared to dynamic modulation, static modulation changes the strain pattern of the tissue and thus is more detrimental for tissue biomechanics, while the histomorphological parameters are not affected by mechanical modulation. Also, under dynamic modulation, changing the frequency or amplitude does not affect the biomechanical response of the tissue. Results of this study will be useful in finding optimal and non-damaging parameters

  8. Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughrabi, Haël

    2015-03-28

    In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling.

  9. Myoferlin is required for insulin-like growth factor response and muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonbreun, Alexis R; Posey, Avery D; Heretis, Konstantina; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Earley, Judy U; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2010-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is a potent stimulus of muscle growth. Myoferlin is a membrane-associated protein important for muscle development and regeneration. Myoferlin-null mice have smaller muscles and defective myoblast fusion. To understand the mechanism by which myoferlin loss retards muscle growth, we found that myoferlin-null muscle does not respond to IGF1. In vivo after IGF1 infusion, control muscle increased myofiber diameter by 25%, but myoferlin-null muscle was unresponsive. Myoblasts cultured from myoferlin-null muscle and treated with IGF1 also failed to show the expected increase in fusion to multinucleate myotubes. The IGF1 receptor colocalized with myoferlin at sites of myoblast fusion. The lack of IGF1 responsiveness in myoferlin-null myoblasts was linked directly to IGF1 receptor mistrafficking as well as decreased IGF1 signaling. In myoferlin-null myoblasts, the IGF1 receptor accumulated into large vesicular structures. These vesicles colocalized with a marker of late endosomes/lysosomes, LAMP2, specifying redirection from a recycling to a degradative pathway. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis showed a marked increase in vacuoles in myoferlin-null muscle. These data demonstrate that IGF1 receptor recycling is required for normal myogenesis and that myoferlin is a critical mediator of postnatal muscle growth mediated by IGF1.-Demonbreun, A. R., Posey, A. D., Heretis, K., Swaggart, K. A., Earley, J. U., Pytel, P., McNally, E. M. Myoferlin is required for insulin-like growth factor response and muscle growth.

  10. Selective impact of early parental responsivity on adolescent stress reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Hackman

    Full Text Available Research in animals has shown that early life experience, particularly parenting behaviors, influences later-life stress reactivity. Despite the tremendous relevance of this finding to human development and brain function, it has not been tested prospectively in humans. In this study two aspects of parenting were measured at age 4 in a sample of healthy, low socioeconomic status, African American children, and stress reactivity was measured in the same children 11-14 years later using a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 55. Salivary cortisol was measured before, during and after the stressor and data were analyzed using piecewise hierarchical linear modeling. Parental responsivity, independent of the use of physical discipline, was positively related to cortisol reactivity. Effects were independent of subjective appraisals of the stressor and were also independent of other environmental risk factors and current psychosocial functioning. Therefore this study demonstrates in a novel and precise fashion that early childhood parental responsivity prospectively and independently predicts stress reactivity in adolescence.

  11. Growth of trees on permafrost: habitat driven response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryukhanova, Marina; Fonti, Patrick; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Pochebit, Natalia; Sidorova, Olga; Prokushkin, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    Global change is expected to alter boreal forest conditions with far reaching consequences for tree growth in these ecosystems. Within this study we aimed at determining which limiting factors control tree-growth on permafrost under different site conditions. A tree-ring multi-proxy characterisation of mature Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. from a continuous permafrost zone of Siberia (Russia, 64°18' N, 100°11' E) was used to identify the physiological principle of responses related to the plant-soil system. Tree-ring width (1975-2009), carbon and oxygen stable isotopes, and xylem structural characteristics (2000-2009) indicated that an increased depth of the soil active layer favors a better exploitation of the available resources. Our study used a mechanistic description of expected soil thermo-hydrological changes associated with a detailed comparison of tree growth responses, and supplied possible scenarios of northern larch stands development under projected climate change and permafrost degradation. By using a "space for time" approach along a 100 m long transect characterized by distinct permafrost regimes combined with measurements of physiological and structural tree responses, it become possible to propose a mechanism responsible for the differing climatic-growth responses. The results obtained indicate global warming to promote large increases in tree productivity of permafrost larch stands with a shift from a cold to a water limited environment. This work was supported by the SNSF (VG IZ76Z0_141967/1, SCOPES IZ73Z0_128035) and grant form the President of the Russian Federation for young scientists 5498.2012.4.

  12. Early growth in children with coeliac disease: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrs, Christian R; Magnus, Maria C; Stigum, Hein; Lundin, Knut E A; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-06-13

    We aimed to study growth during the first 2 years of life in children later diagnosed with coeliac disease compared with children without, in a time with changing epidemiology and improved diagnostics. A prospective population-based pregnancy cohort study. The nationwide Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. 58 675 children born between 2000 and 2009 with prospectively collected growth data. Coeliac disease was identified through combined data from questionnaires and the Norwegian Patient Register. The differences in height and weight at age 0, 3, 6, 8, 12, 15-18 and 24 months using internally standardised age and gender-specific z-scores. Linear regression and mixed models were used. During a median follow-up of 8.6 years (range 4.6-14.2), 440 children (0.8%) were diagnosed with coeliac disease at a mean age of 4.4 years (range 1.5-8.5). Children with coeliac disease had significantly lower z-scores for height from 12 months (-0.09 standard deviation scores (SDS), 95% CI -0.18 to -0.01) and weight from 15 to 18 months of life (-0.09 SDS, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.01) compared with cohort controls. The longitudinal analysis from 0 to 24 months yielded a significant reduction in height z-score per year (-0.07 SDS, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.01) but not for weight among children with coeliac disease. Excluding children diagnosed before age 2 years gave similar results. This study indicates that growth retardation in children later diagnosed with coeliac disease commonly starts at 12 months of age, and precedes clinical symptoms that usually bring the suspicion of diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Early retinal blood vessel growth in normal and growth restricted rat pups raised in oxygen and room air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, C A; Wade, J; Gillespie, T; Aspinall, P; McIntosh, N; Fleck, B W

    2011-11-01

    Premature infants are born with incompletely vascularised retinas and are at a risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Rate of prenatal and postnatal body growth is important in the pathogenesis of ROP. The aim of this study was to develop a physiology-based rat model in order to study the effect of growth restriction and oxygen on early retinal vascular development. Rat mothers were fed either a normal (18% casein) or low (9% casein) protein diet (to cause pup growth restriction) from the last week of gestation. After birth, mother and pups were placed in either room air or a specialised oxygen chamber that delivered a rapidly fluctuating hyperoxic oxygen profile. The oxygen profile was based on that from a premature infant who developed severe ROP. On day 14, retinas were dissected, flat-mounted and stained using biotinylated lectin. Images were captured by confocal microscopy. The avascular areas of the retinas were measured and compared. Growth restricted rat pups had significantly larger retinal avascular areas than 'normally grown' rat pups (Mann-Whitney U test, pair (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.001). The authors have developed a novel model for ROP that involves inducing both intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction and also exposes neonatal rat pups to fluctuating oxygen. This physiology-based model can be used to study the effects of growth, nutrition and oxygen on early retinal vascular development.

  14. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (Pblonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8.

  15. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  16. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  17. Compensatory placental growth after restricted maternal nutrition in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumey, L H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of undernutrition in pregnancy on fetal and placental growth among infants born in 1944-1946 in The Netherlands, including infants born during the war-induced Dutch famine of 1944-1945. There was an increase in placental weight, but not in birthweight, in infants whose mothers' nutrition was compromised around conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental index was also increased. Compared to pre-famine controls, the relative increase after first trimester exposure to undernutrition was larger in the northern part of the country (5.2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.4, 9.0) where nutritional deprivation was presumably moderate compared to the west (3.5 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.2, 7.2) where nutritional deprivation was severe. The increase in placental weight is interpreted as compensatory for the reduction in maternal caloric intake. Whereas this suggests that pregnancy undernutrition can stimulate compensatory placental growth, the latter was only seen after first trimester undernutrition, which does not affect infant size at birth. For these infants, therefore, birthweight is not an appropriate proxy measure of undernutrition in pregnancy. These factors need to be considered in future studies relating pregnancy nutrition to adult health outcomes.

  18. Early transcriptional response of soybean contrasting accessions to root dehydration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Costa Ferreira Neto

    Full Text Available Drought is a significant constraint to yield increase in soybean. The early perception of water deprivation is critical for recruitment of genes that promote plant tolerance. DeepSuperSAGE libraries, including one control and a bulk of six stress times imposed (from 25 to 150 min of root dehydration for drought-tolerant and sensitive soybean accessions, allowed to identify new molecular targets for drought tolerance. The survey uncovered 120,770 unique transcripts expressed by the contrasting accessions. Of these, 57,610 aligned with known cDNA sequences, allowing the annotation of 32,373 unitags. A total of 1,127 unitags were up-regulated only in the tolerant accession, whereas 1,557 were up-regulated in both as compared to their controls. An expression profile concerning the most representative Gene Ontology (GO categories for the tolerant accession revealed the expression "protein binding" as the most represented for "Molecular Function", whereas CDPK and CBL were the most up-regulated protein families in this category. Furthermore, particular genes expressed different isoforms according to the accession, showing the potential to operate in the distinction of physiological behaviors. Besides, heat maps comprising GO categories related to abiotic stress response and the unitags regulation observed in the expression contrasts covering tolerant and sensitive accessions, revealed the unitags potential for plant breeding. Candidate genes related to "hormone response" (LOX, ERF1b, XET, "water response" (PUB, BMY, "salt stress response" (WRKY, MYB and "oxidative stress response" (PER figured among the most promising molecular targets. Additionally, nine transcripts (HMGR, XET, WRKY20, RAP2-4, EREBP, NAC3, PER, GPX5 and BMY validated by RT-qPCR (four different time points confirmed their differential expression and pointed that already after 25 minutes a transcriptional reorganization started in response to the new condition, with important

  19. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishi T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Taro Kishi,1 Yuki Matsuda,1 Kiyoshi Fujita,2,3 Nakao Iwata1 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3The Neuroscience Research Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Background: Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8.Results: Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia, and 28 (75.7% completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score (P<0.0001 and in positive (P<0.0001, negative (P<0.0001, and general subscale scores (P<0.0001. In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and

  20. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence...... in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other...... mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results...

  1. Early treatment with metformin induces resistance against tumor growth in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, Amanda B; Franco, Claudinéia Cs; Miranda, Rosiane A; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; Prates, Kelly V; de Souza, Aline A; Pavanello, Audrei; Malta, Ananda; Almeida, Douglas L; Tófolo, Laize P; Rigo, Kesia P; Ribeiro, Tatiane As; Fabricio, Gabriel S; de Sant'Anna, Juliane R; Castro-Prado, Marialba Aa; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Morais, Hely; Mathias, Paulo Cf

    2015-01-01

    It is known that antidiabetic drug metformin, which is used worldwide, has anti-cancer effects and can be used to prevent cancer growth. We tested the hypothesis that tumor cell growth can be inhibited by early treatment with metformin. For this purpose, adult rats chronically treated with metformin in adolescence or in adulthood were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Adult rats that were treated with metformin during adolescence presented inhibition of tumor growth, and animals that were treated during adult life did not demonstrate any changes in tumor growth. Although we do not have data to disclose a molecular mechanism to the preventive metformin effect, we present, for the first time, results showing that cancer growth in adult life is dependent on early life intervention, thus supporting a new therapeutic prevention for cancer.

  2. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  3. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Lin, Xin; Li, Ling; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P) nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta). Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella) could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana) and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina) regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae) exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine phytoplankton

  4. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta. Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine

  5. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398‑3559, and IRAS 16253‑2429 at resolutions of ∼100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398‑3559 and IRAS 16253‑2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398‑3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253‑2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398‑3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253‑2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  6. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Ascough, P.L.; Sturrock, C. J.; Bird, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C and 15N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood, and charcoal from the same speci...

  7. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal and fetal risk factors affecting perinatal mortality in early and late fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Oya; Selçuk, Selçuk; Kumru, Pınar; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Boza, Barış; Türkyılmaz, Gürcan; Bütün, Zafer; Arısoy, Resul; Tandoğan, Bülent

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors which affect the perinatal deaths in early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses using threshold of estimated fetal weight (EFW) fetuses, defined as an EFW fetuses considered as growth restrictions were confirmed by birth weight. Fetuses with multiple pregnancy, congenital malformation, chromosomal abnormality, and premature rupture of membrane were excluded. Samples were grouped in early and late FGR. Early FGR fetuses was classified as gestational age at birth ≤ 34 weeks and late FGR was classified as gestational age at birth > 34 weeks. Factors which affect the perinatal deaths were analyzed descriptively in early and late FGR. The perinatal mortality was calculated by adding the number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The study included 86 early and 185 late FGR fetuses, 31 resulted in perinatal deaths, 28 perinatal deaths were in early FGR, and three perinatal deaths were in late FGR. Perinatal deaths occurred more commonly in early FGR fetuses with an EFW death in early FGR. All three perinatal deaths in late FGR occurred in fetuses with EFW death was found significantly higher in increased vascular impedance of UtAs whatever the umbilical artery Doppler. Only EFW death in late FGR in comparison with early FGR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Growth hormone response to feeding in term and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, T E; Lucas, A; Bloom, S R; Aynsley-Green, A

    1983-03-01

    Plasma growth hormone concentrations were measured in 248 healthy term and preterm infants. At birth growth hormone concentrations in cord blood from both term and preterm babies were approximately 100-fold higher than those in blood drawn from healthy adults. By the sixth postnatal day basal pre-feed levels had fallen in term neonates by 65% and a marked postprandial rise was apparent; preterm infants did not show this initial fall in preprandial hormone levels nor was any response to feeding seen. However a fall in preprandial concentrations accompanied by the development of postprandial surges in growth hormone occurred during the next 2 weeks so that by 24 days the postprandial rise was similar to that of term neonates on the sixth day. We conclude that although the initial postnatal changes in plasma growth hormone concentrations are different in preterm and term infants, feeding is a major stimulus to growth hormone secretion in both groups of neonates. Further work is needed to define the precise role of this hormone in neonatal metabolic adaptation.

  10. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  11. Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2011-02-01

    As in industrial and engineering systems, there is a need to quantitatively study and analyze the many constituents of complex natural biological systems as well as agro-ecosystems via research-based mechanistic modeling. This objective is normally addressed by developing mathematically built descriptions of multilevel biological processes to provide biologists a means to integrate quantitatively experimental research findings that might lead to a better understanding of the whole systems and their interactions with surrounding environments. Aided with the power of computational capacities associated with computer technology then available, pioneering cropping systems simulations took place in the second half of the 20th century by several research groups across continents. This overview summarizes that initial pioneering effort made to simulate plant growth and photosynthesis of crop canopies, focusing on the discovery of gaps that exist in the current scientific knowledge. Examples are given for those gaps where experimental research was needed to improve the validity and application of the constructed models, so that their benefit to mankind was enhanced. Such research necessitates close collaboration among experimentalists and model builders while adopting a multidisciplinary/inter-institutional approach.

  12. Early Growth of Massive Black Holes in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J M; Yan, C S; Hu, C

    2007-01-01

    Episodic activity of quasars is driving growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) via accretion of baryon gas. In this Letter, we develop a simple method to analyse the duty cycle of quasars up to redshift $z\\sim 6$ universe from luminosity functions (LFs). We find that the duty cycle below redshift $z\\sim 2$ follows the cosmic history of star formation rate (SFR) density. Beyond $z\\sim 2$, the evolutionary trends of the duty cycle are just opposite to that of the cosmic SFR density history, implying the role of feedback from black hole activity. With the duty cycle, we get the net lifetime of quasars ($z\\le 5$) about $\\sim 10^9$yrs. Based on the local SMBHs, the mean mass of SMBHs is obtained at any redshifts and their seeds are of $10^5\\sunm$ at the reionization epoch ($z_{\\rm re}$) of the universe through the conservation of the black hole number density in comoving frame. We find that primordial black holes ($\\sim 10^3\\sunm$) are able to grow up to the seeds via a moderate super-Eddington accretion of $\\...

  13. Human Macrophage Response to L. (Viannia) panamensis: Microarray Evidence for an Early Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ricardo; Ettinger, Nicholas A.; Tikhonova, Irina; Alexander, Neal D.; Valderrama, Liliana; Hager, Janet; Wilson, Mary E.; Lin, Aiping; Zhao, Hongyu; Saravia, Nancy G.; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous findings indicate that susceptibility to Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infection of monocyte-derived macrophages from patients and asymptomatically infected individuals were associated with the adaptive immune response and clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the basis for this difference we examined differential gene expression of human monocyte-derived macrophages following exposure to L. (V.) panamensis. Gene activation profiles were determined using macrophages from healthy volunteers cultured with or without stationary phase promastigotes of L. (V.) panamensis. Significant changes in expression (>1.5-fold change; p<0.05; up- or down-regulated) were identified at 0.5, 4 and 24 hours. mRNA abundance profiles varied over time, with the highest level of activation occurring at earlier time points (0.5 and 4 hrs). In contrast to observations for other Leishmania species, most significantly changed mRNAs were up- rather than down-regulated, especially at early time points. Up-regulated transcripts over the first 24 hours belonged to pathways involving eicosanoid metabolism, oxidative stress, activation of PKC through G protein coupled receptors, or mechanism of gene regulation by peroxisome proliferators via PPARα. Additionally, a marked activation of Toll-receptor mediated pathways was observed. Comparison with published microarray data from macrophages infected with L. (Leishmania) chagasi indicate differences in the regulation of genes involved in signaling, motility and the immune response. Conclusions Results show that the early (0.5 to 24 hours) human monocyte-derived macrophage response to L. (Viannia) panamensis is not quiescent, in contrast to published reports examining later response times (48–96 hours). Early macrophage responses are important for the developing cellular response at the site of infection. The kinetics and the mRNA abundance profiles induced by L. (Viannia) panamensis illustrate the

  14. Treatment of Glucocorticoids Inhibited Early Immune Responses and Impaired Cardiac Repair in Adult Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chang Huang

    Full Text Available Myocardial injury, such as myocardial infarction (MI, can lead to drastic heart damage. Zebrafish have the extraordinary ability to regenerate their heart after a severe injury. Upon ventricle resection, fibrin clots seal the wound and serve as a matrix for recruiting myeloid-derived phagocytes. Accumulated neutrophils and macrophages not only reduce the risk of infection but also secrete cytokines and growth factors to promote tissue repair. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for how immune responses are regulated during the early stages of cardiac repair are still unclear. We investigated the role and programming of early immune responses during zebrafish heart regeneration. We found that zebrafish treated with an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid had significantly reduced heart regenerative capacities, consistent with findings in other higher vertebrates. Moreover, inhibiting the inflammatory response led to excessive collagen deposition. A microarray approach was used to assess the differential expression profiles between zebrafish hearts with normal or impaired healing. Combining cytokine profiling and immune-staining, our data revealed that impaired heart regeneration could be due to reduced phagocyte recruitment, leading to diminished angiogenesis and cell proliferation post-cardiac injury. Despite their robust regenerative ability, our study revealed that glucocorticoid treatment could effectively hinder cardiac repair in adult zebrafish by interfering with the inflammatory response. Our findings may help to clarify the initiation of cardiac repair, which could be used to develop a therapeutic intervention that may enhance cardiac repair in humans to compensate for the loss of cardiomyocytes after an MI.

  15. Growth Factor Liberation and DPSC Response Following Dentine Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghiani, L; Gleeson, H B; Youde, S; Waddington, R J; Lynch, C D; Sloan, A J

    2016-10-01

    Liberation of the sequestrated bioactive molecules from dentine by the action of applied dental materials has been proposed as an important mechanism in inducing a dentinogenic response in teeth with viable pulps. Although adhesive restorations and dentine-bonding procedures are routinely practiced, clinical protocols to improve pulp protection and dentine regeneration are not currently driven by biological knowledge. This study investigated the effect of dentine (powder and slice) conditioning by etchants/conditioners relevant to adhesive restorative systems on growth factor solubilization and odontoblast-like cell differentiation of human dental pulp progenitor cells (DPSCs). The agents included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; 10%, pH 7.2), phosphoric acid (37%, pH EDTA, phosphoric acid, and citric acid from powdered dentine. The dentine matrix extracts were shown to be bioactive, capable of stimulating odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation as observed by gene expression and phenotypic changes in DPSCs cultured in monolayer on plastic. Polyacrylic acid failed to solubilize proteins from powdered dentine and was therefore considered ineffective in triggering a growth factor-mediated response in cells. The study went on to investigate the effect of conditioning dentine slices on growth factor liberation and DPSC behavior. Conditioning by EDTA, phosphoric acid, and citric acid exposed growth factors on dentine and triggered an upregulation in genes associated with mineralized differentiation, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase in DPSCs cultured on dentine. The cells demonstrated odontoblast-like appearances with elongated bodies and long extracellular processes extending on dentine surface. However, phosphoric acid-treated dentine appeared strikingly less populated with cells, suggesting a detrimental impact on cell attachment and growth when conditioning by this agent. These findings take crucial steps in informing clinical practice on dentine

  16. Catch-up growth in early treated patients with growth hormone deficiency. Dutch Growth Hormone Working Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, B.; Rikken, B.; Wit, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Catch-up growth of 26 children with growth hormone deficiency during four years of growth hormone treatment, which was started young (< 3 years), was compared with that of 16 children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet. In children with growth hormone deficiency mean (SD) height SD score increased from -4.3 (1.8) to -1.9 (1.4) and in patients with coeliac disease from -1.8 (0.9) to -0.1 (0.8). Height SD score after four years correlated positively with injection frequency and height S...

  17. Responses of vegetation growth to climate change in china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Zhou, T.

    2015-04-01

    Global warming-related climate changes have significantly impacted the growth of terrestrial vegetation. Quantifying the spatiotemporal characteristic of the vegetation's response to climate is crucial for assessing the potential impacts of climate change on vegetation. In this study, we employed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) that was calculated for various time scales (1 to 12 months) from monthly records of mean temperature and precipitation totals using 511 meteorological stations in China to study the response of vegetation types to droughts. We separated the NDVI into 12 time series (one per month) and also used the SPEI of 12 droughts time scales to make the correlation. The results showed that the differences exist in various vegetation types. For needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland, they responded to droughts at long time scales (9 to 12 months). For grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation, they responded to droughts at short time scales (1 to 5months). The positive correlations were mostly found in arid and sub-arid environments where soil water was a primary constraining factor for plant growth, and the negative correlations always existed in humid environments where temperature and radiation played significant roles in vegetation growth. Further spatial analysis indicated that the positive correlations were primarily found in northern China, especially in northwestern China, which is a region that always has water deficit, and the negative correlations were found in southern China, especially in southeastern China, that is a region has water surplus most of the year. The disclosed patterns of spatiotemporal responses to droughts are important for studying the impact of climate change to vegetation growth.

  18. Genotypic Differences in Growth and Physiological Responses to Transplanting and Direct Seeding Cultivation in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song; CAI Sheng-guan; CHEN Xin; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2009-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted to investigate the growth and physiological responses of six super hybrid rice combinations to two planting methods, transplanting (TP) and direct seeding (DS) during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. The 1000-grain weight and number of tillers per plant at the early growth stage, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and transpiration rate (Tr) were higher in DS plants than in TP ones, whereas the grain yield, number of panicles per square meter, seed setting rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance were lower in DS plants. However, little difference was detected in number of grains per panicle, stem (shoot) and leaf weight between the combinations in the two planting methods. The responses of plant growth and physiological traits to planting method differed greatly among the six combinations. In both planting methods, Chouyou 58 and Yongyou 6 had the highest and lowest panicle biomass and Pn, respectively. The higher yield of Chunyou 58 was associated with more numbers of panicles per square meter and grains per panicle in both planting methods. The results indicate that lower grain yield in DS relative to TP is attributed to more excessive tillers at the early stage, lower leaf biomass and photosynthetic rate at the late stage.

  19. Climate-induced larch growth response within the central Siberian permafrost zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Il'ya A.

    2015-12-01

    Aim: estimation of larch (Larix gmelinii) growth response to current climate changes. Location: permafrost area within the northern part of Central Siberia (˜65.8°N, 98.5°E). Method: analysis of dendrochronological data, climate variables, drought index SPEI, GPP (gross primary production) and EVI vegetation index (both Aqua/MODIS satellite derived), and soil water content anomalies (GRACE satellite measurements of equivalent water thickness anomalies, EWTA). Results: larch tree ring width (TRW) correlated with previous year August precipitation (r = 0.63), snow accumulation (r = 0.61), soil water anomalies (r = 0.79), early summer temperatures and water vapor pressure (r = 0.73 and r = 0.69, respectively), May and June drought index (r = 0.68-0.82). There are significant positive trends of TRW since late 1980 s and GPP since the year 2000. Mean TRW increased by about 50%, which is similar to post-Little Ice Age warming. TRW correlated with GPP and EVI of larch stands (r = 0.68-0.69). Main conclusions: within the permafrost zone of central Siberia larch TRW growth is limited by early summer temperatures, available water from snowmelt, water accumulated within soil in the previous year, and permafrost thaw water. Water stress is one of the limiting factors of larch growth. Larch TRW growth and GPP increased during recent decades.

  20. Climate-Induced Larch Growth Response Within the Central Siberian Permafrost Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Il'ya A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: estimation of larch (Larix gmelinii) growth response to current climate changes. Location: permafrost area within the northern part of Central Siberia (approximately 65.8 deg N, 98.5 deg E). Method: analysis of dendrochronological data, climate variables, drought index SPEI, GPP (gross primary production) and EVI vegetation index (both Aqua/MODIS satellite derived), and soil water content anomalies (GRACE satellite measurements of equivalent water thickness anomalies, EWTA). Results: larch tree ring width (TRW) correlated with previous year August precipitation (r = 0.63), snow accumulation (r = 0.61), soil water anomalies (r = 0.79), early summer temperatures and water vapor pressure (r = 0.73 and r = 0.69, respectively), May and June drought index (r = 0.68-0.82). There are significant positive trends of TRW since late 1980s and GPP since the year 2000. Mean TRW increased by about 50%, which is similar to post-Little Ice Age warming. TRW correlated with GPP and EVI of larch stands (r = 0.68-0.69). Main conclusions: within the permafrost zone of central Siberia larch TRW growth is limited by early summer temperatures, available water from snowmelt, water accumulated within soil in the previous year, and permafrost thaw water. Water stress is one of the limiting factors of larch growth. Larch TRW growth and GPP increased during recent decades.

  1. Seed Priming Influence on Early Crop Growth, Phenological Development and Yield Performance of Linola (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafeez ur Rehman; Muhammad Qaiser Nawaz; Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra; Irfan Afzal; Azra Yasmeen; Fayyaz ul-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Reduced early crop growth and limited branching are amongst yield limiting factors of linola. Field response of seed priming treatments viz. 50 mmol L-1 salicylic acid (SA), 2.2%CaCl2 and 3.3%moringa leaf extract (MLE) including untreated dry and hydropriming controls was evaluated on early crop growth and yield performance of linola. Osmopriming with CaCl2 reduced emergence time and produced the highest seedling fresh and dry weights including Chl. a contents. Osmopriming with CaCl2 reduced crop branching and lfowering and maturity times and had the maximum plant height, number of branches, tillers, pods and seeds per pod followed by MLE. Increase in seed weight, biological and seed yields was 9.30, 34.16 and 39.49%, harvest index (4.12%) and oil contents (13.39%) for CaCl2 osmopriming. Positive relationship between emergence and seedling vigor traits, 100-seed weight, seed yield with maturity time, 100-seed weight and seed yield were found. The study concludes that seed osmopriming with CaCl2 or MLE can play signiifcant role to improve early crop growth and seed yields of linola.

  2. 真核表达质粒pcDNA 3.1/EGR-1的构建和体外效应研究%The constructed eukaryotic expression vector of early growth response gene-1 and its effects in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢美松; 肖兰; 徐艳; 胡建莉

    2009-01-01

    目的 构建早期生长反应基因(early growth response gene-1,EGR-1)真核表达载体,体外观察其对卵巢癌紫杉醇耐药细胞A2780/Taxol的影响.方法 将EGR-1基因重组于pcDNA 3.1质粒中,稳定转染A2780/Taxol细胞,流式细胞仪检测转染对A2780/Taxol细胞凋亡的影响;四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法观察A2780/Taxol细胞对紫杉醇的半数抑制浓度(IC50);RT-PCR检测转染前后EGR-1及MDR1 mRNA的表达水平.结果 经酶切和测序鉴定,成功构建质粒peDNA 3.1/EGR-1;RT-PCR显示,外源性EGR-1基因已整合于A2780/Taxol细胞并获稳定表达;转染使细胞凋亡明显增加(P<0.01);恢复A2780/Taxol细胞对紫杉醇药物敏感性;MDR1 mRNA表达显著下调.结论 转染EGR-1可降低A2780/Taxol凋亡的阈值和下调MDRl的表达,从而减少A2780/Taxol细胞对紫杉醇的耐受性.

  3. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Etiene F; Guerra-Sommer, Margot

    2011-06-01

    Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil) has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.

  4. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress.

  5. Early life arsenic exposure, infant and child growth, and morbidity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Granberg, Caroline; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-09-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a negative association between early life arsenic exposure and fetal size at birth, and subsequently with child morbidity and growth. However, our understanding of the relationship between arsenic exposure and morbidity and growth is limited. This paper aims to systematically review original human studies with an analytical epidemiological study design that have assessed arsenic exposure in fetal life or early childhood and evaluated the association with one or several of the following outcomes: fetal growth, birth weight or other birth anthropometry, infant and child growth, infectious disease morbidity in infancy and early childhood. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, TOXLINE, Web of Science, SciFinder and Scopus databases filtered for human studies. Based on the predefined eligibility criteria, two authors independently evaluated the studies. A total of 707 studies with morbidity outcomes were identified, of which six studies were eligible and included in this review. For the growth outcomes, a total of 2959 studies were found and nine fulfilled the criteria and were included in the review. A majority of the papers (10/15) emanated from Bangladesh, three from the USA, one from Romania and one from Canada. All included studies on arsenic exposure and morbidity showed an increased risk of respiratory tract infections and diarrhea. The findings in the studies of arsenic exposure and fetal, infant, and child growth were heterogeneous. Arsenic exposure was not associated with fetal growth. There was limited evidence of negative associations between arsenic exposures and birth weight and growth during early childhood. More studies from arsenic-affected low- and middle-income countries are needed to support the generalizability of study findings.

  6. Myoferlin is required for insulin-like growth factor response and muscle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonbreun, Alexis R.; Posey, Avery D.; Heretis, Konstantina; Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Earley, Judy U.; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is a potent stimulus of muscle growth. Myoferlin is a membrane-associated protein important for muscle development and regeneration. Myoferlin-null mice have smaller muscles and defective myoblast fusion. To understand the mechanism by which myoferlin loss retards muscle growth, we found that myoferlin-null muscle does not respond to IGF1. In vivo after IGF1 infusion, control muscle increased myofiber diameter by 25%, but myoferlin-null muscle was unresponsive. Myoblasts cultured from myoferlin-null muscle and treated with IGF1 also failed to show the expected increase in fusion to multinucleate myotubes. The IGF1 receptor colocalized with myoferlin at sites of myoblast fusion. The lack of IGF1 responsiveness in myoferlin-null myoblasts was linked directly to IGF1 receptor mistrafficking as well as decreased IGF1 signaling. In myoferlin-null myoblasts, the IGF1 receptor accumulated into large vesicular structures. These vesicles colocalized with a marker of late endosomes/lysosomes, LAMP2, specifying redirection from a recycling to a degradative pathway. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis showed a marked increase in vacuoles in myoferlin-null muscle. These data demonstrate that IGF1 receptor recycling is required for normal myogenesis and that myoferlin is a critical mediator of postnatal muscle growth mediated by IGF1.—Demonbreun, A. R., Posey, A. D., Heretis, K., Swaggart, K. A., Earley, J. U., Pytel, P., McNally, E. M. Myoferlin is required for insulin-like growth factor response and muscle growth. PMID:20008164

  7. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  8. Timing of Drought Triggers Distinct Growth Responses in Holm Oak: Implications to Predict Warming-Induced Forest Defoliation and Growth Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Julio Camarero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Droughts negatively impact forests by reducing growth and increasing defoliation leading to forest dieback as the climate becomes warmer and drier. However, the timing and severity of droughts determine how differently or intensively water shortage affects primary (shoot and leaf formation and secondary growth (stem radial growth based on tree-ring widths. We compare the impact of two severe droughts (2005, 2012, showing different climatic characteristics on the growth responses of three Mediterranean holm oak stands in northeastern Spain. We also quantify climate trends and drought severity. Then, we use remote sensing data to infer how those droughts impacted forest productivity. Both droughts were characterized by warm and dry spring conditions leading to reduced budburst, low shoot production, asynchrony in primary growth and decreased productivity and scarce radial growth, particularly in 2005. However, defoliation peaked in 2012 when radial growth showed minimum values and early spring and late summer temperatures reached maximum values. We discuss how uncoupled and resilient are the responses of primary and secondary growth to drought. Finally, these findings are used to gain insight into the drought-related drivers of defoliation in Spanish holm oak forests.

  9. Growth response of a deep-water ferromanganese crust to evolution of the Neogene Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.

    in the vertical distance between the seafloor depth and the CCD during the early Miocene in addition to the influx of oxygenated bottom-water likely initiated Fe–Mn crust formation. Pillar structure characterises the younger zone, which extends from 40 mm... with low detritus. Therefore, the younger crust started to accrete in response to a shift in bottom-water circulation towards the contemporary pattern, which produced a uniform growth rate and pillar structure up to the present. q 2000 Published by Elsevier...

  10. Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation to identify epileptogenic cortex: Clinical information obtained from early evoked responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, B.E.; van 't Klooster, M.A.; Keizer, D.; Hebbink, Gerrit Jan; Leijten, F.S.; Ferrier, C.H.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Zijlmans, M.; Huiskamp, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation (SPES) probes epileptogenic cortex during electrocorticography. Two SPES responses are described: pathological delayed responses (DR, >100 ms) associated with the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and physiological early responses (ER, <100 ms) that map cortical

  11. Single pulse electrical stimulation to identify epileptogenic cortex: Clinical information obtained from early evoked responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, B.E.; van 't Klooster, M.A.; Keizer, D.; Hebbink, Gerrit Jan; Leijten, F.S.S.; Ferrier, C.H.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Zijlmans, M.; Huiskamp, G.J.M.

    Objective: Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation (SPES) probes epileptogenic cortex during electrocorticography. Two SPES responses are described: pathological delayed responses (DR, >100 ms) associated with the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and physiological early responses (ER, <100 ms) that map cortical

  12. Responsive parenting: establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R

    2006-07-01

    Mothers whose infants varied in early biological characteristics (born at term, n = 120; born at very low birth weight [VLBW], n = 144) were randomized to a target group (n = 133) or developmental feedback comparison group (n = 131) to determine whether learning responsive behaviors would facilitate infant development. The target condition included videotaped examples, problem-solving activities, and mothers' critique of their own behaviors through video procedures across 10 home visits. All target versus comparison mothers showed greater increases across multiple responsiveness behaviors observed in 4 assessments conducted across 6-13 months of age; changes in emotionally supportive behaviors were strongest for target mothers of infants born at VLBW. Increased maternal responsiveness facilitated greater growth in target infants' social, emotional, communication, and cognitive competence, supporting a causal role for responsiveness on infant development. Although benefits were generally comparable across risk groups, aspects of social and emotional skills showed greater change for those born at VLBW. Evidence for responsiveness as a multidimensional construct was provided as well as the importance of different aspects of responsiveness mediating the effect of the intervention on different infant skill domains.

  13. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the insulin gene with chicken early growth and fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, F F; Nie, Q H; Luo, C L; Zhang, D X; Lin, S M; Zhang, X Q

    2006-06-01

    Growth rate, body composition, and fat deposition are important traits in chickens. Insulin plays important roles in hepatic cells, muscle cells, and adipose tissue cells. The purpose of the present study was to analyze association of the insulin (INS) gene with chicken growth and body composition traits. Using a F2 design resource population constructed with the crossing of Chinese native Xinghua chickens and White Recessive Rock chickens, the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; A+428G, C+1549T, T+3737C, and A+3971G) of INS gene with 13 growth and body composition traits was studied. The T+3737C genotypes were significantly associated with small intestine length (P = 0.0002), and the A+3971G genotypes were significantly associated with early growth (hatch weight and BW at 28 d of age) (P 0.05). The haplotypes based on the 4 SNP were also significantly associated with early growth (hatch weight and BW at 28 d of age; P < 0.0001) and breast angle (P < 0.0001) but not with small intestine length (P = 0.0505). These results suggested that variation of the insulin gene was significantly associated with chicken early growth but not with fat deposition. In addition, the data from the present study supported the inference that both the one-SNP-at-a-time and the haplotype-based approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages when association analysis of one SNP and haplotypes with chicken complex traits was conducted.

  14. Predictors of Insulin Like Growth Factor-I responses to Growth Hormone replacement in young adults with Growth Hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Thankamony, Ajay; Capalbo, Donatella; Jonsson, Peter J.; Simpson, Helen L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Karger Publishers. Background/Aims: Physiological growth hormone (GH) secretion and IGF-I levels are greater in young compared to older adults. We evaluated IGF-I levels and predictors of IGF-I responses in young adults on GH replacement. Design: From KIMS database, 310 young adults (age, 15 26 years) with the severe GH deficiency related to childhood-onset disease, and commenced ...

  15. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de la serrana, Daniel; Vieira, Vera L A; Andree, Karl B; Darias, Maria; Estévez, Alicia; Gisbert, Enric; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range) were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1) (non-satiation feeding, NSF) for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F) and then fed to satiation (SF) for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range) (LT) or 21-22°C (range) (HT) to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  16. Response to selection of growth traits in Aceh cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Pintaka Bayu Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find out the genetic progress for Aceh cattle by several growth traits selection such as birth weight (BW, weaning weight (WW, yearling weight (YW, mature weight (MW of does to identify the best selection response from bulls and cows breeding patterns. The recorded data of production and reproduction of Aceh cattle from 2010 to 2014 at breeding centre were analyzed and used as a technical coefficient on estimate heritability (h2, genetic correlation (rG, direct selection response (RY and correlated selection response (CRY on several breeding patterns. Most of h2 and rG value among growth traits were positive and high. The highest value of Ry found on BW (0.04, WW (1.21, YW (2.05, MW (3.28 and this was obtained on breeding pattern for 3 years and cow for 6 years. The indirect selection or CRY value based on BW were lower than WW. It is concluded that WW might be used as selection criterion in order to increase WW, YW and MW.

  17. Storey building early monitoring based on rapid seismic response analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Musa, Admiral; Sunardi, Bambang; Rudyanto, Ariska

    2016-05-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method.The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration give a different viewpoint of building dynamic because duration of Kebumen earthquake shows the highest energy in the highest floor but Pandeglang and Lebak earthquake in the lowest floor. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the

  18. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Caroline; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André Krumel; Filion, Françoise; Johnston, Celeste C.; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r = 0.864, P = 0.001), without correlation when the solution given is water (r = 0.314, P = 0.455). In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals. PMID:22851979

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  20. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant’s Growth Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles. PMID:28066483

  1. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  2. Association Between Early Life Growth and Blood Pressure Trajectories in Black South African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Munthali, Richard J; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-11-01

    Early growth is associated with blood pressure measured on one occasion, but whether early life growth patterns are associated with longitudinal blood pressure trajectories is under-researched. Therefore, we sought to examine the association between early growth and blood pressure trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Blood pressure was measured on 7 occasions between ages 5 and 18 years in the Birth to Twenty cohort study, and conditional variables for growth in infancy and mid-childhood were computed from anthropometric measures (n=1937, 52% girls). We used a group-based trajectory modeling approach to identify distinct height-adjusted blood pressure trajectories and then tested their association with growth between birth and mid-childhood adjusting for several covariates. Three trajectory groups were identified for systolic and diastolic blood pressure: lower, middle, and upper in boys and girls, separately. In boys, predictors of the middle or upper systolic blood pressure trajectories versus the lower trajectory were in birth weight (odds ratio 0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.58-0.96] per SD) and relative weight gain in infancy (4.11 [1.25-13.51] per SD). In girls, greater relative weight gain and linear growth in both infancy and mid-childhood were consistently associated with an almost 2-fold higher likelihood of being in the upper versus lower systolic blood pressure trajectory. The associations for the diastolic blood pressure trajectories were inconsistent. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying children at risk of progression to high blood pressure. Accelerated growth in infancy and mid-childhood may be a key target for early life intervention in prevention of elevated blood pressure progression. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge in rural Kenya: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammy, Diana Mawia; Chege, Margaret Njambi; Oyieke, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Prematurity is the single most important cause of mortality during the neonatal period. The early growth of these infants has been shown to be a predictor of their later growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge at the Kitui District Hospital, Kenya. A short longitudinal study design was adopted to execute the study. During the period of April and June 2014, all the preterm infants who were discharged from the Kitui District Hospital Newborn Unit were enrolled in the study by obtaining written informed consent from their guardians. The anthropometric measurements of these infants were taken at discharge and repeated two weeks later at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic and the Maternal Child health Clinic. A questionnaire guided interview was held with the guardians to establish infant and maternal characteristics which influenced the infants' early growth. A total of 112 participants were enrolled for the study with 106 (94.4%) of them being available for reassessment after two weeks. Majority (72.6%) had deficit in growth by failing to attain the recommended WHO average weight gain of 15g/kg/day. Most of the mothers (63.4%) were between the ages of 20-29 years with half of them being first time mothers. Many of them (66.1%) had only attained primary education and were married (66.1%) to self-employed husbands (56%). Most of the preterm infants at discharge were females who were born between 33 and 36 weeks gestation. Growth deficit was present in the majority and gestational age at birth was a major determinant of the early growth in these preterm infants.

  4. Tissue growth pressure drives early blood flow in the chicken yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin; Cornelissen, Annemiek J M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how molecular and physical cues orchestrate vascular morphogenesis is a challenge for developmental biology. Only little attention has been paid to the impact of mechanical stress caused by tissue growth on early blood distribution. Here we study the peripheral accumulation of blood in the chicken embryonic yolk sac, which precedes sinus vein formation. We report that blood accumulation starts before heart-induced blood circulation. We hypothesized that the driving force for the primitive blood flow is a growth-induced gradient of tissue pressure in the yolk sac mesoderm. Therefore, we studied embryos in which heart development was arrested after 2 days of incubation, and found that yolk sac growth and blood peripheral accumulation still occurred. This suggests that tissue growth is sufficient to initiate the flow and the formation of the sinus vein, whereas heart contractions are not required. We designed a simple mathematical model which makes explicit the growth-induced pressure gradient and the subsequent blood accumulation, and show that growth can indeed account for the observed blood accumulation. This study shows that tissue growth pressure can drive early blood flow, and suggests that the mechanical environment, beyond hemodynamics, can contribute to vascular morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 246:573-584, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. STATISTICAL GROWTH MODELING OF LONGITUDINAL DT-MRI FOR REGIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY BRAIN DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Fletcher, P Thomas; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

    2012-01-01

    A population growth model that represents the growth trajectories of individual subjects is critical to study and understand neurodevelopment. This paper presents a framework for jointly estimating and modeling individual and population growth trajectories, and determining significant regional differences in growth pattern characteristics applied to longitudinal neuroimaging data. We use non-linear mixed effect modeling where temporal change is modeled by the Gompertz function. The Gompertz function uses intuitive parameters related to delay, rate of change, and expected asymptotic value; all descriptive measures which can answer clinical questions related to growth. Our proposed framework combines nonlinear modeling of individual trajectories, population analysis, and testing for regional differences. We apply this framework to the study of early maturation in white matter regions as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Regional differences between anatomical regions of interest that are known to mature differently are analyzed and quantified. Experiments with image data from a large ongoing clinical study show that our framework provides descriptive, quantitative information on growth trajectories that can be directly interpreted by clinicians. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal analysis of growth functions to explain the trajectory of early brain maturation as it is represented in DTI.

  6. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Genotypes at Early Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigabu, Endalew

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is the fifth most economically important crop among cereals in the world. Salinity is an abiotic factor which reduces productivity of sorghum. Exploiting genetic variability to identify salt tolerant genotype is one of the strategies used to overcome salinity. Pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the genetic variation of eleven sorghum genotypes for NaCl salinity response at germination and early seedling stages. The experimental treatments were five NaCl salinity levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 dS m-1 and eleven sorghum genotypes (Gambella1107, Melkam, S-35, ESH-2, Gobye, 97MW6130, Meko, 76T1#23, ICSV-111, Abshir and Teshale. The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replicates.Data was analyzed using SAS (version 9.0 statistical software and means were separated by LSD. Germination rate, final germination percentage, seedling shoot length and seedling root length were measured. The ANOVA for treatments, genotypes and their interaction was found to be highly significant (p<0.001 with regard to all parameters. Genotypes Meko, Gambella1107, ICSV-111 and Melkam were found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth stages. However, genotypes ESH-2 and Gobye were salt sensitive during both stages. The rest sorghum genotypes were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of wide genotypic variation among the sorghum genotypes for NaCl salt tolerance.

  7. Factors Influencing the One- and Two-Year Growth Response in Children Treated with Growth Hormone: Analysis from an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gut Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess gender-, pubertal-, age-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation score (, data from 5,797 growth hormone (GH naïve pediatric patients ( at year 1 was significantly greater for males versus females (, but no other gender differences were observed. For patients with GHD, was greater in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. Younger patients for both genders ( ( for GHD, MPHD, and ISS. Overall, positive were observed in all patients, with greater growth responses in younger prepubertal children, emphasizing the importance of starting GH treatment early.

  8. Impacts of parasites in early life: Contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, T.; Daunt, F.; Kiploks, A.J.; Burthe, S.J.; Granroth-Wilding, H.M.V.; Takahashi, E.A.; Newell, M.; Wanless, S.; Cunningham, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control mi

  9. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass or

  10. Infant movement opportunities are related to early growth - GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Movement by an infant during the first year of life might influence its activity level and thereby influence growth in early childhood. Aim: To examine whether the time that an infant is able to move unrestrictedly and time spent in baby seats are related to weight and waist circumferenc

  11. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  12. Early dietary treated patients with phenylketonuria can achieve normal growth and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Julio C.; van Spronsen, FrancJan; Almeida, Manuela F.; Ramos, Elisabete; Guimardes, Joao T.; Borges, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the past, overtreatment may have resulted in growth impairment in patients with phenylketonuria. Objective: The paper aims to investigate height and body composition in early treated patients with phenylketonuria who were diagnosed between 1981 and 2008. Design: A cross-sectional stud

  13. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  14. Roles for transforming growth factor beta superfamily proteins in early folliculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, Daniel J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2009-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at immature stages or result in premature depletion of the follicle reserve. Determining the molecular events that regulate primordial follicle formation and early follicle growth may lead to the development of new fertility treatments. Over the last decade, many of the growth factors and signaling proteins that mediate the early stages of folliculogenesis have been identified using mouse genetic models, in vivo injection studies, and ex vivo organ culture approaches. These studies reveal important roles for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of proteins in the ovary. This article reviews these roles for TGF-beta family proteins and focuses in particular on work from our laboratories on the functions of activin in early folliculogenesis.

  15. Non-genetic factors influencing early growth traits in the Elsenburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigate non-genetic factors contributing to early growth traits. The fixed effects ... as age, sex, birth status (type of birth) and age of dam have been well ..... Mutton Sheep Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme for kind permission to use ...

  16. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass

  17. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  18. Intrauterine growth restriction perturbs nucleosome depletion at a growth hormone-responsive element in the mouse IGF-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Robert A; Yost, Christian C; Yu, Xing; Wiedmeier, Julia E; Callaway, Christopher W; Brown, Ashley S; Lane, Robert H; Fung, Camille M

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common human pregnancy complication. IUGR offspring carry significant postnatal risk for early-onset metabolic syndrome, which is associated with persistent reduction in IGF-1 protein expression. We have previously shown that preadolescent IUGR male mice have decreased hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and circulating IGF-1 protein at postnatal day 21, the age when growth hormone (GH) normally upregulates hepatic IGF-1 expression. Here we studied nucleosome occupancy and CpG methylation at a putative growth hormone-responsive element in intron 2 (in2GHRE) of the hepatic IGF-1 gene in normal, sham-operated, and IUGR mice. Nucleosome occupancy and CpG methylation were determined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in liver at postnatal days 14, 21, and 42. For CpG methylation, additional time points out to 2 yr were analyzed. We confirmed the putative mouse in2GHRE was GH-responsive, and in normal mice, a single nucleosome was displaced from the hepatic in2GHRE by postnatal day 21, which exposed two STAT5b DNA binding sites. Nucleosome displacement correlated with developmentally programmed CpG demethylation. Finally, IUGR significantly altered the nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) at the in2GHRE of IGF-1 on postnatal day 21, with either complete absence of the NDR or with a shifted NDR exposing only one of two STAT5b DNA binding sites. An NDR shift was also seen in offspring of sham-operated mothers. We conclude that prenatal insult such as IUGR or anesthesia/surgery could perturb the proper formation of a well-positioned NDR at the mouse hepatic IGF-1 in2GHRE necessary for transitioning to an open chromatin state.

  19. Early life-history consequences of growth-hormone transgenesis in rainbow trout reared in stream ecosystem mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Sundström, L Fredrik; Vandersteen, Wendy E; Devlin, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    There is persistent commercial interest in the use of growth modified fishes for shortening production cycles and increasing overall food production, but there is concern over the potential impact that transgenic fishes might have if ever released into nature. To explore the ecological consequences of transgenic fish, we performed two experiments in which the early growth and survival of growth-hormone transgenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed in naturalized stream mesocosms that either contained predators or were predator-free. We paid special attention to the survival bottleneck that occurs during the early life-history of salmonids, and conducted experiments at two age classes (first-feeding fry and 60 days post-first-feeding) that lie on either side of the bottleneck. In the late summer, the first-feeding transgenic trout could not match the growth potential of their wild-type siblings when reared in a hydrodynamically complex and oligotrophic environment, irrespective of predation pressure. Furthermore, overall survival of transgenic fry was lower than in wild-type (transgenic = 30% without predators, 8% with predators; wild-type = 81% without predators, 31% with predators). In the experiment with 60-day old fry, we explored the effects of the transgene in different genetic backgrounds (wild versus domesticated). We found no difference in overwinter survival but significantly higher growth by transgenic trout, irrespective of genetic background. We conclude that the high mortality of GH-transgenic trout during first-feeding reflects an inability to sustain the basic metabolic requirements necessary for life in complex, stream environments. However, when older, GH-transgenic fish display a competitive advantage over wild-type fry, and show greater growth and equal survival as wild-type. These results demonstrate how developmental age and time of year can influence the response of genotypes to environmental conditions. We therefore urge

  20. Long-term linear growth of children with severe steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma, Francesco; Sesto, Antonella; Rizzoni, Gianfranco

    2003-08-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the risk of permanent linear growth impairment in a selected group of 42 children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) and 14 children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS). Longitudinal height measurements were available in all patients from the onset of the disease for a mean follow-up of 11.7+/-3.5 years. During the prepubertal period, patients lost 0.49+/-0.6 height SD score (HtSDS) ( P<0.001). Twenty-three patients have reached their final height with an average loss of 0.92+/-0.8 HtSDS from the onset of their disease ( P<0.001) and 0.68+/-0.7 from their target HtSDS ( P<0.001). The pubertal growth spurt was mildly delayed in male but not female patients. Steroid therapy, calculated as the mean duration of prednisone (PDN) treatment or as the average cumulative PDN dose, was the only predictor of poor growth evolution. Partial catch-up growth occurred after PDN withdrawal. Children with early onset NS and adolescent patients, who were still receiving PDN after the age of 9 years in girls and 11 years in boys, were at higher risk for HtSDS loss. In conclusion, children with severe steroid-responsive NS are at risk of permanent growth retardation secondary to prolonged courses of steroid treatment.

  1. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O2, 6 h; postnatal day 7, P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight (P treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain.

  2. Response to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and final height data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura

    2015-11-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed.

  3. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  4. Thyroid hormone-responsive genes mediate otolith growth and development during flatfish metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Tan, Y; Sievers, Q; Sievers, B; Lee, M; Burrall, K; Schreiber, A M

    2011-01-01

    Flatfish begin life as up-right swimming, bilaterally symmetrical larvae that metamorphose into asymmetrically shaped juveniles that swim with a highly lateralized posture. We have previously shown that TH induces abrupt growth and mineralization of one component of the vestibular system, the otoliths, during early larval development and metamorphosis. Here we report that four of five vestibular-specific genes that we tested (alpha-tectorin, otogelin, otolith matrix protein, and otopetrins 1 and 2 that are known to be associated with otolith development in other vertebrates are up-regulated 1.5- to 7-fold in larval flatfish during spontaneous metamorphosis and/or following 72 h of TH treatment. These findings suggest that otolith growth and development are mediated by diverse TH-responsive genes during flatfish metamorphosis.

  5. Early transcriptional responses to mercury: a role for ethylene in mercury-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Palmero, M Belén; Martín-Barranco, Amanda; Escobar, Carolina; Hernández, Luis E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of plant tolerance to mercury (Hg) is important for developing phytoremediation strategies of Hg-contaminated soils. The early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings to Hg were studied using transcriptomics analysis. A Medicago truncatula microarray was hybridized with high-quality root RNA from M. sativa treated with 3 μM Hg for 3, 6 and 24 h. The transcriptional pattern data were complementary to the measurements of root growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and NADPH-oxidase activity as stress indexes. Of 559 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 91% were up-regulated. The majority of DEGs were shared between the 3 and 6 h (60%) time points, including the 'stress', 'secondary metabolism' and 'hormone metabolism' functional categories. Genes from ethylene metabolism and signalling were highly represented, suggesting that this phytohormone may be relevant for metal perception and homeostasis. Ethylene-insensitive alfalfa seedlings preincubated with the ethylene signalling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopronene and Arabidopsis thaliana ein2-5 mutants confirmed that ethylene participates in the early perception of Hg stress. It modulates root growth inhibition, NADPH-oxidase activity and Hg-induced apoplastic H2 O2 accumulation. Therefore, ethylene signalling attenuation could be useful in future phytotechnological applications to ameliorate stress symptoms in Hg-polluted plants.

  6. Latent Growth Curve Models for Biomarkers of the Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Felt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The stress response is a dynamic process that can be characterized by predictable biochemical and psychological changes. Biomarkers of the stress response are typically measured over time and require statistical methods that can model change over time. One flexible method of evaluating change over time is the latent growth curve model (LGCM. However, stress researchers seldom use the LGCM when studying biomarkers, despite their benefits. Stress researchers may be unaware of how these methods can be useful. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of LGCMs in the context of stress research. We specifically highlight the unique benefits of using these approaches.Methods: Hypothetical examples are used to describe four forms of the LGCM.Results: The following four specifications of the LGCM are described: basic LGCM, latent growth mixture model, piecewise LGCM, and LGCM for two parallel processes. The specifications of the LGCM are discussed in the context of the Trier Social Stress Test. Beyond the discussion of the four models, we present issues of modeling nonlinear patterns of change, assessing model fit, and linking specific research questions regarding biomarker research using different statistical models.Conclusions: The final sections of the paper discuss statistical software packages and more advanced modeling capabilities of LGCMs. The online Appendix contains example code with annotation from two statistical programs for the LCGM.

  7. Response growth using a low-frequency suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanni, Jeffrey J; Nair, Padmaja

    2007-12-01

    Numerous psychophysical studies on two-tone suppression have been carried out. More recently, researchers have attempted to relate the magnitude of suppression to the level of suppressee. [Wojtczak, M., Viemeister, N.F., 2005. Psychophysical response growth under suppression. In: Pressnitzer, D., de Cheveigne, A., McAdams, S., Collet, L. (Eds.), Auditory Signal Processing: Physiology, Psychoaccoustics, and Models. Springer, New York, pp. 67-74] demonstrated that the magnitude of suppression for a higher-frequency, fixed-level suppressor decreases with increasing level of the suppressee. This suggests a linearization of the basilar membrane response in presence of a high-frequency suppressor. The present study expands these results to a low-frequency suppressor of varying intensity levels. Detection of a 10-ms, 4.0-kHz probe was measured under different forward-masking conditions: one with a 200-ms, 4.0-kHz masker (suppressee) presented with no suppressor and another with the same masker paired with a 2.2-kHz, 200-ms suppressor. The 4.0-kHz masker level was varied adaptively and a range of probe levels was used to measure the growth of suppression. Results indicate that (1) the magnitude of suppression increases with increasing suppressor level and (2) generally, the probe level was not related to the magnitude of suppression.

  8. Varied growth response of cogongrass ecotypes to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brett Runion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L. P. Beauv] is an invasive C4 perennial grass which is listed as one of the top ten worst weeds in the world and is a major problem in the Southeast US. Five cogongrass ecotypes (Florida, Hybrid, Louisiana, Mobile, and North Alabama collected across the Southeast and a red-tip ornamental variety were container grown for six months in open top chambers under ambient and elevated (ambient plus 200 ppm atmospheric CO2. Elevated CO2 increased average dry weight (13% which is typical for grasses. Elevated CO2 increased height growth and both nitrogen and water use efficiencies, but lowered tissue nitrogen concentration; again, these are typical plant responses to elevated CO2. The hybrid ecotype tended to exhibit the greatest growth (followed by Louisiana, North Alabama, and Florida ecotypes while the red-tip and Mobile ecotypes were smallest. Interactions of CO2 with ecotype generally showed that the hybrid, Louisiana, Florida, and/or North Alabama ecotypes showed a positive response to CO2 while the Mobile and red-tip ecotypes did not. Cogongrass is a problematic invasive weed in the southeastern U.S. and some ecotypes may become more so as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise.

  9. Effect of Different Ca and P Level on Early Growth of Fast-growth Lines of Wulong Goose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-wei; ZHANG Min-gai; LI Wen-li; LIU Guang-lei; JIA Xiao-hui; WU Xiao-ping; YANG Shu-ling

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty-eight Wulong geese of fast-growth lines were selected to be fattened respectively in netting bed, then divided into eight groups with three replications in each group. The diets contained different contents of Ca and P to determine the best level for the early growth of Wulong goose. The result suggested that, during the early period, the proportion of Ca and NPP (non-Phytate Phosnhorus) had significant influence on its growth (P<0.05), when the dietary level of Ca was 0.65% and NPP was 0.30% (the proportion of Ca and NPP was 2.17:1), the liveweight gain was higher,so were the eviscerated ratio and eviscerated weight with giblet ratio, feed/gain (F/G) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity at four weeks were lower. The Wulong goose grew well at the proportion between 1.88:1 and 2.50: 1, and grew worst at 1.38:1.

  10. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, Matthew L; Webb, Grahame J; McGuinness, Keith; Christian, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT) in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days). Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d), was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d) was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d), with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches) on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245), mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7) that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5) that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species.

  11. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Brien

    Full Text Available Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days. Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d, was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d, with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245, mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7 that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5 that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species.

  12. Co-localization of neural cell adhesion molecule and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterlund, Liselotte; Töhönen, Virpi; Hovatta, Outi; Kere, Juha

    2011-01-01

    During development there is a multitude of signaling events governing the assembly of the developing organism. Receptors for signaling molecules such as fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) enable the embryo to communicate with the surrounding environment and activate downstream pathways. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was first characterized as a cell adhesion molecule highly expressed in the nervous system, but recent studies have shown that it is also a signaling receptor. Using a novel single oocyte adaptation of the proximity ligation assay, we here show a close association between NCAM and FGFR2 in mouse oocytes and 2-cell embryos. Real-time PCR analyses revealed the presence of messenger RNA encoding key proteins in downstream signaling pathways in oocytes and early mouse embryos. In summary these findings show a co-localization of NCAM and FGFR2 in early vertebrate development with intracellular signaling pathways present to enable a cellular response.

  13. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Reed

    Full Text Available Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  14. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas E; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J; Burthe, Sarah J; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Takahashi, Emi A; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  15. Film coating of seeds with Bacillus cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai; Plianbangchang, Pinyupa

    2008-10-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus RS87 was previously reported to promote plant growth in various crops in both greenhouse and field trials. To apply as a plant growth promoting agent with practical use, it is essential to ease the burden of routine preparation of a fresh suspension of strain RS87 in laboratory. The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of film-coating seeds with B. cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement and to reveal the indoleacetic acid (IAA) production released from strain RS87. The experiment consisted of the following 5 treatments: nontreated seeds, water-soaked seeds, film-coated seeds, seeds soaked with vegetative cells of strain RS87, and film-coated seeds with strain RS87 spores. Three experiments were conducted separately to assess seed emergence, root length, and plant height. Results showed that both vegetative cells and spores of strain RS87 significantly promoted (P seed emergence, root length and plant height over the control treatments. The strain RS87 also produced IAA. In conclusion, the film coating of seeds with spores of B. cereus RS87 demonstrated early plant growth enhancement as well as seeds using their vegetative cells. IAA released from strain RS87 would be one of the mechanisms for plant growth enhancement.

  16. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics.

  17. Mechanistic modeling of turkey growth response to genotype and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Torres, V; Ferket, P R; Sauvant, D

    2011-10-01

    Along with the fast genetic improvement, nutritional and environmental effects on poultry growth performance have made it necessary to develop growth models that have the flexibility to adapt to different genotypes and growing conditions. A mechanistic simulation model of energy and nutrient utilization in growing turkeys is presented herein. The model consists of simulating the average homeorhetic and homeostatic regulations associated with the utilization of circulating glucose, fatty acid, AA, and acetyl-CoA for protein and lipid retention in carcass, viscera, and feathers in a turkey population. Homeorhesis plays a major role in the control of protein and lipid turnover for the definition of genetic potential and feed intake, whereas homeostasis adjusts growth rate through protein and lipid turnover rates and, therefore, BW gain and feed intake to the growing conditions. Also, homeostasis enables the maintenance of a dynamic balance state during all the growing period through the control of circulating nutrient concentration. The model was developed and calibrated with experimental data that described energy utilization in male and female growing turkeys. Then, the ability of the model to adapt to genotypes and to predict the average response of a turkey population to dietary energy was evaluated. Model calibration showed simulations of energy and nutrient utilization that fitted well with the experimental data because ME was satisfyingly partitioned into heat production and energy retention as protein and lipid, and nutrient intake accurately partitioned BW gain into carcass, viscera, and feathers. The evaluation of the model was also satisfactory because BW gain and feed-to-gain ratio were globally in accordance with the observations in different male and female genotypes, in spite of an overestimation of the feed-to-gain ratio during the first weeks of age. Model evaluation showed that the BW gain and feed intake response of growing turkeys to dietary energy

  18. 早期生长反应基因1对成骨肉瘤Saos-2细胞Stathmin基因的表达调控%Early growth response gene-1 regulates stathmin gene expression in osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎琳; 林芳; 张惠中

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of stathmin gene expression in osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells induced by early growth response gene-l(Egr1). METHODS: To construct pcDNA3. 1-Egrl recombinant plasmid and then exogenous Egr1 gene was introduced into Saos-2 with Lipofectamine transfection method. The expression of Egr1 gene and stathmin gene were detected by RT-PCR, Western Blot and immunocytochemistry. The apoptosis and proliferation of Saos-2 cells were observed by TUNEL and MTI" assay. RESULTS: The results of RT-PCR indicated that the expression of Egr1 gene was upregulated, however the expression of stathmin gene was downregulated in the transfected cells. MTI" assay revealed that the proliferation of Saos-2 cells transfected EGR-I gene was much lower than that of untransfected cells. The results of TUNEL showed that EGR-1 gene induced apoptosis of the transfected cells. CONCLUSION: Egr1 can suppress the expression of stathmin gene and induce Osteosarcoma Saos-2 cell apoptosis.%目的:观察甲期生长反应基因1(Egr1)对成骨肉瘤细胞Saos-2中stathmin基因表达调控的影响.方法:构建Egr1真核表达载体,应用脂质体转染人成骨肉瘤Saos-2细胞,采用RT-PCR检测转染细胞的Egr1及stathmin mRNA表达的变化;Western Blot和免疫细胞化学染色检测stathmin蛋白表达;MTT法检测转染细胞生长状况;原位末端标记(TUNEL)检测细胞凋亡情况.结果:RT-PCR榆测发现Egr1表达水平明显高于空白对照组,stathmin mRNA表达水平显著降低,转染细胞stathmin蛋白表达水平明显降低.MTT法结果显示Egr1可显著抑制Saos-2细胞的生长,TUNEL阳性细胞明显增加.结论:转录调控因子Egr1参与stathmin基因转录调控并可抑制其表达,进而促进Saos-2细胞凋亡.

  19. 扁平苔藓中早期生长反应因子-1和肿瘤坏死因子-α的表达及意义%Expression and significance of early growth response-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in lichen planus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓磷君; 白莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨早期生长反应因子-1(Egr-1)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)在扁平苔藓发病中的作用.方法:采用TUNEL原位凋亡检测法检测30例扁平苔藓皮损及30例正常皮肤组织中细胞凋亡情况,并用免疫组织化学法检测该30例扁平苔藓和30例正常皮肤组织中Egr-1和TNF-α的表达情况.结果:扁平苔藓皮损处角质形成细胞和真皮浅层浸润的淋巴细胞中细胞凋亡水平明显高于对照组;在相同部位,Egr-1和TNF-α的表达水平高于正常皮肤组织,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且二者在扁平苔藓皮损处的表达呈正相关(r=0.896 7,P<0.05).结论:Egr-1和TNF-α的高表达可能参与了扁平苔藓的发病.%Objective: To investigate the effect of Egr-1 (early growth response-1) and TNF-a (tumor necrosis factor-a) on the pathogenesis of lichen planus. Methods: TLJNEL was used to detect the apoptotic cells, and the immunchistochemi-cal technique was used to test the expression of Egr-1 and TNF-a in 30 LP lesions and 30 normal skins. Results: Compared with the control group, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased in the ketatinocytes and infiltrating lymphocytes of lichen planus. In the same site, the expression of Egr -1 and TNF -a in lichen planus was significantly stronger than that in the normal skins (P<0.05), and there were positive correlations between the expression of Egr-1 and TNF-a in LP lesions(n=0.896 7, P<0.05). Conclusion: Egr-1 and TNF-a may participate in the pathogenesis of lichen planus.

  20. Density-dependent coral recruitment displays divergent responses during distinct early life-history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doropoulos, Christopher; Evensen, Nicolas R; Gómez-Lemos, Luis A; Babcock, Russell C

    2017-05-01

    Population growth involves demographic bottlenecks that regulate recruitment success during various early life-history stages. The success of each early life-history stage can vary in response to population density, interacting with intrinsic (e.g. behavioural) and environmental (e.g. competition, predation) factors. Here, we used the common reef-building coral Acropora millepora to investigate how density-dependence influences larval survival and settlement in laboratory experiments that isolated intrinsic effects, and post-settlement survival in a field experiment that examined interactions with environmental factors. Larval survival was exceptionally high (greater than 80%) and density-independent from 2.5 to 12 days following spawning. By contrast, there was a weak positive effect of larval density on settlement, driven by gregarious behaviour at the highest density. When larval supply was saturated, settlement was three times higher in crevices compared with exposed microhabitats, but a negative relationship between settler density and post-settlement survival in crevices and density-independent survival on exposed surfaces resulted in similar recruit densities just one month following settlement. Moreover, a negative relationship was found between turf algae and settler survival in crevices, whereas gregarious settlement improved settler survival on exposed surfaces. Overall, our findings reveal divergent responses by coral larvae and newly settled recruits to density-dependent regulation, mediated by intrinsic and environmental interactions.

  1. Novel developmental analyses identify longitudinal patterns of early gut microbiota that affect infant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A White

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that some obesity trajectories are set early in life, and that rapid weight gain in infancy is a risk factor for later development of obesity. Identifying modifiable factors associated with early rapid weight gain is a prerequisite for curtailing the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Recently, much attention has been given to findings indicating that gut microbiota may play a role in obesity development. We aim at identifying how the development of early gut microbiota is associated with expected infant growth. We developed a novel procedure that allows for the identification of longitudinal gut microbiota patterns (corresponding to the gut ecosystem developing, which are associated with an outcome of interest, while appropriately controlling for the false discovery rate. Our method identified developmental pathways of Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli that were associated with expected growth, and traditional methods indicated that the detection of Bacteroides species at day 30 was associated with growth. Our method should have wide future applicability for studying gut microbiota, and is particularly important for translational considerations, as it is critical to understand the timing of microbiome transitions prior to attempting to manipulate gut microbiota in early life.

  2. MicroRNA profiling in early hypertrophic growth of the left ventricle in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter K.; Cirera, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Pressure overload induces hypertrophic growth of the heart and in the long term this condition can lead to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Several miRNAs are upregulated in heart failure. However, it is not clear, which miRNAs (if any) are induced during the early hypertrophic growth phase...... was highly induced in animals with aortic banding. Out of 13 miRs that have previously been reported to be associated with late-stage pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy and heart failure only four (miR-23a, miR-27b, miR-125b and miR-195) were induced during early hypertrophic growth. These miRs were....... To investigate whether the upregulation of miRNAs is an integrated part of hypertrophic growth or an effect of cardiac disease we investigated miRNA expression in early hypertrophic development. Hypertrophy was induced by banding of the ascending aorta of male rats. After 14 days, the heart left ventricle weight...

  3. Growth and the energy budget of flat oyster (Ostrea edulis in early ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sitnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of growth and dynamics of balance constituents of the energy budget of the flat oyster larvae in development are investigated. It is shown, that the linear growth in early ontogenesis is described by the exponential equation with high accuracy. Parameters of the functions connecting length, height and weight of larvae are defined. The quantitative characteristic of the energy balance elements of oysters larvae is given. It is shown, that during development from a veliger stage to a pediveliger the energy expenditures for growth, metabolism and nutriment assimilation increase more than 10 times. Net efficiency of larvae growth (coefficient К2 varies within 61.6–62.8 % during development, and the magnitude of a specific daily ration of oyster larvae equals 32–35 % of the energy equivalent of body weight.

  4. Early development and allometric growth in Nannacara anomala Regan, 1905 (Perciformes: Cichlidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kupren

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth of laboratory reared Nannacara anomala were studied from hatching to the loss of larval characters and beginning of squamation (18 days post-hatching at 26°C. The mean total length (TL of larvae and juveniles increased from 3.74 mm at hatching to 9.60 mm at metamorphosis. Morphogenesis and differentiation were most intense during the first week of development. During this period (TL interval = 3.74 - 4.84 mm there was an evident priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities by promoting accelerated growth in the head and tail regions. Following this period, there was a major decrease in growth coefficients, indicating a change in growth priorities. Observations on the early development of Nannacara anomala confirmed the basic uniformity development of a substrate brooding cichlid.

  5. Ezh2 Controls an Early Hematopoietic Program and Growth and Survival Signaling in Early T Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Danis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL is an aggressive subtype of ALL distinguished by stem-cell-associated and myeloid transcriptional programs. Inactivating alterations of Polycomb repressive complex 2 components are frequent in human ETP-ALL, but their functional role is largely undefined. We have studied the involvement of Ezh2 in a murine model of NRASQ61K-driven leukemia that recapitulates phenotypic and transcriptional features of ETP-ALL. Homozygous inactivation of Ezh2 cooperated with oncogenic NRASQ61K to accelerate leukemia onset. Inactivation of Ezh2 accentuated expression of genes highly expressed in human ETP-ALL and in normal murine early thymic progenitors. Moreover, we found that Ezh2 contributes to the silencing of stem-cell- and early-progenitor-cell-associated genes. Loss of Ezh2 also resulted in increased activation of STAT3 by tyrosine 705 phosphorylation. Our data mechanistically link Ezh2 inactivation to stem-cell-associated transcriptional programs and increased growth/survival signaling, features that convey an adverse prognosis in patients.

  6. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  7. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Robie; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear. Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11-14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence. Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI -2.4 to -0.1) and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI -4.9 to 0.0), and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI -1.1 to 0.0) and 1.2 cm (95% CI -2.3 to -0.1), respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  8. Early changes in shoot transcriptome of rice in response to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa JGTA-S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay Saha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of Rhodotorula genus have been reported to show endophytic colonization in different plants. Some of the Rhodotorula species are found to exhibit plant growth promoting activities and also have been reported to protect plants against invading pathogens. A yeast strain closely related to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was isolated from the endosphere of Typha angustifolia collected from a Uranium mine. A microarray analysis was performed to investigate the early changes in rice shoot transcripts in response to this yeast (R. mucilaginosa JGTA-S1. Transcriptional changes were monitored in 6 h and 24 h treated rice plant shoots as compared to 0 h control. The microarray data has been submitted to the NCBI GEO repository under the accession number of GSE64321.

  9. Seed priming improves early seedling vigor, growth and productivity of spring maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafeez ur Rehman; Hassan Iqbal; Shahzad M A Basra; Irfan Afzal; Muhammad Farooq; Abdul Wakeel; WANG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Potential of seed priming treatments in improving the performance of early planted maize was evaluated against timely planting. Seeds of maize hybrid FH-810 were soaked in water (hydropriming), CaCl2 (2.2%, osmopriming), moringa leaf extracts (MLE 3.3%, osmopriming) and salicylic acid (SA, 50 mg L–1, hormonal priming) each for 18 h. Untreated and hydroprimed seeds were taken as control. Seeds primed with SA took less time in emergence and had high vigor in early planted maize. Amongst treatments, hormonal priming, reduced the electrical conductivity, increased the leaf relative and chlorophyl contents fol owed by osmopriming with CaCl2 at seedling stage. Likewise, plant height, grain rows and 1 000-grain weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index were also improved by seed priming;however hormonal priming and osmopriming with MLE were more effective in this regard. Improved yield performance by hormonal priming or osmopriming with MLE in early planting primarily owed to increased leaf area index, crop growth and net assimilation rates, and maintenance of green leaf area at maturity. In conclusion, osmopriming with MLE and hormonal priming with SA were the most economical treatments in improving productivity of early planted spring maize through stimulation of early seedling growth at low temperature.

  10. Effects of early feeding and exogenous putrescine on growth and small intestinal development in posthatch ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P; Xu, J; Chen, W; Tangara, M; Qi, Z L; Peng, J

    2010-02-01

    1. Effects of early feeding with a diet containing added putrescine on duck intestinal development and growth performance were examined by a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two different feeding times (6 and 48 h) and two levels of putrescine (0 and 025%). 2. A significant main effect of early feeding on increasing body weight (BW) was observed from hatch to 35 d, whereas dietary putrescine had no significant effect on BW. 3. In the first week posthatch, enhanced small intestinal weight and intestinal density (weight of intestinal tissue/unit length of intestine), increased villus length and reduced crypt depth were observed in the early feeding group, while no effect was observed when putrescine was added to the diet. 4. Maltase and sucrase activity and protein/DNA ratio in jejunum were increased by early feeding in the first week, while decreased by putrescine supplementation. 5. In conclusion, early feeding methods have great potential for small intestine development and thereafter enhanced the growth performance of ducks, but dietary putrescine used during this period should be used cautiously to avoid toxicity.

  11. Dose-dependent relationship between severity of pediatric obesity and blunting of the growth hormone response to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Rosa, Jaime S.; Minh, Timothy D. C.; Pontello, Andria M.; Flores, Rebecca L.; Barnett, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    In children, exercise modulates systemic anabolism, muscle growth, and overall physiological development through the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. GH secretion, at rest and during exercise, changes with age and maturational status and can be blunted by hyperlipidemia and obesity, with possible negative effects on physiological growth. However, little is known about the effect of progressively more severe pediatric obesity on the GH response to exercise and its relationship to pubertal status. We therefore studied 48 early- or late-pubertal obese children [body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, separated in tertiles with progressively greater BMI] and 42 matched controls (BMI <85th percentile), who performed ten 2-min cycling bouts at ∼80% of maximal O2 consumption, separated by 1-min rest intervals. Plasma GH and IGF-I were measured at baseline and end exercise. GH responses were systematically blunted in obese children, with more pronounced blunting paralleling increasing BMI. Although overall the GH response to exercise was greater in late-pubertal than in younger children, this blunting pattern was observed in early- and late-pubertal children. Our results reveal insight into the interaction between pediatric obesity and key modulators of physiological growth and development and underscore the necessity of optimizing physical activity strategies for specific pediatric dysmetabolic conditions. PMID:19875716

  12. Dose-dependent relationship between severity of pediatric obesity and blunting of the growth hormone response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R; Rosa, Jaime S; Minh, Timothy D C; Pontello, Andria M; Flores, Rebecca L; Barnett, Marcia; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2010-01-01

    In children, exercise modulates systemic anabolism, muscle growth, and overall physiological development through the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. GH secretion, at rest and during exercise, changes with age and maturational status and can be blunted by hyperlipidemia and obesity, with possible negative effects on physiological growth. However, little is known about the effect of progressively more severe pediatric obesity on the GH response to exercise and its relationship to pubertal status. We therefore studied 48 early- or late-pubertal obese children [body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, separated in tertiles with progressively greater BMI] and 42 matched controls (BMI exercise. GH responses were systematically blunted in obese children, with more pronounced blunting paralleling increasing BMI. Although overall the GH response to exercise was greater in late-pubertal than in younger children, this blunting pattern was observed in early- and late-pubertal children. Our results reveal insight into the interaction between pediatric obesity and key modulators of physiological growth and development and underscore the necessity of optimizing physical activity strategies for specific pediatric dysmetabolic conditions.

  13. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  14. Growth-stage dependent crop yield response to ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younglove, T; McCool, P M; Musselman, R C; Kahl, M E

    1994-01-01

    Data from four crop yield-loss field trials were examined to determine if analysis using an imposed phenological weighting function based on seasonal growth stage would provide a more accurate indication of impact of ozone exposure. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Moapa 69), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. California Dark Red kidney), fresh market and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. 6718 VF and VF-145-B7879, respectively) were grown at 9-11 ambient field plots within southern California comprising an ambient gradient of ozone. The growing season for each crop was artificially divided into 'quarters' composed of equal numbers of whole days and roughly corresponding to specific growth stages. Ozone exposure was calculated for each of these 'quarters' and regressed against final crop yield using 163 different exposure statistics. Weighting functions were developed using reciprocal residual mean square (1/RMS) or percentage of the best 100 exposure statistics of the 163 tested (TOP100) for each of the quarters. The third quarter of the alfalfa season was clearly most responsive to ozone as measured by both of the weighting functions. Third quarter ozone was also weighted highest by both weighting functions for dry bean. Fresh market and processing tomato were each influenced the greatest by second quartero zone as demonstrated by both weighting functions. The occurrence of ozone during physiologically important events (flowering and initial fruit set in second quarter for tomato; pod development in third quarter for dry bean) appeared to influence the yield of these crops the greatest. Growth-stage-dependent phenological weighting of pollutant exposure may result in more effective predictions of levels of ozone exposure resulting in yield reductions.

  15. Leaf Closure in the Venus Flytrap: An Acid Growth Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen E.; Bennett, Alan B.

    1982-12-01

    The rapid closure of leaves in the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) involves irreversible cell enlargement, which can be initiated by acidifying the cell walls to pH 4.50 and below. Leaves infiltrated with neutral buffers that keep the pH above 4.50 to 4.75 will not close in response to stimulation of their trigger hairs even though the action potentials that ordinarily cause closure are produced. During the 1 to 3 seconds required for closure about 29 percent of the cellular adenosine triphosphate is lost. It is likely that this adenosine triphosphate is used in very rapid transport of hydrogen ions from the motor cells and that the movement is due to a mechanism of ``acid growth.''

  16. Plasmodium falciparum: growth response to potassium channel blocking compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Karena L; Kim, Kami; McDonald, Thomas V

    2008-11-01

    Potassium channels are essential for cell survival and regulate the cell membrane potential and electrochemical gradient. During its lifecycle, Plasmodium falciparum parasites must rapidly adapt to dramatically variant ionic conditions within the mosquito mid-gut, the hepatocyte and red blood cell (RBC) cytosols, and the human circulatory system. To probe the participation of K(+) channels in parasite viability, growth response assays were performed in which asexual stage P. falciparum parasites were cultured in the presence of various Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocking compounds. These data describe the novel anti-malarial effects of bicuculline methiodide and tubocurarine chloride and the novel lack of effect of apamine and verruculogen. Taken together, the data herein imply the presence of K(+) channels, or other parasite-specific targets, in P. falciparum-infected RBCs that are sensitive to blockade with Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocking compounds.

  17. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa L; Sturrock, Craig J; Bird, Michael I

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry ((13)C and (15)N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood, and charcoal from the same species produced at 300 degrees C and 400 degrees C. Both species of fungi colonise the surface and interior of wood and charcoals over time periods of less than 70 days; however, distinctly different growth forms are evident between the exterior and interior of the charcoal substrate, with hyphal penetration concentrated along lines of structural weakness. Although the fungi were able to degrade and metabolise the pine wood, charcoal does not form a readily available source of fungal nutrients at least for these species under the conditions used in this study.

  18. Predictors of Early Growth in Academic Achievement: The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. McClelland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s behavioral self-regulation and executive function (EF; including attentional or cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control are strong predictors of academic achievement. The present study examined the psychometric properties of a measure of behavioral self-regulation called the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS by assessing construct validity, including relations to EF measures, and predictive validity to academic achievement growth between prekindergarten and kindergarten. In the fall and spring of prekindergarten and kindergarten, 208 children (51% enrolled in Head Start were assessed on the HTKS, measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM, and inhibitory control, and measures of emergent literacy, mathematics, and vocabulary. For construct validity, the HTKS was significantly related to cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control in prekindergarten and kindergarten. For predictive validity in prekindergarten, a random effects model indicated that the HTKS significantly predicted growth in mathematics, whereas a cognitive flexibility task significantly predicted growth in mathematics and vocabulary. In kindergarten, the HTKS was the only measure to significantly predict growth in all academic outcomes. An alternative conservative analytical approach, a fixed effects analysis (FEA model, also indicated that growth in both the HTKS and measures of EF significantly predicted growth in mathematics over four time points between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results demonstrate that the HTKS involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control, and is substantively implicated in early achievement, with the strongest relations found for growth in achievement during kindergarten and associations with emergent mathematics.

  19. Three Dimensional Simulation Method in Early Process of Division and Growth for Tumour Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-qiu; ZHAO Ting-ting

    2014-01-01

    The process of division, growth and death for tumour cell mass in the early is simulated. An integrated GUI is provided for users to set the value of each parameters, which are cell growth rates, cell mass division rates, cell mass death rates, simulate type, maximum running time, polarity and cell colour. It can display the growth process of each cell on result GUI. Also, it can display the values of each parameters for observing and analysing in current life cycle on result GUI, which are cell mass division times, cell mass death rate, cell mass division rate and cell mass growth rate. In the process of simulation, The cell growth rate is described by the approach to combine the exponential model with the linear model. In addition, a linked list data structure to store the tumour cells is used by the cellular automata for a reference to determine the position of each cell. It sets up two linked list to store the cells, one of them save the new small division cells and the other one save the big cell. That can make the painting process of cells on result GUI clearer and more organized. At last, the polarity of tumour growth is described for determining the growth direction of cells.

  20. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhances sympathetic neurite growth in rat hearts at early developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Kodama, Itsuo

    2010-12-01

    Molecular signaling of sympathetic innervation of myocardium is an unresolved issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neurotrophic factors on sympathetic neurite growth towards cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes (CMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and superior cervical ganglia, and were co-cultured, either in a random or localized way. Neurite growth from SNs toward CMs was assessed by immunohistochemistry for neurofilament M and α-actinin in response to neurotrophic factors-nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and a chemical repellent, semaphorin 3A. As a result, GDNF as well as NGF and BDNF stimulated neurite growth. GDNF enhanced neurite outgrowth even under the NGF-depleted culture condition, excluding an indirect effect of GDNF via NGF. Quantification of mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry at different developmental stages revealed that GDNF is abundantly expressed in the hearts of embryos and neonates, but not in adult hearts. GDNF plays an important role in inducing cardiac sympathetic innervation at the early developmental stages. A possible role in (re)innervation of injured or transplanted or cultured and transplanted myocardium may deserve investigation.

  1. Development temperature has persistent effects on muscle growth responses in gilthead sea bream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia de la serrana

    Full Text Available Initially we characterised growth responses to altered nutritional input at the transcriptional and tissue levels in the fast skeletal muscle of juvenile gilthead sea bream. Fish reared at 21-22°C (range were fed a commercial diet at 3% body mass d(-1 (non-satiation feeding, NSF for 4 weeks, fasted for 4d (F and then fed to satiation (SF for 21d. 13 out of 34 genes investigated showed consistent patterns of regulation between nutritional states. Fasting was associated with a 20-fold increase in MAFbx, and a 5-fold increase in Six1 and WASp expression, which returned to NSF levels within 16h of SF. Refeeding to satiation was associated with a rapid (<24 h 12 to 17-fold increase in UNC45, Hsp70 and Hsp90α transcripts coding for molecular chaperones associated with unfolded protein response pathways. The growth factors FGF6 and IGF1 increased 6.0 and 4.5-fold within 16 h and 24 h of refeeding respectively. The average growth in diameter of fast muscle fibres was checked with fasting and significant fibre hypertrophy was only observed after 13d and 21d SF. To investigate developmental plasticity in growth responses we used the same experimental protocol with fish reared at either 17.5-18.5°C (range (LT or 21-22°C (range (HT to metamorphosis and then transferred to 21-22°C. There were persistent effects of development temperature on muscle growth patterns with 20% more fibres of lower average diameter in LT than HT group of similar body size. Altering the nutritional input to the muscle to stimulate growth revealed cryptic changes in the expression of UNC45 and Hsp90α with higher transcript abundance in the LT than HT groups, whereas there were no differences in the expression of MAFbx and Six1. It was concluded that myogenesis and gene expression patterns during growth are not fixed, but can be modified by temperature during the early stages of the life cycle.

  2. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We exp...

  3. Roles for Transforming Growth Factor Beta Superfamily Proteins in Early Folliculogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles to the primary and secondary stages encompass the early events during folliculogenesis in mammals. These processes establish the ovarian follicle pool and prime follicles for entry into subsequent growth phases during the reproductive cycle. Perturbations during follicle formation can affect the size of the primordial follicle pool significantly, and alterations in follicle transition can cause follicles to arrest at imm...

  4. Atomic Aggregation Processes in the Early Stages of Pt/Pt(111) Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Guo-Ce; ZHU Xiao-Bin; WANG Wei

    2000-01-01

    The atomic aggregation processes in the early stages of Pt/Pt(111) growth are studied by using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that the average neighbor coordination number of the atoms in a cluster is a function of temperature, agreeing well with the experiment observations of scanning tunneling microscopy. The influence of diffusion barriers of various atomic processes on the morphology of islands is also studied. Different morphologies of the islands (dendritic, fractal, or compact islands) are found.

  5. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of Pinus peuce Gris.: Optimization of culture conditions affecting germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a protocol for the germination and early seedling growth of Pinus peuce Gris. using zygotic embryo culture. In order to overcome seed dormancy and optimize organogenesis, the effect of nutritional, plant growth regulatory and physical factors on in vitro germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of P. peuce were investigated.

  6. Analysis of gene expression during parabolic flights reveals distinct early gravity responses in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry-Hivet, D; Nziengui, H; Rapp, K; Oliveira, O; Paponov, I A; Li, Y; Hauslage, J; Vagt, N; Braun, M; Ditengou, F A; Dovzhenko, A; Palme, K

    2014-01-01

    Plant roots are among most intensively studied biological systems in gravity research. Altered gravity induces asymmetric cell growth leading to root bending. Differential distribution of the phytohormone auxin underlies root responses to gravity, being coordinated by auxin efflux transporters from the PIN family. The objective of this study was to compare early transcriptomic changes in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, and pin2 and pin3 mutants under parabolic flight conditions and to correlate these changes to auxin distribution. Parabolic flights allow comparison of transient 1-g, hypergravity and microgravity effects in living organisms in parallel. We found common and mutation-related genes differentially expressed in response to transient microgravity phases. Gene ontology analysis of common genes revealed lipid metabolism, response to stress factors and light categories as primarily involved in response to transient microgravity phases, suggesting that fundamental reorganisation of metabolic pathways functions upstream of a further signal mediating hormonal network. Gene expression changes in roots lacking the columella-located PIN3 were stronger than in those deprived of the epidermis and cortex cell-specific PIN2. Moreover, repetitive exposure to microgravity/hypergravity and gravity/hypergravity flight phases induced an up-regulation of auxin responsive genes in wild type and pin2 roots, but not in pin3 roots, suggesting a critical function of PIN3 in mediating auxin fluxes in response to transient microgravity phases. Our study provides important insights towards understanding signal transduction processes in transient microgravity conditions by combining for the first time the parabolic flight platform with the transcriptome analysis of different genetic mutants in the model plant, Arabidopsis. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Profiling of Burkholderia cepacia secretome at mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases of growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Mariappan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes serious respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. This bacterium is known to release extracellular proteins that may be involved in virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, B. cepacia grown to mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases were investigated on their ability to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 lung epithelial cells in order to discern the fate of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia lung infections in in vitro condition. The early-stationary phase B. cepacia was demonstrated to be more invasive than mid-logarithmic phase. In addition, culture supernatants of B. cepacia obtained from these phases of growth were also demonstrated to cause different cytotoxic potency on the A549 human lung epithelial cells. Profiling of the supernatants using the gel-based proteomics approach identified 43 proteins that were commonly released in both the growth phases and 40 proteins newly-released at the early-stationary phase. The latter proteins may account for the higher cytotoxic activity of the early-stationary culture supernatant compared to that obtained at the mid-logarithmic phase. Among the newly-released proteins in the early-stationary phase supernatant were flagellar hook-associated domain protein (FliD, flagellar hook-associated protein (FlgK, TonB-dependent siderophore (Fiu, Elongation factor G (FusA, phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk and sulfatase (AslA which are known for their virulence. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in the ability of B. cepacia to invade and survive intracellularly inside the epithelial cells at different phases of growth may improve our understanding of the varied disease progressions associated with B. cepacia infections. In addition, the identified culture supernatant proteins may be used as targets for the development of new strategies to

  8. A comparison of growth, photosynthetic capacity and water stress in Eucalyptus globulus coppice regrowth and seedlings during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul L; Mendham, Daniel S; White, Don A; Ogden, Gary N

    2009-05-01

    Eucalyptus globulus Labill., a globally significant plantation species, is grown commercially in a multiple rotation framework. Second and subsequent crops of E. globulus may be established either by allowing the cut stumps to resprout (commonly referred to as coppice) or by replanting a new crop of seedlings. Currently, long-term growth data comparing coppice and seedling productivity in second or later rotations in southern Australia is limited. The capacity to predict productivity using these tools is dependent on an understanding of the physiology of seedlings and coppice in response to light, water and nutrient supply. In this study, we compared the intrinsic (independent of the immediate environment) and native (dependent on the immediate environment) physiology of E. globulus coppice and second-generation seedlings during their early development in the field. Coppice not only grew more rapidly, but also used more water and drew on stored soil water to a depth of at least 4.5 m during the first 2 years of growth, whereas the seedlings only accessed the top 0.9 m of the soil profile. During the same period, there was no significant difference between coppice and seedlings in either their stomatal response to leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (D) or intrinsic water-use efficiency; CO(2)- and light-saturated rates of photosynthesis were greater in seedlings than that in coppice as were the quantum yield of photosynthesis and total leaf chlorophyll content. Thus, at a leaf scale, seedlings are potentially more productive per unit leaf area than coppice during early development, but this is not realised under ambient conditions. The underlying cause of this inherent difference is discussed in the context of the allocation of resources to above- and below-ground organs during early development.

  9. Influence of biostimulators on germination parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinov Zlatica J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of biostimulators, with or without the use of fungicides, on seed quality parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling. Testing was conducted at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad on cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower line HA-26-PR. The experiment included six treatments: Slavol S (25%, Slavol S (25% + fungicide (a.m. metalaxyl-M, Bioplant Flora (2%, Bioplant Flora (2% + fungicide (a.m. metalaxyl-M, Slavol S (25% + Bioplant Flora (2%, Slavol S (25% + Bioplant Flora (2% + fungicide (a. m. metalaxyl-M and control. Results of the research showed that treating the seed with biostimulators prior to sowing has a significant influence on seed germination parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling. The individual application of fertilizers, with or without the use of fungicide, gave a positive effect, while their combination led to a negative effect. The individual application of fertilizers, with or without combination with fungicide, may increase germination energy by 5%, germinability by 6%, but may also reduce the time of seed germination. Likewise, their use has a positive effect on early growth of sunflower seedling. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31025: Razvoj novih sorti i poboljšanja novih tehnologija proizvodnje uljanih biljnih vrsta za različite namene

  10. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher...... future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations...... of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting...

  12. Seed priming improves early seedling vigor, growth and productivity of spring maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafeez ur Rehman[1; Hassan lqbal[1; Shahzad M A Basra[1; Irfan Afzal[1; Muhammad Farooq[2; Abdul Wakeel[3; WANG Ning[4

    2015-01-01

    Potential of seed priming treatments in improving the performance of early planted maize was evaluated against timely planting. Seeds of maize hybrid FH-810 were soaked in water (hydropriming), CaCI2 (2.2%, osmopriming), moringa leaf extracts (MLE 3.3%, osmopriming) and salicylic acid (SA, 50 mg L-1, hormonal priming) each for 18 h. Untreated and hydroprimed seeds were taken as control. Seeds primed with SA took less time in emergence and had high vigor in eady planted maize. Amongst treatments, hormonal priming, reduced the electrical conductivity, increased the leaf relative and chlorophyll contents followed by osmopriming with CaCI2 at seedling stage. Likewise, plant height, grain rows and 1 000-grain weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index were also improved by seed pdming; however hormonal priming and osmopriming with MLE were more effective in this regard. Improved yield performance by hormonal priming or osmopriming with MLE in early planting primarily owed to increased leaf area index, crop growth and net assimilation rates, and maintenance of green leaf area at maturity. In conclusion, osmopriming with MLE and hormonal priming with SA were the most economical treatments in improving productivity of early planted spring maize through stimulation of early seedling growth at low temperature.

  13. QTLs Analysis of Cold Tolerance During Early Growth Period for Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiu-ying; HAN Long-zhi; XU Shi-ping; QIAO Yong-li; LIAO Yao-ping; CAO Gui-lan; MAO Xing-xue; ZHANG Yuan-yuan; WENG Ke-nan; AN Yong-ping; CHEN Zhao-ming; YE Jong-doo; CHEN Yue-han; KOH Hee-jong; XIAO Wan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for cold tolerance during early growth period were identified using a F2:3 population microsatellite markers. The cold tolerance at the seedling and tillering stages, and the growth ability of seedling under low temperature conditions were evaluated. All of the traits associated with cold tolerance at early growth stages appeared a continuous distribution near to normal in F3 lines, these were inherited as quantitative traits controlled by polygenes. Three QTLs on chromosomes 1, 5 and 9, which associated with cold tolerance at the seedling stage were detected. Among them, qCTS1accounted for 15.5% of observed phenotypic variation; Five QTLs on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 9 and 11, associated with cold tolerance at the tillering stage were found, which explained lower percentage of observed phenotypic variation; Four QTLs on chromosomes 1,2, 11 and 12, which associated with the growth ability of seedling under low temperature conditions were found, among them,qGAS2 and qGAS12 explained 26.6 and 42.9% of observed phenotypic variation, respectively, which were major genes.

  14. Early growth dynamical implications for the steerability of stratospheric solar radiation management via sulfur aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benduhn, François; Schallock, Jennifer; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol growth dynamics may have implications for the steerability of stratospheric solar radiation management via sulfur particles. This paper derives a set of critical initial growth conditions that are analyzed as a function of two key parameters: the initial concentration of the injected sulfuric acid and its dilution rate with the surrounding air. Based upon this analysis, early aerosol growth dynamical regimes may be defined and classified in terms of their likelihood to serve as candidates for the controlled generation of a radiatively effective aerosol. Our results indicate that the regime that fulfills all critical conditions would require that airplane turbines be used to provide sufficient turbulence. The regime's parameter space is narrow and related to steep gradients, thus pointing to potential fine tuning requirements. More research, development, and testing would be required to refine our findings and determine their global-scale implications.

  15. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; PGMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Global gene expression analysis of early response to chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetu Bernard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy (CT resistance in ovarian cancer (OC is broad and encompasses diverse unrelated drugs, suggesting more than one mechanism of resistance. To better understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the immediate response of OC cells to CT exposure, we have performed gene expression profiling in spheroid cultures derived from six OC cell lines (OVCAR3, SKOV3, TOV-112, TOV-21, OV-90 and TOV-155, following treatment with 10,0 μM cisplatin, 2,5 μM paclitaxel or 5,0 μM topotecan for 72 hours. Results Exposure of OC spheroids to these CT drugs resulted in differential expression of genes associated with cell growth and proliferation, cellular assembly and organization, cell death, cell cycle control and cell signaling. Genes, functionally involved in DNA repair, DNA replication and cell cycle arrest were mostly overexpressed, while genes implicated in metabolism (especially lipid metabolism, signal transduction, immune and inflammatory response, transport, transcription regulation and protein biosynthesis, were commonly suppressed following all treatments. Cisplatin and topotecan treatments triggered similar alterations in gene and pathway expression patterns, while paclitaxel action was mainly associated with induction of genes and pathways linked to cellular assembly and organization (including numerous tubulin genes, cell death and protein synthesis. The microarray data were further confirmed by pathway and network analyses. Conclusion Most alterations in gene expression were directly related to mechanisms of the cytotoxics actions in OC spheroids. However, the induction of genes linked to mechanisms of DNA replication and repair in cisplatin- and topotecan-treated OC spheroids could be associated with immediate adaptive response to treatment. Similarly, overexpression of different tubulin genes upon exposure to paclitaxel could represent an early compensatory effect to this drug action. Finally, multicellular

  17. Differential growth stimulation response of potato towards inoculation with taxonomically diverse plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir eNaqqash

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere engineering with beneficial plant growth promoting bacteria offers great promise for sustainable crop yield. Potato is an important food commodity that needs large inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. To overcome high fertilizer demand (especially nitrogen, five bacteria, i.e. Azospirillum sp.TN10, Agrobacterium sp.TN14, Pseudomonas sp.TN36, Enterobactersp. TN38 and Rhizobium sp. TN42 were isolated from the potato rhizosphere on nitrogen-free malate medium and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Three strains, i.e. TN10, TN38 and TN42, showed nitrogen fixation (92.67-134.54 nmol h-1mg-1protein, while all showed the production of indole acetic acid in the presence and/or absence of L-tryptophan. Azospirillum sp. TN10 produced the highest amount of IAA, as measured by spectrophotometry (312.14 µg mL-1 and HPLC (18.3 µg mL-1. Inoculation with these bacteria under axenic conditions resulted in differential growth responses of potato. Azospirillum sp. TN10 incited the highest increase in potato fresh and dry weight over control plants, along with increased N contents of shoot and roots. All strains were able to colonize and maintain their population densities in the potato rhizosphere for upto 60 days, with Azospirillum sp. and Rhizobium sp. showing the highest survival. Plant root colonization potential was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of root sections inoculated with Azospirillum sp. TN10. Of the five test strains, Azospirillum sp. TN10 has the greatest potential to increase the growth and nitrogen uptake of potato. Hence, it is suggested as a good candidate for the production of potato biofertilizer for integrated nutrient management with potato.

  18. Net mineral requirements for growth of Saanen goat kids in early life are similar among genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, A N; Härter, C J; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Boaventura Neto, O; Biagioli, B; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-02-01

    The current mineral requirements for growing goat kids are based on sheep and cattle studies without differentiating between the stages of development or gender. The aims of this study were to determine the net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K of Saanen goat kids during the initial stages of growth and to analyse the effect of gender on the net requirements for growth of these macrominerals. Eighteen female, 19 intact male and 10 castrated male Saanen goat kids were studied. The kids were selected applying a completely randomized design and slaughtered when their body weight (BW) reached approximately 5, 10 and 15 kg to determine the mineral requirements for growth at these stages. The net mineral requirements for growth were similar among genders. The goat kids had slightly increased net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for growth with increasing BW from 5 to 15 kg. The net requirements for growth of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K ranged from 9.61 to 9.67 g/kg of BW gain, 7.14 to 7.56 g/kg of BW gain, 0.34 to 0.37 g/kg of BW gain, 1.26 to 1.13 g/kg of BW gain, 1.88 to 1.82 g/kg of BW gain as the animals grew from 5 to 15 kg respectively. In conclusion, when formulating diets for Saanen goat kids in early growth stage mineral levels do not need to adjusted based on gender. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TITLE:TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  20. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TITLE:TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  1. Early Exercise Promotes Angiogenic Response in Mice Model of Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Guifu; Du Zhimin; Hu Chenghen; Roger J. Laham

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the mechanism of exercise-induced angiogenic response in ischemic myocardium. This study was designed to investigate the effects of exercise training on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in infarcted heart. Methods Fifty male FVB mice were divided into three subgroups to test various responses to exercise, including timedependent response of angiogenic factors to exercise training in intact heart (n=10) and infarcted heart (n=10), as well as exercise-induced angiogenic response in heart with myocardial infarction (MI) (n=30). The mice in the exercise-training groups were allowed to exercise daily at 1 hour per day for 7 days. Results VEGF protein expression was up-regulated by exercise training in time dependent fashion in mice with MI.Angiogenesis was evident by increased myocardial microvessels observed by PECAM-1 immunohistoc-hemical staining in post-MI exercise group (16.5±3.4)/0.4 mm2 versus post-MI sedentary mice ( 10±2.1 )/0.4 mm2 (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation assessment showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) number of BrdU positive cells in post MI mice in exercise group as opposed to sedentary post MI mice. 2%TTC staining disclosed a profound difference in the size of MI (18.25±2.93)% in exercise group vs sedentary group (29.26±7.64)% (P<0.05). Conclusions Activation and up-regulation of VEGF in infarcted mice heart may contributes the angiogenic response to exercise training at the early stage of myocardial infarction. This underscores the impact of exercise on angiogenesis in post myocardial infarction setting.

  2. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N Dygalo

    Full Text Available Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  3. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygalo, Nikolay N; Shemenkova, Tatjana V; Kalinina, Tatjana S; Shishkina, Galina T

    2014-01-01

    Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  4. Mouse early extra-embryonic lineages activate compensatory endocytosis in response to poor maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congshan; Velazquez, Miguel A; Marfy-Smith, Stephanie; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Cox, Andy; Johnston, David A; Smyth, Neil; Fleming, Tom P

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian extra-embryonic lineages perform the crucial role of nutrient provision during gestation to support embryonic and fetal growth. These lineages derive from outer trophectoderm (TE) and internal primitive endoderm (PE) in the blastocyst and subsequently give rise to chorio-allantoic and visceral yolk sac placentae, respectively. We have shown maternal low protein diet exclusively during mouse preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to cause a compensatory increase in fetal and perinatal growth that correlates positively with increased adult-onset cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural disease. Here, to investigate early mechanisms of compensatory nutrient provision, we assessed the influence of maternal Emb-LPD on endocytosis within extra-embryonic lineages using quantitative imaging and expression of markers and proteins involved. Blastocysts collected from Emb-LPD mothers within standard culture medium displayed enhanced TE endocytosis compared with embryos from control mothers with respect to the number and collective volume per cell of vesicles with endocytosed ligand and fluid and lysosomes, plus protein expression of megalin (Lrp2) LDL-family receptor. Endocytosis was also stimulated using similar criteria in the outer PE-like lineage of embryoid bodies formed from embryonic stem cell lines generated from Emb-LPD blastocysts. Using an in vitro model replicating the depleted amino acid (AA) composition found within the Emb-LPD uterine luminal fluid, we show TE endocytosis response is activated through reduced branched-chain AAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine). Moreover, activation appears mediated through RhoA GTPase signalling. Our data indicate early embryos regulate and stabilise endocytosis as a mechanism to compensate for poor maternal nutrient provision.

  5. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment given in early or late gestation on growth and development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Sloboda, D M; Moss, T J M; Nitsos, I; Polglase, G R; Doherty, D A; Newnham, J P; Challis, J R G; Braun, T

    2013-04-01

    Antenatal corticosteroids are used to augment fetal lung maturity in human pregnancy. Dexamethasone (DEX) is also used to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia of the fetus in early pregnancy. We previously reported effects of synthetic corticosteroids given to sheep in early or late gestation on pregnancy length and fetal cortisol levels and glucocorticoids alter plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations in late pregnancy and reduce fetal weight. The effects of administering DEX in early pregnancy on fetal organ weights and betamethasone (BET) given in late gestation on weights of fetal brain regions or organ development have not been reported. We hypothesized that BET or DEX administration at either stage of pregnancy would have deleterious effects on fetal development and associated hormones. In early pregnancy, DEX was administered as four injections at 12-hourly intervals over 48 h commencing at 40-42 days of gestation (dG). There was no consistent effect on fetal weight, or individual fetal organ weights, except in females at 7 months postnatal age. When BET was administered at 104, 111 and 118 dG, the previously reported reduction in total fetal weight was associated with significant reductions in weights of fetal brain, cerebellum, heart, kidney and liver. Fetal plasma insulin, leptin and triiodothyronine were also reduced at different times in fetal and postnatal life. We conclude that at the amounts given, the sheep fetus is sensitive to maternal administration of synthetic glucocorticoid in late gestation, with effects on growth and metabolic hormones that may persist into postnatal life.

  6. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  7. Physiological and morphological changes during early and later stages of fruit growth in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aparna; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Ljung, Karin; Offringa, Remko; Heuvelink, Ep

    2013-03-01

    Fruit-set involves a series of physiological and morphological changes that are well described for tomato and Arabidopsis, but largely unknown for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The aim of this paper is to investigate whether mechanisms of fruit-set observed in Arabidopsis and tomato are also applicable to C. annuum. To do this, we accurately timed the physiological and morphological changes in a post-pollinated and un-pollinated ovary. A vascular connection between ovule and replum was observed in fertilized ovaries that undergo fruit development, and this connection was absent in unfertilized ovaries that abort. This indicates that vascular connection between ovule and replum is an early indicator for successful fruit development after pollination and fertilization. Evaluation of histological changes in the carpel of a fertilized and unfertilized ovary indicated that increase in cell number and cell diameter both contribute to early fruit growth. Cell division contributes more during early fruit growth while cell expansion contributes more at later stages of fruit growth in C. annuum. The simultaneous occurrence of a peak in auxin concentration and a strong increase in cell diameter in the carpel of seeded fruits suggest that indole-3-acetic acid stimulates a major increase in cell diameter at later stages of fruit growth. The series of physiological and morphological events observed during fruit-set in C. annuum are similar to what has been reported for tomato and Arabidopsis. This indicates that tomato and Arabidopsis are suitable model plants to understand details of fruit-set mechanisms in C. annuum.

  8. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  9. Orthostatic intolerance and the cardiovascular response to early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Jørgensen, T B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key element in enhanced postoperative recovery is early mobilization which, however, may be hindered by orthostatic intolerance, that is, an inability to sit or stand because of symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion as intolerable dizziness, nausea and vomiting, feeling of heat...

  10. Alcohol Expectancy Responses from Teenagers: The Early Forewarning Signals

    OpenAIRE

    B., Sandhya; B.M.S., Carol; M.S., Kotian; B, Ganaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Indian population is overwhelmed by the rapid developmental activities in the new millennium. This has brought in urbanization and several banes of the faster life. Alcoholism is one among the menaces which have to be tackled at an early stage.

  11. Singaporean Early Childhood Teachers' Responses to Myths about Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda; Potter, Gillian K.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to attending seminars on child abuse and domestic violence, 86 kindergarten and 64 special education (early childhood) teachers completed a questionnaire seeking views relating to the accuracy of statements relating to all forms of child abuse. This was designed to identify the accuracy of teachers' knowledge of child abuse and neglect…

  12. Responsive feeding: establishing healthy eating behaviour early on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... facilitation of self-regulation skills early in life may predict ... foundation for the development of healthy eating behaviour and optimal skills for self-regulation and self-control of food intake. ... to verbal cues and contingencies which are appropriate ..... ethnicity may play a role in the feeding style adopted by.

  13. Modulation of RAB5A early endosome trafficking in response to KRas mediated macropinocytic fluxes in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Christian; Schweitzer, Christine; Palamidessi, Andrea; Aust, Daniela E; Scita, Giorgio; Weitz, Jürgen; Welsch, Thilo

    2017-09-01

    KRAS is the key mutated gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Emerging evidence indicates that KRas modulates endocytic uptake. The present study aimed to explore the fate of early endosomal trafficking under the control of KRas expression in PDAC. Surprisingly, PANC-1 cells lacking KRas exhibited significantly enlarged early and late endosomes containing internalized dextran and epidermal growth factor. Endosome enlargement was accompanied by reduced endosomal degradation. Both KRas silencing and lysosomal blockade caused an upregulation of the master regulator of early endosome biogenesis, RAB5A, which is likely responsible for the expansion of the early endosomal compartment, because simultaneous KRAS/RAB5A knockdown abolished endosome enlargement. In contrast, early endosome shrinkage was seen in MIA PaCa-2 cells despite RAB5A upregulation, indicating that distinct KRas-modulated responses operate in different metabolic subtypes of PDAC. In conclusion, mutant KRAS promotes endosomal degradation in PDAC cell lines, which is impaired by KRAS silencing. Moreover, KRAS silencing activates RAB5A upregulation and drives PDAC subtype-dependent modulation of endosome trafficking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Helicobacter pylori Antigens Inducing Early Immune Response in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Hyun; Youn, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Eun A; Jun, Jin Su; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae Young; Woo, Hyang Ok; Youn, Hee Shang; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Park, Jin Sik; Baik, Seung Chul; Lee, Woo Kon; Cho, Myung Je; Rhee, Kwang Ho

    2017-07-01

    To identify the Helicobacter pylori antigens operating during early infection in sera from infected infants using proteomics and immunoblot analysis. Two-dimensional (2D) large and small gel electrophoresis was performed using H. pylori strain 51. We performed 2D immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody immunoblotting using small gels on sera collected at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 4-11-month-old infants confirmed with H. pylori infection by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoblot spots appearing to represent early infection markers in infant sera were compared to those of the large 2D gel for H. pylori strain 51. Corresponding spots were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The peptide fingerprints obtained were searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Eight infant patients were confirmed with H. pylori infection based on urease tests, histopathologic examinations, and pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. One infant showed a 2D IgM immunoblot pattern that seemed to represent early infection. Immunoblot spots were compared with those from whole-cell extracts of H. pylori strain 51 and 18 spots were excised, digested in gel, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Of the 10 peptide fingerprints obtained, the H. pylori proteins flagellin A (FlaA), urease β subunit (UreB), pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), and translation elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts) were identified and appeared to be active during the early infection periods. These results might aid identification of serological markers for the serodiagnosis of early H. pylori infection in infants. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.A.D.A. [USDA Forest Service, Pineville, LA (United States); Burger, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Kaczmarek, D.J. [Mead Westvaco Forest Science and Technology, Summerville, SC (United States); Kane, M.B. [International Paper Corp., Ridgeland, MS (United States). Silviculture Research and Technology

    2004-10-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations on a converted agricultural field and a pine cutover site to biannual applications of three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates: 0, 5 6, and 112 kg N ha{sup -1}. The trees did not respond to treatment at any age on the agricultural field site, but the fertilized trees on the cutover site had about 60% greater biomass at ages 5 and 6. Fertilization doubled foliar biomass on the cutover site in the years fertilizer was applied. Stem biomass was directly related to foliar biomass, but the relationship was age-specific at both sites. Stem biomass was also related to the foliar N concentration. Foliar critical values of N were about 18 g N kg{sup -1}. Foliage phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were diluted by the N fertilization-induced growth responses at both sites. Fertilization of young intensive-culture sweetgum plantations is necessary for optimum foliar N concentrations and foliar and stem biomass production, but is site-specific. (author)

  16. Early growth and development impairments in patients with ganglioside GM3 synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, A; Wang, D; Bright, A; Sency, V; Zhou, A; Xin, B

    2016-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GSD) causes a complete absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The individuals affected by this disorder manifest severe irritability, intractable seizures and profound intellectual disability. However, we have found that most newborns seem symptom-free for a period of time after birth. In order to further understand the onset of the disease, we investigated the early growth and development of patients with this condition through this study. We compared 37 affected individuals with their normal siblings and revealed that all children with GSD had relatively normal intrauterine growth and development, as their weight, length and head circumference were similar to their normal siblings at birth. However, the disease progresses quickly after birth and causes significant constitutional impairments of growth and development by 6 months of age. Neither breastfeeding nor gastrostomy tube placement made significant difference on growth and development as all groups of patients showed the similar pattern. We conclude that GSD causes significant postnatal growth and developmental impairments and the amount of gangliosides in breast milk and general nutritional intervention do not seem to alter these outcomes.

  17. The evolution of oceanic 87Sr/86Sr does not rule out early continental growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, N.; Coltice, N.; Rey, P. F.

    2010-12-01

    Many contrasted continental growth models have been proposed to date, in which the amount of continental material extracted from the mantle at 3.8 Ga ranges between 0% (e.g. Taylor and McLennan, 1985) and 100% (e.g. Armstrong, 1981). One of the arguments in favor of delayed continental growth models is the shift in the 87Sr/86Sr of marine carbonates from mantle composition at ~ 2.8 Ga (Shields and Veizer, 2002). When using oceanic 87Sr/86Sr as a proxy of continental growth, the flux of strontium from the continents to the oceans is assumed to depend only on continental area and both continental hypsometry and continental freeboard are assumed to be constant through time. However, Rey and Coltice (2008) suggested that Archean reliefs were lower than present-day ones and Flament et al. (2008) suggested that the emerged land area is not proportional to continental growth. Therefore, the suitability of 87Sr/86Sr as a proxy of continental growth must be re-assessed. In this contribution, we develop an integrated model, from the mantle to the surface, to investigate the effect of contrasted continental growth models on the evolution of sea level, of the area of emerged land, and of oceanic 87Sr/86Sr. We estimate the evolution of mantle temperature using the model of Labrosse and Jaupart (2007) that takes the effect of continental growth into account. The maximum continental elevation is calculated using the results of Rey and Coltice (2008), sea level and the area of emerged land are calculated as in Flament et al. (2008), and the oceanic 87Sr/86Sr is calculated in a geochemical box model. We calculate Archean sea levels ~ 800 m higher than present for delayed continental growth and ~ 1500 m higher for early continental growth. In contrast, we calculate similar Archean areas of emerged land, of less than 5% of the Earth’s surface, for both early and delayed continental growth models. Because the area of emerged land does not depend on continental growth models, the

  18. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    to postoperative autonomic dysfunction. Thus, based on a previous study on haemodynamic responses during mobilization before and after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA), we performed secondary analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and aimed to identify possible abnormal postoperative autonomic responses...

  19. Early summer drought stress during the first growing year stimulates extra shoot growth in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arion eTurcsán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea. Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed severe drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of five weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased towards the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05. A higher competition for resources (two plants per pot increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01. Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001. The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period.

  20. Growth of single proglottides during early adult development of Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, H; Fairweather, I

    1989-08-01

    The growth of individual proglottides of Hymenolepis nana has been studied by measuring the width and length of the proglottides between days 3 and 8 post-infection in mice. Two sets of measurements were obtained. The first involved proglottides immediately posterior to the point of proglottis formation and proglottides at particular stages of development. For the second set, measurements were made of proglottides at certain positions in the worm, specifically the 20th, 100th and 200th proglottides, as counted from the posterior end of the worm. For proglottides at different stages in development, the width of a particular stage was greater in the later days of infection, while the length was almost constant. The length of newly-formed proglottides varied only slightly with time despite differences in the width and in the 3-fold increase in proglottis production that occurs between days 3 and 8 post-infection. The width of the 20th, 100th and 200th proglottides followed parallel growth curves that coincided with each other after an appropriate shift along the time axis. The more anterior the position of the proglottis, the greater was the width at the time of proglottis formation, and so its growth began later on the common growth curve. Growth in length of the 20th proglottis was at first faster than the 100th and 200th proglottides, but later slowed down to a level comparable with them, and the growth curves for the length of the three proglottides were very similar to each other. The rates of growth in the volume of the three proglottides were also estimated. The results are also discussed in relation to other approaches to the study of tapeworm growth and to factors that may be responsible for the growth patterns observed.

  1. S-methylmethionine is involved in the salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants at germination and early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Saori; Mitsuya, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    Methionine (Met) is biosynthesized by the activated methyl cycle and S-methylmethionine (SMM) cycle in one-carbon (C1) metabolism in plants. It is converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) which serves as a precursor for many metabolites including glycinebetaine, methylated polyols, polyamines and ethylene which accumulate in plants in response to salinity. We have investigated how the Met biosynthetic pathway is regulated under saline conditions at the transcriptional level in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Within Met biosynthesis-related genes, the expression of homocysteine methyltransferase (HMT) and methionine methyltransferase (MMT) genes in SMM cycle had altered toward increasing Met production by the presence of NaCl. We have determined the salinity tolerance of an Arabidopsis mmt mutant with an insertional mutation in the single copy of the AtMMT gene. Although the mmt mutant showed comparable germination and shoot growth with wild type under normal conditions, NaCl treatment caused severe repression of germination rate and shoot growth in the mmt mutant compared with in the wild type. These results indicate that the utilization of SMM is important for the salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis plants at the germination and early growth stages.

  2. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency.

  3. Continental emergence in the Late Archean reconciles early and late continental growth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Nicolas; Coltice, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of ancient sediments (Rare Earth Element composition of black shales, isotopic strontium composition of marine carbonates, isotopic oxygen composition of zircons) suggests that continental growth culminated around the Archean-Proterozoic transition. In stark contrast, the geochemical analysis of ancient basalts suggests that depletion of the mantle occurred in the Hadean and Eoarchean. This paradox may be solved if continents were extracted from the mantle early in Earth's history, but remained mostly below sea level throughout the Archean. We present a model to estimate the area of emerged land and associated isotopic strontium composition of the mantle and oceans as a function of the coupled evolution of mantle temperature, continental growth and distribution of surface elevations (hypsometry). For constant continental hypsometry and four distinct continental growth models, we show that sea level was between 500 and 2000 m higher in the Archean than at present, resulting in isotopic composition of the mantle and oceans, we show that a reduced area of emerged continental crust can explain why the geochemical fingerprint of continents extracted early in Earth's history was not recorded at the surface of the Earth until the late Archean.

  4. Calcium Addition Affects Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Sweet Sorghum under Saline Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to determine the interactive effects of supple- mental Ca amendment and salinity on germination of sweet sorghum seeds in saline solution culture medium, and investigate the effects of different combinations of Na/Ca ratio in saline soils on the early growth of sweet sorghum plants. [Method] A germi- nation test and a greenhouse pot experiment were conducted to assess the interac- tive effects of calcium addition to culture medium on the germination and seedling growth of sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Moench) in saline soils with a range of NaYCa ratios. In the germination test, seeds were treated with different combinations of five calcium levels [0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mmol/L Ca(NO3)2] and five salinity levels (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol/L NaCI). In the greenhouse experi- ment, seeds were sown in potting soils containing 3 salinity levels (2.3, 4.7 and 7.0 dS/m) and three Na:Ca ratios (10:0, 10:1, and 5:1). [Result] In the germination test, Ca addition at 5 mmol/L promoted germination by 5.5%, 9.9%, and 17.0% at the 3.4, 6.7 and 10.1 dS/m salinity levels. The higher Ca level (10 mmol/L) also in- creased germination by 9.1% and 7.8% at the 3.4 and 6.7 dS/m salinity levels. Then even higher Ca addition at 15 and 20 mmol/L appeared to promote germina- tion when culture media had high salinity (10.1 and 13.4 dS/m). In the greenhouse pot experiment, saline soil amended with supplemental Ca at the 2.3 and 4.7 dS/m salinity levels significantly promoted early seedling growth, with an increase of 6.8% to 28.2% in plant height and 14.3% to 67.9% in whole plant weight. From 28 to 42 d after seeding, the relative growth of seedling was increased by Ca addition, with a reduction of 49.5% to 66.0% in plant height and 4.8% to 61.9% in whole plant weight. From 42 to 56 d after seeding, however, the relative growth of seedling was significantly inhibited by Ca amendment. [Conclusion] Results of this study indicate that appropriate supplemental

  5. Early osmotic adjustment responses in drought-resistant and drought-sensitive oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Hatzig; L Irina Zaharia; Suzanne Abrams; Marie Hohmann; Laurie Legoahec; Alain Bouchereau; Nathalie Nesi; Rod J.Snowdon

    2014-01-01

    The impact of osmotic stress on growth, physiolo-gy, and metabolism of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated by detailed analysis of biomass traits, hormone metabolites and osmolytes in two genetical y unrelated drought-tolerant genotypes and two unrelated drought-sensitive genotypes. Seedlings were grown in vitro under control ed conditions and osmotic stress was simulated by applying a gradual treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), fol owed by hypo-osmotic treatment of variants used for metabolite determination. The results provide a basis for the identification of reliable selection criteria for drought resistance in oilseed rape. The in vitro cultivation system established during this study enabled effective discrimination of early osmotic stress responses between drought-resistant and-susceptible oilseed rape genotypes that also show large differences in relative seed yield under drought conditions in the field. Clear physiological and metabolic differences were observed between the drought-resistant and drought-sensitive genotypes, suggesting that osmotic adjustment is a key component of drought response in oilseed rape. Unexpected-ly, however, the drought-resistant genotypes did not show typical hormonal adjustment and osmolyte accumulation, suggesting that they possess alternative physiological mech-anisms enabling avoidance of stress symptoms.

  6. Ecologically Relevant Cooling Early in Life Alters Prefledging Adrenocortical Response in Free-Living Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Kern, Michael D

    In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli early in development may alter the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the potential for fitness consequences later in life. For altricial species, whose young rely on their parents for food, warmth, and protection from predators, adult behavior can modify the impact of some stressors on their offspring after birth or hatching. We have shown that single bouts of cooling that normally occur when brooding females leave the nest elevate corticosterone secretion in very young free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks. Thus, natural variation in maternal brooding patterns can result in differential exposure of offspring to cooling, and also to glucocorticoids, very early in development. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to repeated bouts of cooling (mimicking those that occur normally when females leave the nest) would alter the activity of the chicks' HPA axis later in life. We exposed free-living chicks to either four 18-min bouts of cooling or brooding temperatures (control) during the first week after hatching. Then, just before fledging (i.e., at least 7 d after the cooling treatments had ceased), we assessed their corticosterone responses to restraint. Repeatedly cooled chicks had a significantly lower corticosterone response to restraint than did control chicks but did not differ from controls in other measures of growth and development. Our data suggest that natural variation in maternal brooding patterns, and hence natural variation in the chicks' body temperature, can alter the activity of the HPA axis well beyond the brooding period.

  7. Outcome of poor response Paediatric AML using early SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wareham, Neval E; Heilmann, Carsten; Abrahamsson, Jonas;

    2013-01-01

    treated with SCT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment was given according to the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol. All patients received AIET (Cytarabine, Idarubicin, Etoposide, Thioguanine) and AM (Cytarabine, Mitoxantrone) as induction. We included poor response defined as > 15% blasts on day 15 after AIET (n = 17......) or > 5% blasts after AM (n = 14, refractory disease). Poor response patients received intensively timed induction and proceeded to SCT when a donor was available. RESULTS: Thirty-one of 267 evaluable patients (12%) had a poor response. SCT was performed in 25; using matched unrelated donors in 13...

  8. The Not-so-Dark Ages: ecology for human growth in medieval and early twentieth century Portugal as inferred from skeletal growth profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Garcia, Susana

    2009-02-01

    This study attempts to address the issue of relative living standards in Portuguese medieval and early 20th century periods. Since the growth of children provides a good measure of environmental quality for the overall population, the skeletal growth profiles of medieval Leiria and early 20th century Lisbon were compared. Results show that growth in femur length of medieval children did not differ significantly from that of early 20th century children, but after puberty medieval adolescents seem to have recovered, as they have significantly longer femora as adults. This is suggestive of greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents. We suggest that this results from distinct child labor practices, which impact differentially on the growth of Leiria and Lisbon adolescents. Work for medieval children and adolescents were related to family activities, and care and attention were provided by family members. Conversely, in early 20th century Lisbon children were more often sent to factories at around 12 years of age as an extra source of family income, where they were exploited for their labor. Since medieval and early 20th century children were stunted at an early age, greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents results from exhausting work being added to modern adolescent's burdens of disease and poor diet, when they entered the labor market. Although early 20th century Lisbon did not differ in overall unfavorable living conditions from medieval Leiria, after puberty different child labor practices may have placed modern adolescents at greater risk of undernutrition and poor growth.

  9. Mixed-effects modelling of scale growth profiles predicts the occurrence of early and late fish migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marco-Rius

    Full Text Available Fish growth is commonly used as a proxy for fitness but this is only valid if individual growth variation can be interpreted in relation to conspecifics' performance. Unfortunately, assessing individual variation in growth rates is problematic under natural conditions because subjects typically need to be marked, repeated measurements of body size are difficult to obtain in the field, and recaptures may be limited to a few time events which will generally vary among individuals. The analysis of consecutive growth rings (circuli found on scales and other hard structures offers an alternative to mark and recapture for examining individual growth variation in fish and other aquatic vertebrates where growth rings can be visualized, but accounting for autocorrelations and seasonal growth stanzas has proved challenging. Here we show how mixed-effects modelling of scale growth increments (inter-circuli spacing can be used to reconstruct the growth trajectories of sea trout (Salmo trutta and correctly classify 89% of individuals into early or late seaward migrants (smolts. Early migrants grew faster than late migrants during their first year of life in freshwater in two natural populations, suggesting that migration into the sea was triggered by ontogenetic (intrinsic drivers, rather than by competition with conspecifics. Our study highlights the profound effects that early growth can have on age at migration of a paradigmatic fish migrant and illustrates how the analysis of inter-circuli spacing can be used to reconstruct the detailed growth of individuals when these cannot be marked or are only caught once.

  10. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project will be purchased and applied and a Washington Service Corps AmeriCorps member...

  11. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide match for...

  12. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Funding from this grant will allow for the purchase of biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project and to provide funds to...

  13. Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naterstad Kristine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Results The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman. Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved. Conclusions Our data shows that the ribose uptake

  14. Effect of the hydrostatic pressure on otolith growth of early juveniles of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A T; Coimbra, A M; Damasceno-Oliveira, A

    2012-07-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus early juveniles were maintained for 2 weeks in a pressurized system under a controlled photoperiod, at constant salinity and temperature. Groups of fish were exposed to one of three absolute hydrostatic pressure (HP) regimes: (1) a constant normal atmospheric pressure (100 kPa), (2) a constant 40 m pressure (500 kPa) or (3) a semi-diurnal cyclic vertical migration (100-500 kPa). No significant differences were detected in otolith size and incremental periodicity among the three HP treatments, suggesting that HP does not affect otolith growth of early juveniles O. niloticus. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition, and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    with an increased risk of later obesity. However, there are only few intervention studies and the causality and the mechanisms are still being discussed. Recently, we summarized publications from the last years on this topic [1]. We have included 5 key papers on this topic that we found of special interest...... that residual confounding by socio-economic position is a possibility, but also that breastfeeding reduced the risk by 13% in the high-quality studies. We have included 4 studies on the aspects of breastfeeding and later obesity which we found of special interest.......Early nutrition is an important factor regulating both early and long-term growth and body composition, and therefore has important effects on the risk of later overweight and obesity. There is a lot of activity within this research area with a wealth of publications including observational studies...

  16. Dose-response regressions for algal growth and similar continuous endpoints: Calculation of effective concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik R.; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels

    2009-01-01

    % inhibition). For illustration, data from closed, freshwater algal assays are analyzed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with growth rate as the response parameter. Dose-response regressions for four test chemicals (tetraethylammonium bromide, musculamine, benzonitrile, and 4...

  17. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  18. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t_E ~ few x 0.01 Gyr, is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 Gyr old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is trapped in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly-draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  19. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan

    for start-ups that globalize rapidly in an environment with a high degree of uncertainty (Sarasvathy, Kumar, York, & Bhagavatula, 2014). The ex-ante valuation of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) is related to the ex-post characteristics of BG firms (Tanev, 2012) resulting in a Global Value Generator (GVG......This paper emphasizes the role of early and rapid globalization of technology start-ups as part of their innovation and growth strategies. It suggests a framework linking the ex-ante value of new technology firms and the ex-post characteristics of born global (BG) firms. We were inspired by Knight...... of technology start-ups as a specific growth strategy (Zijdemans & Tanev, 2014). Our research adopts a dynamic resource perspective according to which the distinction between ex-ante and ex-post value of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) complements the effectual entrepreneurial approach, which is typical...

  20. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae......, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young...... vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth...

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUBADOLESCENT AND EARLY ADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radulović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Today 's children are engaged by things which don't cause enough irritation for quality development of skelton-muscle system. There's a common opinion that strength training for subadolescent and early adolescent children is very harmful and useless. However; a lot of examinations show that a good invented progress of strength training is resulting increasing of muscle strength; ligament strength and insuring the bases of right growth and development of children: the quality strenght training enables a child to face better everyday' s efforts. It's also important fact of optimal psyzical preparation which is necessary for the further sport development.

  2. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  3. What Determines the Growth Ambition of Dutch Early-Stage Entrepreneurs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Verheul; Linda van Mil

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the ambition to grow among Dutch early-stage entrepreneurs (nascents and young business owners). We use Adult Population Survey data of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the Netherlands. Merging cross-sectional data of the years 2002 to 2007, we arrive at a sample of 409 nascents and 336 young business owners. Growth ambition is measured by asking the respondent which statement fits him or her best: (1) I want my company to be as large a...

  4. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Early Childhood and Growth at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Goren, Sophy; Cohen, Dani

    2015-12-01

    There are conflicting results regarding the role of H. pylori in children's growth. We examined differences in growth indices at school age according to H. pylori infection acquisition in preschool age. A prospective study was undertaken between 2004 and 2009, in which of healthy children (N = 139, ages 3-5 years at baseline) were tested for the presence of H. pylori antigen in their stool using enzyme-linked immunoassay and followed-up till age 6-9 years (median follow-up time 45 months). Height, weight, and hemoglobin levels were measured, and socioeconomic data were obtained. Z scores of height for age, weight for age, and body mass index for age at baseline and follow-up were calculated using the 2000 Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth reference curves. Growth velocity (cm/month) between preschool and school age was compared between H. pylori-infected and uninfected children using mixed models. Fifty-three percent of the children were H. pylori positive at baseline, and all except one child tested positive at follow-up. The adjusted mean Z score of height for age at follow-up was significantly lower among H. pylori-infected children than uninfected ones: 0.15 (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.02, 0.29) and 0.45 (95% CI 0.29, 0.60), respectively (p = .002). Growth velocity was slower in the former group -0.0264 cm/month (95% CI -0.047, -0.005) (p = .014), after adjusting for baseline height and age. H. pylori infection was not associated with body weight. Helicobacter pylori infection acquired in early childhood may have long-term adverse influence on linear growth at school age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Third Trimester in Association with Birthweight Characteristics and Early Infant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Poon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis examined the impact of maternal dietary patterns and lifestyle factors on markers of fetal growth, specifically birthweight and size for gestational age (small- (SGA or large-for-gestational age (LGA. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a prospective cohort study, surveyed pregnant women during their 3rd trimester, of which a subgroup (n=893 completed a food frequency questionnaire. Maternal dietary patterns were evaluated by diet scores (Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy and alternate Mediterranean diet and by carbohydrate quality (glycemic index and glycemic load. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to examine the relative risk of SGA and separately LGA, with dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors. Linear regression was used to determine the association of birthweight and early infant growth with better dietary patterns. Relative risk of SGA and LGA was not associated with dietary patterns. Birthweight and infant growth were not associated with maternal diet. Smoking, however, increased the risk of delivering an SGA infant (RR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.58–5.39, while higher prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of delivering an LGA infant (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03–1.09. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether deficiencies in more specific maternal dietary nutrients play a role in fetal growth.

  6. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  7. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and aerosol formation: implications from atmospheric measurements for nucleation and early growth mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-L. Sihto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the formation and early growth of atmospheric secondary aerosol particles building on atmospheric measurements. The measurements were part of the QUEST 2 campaign which took place in spring 2003 in Hyytiälä (Finland. During the campaign numerous aerosol particle formation events occurred of which 15 were accompanied by gaseous sulphuric acid measurements. Our detailed analysis of these 15 events is focussed on nucleation and early growth (to a diameter of 3 nm of fresh particles. It revealed that new particle formation seems to be a function of the gaseous sulphuric acid concentration to the power from one to two when the time delay between the sulphuric acid and particle number concentration is taken into account. From the time delay the growth rates of freshly nucleated particles from 1 nm to 3 nm were determined. The mean growth rate was 1.2 nm/h and it was clearly correlated with the gaseous sulphuric acid concentration. We tested two nucleation mechanisms – recently proposed cluster activation and kinetic type nucleation – as possible candidates to explain the observed dependences, and determined experimental nucleation coefficients. We found that some events are dominated by the activation mechanism and some by the kinetic mechanism. Inferred coefficients for the two nucleation mechanisms are the same order of magnitude as chemical reaction coefficients in the gas phase and they correlate with the product of gaseous sulphuric acid and ammonia concentrations. This indicates that besides gaseous sulphuric acid also ammonia has a role in nucleation.

  8. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time eating silage than cows offered other diets. The highest

  9. Cellular Immune Responses and Viral Diversity in Individuals Treated during Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeld, Marcus; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Shankarappa, Raj; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Eldridge, Robert L.; Addo, Marylyn M.; Poon, Samuel H.; Phillips, Mary N.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Sax, Paul E.; Boswell, Steve; Kahn, James O.; Brander, Christian; Goulder, Philip J.R.; Levy, Jay A.; Mullins, James I.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Immune responses induced during the early stages of chronic viral infections are thought to influence disease outcome. Using HIV as a model, we examined virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), T helper cells, and viral genetic diversity in relation to duration of infection and subsequent response to antiviral therapy. Individuals with acute HIV-1 infection treated before seroconversion had weaker CTL responses directed at fewer epitopes than persons who were treated after seroconversion. However, treatment-induced control of viremia was associated with the development of strong T helper cell responses in both groups. After 1 yr of antiviral treatment initiated in acute or early infection, all epitope-specific CTL responses persisted despite undetectable viral loads. The breadth and magnitude of CTL responses remained significantly less in treated acute infection than in treated chronic infection, but viral diversity was also significantly less with immediate therapy. We conclude that early treatment of acute HIV infection leads to a more narrowly directed CTL response, stronger T helper cell responses, and a less diverse virus population. Given the need for T helper cells to maintain effective CTL responses and the ability of virus diversification to accommodate immune escape, we hypothesize that early therapy of primary infection may be beneficial despite induction of less robust CTL responses. These data also provide rationale for therapeutic immunization aimed at broadening CTL responses in treated primary HIV infection. PMID:11148221

  10. Attenuating Growth: A More Humane Alternative--A Response to Gunther and Diekema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Lyle T; Crocker, Allen C.

    2006-01-01

    An astonishing tract has been published that involves a plan for the modification of the growth of children with severe developmental disabilities by administering hormonal treatments designed to arrest growth at an early age (Gunther & Diekema, 2006). The schema put forth is based upon the concern of the authors for the burdensome effect families…

  11. Divergent effect of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids on the insulin-like growth factor I response to growth hormone in short normal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, Régis; de Casson, Florence Boux; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Douay, Olivier; Mathieu, Elisabeth; Gatelais, Frédérique; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Voinot, Christelle; Audran, Maurice; Limal, Jean Marie

    2004-12-01

    The lower responsiveness to GH in women than in men is probably due to a divergent effect of gonadal steroids. It is unknown, however, how the progressive increase in sex steroid production that occurs during puberty affects this responsiveness. To compare the effects of puberty and sex steroid administration on responsiveness to GH, we used the IGF-I generation test, in which the peak IGF-I level 24 h after a single injection of GH (2 mg/m2) was studied in 117 healthy short subjects (56 females and 61 males). The subjects, aged 8-16 yr, were divided into four groups: prepuberty, early puberty, midpuberty, or pubertal delay. In the latter group, the IGF-I response was determined before and after priming with oral 17beta-estradiol in girls and im testosterone in boys. We also tested for an association between body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and the IGF-I response to GH. The IGF-I increment in response to GH (change in IGF-I from baseline) was correlated with the growth velocity sd score (P produce a relative decrease and no change in responsiveness to GH in similar populations, possibly through the achievement of sex steroid concentrations exceeding physiological ranges for age. Fat percentage was a positive determinant of the responsiveness to GH, suggesting a link between the energy stores and the anabolic action of GH.

  12. Quality control system response to stochastic growth of amyloid fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Lizana, Ludvig; Otzen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic model describing aggregation of misfolded proteins and degradation by the protein quality control system in a single cell. Aggregate growth is contrasted by the cell quality control system, that attacks them at different stages of the growth process, with an efficiency t...

  13. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant. Se

  14. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant.

  15. Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to early antigen(s) of human cytomegalovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Waner, J L; Kong, N; Biano, S

    1983-01-01

    The lymphocytes of asymptomatic, seropositive donors demonstrated blastogenic responses to early antigens of human cytomegalovirus whether or not antibodies to early antigens were detectable. The lymphocytes of six of nine patients with active cytomegalovirus infections gave stimulation indexes of greater than or equal to 2.00 with antigens of productively infected cells, whereas only two patients demonstrated comparable stimulation indexes with early antigens. Four patients with stimulation ...

  16. Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to early antigen(s) of human cytomegalovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Waner, J L; Kong, N; Biano, S

    1983-01-01

    The lymphocytes of asymptomatic, seropositive donors demonstrated blastogenic responses to early antigens of human cytomegalovirus whether or not antibodies to early antigens were detectable. The lymphocytes of six of nine patients with active cytomegalovirus infections gave stimulation indexes of greater than or equal to 2.00 with antigens of productively infected cells, whereas only two patients demonstrated comparable stimulation indexes with early antigens. Four patients with stimulation ...

  17. Reader Response Approaches and the Growth of Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Dixie Lee

    1998-01-01

    Outlines what reader response might look like in the classroom. Presents four basic assumptions of reader response theory. Discusses ways reader response approaches to literature help students grow both in the depth and breadth of their responses to literature, and as strategic readers. (SR)

  18. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  19. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  20. Measuring Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Conceptualizations of a Culturally Responsive Classroom Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2009-01-01

    With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…

  1. EXO modifies sucrose and trehalose responses and connects the extracellular carbon status to growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisso, Janina; Schröder, Florian; Müssig, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Plants have the capacity to adapt growth to changing environmental conditions. This implies the modulation of metabolism according to the availability of carbon (C). Particular interest in the response to the C availability is based on the increasing atmospheric levels of CO2. Several regulatory pathways that link the C status to growth have emerged. The extracellular EXO protein is essential for cell expansion and promotes shoot and root growth. Homologous proteins were identified in evolutionarily distant green plants. We show here that the EXO protein connects growth with C responses. The exo mutant displayed altered responses to exogenous sucrose supplemented to the growth medium. Impaired growth of the mutant in synthetic medium was associated with the accumulation of starch and anthocyanins, altered expression of sugar-responsive genes, and increased abscisic acid levels. Thus, EXO modulates several responses related to the C availability. Growth retardation on medium supplemented with 2-deoxy-glucose, mannose, and palatinose was similar to the wild type. Trehalose feeding stimulated root growth and shoot biomass production of exo plants whereas it inhibited growth of the wild type. The phenotypic features of the exo mutant suggest that apoplastic processes coordinate growth and C responses.

  2. Growth Hormone Response to L-Dopa and Clonidine in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven medication-free autistic subjects (ages 6-19) were administered clonidine and L-Dopa to investigate neuroendocrine responses through changes in growth hormone levels. Findings showed that, compared to normal controls, the L-Dopa-stimulated growth hormone peak was delayed and the clonidine growth hormone peak was premature. (Author/JDD)

  3. Report on responsible growth. AREVA in 2008; Rapport de croissance responsable. AREVA en 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    All over the world, AREVA supplies its customers with solutions for carbon-free power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. With its knowledge and expertise in these fields, the group has a leading role to play in meeting the world's energy needs. Ranked first in the global nuclear power industry, AREVA's unique integrated offering covers every stage of the fuel cycle, reactor design and construction, and related services. In addition, the group is expanding its operations in renewable energies. AREVA is also a world leader in electricity transmission and distribution and offers its customers a complete range of solutions for greater grid stability and energy efficiency. Sustainable development is a core component of the group's industrial strategy. Its 75,000 employees work every day to make AREVA a responsible industrial player that is helping to supply ever cleaner, safer and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. Sustainable development is a keystone of AREVA's industrial strategy for achieving growth that is profitable, socially responsible and respectful of the environment. To translate this choice into reality, AREVA integrates sustainable development into its management practices via a continuous improvement initiative revolving around ten commitments: customer satisfaction, financial performance, governance, community involvement, environmental protection, innovation, continuous improvement, commitment to employees, risk management and prevention, dialogue and consensus building. This document is Areva's 2008 report on responsible growth. After the Messages from the Chairman of the Supervisory Board and from the Chief Executive Officer, the report presents the Key data and Highlights of the period, the Corporate governance, the Organization of the group, the Share information and shareholder relations, the uranium reserves, the growing energy demand and the World's population demographic

  4. Modeling the response of peach fruit growth to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génard, M; Huguet, J G

    1996-04-01

    We applied a semi-mechanistic model of fresh matter accumulation to peach fruit during the stage of rapid mesocarp development. The model, which is based on simple hypotheses of fluid flows into and out of the fruit, assumes that solution flow into the fruit increases with fruit weight and transpiration per unit weight, and decreases with the maximum daily shrinkage of the trunk, which was used as an indicator of water stress. Fruit transpiration was assumed to increase with fruit size and with radiation. Fruit respiration was considered to be related to fruit growth and to temperature. The model simulates variability in growth among fruits according to climatic conditions, degree of water stress and weight of the fruit at the beginning of the simulation. We used data obtained from well-watered and water-stressed trees grown in containers to estimate model parameters and to test the model. There was close agreement between the simulated and measured values. A sensitivity analysis showed that initial fruit weight partly determined the variation in growth among fruits. The analysis also indicated that there was an optimal irradiance for fruit growth and that the effect of high global radiation on growth varied according to the stage of fruit development. Water stress, which was the most important factor influencing fruit growth, rapidly depressed growth, particularly when applied late in the season.

  5. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    KAUST Repository

    Yun, Kil-Young

    2010-01-25

    Background: The transcriptional regulatory network involved in low temperature response leading to acclimation has been established in Arabidopsis. In japonica rice, which can only withstand transient exposure to milder cold stress (10C), an oxidative-mediated network has been proposed to play a key role in configuring early responses and short-term defenses. The components, hierarchical organization and physiological consequences of this network were further dissected by a systems-level approach.Results: Regulatory clusters responding directly to oxidative signals were prominent during the initial 6 to 12 hours at 10C. Early events mirrored a typical oxidative response based on striking similarities of the transcriptome to disease, elicitor and wounding induced processes. Targets of oxidative-mediated mechanisms are likely regulated by several classes of bZIP factors acting on as1/ocs/TGA-like element enriched clusters, ERF factors acting on GCC-box/JAre-like element enriched clusters and R2R3-MYB factors acting on MYB2-like element enriched clusters.Temporal induction of several H2O2-induced bZIP, ERF and MYB genes coincided with the transient H2O2spikes within the initial 6 to 12 hours. Oxidative-independent responses involve DREB/CBF, RAP2 and RAV1 factors acting on DRE/CRT/rav1-like enriched clusters and bZIP factors acting on ABRE-like enriched clusters. Oxidative-mediated clusters were activated earlier than ABA-mediated clusters.Conclusion: Genome-wide, physiological and whole-plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress and developmental responses leads to modulated growth and vigor maintenance contributing to a delay of plastic injuries. 2010 Yun et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Effects of antenatal corticosteroid administration on mortality and long-term morbidity in early preterm, growth-restricted infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, AH; Wolf, H; Bruinse, HW; Smolders-De Haas, H; Van Ertbruggen, [No Value; Treffers, PE

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids on mortality, morbidity, and disability or handicap rate in early preterm, growth-restricted infants. Methods: This case-control study in two tertiary care centers included all live-born singleton infants with growth-restriction due to

  7. Germination and Early Growth Assessment of Tamarindus indica L in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Gwaram Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and early growth assessment of Tamarindus indica L. were conducted to determine the suitable medium for germination and seedlings establishment of the species in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The viable seeds of the study species were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and boiling water for one hour and by soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours. The treated seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing filter paper for germination assessment. The results indicated 68–95% germination of T. indica seeds within 3–19 days. Conc. H2SO4 treatment gave the highest germination percentage of 95%. T. indica seeds were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and sown into four (4 different potting mixtures for early growth assessment. Collar diameter, seedlings height, and leaf number were the parameters measured. Seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 had the highest seedlings height and leaf number, while the highest collar diameter was obtained from seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and poultry droppings (2 : 1. However, growing T. indica in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 after 30 minutes pretreatment was recommended.

  8. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Expression of Escherichia coli cspA during early exponential growth at 37 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, Anna; Pon, Cynthia L

    2012-01-25

    CspA is a small (7.4 kDa) nucleic acid binding protein of Escherichia coli whose expression is stimulated after cold-stress but whose level is also extraordinarily high during the early phase of growth of non-stressed cells. In this study the relationship existing between cspA transcription/translation on the one hand and the acquisition of critical mass for cell division and chromosome replication, on the other, in stationary phase cells subjected to a nutritional up-shift at 37 °C has been analyzed. Measurements of optical density and viable counts, pulse-chase, real-time PCR and immunodetection experiments, as well as cytofluorimetric and DNA duplication analyses show that synthesis of new CspA molecules at 37 °C is not only restricted to the lag phase ensuing the nutritional up-shift, but continues also during the first stages of logarithmic growth, when cells have already started dividing; although the early synthesized molecules are diluted by the following cell divisions and new synthesis occurs at an extremely low level, cspA mRNA and CspA continue to be present. A possible explanation for the apparent paradox that cspA is activated not only following cold stress, but also under non-stress and other stress conditions which entail a down-regulation of bulk gene expression and protein synthesis is presented.

  10. Optical techniques for tracking multiple myeloma engraftment, growth, and response to therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Judith M.; Carlson, Alicia L.; Pitsillides, Costas; Thompson, Brian; Wu, Juwell; Spencer, Joel A.; Kohler, John M. J.; Azab, Abdelkareem; Moreau, Anne-Sophie; Rodig, Scott J.; Kung, Andrew L.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Lin, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematological malignancy, initiates from a single site and spreads via circulation to multiple sites in the bone marrow (BM). Methods to track MM cells both in the BM and circulation would be useful for developing new therapeutic strategies to target MM cell spread. We describe the use of complementary optical techniques to track human MM cells expressing both bioluminescent and fluorescent reporters in a mouse xenograft model. Long-term tumor growth and response to therapy are monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI), while numbers of circulating tumor cells are detected by in-vivo flow cytometry. Intravital microscopy is used to detect early seeding of MM cells to the BM, as well as residual cancer cells that remain in the BM after the bulk of the tumor is eradicated following drug treatment. Thus, intravital microscopy provides a powerful, albeit invasive, means to study cellular processes in vivo at the very early stage of the disease process and at the very late stage of therapeutic intervention when the tumor burden is too small to be detected by other imaging methods.

  11. Early Life-History Consequences of Growth-Hormone Transgenesis in Rainbow Trout Reared in Stream Ecosystem Mesocosms

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There is persistent commercial interest in the use of growth modified fishes for shortening production cycles and increasing overall food production, but there is concern over the potential impact that transgenic fishes might have if ever released into nature. To explore the ecological consequences of transgenic fish, we performed two experiments in which the early growth and survival of growth-hormone transgenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed in naturalized stream mesocosm...

  12. Early Biventricular Molecular Responses to an Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Cenk; Karakülah, Gökhan; Fermancı, Emel; Kunter, İmge; Silistreli, Erdem; Tülay CANDA; Erdal, Esra; Hepaguslar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains as one of the most common lethal diseases in the world and therefore it is necessary to understand its effect on molecular basis. Genome-wide microarray analysis provides us to predict potential biomarkers and signaling pathways for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the immediate right ventricular cellular response to left ventricular AMI. Material and Methods: A rat model of left anter...

  13. Optimal Control of Oxygen Concentration in a Magnetic Czochralski Crystal Growth by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of response surface methodology have been widely applied in many branches of engineering, especially in the chemical and manufacturing areas. This paper presents an application of the methodology in a magnetic crystal Czochralski growth system for single crystal silicon to optimize the oxygen concentration at the crystal growth interface in a cusp magnetic field. The simulation demonstrates that the response surface methodology is a feasible algorithm for the optimization of the Czochralski crystal growth process.

  14. Type I TARPs promote dendritic growth of early postnatal neocortical pyramidal cells in organotypic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mohammad I K; Jack, Alexander; Klatt, Oliver; Lorkowski, Markus; Strasdeit, Tobias; Kott, Sabine; Sager, Charlotte; Hollmann, Michael; Wahle, Petra

    2014-04-01

    The ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been implicated in the establishment of dendritic architecture. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) regulate AMPAR function and trafficking into synaptic membranes. In the current study, we employ type I and type II TARPs to modulate expression levels and function of endogenous AMPARs and investigate in organotypic cultures (OTCs) of rat occipital cortex whether this influences neuronal differentiation. Our results show that in early development [5-10 days in vitro (DIV)] only the type I TARP γ-8 promotes pyramidal cell dendritic growth by increasing spontaneous calcium amplitude and GluA2/3 expression in soma and dendrites. Later in development (10-15 DIV), the type I TARPs γ-2, γ-3 and γ-8 promote dendritic growth, whereas γ-4 reduced dendritic growth. The type II TARPs failed to alter dendritic morphology. The TARP-induced dendritic growth was restricted to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells and it did not affect interneurons. Moreover, we studied the effects of short hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of endogenous γ-8 and showed a reduction of dendritic complexity and amplitudes of spontaneous calcium transients. In addition, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of γ-8 was required for dendritic growth. Single-cell calcium imaging showed that the γ-8 CT domain increases amplitude but not frequency of calcium transients, suggesting a regulatory mechanism involving the γ-8 CT domain in the postsynaptic compartment. Indeed, the effect of γ-8 overexpression was reversed by APV, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that selected type I TARPs influence activity-dependent dendritogenesis of immature pyramidal neurons.

  15. Functional and Radiographic Outcomes Following Growth-Sparing Management of Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charles E; Tran, Dong-Phuong; McClung, Anna

    2017-06-21

    In this study, we sought to evaluate radiographic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes of patients who have completed growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis. This prospective study involved patients with early-onset scoliosis who underwent growth-sparing treatment and either "final" fusion or observation for ≥2 years since the last lengthening procedure. Demographics, radiographic parameters, pulmonary function test (PFT) values, and scores of patient-reported assessments (Early-Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire [EOSQ] and Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-30) were obtained. At the most recent follow-up, patients performed 2 additional functional outcome tests: step-activity monitoring and a treadmill exercise-tolerance test. Twelve patients were evaluated as "graduates" of growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis (mean of 37 months since the most recent surgery). The major scoliosis curve measurement averaged 88° before treatment and 47° at the most recent follow-up. T1-S1 height increased from a mean of 22.3 cm to 34.7 cm and T1-T12 height, from 13.3 to 22.3 cm. At the most recent follow-up, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a percentage of the predicted volume were 52.1% and 55.3%, respectively, and were essentially unchanged from the earliest PFT that patients could perform (FEV1 = 53.8% of predicted and FVC = 53.5% of predicted). There was no difference between graduates and controls with respect to activity time or total steps in step-activity monitoring, and in the exercise-tolerance test, graduates walked at the same speed but at a higher heart rate and at a significantly higher (p scoliosis appears to be spine elongation and maintenance of pulmonary function at a level that is no less than the percentage of normal at initial presentation. Functional testing and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 3 years from the last surgery suggest that activity levels were generally equal

  16. Growth and other physiological responses of bivalves in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Milford lab maintains data sets relating to a variety of growth and physiology trials. These include husbandry techniques (i.e. stocking density, container size,...

  17. Growth responses of breast and leg muscles to essential amino acids in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, M; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Rokouei, M

    2016-03-01

    The first three essential amino acids (EAA) for broilers including methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and threonine (Thr) may greatly influence the growth of chick muscles at early stages of life. In order to survey the potential effects of those EAA on growth muscles, a rotatable three-variable central composite design (CCD) was conducted to track the interrelationships of dietary digestible Met (dMet), Lys (dLys) and Thr (dThr) for optimization of processing yields in broiler chicks using response surface methodology. A total of 60 floor pens of six birds each were assigned to 15 dietary treatments based on CCD containing five levels of dMet (0.416% to 0.584% of diet), dLys (0.881% to 1.319% of diet) and dThr (0.532% to 0.868% of diet) from 3 to 16 days of age. Experimental treatments significantly affected breast mass (BM) and leg mass (LM) of the birds (Pmuscle may indicate the higher importance of these EAA in this muscle than those in thigh muscle.

  18. Initial growth of maize in response to application of rock phosphate, vermicompost and endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high energy requirement and demand for non-renewable resources for the production of chemical fertilizers, added also to the environmental impact caused by the use of such products, it is important to intensify research on bio-based agricultural inputs. The use of nitrogen-fixing endophytic and phosphate solubilizing bacteria can provide these nutrients to the plants from the air and poorly soluble phosphorus sources, such as phosphate rock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrition and initial growth of maize (Zea mays L. in response to the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and rock phosphate solubilizing endophytic bacteria, in single or mixed formulation, applied with vermicompost. The treatments containing bacteria, both diazotrophic and phosphate solubilizing, when compared to controls, showed higher levels of leaf nitrogen and phosphorus in maize, as well as higher growth characteristics. The application of vermicompost showed synergistic effect when combined with endophytic bacteria. Thus, the innovation of the combination of the studied factors may contribute to the early development of maize.

  19. Embedding CSR in corporate strategy for responsible growth

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Puts the case for collaborative capitalism and addressing a wider range of stakeholder interests in a period of uncertainty and in response to criticisms of business and contemporary cynicism and distrust and identifies opportunities for more responsible business.

  20. Adaptive growth responses of Listeria monocytogenes to acid and osmotic shifts above and across the growth boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belessi, C-I A; Le Marc, Y; Merkouri, S I; Gounadaki, A S; Schvartzman, S; Jordan, K; Drosinos, E H; Skandamis, P N

    2011-01-01

    The effect of acid and osmotic shifts on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated at 10°C. Two types of shifts were tested: (i) within the range of pH and water activity (a(w)) levels that allow growth of L. monocytogenes and (ii) after habituation at no-growth conditions back to growth-permitting conditions. A L. monocytogenes cheese isolate, with high survival capacity during cheesemaking, was inoculated (10(2) CFU/ml) in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract at six pH levels (5.1 to 7.2; adjusted with lactic acid) and 0.5% NaCl (a(w) 0.995), or four a(w) levels (0.995 to 0.93, adjusted with 0.5 to 10.5% NaCl) at pH 7.2 and grown to early stationary phase. L. monocytogenes was then shifted (at 10(2) CFU/ml) to each of the aforementioned growth-permitting pH and a(w) levels and incubated at 10°C. Shifts from no-growth to growth-permitting conditions were carried out by transferring L. monocytogenes habituated at pH 4.9 or a(w) 0.90 (12.5% NaCl) for 1, 5, and 10 days to all pH and a(w) levels permitting growth. Reducing a(w) or pH at different levels in the range of 0.995 to 0.93 and 7.2 to 5.1, respectively, decreased the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes. The lag time of the organism increased with all osmotic downshifts, as well as by the reduction of pH to 5.1. Conversely, any type of shift within pH 5.5 to 7.2 did not markedly affect the lag times of L. monocytogenes. The longer the cells were incubated at no-growth a(w) (0.90), the faster they initiated growth subsequently, suggesting adaptation to osmotic stress. Conversely, extended habituation at pH 4.9 had the opposite effect on subsequent growth of L. monocytogenes, possibly due to cell injury. These results suggest that there is an adaptation or injury rate induced at conditions inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. Thus, quantifying adaptation phenomena under growth-limiting environments, such as in fermented dairy and meat products or products preserved in

  1. 缺氧后内皮细胞早期生长反应因子-1活化的信号机制%The Signaling Mechanism Involved in Hypoxia-induced Upregulation of Early Growth Response-1 in Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春; 杨明; 施晓芸; 陈晓春

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察缺氧对内皮细胞早期生长反应因子(Egr-1)表达的影响及晚期糖基化终末产物(AGEs)及其受体(RAGE)对上述效应的可能调控机制.方法 以培养小鼠主动脉内皮细胞(MAECs)为模型,根据缺氧时间和缺氧前预处理方式,分为不同缺氧时间组[缺氧0(对照组),5,10,15,30,60,120 min组]、anti-AGE预处理组、可溶性RAGE(sRAGE)预处理组和蛋白激酶C(PKC)β抑制剂组,实时定量PCR法检测缺氧后Egr-1 mRNA含量、ELISA法检测细胞裂解液中AGEs含量、蛋白印迹法检测细胞膜蛋白中PKC各异构体的活化.结果 缺氧15 min组Egr-1 mRNA表达上调,为对照组的(14.13±0.77)倍(P=0.000 0);缺氧10~60 min内皮细胞裂解液中AGEs堆积;缺氧15 min组MAECs膜蛋白中PKCβⅡ含量为(30.57±1.86),显著高于对照组的含量(9.22±1.05)(P=0.002);anti-AGE、sRAGE和PKCβ抑制剂预处理减少缺氧诱导的Egr-1 mRNA表达上调(P=0.000 0);anti-AGE和sRAGE预处理显著减少缺氧对PKCβⅡ的活化(P=0.000 0).结论 急性缺氧诱导内皮细胞AGEs堆积、PKCβⅡ活化和Egr-1mRNA高表达,AGEs-RAGE和PKCβII信号参与急性缺氧后Egr-1诱导表达的调控.%Objective To observe the impact of hypoxia on the expression of early growth response-1 (Egr-1) in mouse aortic endothelial cells(MAECs) , and to study the underlying signaling mechanism involving advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and its receptor (receptor for AGEs, RAGE). Methods MAECs were subjected to hypoxia treatment with a (6.0+0.5)% oxygen concentration for various periods (0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 or 120 min) , or -were first pre-incubated -with anti-AGEs or soluble RAGE (sRAGE) for 2 h, or LY379196 for 45 min respectively, and then subsequently exposed to hypoxia for 15 min. Egr-1 mRNA levels -were detected by real time PCR (RT-PCR), AGEs in cell lysate -were monitored by ELISA, and PKC isoformates in membrane fraction were examined by western blot. MAECs cultured -with normoxia -were

  2. Socioeconomic differences in children's growth trajectories from infancy to early adulthood: evidence from four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; O'Leary, Neil; Fraga, Silvia; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Kartiosuo, Noora; Raitakari, Olli; Kivimäki, Mika; Vineis, Paolo; Layte, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Height is regarded as a marker of early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress, but the extent to which differences in height are determined by early-life socioeconomic circumstances, particularly in contemporary populations, is unclear. This study examined socioeconomic differences in children's height trajectories from birth through to 21 years of age in four European countries. Data were from six prospective cohort studies-Generation XXI, Growing Up in Ireland (infant and child cohorts), Millennium Cohort Study, EPITeen and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study-comprising a total of 49 492 children with growth measured repeatedly from 1980 to 2014. We modelled differences in children's growth trajectories over time by maternal educational level using hierarchical models with fixed and random components for each cohort study. Across most cohorts at practically all ages, children from lower educated mothers were shorter on average. The gradient in height was consistently observed at 3 years of age with the difference in expected height between maternal education groups ranging between -0.55 and -1.53 cm for boys and -0.42 to -1.50 cm for girls across the different studies and widening across childhood. The height deficit persists into adolescence and early adulthood. By age 21, boys from primary educated maternal backgrounds lag the tertiary educated by -0.67 cm (Portugal) and -2.15 cm (Finland). The comparable figures for girls were -2.49 cm (Portugal) and -2.93 cm (Finland). Significant differences in children's height by maternal education persist in modern child populations in Europe. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Excess production of phage lambda delayed early proteins under conditions supporting high Escherichia coli growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, M; Obuchowski, M; Wegrzyn, A; Szalewska-Pałasz, A; Thomas, M S; Wegrzyn, G

    1998-08-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is unable to lysogenize Escherichia coli hosts harbouring the rpoA341 mutation due to a drastic reduction in transcription from CII-activated lysogenic promoters (pE, pI and paQ). In addition, the level of early transcripts involved in the lytic pathway of lambda development is also decreased in this genetic background due to impaired N-dependent antitermination. Here, it is demonstrated that despite the reduced level of early lytic pL- and pR-derived transcripts, lytic growth of bacteriophage lambda is not affected in rich media. The level of the late lytic, pR-derived transcripts also remains unaffected by the rpoA341 mutation under these conditions. However, it was found that whilst there is no significant difference in the phage burst size in rpoA+ and rpoA341 hosts growing in rich media, phage lambda is not able to produce progeny in the rpoA341 mutant growing in minimal medium, in contrast to otherwise isogenic rpoA+ bacteria. Provision of an excess of the phage replication proteins O and P in trans or overproduction of the antitermination protein N restore the ability of phage lambda to produce progeny in the rpoA341 mutant under the latter conditions. These results suggest that in rich media phage lambda produces some early proteins in excess of that needed for its effective propagation and indicate that replication proteins may be limiting factors for phage lytic growth in poor media.

  4. High resolution AFM and single cell resonance Raman spectroscopy of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms early in growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai eLebedev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AFM and confocal resonance Raman microscopy (CRRM of single-cells were used to study the transition of anode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms from lag phase (initial period of low current to exponential phase (subsequent period of rapidly increasing current. Results reveal that lag phase biofilms consist of lone cells and tightly packed single-cell thick clusters crisscrossed with extracellular linear structures that appear to be comprised of nodules approximately 20 nm in diameter aligned end to end. By early exponential phase cell clusters expand laterally and a second layer of closely packed cells begins to form on top of the first. Abundance of c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt is > 3-fold greater in 2-cell thick regions than in 1-cell thick regions. The results indicate that early biofilm growth involves two transformations. The first is from lone cells to 2-dimensionally associated cells during lag phase when current remains low. This is accompanied by formation of extracellular linear structures. The second is from 2- to 3-dimensionally associated cells during early exponential phase when current begins to increases rapidly. This is accompanied by a dramatic increase in c-Cyt abundance.

  5. The response of the early developmental stages of Laminaria japonica to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The responses of the early development of Laminaria japonica collected from Kiaochow Bay in China to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280—320 nm) were studied in the laboratory. The low UV-B ra-diations (11.7—23.4 J·m-2·d-1) had no significant effects on zoospores attachment, but when the UV-B dose > 35.1 J·m-2·d-1 the attachment decreased significantly compared with the control. Germination of embryospores was >93% under the low (11.7—35.1 J·m-2·d-1) doses, and in the range of 78.5%—88.5% under the high (46.8—70.2 J·m-2·d-1) UV-B doses, indicating a significant radiation effect. Under the higher UV-B exposure (35.1—70.2 J·m-2·d-1), all of the few gametophytes formed from embryospores died 120 h post-release. After exposure to the low UV-B radiation (11.7—23.4 J·m-2·d-1), the formation of sporophytes decreased and the female gametophyte clones increased compared with the control. However, the sex ratio and the relative growth of female gametophytes/sporophytes had not signifi-cantly changed. According to the results, enhanced UV-B radiation has a significant effect on the early development of L. japonica under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the UV-B radiation could not be overlooked as one of the important environmental factors influencing the ontogeny of macroalgae living in marine ecosystems.

  6. The response of the early developmental stages of Laminaria japonica to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Su; ZHANG QuanSheng; WANG You; JU Qing; TANG XueXi

    2008-01-01

    The responses of the early development of Laminaria japonica collected from Kiaochow Bay in China to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) were studied in the laboratory. The low UV-B radiations (11.7-23.4 J·m-2·d-) had no significant effects on zoospores attachment, but when the UV-B dose > 35.1 J·m-2·d-1 the attachment decreased significantly compared with the control. Germination of embryosperes was >93% under the low (11.7-35.1 J·m-2·d-1) doses, and in the range of 78.5%-88.5% under the high (46.8-70.2 J·m-2·d-1) UV-B doses, indicating a significant radiation effect. Under the higher UV-B exposure (35.1-70.2 J·m-2·d-1), all of the few gametophytes formed from embryospores died 120 h post-release. After exposure to the low UV-B radiation (11.7-23.4 J·m-2·d-1), the formation of sporophytes decreased and the female gametophyte clones increased compared with the control. However, the sex ratio and the relative growth of female gametophytes/sporophytes had not significantly changed. According to the results, enhanced UV-B radiation has a significant effect on the early development of L. japonica under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the UV-B radiation could not be overlooked as one of the important environmental factors influencing the ontogeny of macroalgae living in marine ecosystems.

  7. Cellular stress response in Eca-109 cells inhibits apoptosis during early exposure to isorhamnetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C; Fan, L Y; Cai, Z; Liu, Y Y; Yang, C L

    2012-01-01

    The flavonol aglycone isorhamnetin shows anti-proliferative activity in a variety of cancer cells. Previous work, from our laboratory showed that isorhamnetin inhibits the proliferation of human esophageal squamous carcinoma Eca-109 cells in vitro, but only after 72 h of exposure. This led us to propose that isorhamnetin exposure induces a cellular stress response that inhibits the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the compound during early exposure. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined the effects of isorhamnetin on Eca-109 cells during the first 72 h of exposure. Cell growth was assessed using the trypan blue exclusion assay, and expression of IκBα, NF-κB/p65, NF-κB/p50, phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, COX-2, Mcl-1, Bax, p53 and Id-1 were analyzed by Western blot. During the first 72 h of exposure, NF-κB/p65 and NF-κB/p50 accumulated in nuclei and expression of COX-2, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 increased. In contrast, expression of IκBα and Bax fell initially but later increased. Expression of phospho-Akt and p53 showed no detectable change during the first 48 h. Pretreatment with the NF-κB inhibitor MG132 before exposure to isorhamnetin blocked the nuclear accumulation of p50 and p65, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. These results show that during early exposure of Eca-109 cells to isorhamnetin, the NF-κB signaling pathway is activated and COX-2 expression increases, and this increase in expression partially inhibits isorhamnetin-induced apoptosis. Beyond 72 h of exposure, however, the apoptotic effect of isorhamnetin dominates, leading to inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and of cellular proliferation. These results will need to be taken into account when exploring the use of isorhamnetin against cancer in vivo.

  8. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  9. Early development and growth of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Rybnikár

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate of sterlet larvae and juveniles during 2008 and 2009 was studied under experimental and farming conditions in the Czech Republic. The embryos hatched when reaching a mean total length (TL of 9.0 mm. Larvae were fed by living food, with a gradual transition to dry diet. The exogenous feeding and the larval period of ontogeny started at DAH 9 (day after hatching reaching TL of 15–17 mm accompanied by melanin plug exclusion. Towards the end of larval period (DAH 39–43, TL 50–58 mm, the embryonic finfold disappeared and the formation of fin apparatus was nearly completed. During the larval and early juvenile development, daily increments of TL and weight (w ranged between 0.33–4.23 mm.d−1 and 0.0018–1.6400 g.d−1, respectively. The specific growth rate (SGR ranged from 25.65 to 2.73 %.d−1. Growth intensity and length parameters are similar to the Starry sturgeon, lower than those of the Siberian sturgeon and Russian sturgeon and significantly lower than at Beluga sturgeon. Sterlet’s Fulton weight condition factor (FWC was higher than in the Siberian and Starry sturgeon. The development was also observed on the basis of morphological changes. The larval development could be divided into six steps.

  10. The major Nod factor of Bradyrhizobium japonicum promotes early growth of soybean and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleimanov, A; Prithiviraj, B; Smith, D L

    2002-09-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Nod factor Nod Bj-V (C18:1, MeFuc) of Badyrhizobium japonicum on the growth of soybean and corn. Three-day-old seedlings of soybean and corn were grown in hydroponic solutions containing four concentrations (0, 10(-7), 10(-9) or 10(-11) M) of Nod factor. After 7 d of treatment, Nod factor enhanced soybean and corn biomass. Nod factor elicited profound effects on root growth resulting in 34-44% longer roots in soybean. More detailed analyses of the roots, using a scanner based image analysis system, revealed that Nod factor increased the total length, projected area and surface area of the roots and decreased the diameter of soybean roots, while it increased the total length of corn roots. Stem injection of soybean plants with 10(-7) M Nod factor resulted in increased dry matter accumulation. These results suggest that Nod factor, besides mediating early stages of nodulation, has more general plant growth-promoting effects.

  11. Effect of lip closure on early maxillary growth in patients with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Pascal; Metzger, Marc; Frucht, Sibylle; Schupp, Wipke; Hempel, Mareike; Otten, Jörg-Elard

    2013-01-01

    Debate continues about the cause of midfacial growth disturbance in patients with facial clefts. To evaluate the functional effect of surgical closure of the lip before palatal closure according to the technique by Delaire on early maxillary growth in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Twenty-two patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were studied using plaster casts obtained at the time of cheilorhinoplasty and 6 months later before palatal closure. The interrupted lateral muscles were anatomically repositioned using the surgical technique by Delaire. No patients had received preoperative orthodontic treatment or a passive palatal plate. Cast analyses were performed using a digital caliper. Landmark positioning was performed 3 times by 2 different examiners to define intraobserver and interobserver differences. The final maxilla dimensions were recorded as the distances between the mean landmark positions. Using the t test, dimensions obtained before palatal closure were compared with dimensions obtained before lip closure. The method allowed good reproducibility. Functional closure of the lip significantly narrowed the transverse anterior cleft areas by -2.36 mm (P < .05). Sagittal variables were increased by 1.68 mm on the nonaffected side and by 1.48 mm on the affected side (P < .05 for both). Functional closure according to the technique by Delaire narrows the transverse dimensions of the maxilla, while simultaneously preserving initial sagittal growth. 4.

  12. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental....... CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild to moderate depression had a different growth hormone and cortisol response to acute exercise stress compared to healthy controls. Strength training was able to reduce the growth hormone response to acute exercise stress in this patient population. Studies with more rigorous...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...

  13. Allelopathic Effects of Johnsongrass on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Basil, Black Cumin, Cummin, Fennel, Isabgol and Psyllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asgharipoor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effect of weeds frequently inhibited the germination and seedling growth of crops. Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepens is known to contain water-soluble substances that are allelopathic. To identify the allelopathic effect of Johnsongrass, the effect of different aqueous extracts (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g L-1 obtained from roots and leaves of Johnsongrass on the seed germination and early seedling growth of some popular medicinal plants of Iran [basil (Ocimum basilicum, black cumin (Nigella sativa, cumin (Cuminum cyminum, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, isabgol (Plantago ovate and psyllium (Plantago psyllium] were studied by bioassay. Both the root and leaf extracts of Johnsongrass in most cases inhibited the seed germination and early seedling growth of isabgol, psyllium, fennel and basil, while the seed germination and the early seedling growth of black cumin and cummin was simulated by both extracts at lower concentrations. However, this advantage was not found in higher concentrations, at which the extracts mostly had a negative effect on Nigella sativa and cumin. Leaf extracts was more effective to germination and early seedling growth than the root extract. The effectiveness of these extracts on the root growth was greater than that of the shoot growth of the test plants. The degree of sensitivity can be classified averaged across all extract concentrations in order of decreasing inhibition as follow: psyllium, isabgol, fennel, basil, black cumin and Cummin.

  14. Endocrine problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: special review on associated genetic aspects and early growth hormone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a complex multisystem genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. The main clinical features include neonatal hypotonia, distinctive facial features, overall developmental delay, and poor growth in infancy, followed by overeating with severe obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism later in development. This paper reviews recent updates regarding the genetic aspects of this disorder. Three mechanisms (paternal deletion, maternal disomy, and deficient imprinting are recognized. Maternal disomy can arise because of 4 possible mechanisms: trisomy rescue (TR, gamete complementation (GC, monosomy rescue (MR, and postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (Mit. Recently, TR/GC caused by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 has been identified increasingly, as a result of advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea. We verified that the d3 allele increases the responsiveness of the growth hormone (GH receptor to endogenous GH. This paper also provides an overview of endocrine dysfunctions in children with PWS, including GH deficiency, obesity, sexual development, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency, as well as the effects of GH treatment. GH treatment coupled with a strictly controlled diet during early childhood may help to reduce obesity, improve neurodevelopment, and increase muscle mass. A more active approach to correct these hormone deficiencies would benefit patients with PWS.

  15. Ensemble Docking to Difficult Targets in Early-Stage Drug Discovery: Methodology and Application to Fibroblast Growth Factor 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Hector A; Riccardi, Demian; Xiao, Zhousheng; Quarles, L Darryl; Yates, C Ryan; Baudry, Jerome; Smith, Jeremy C

    2017-09-25

    Ensemble docking is now commonly used in early-stage in silico drug discovery, and can be used to attack difficult problems such as finding lead compounds which can disrupt protein:protein interactions. We give an example of this methodology here, as applied to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a protein hormone that is responsible for regulating phosphate homeostasis. The first small molecule antagonists of FGF23 were recently discovered by combining ensemble docking with extensive experimental target validation data(1) . Here, we provide a detailed account of how ensemble-based high-throughput virtual screening was used to identify the antagonist compounds discovered in Ref. 1. Moreover, we perform further calculations, re-docking those antagonist compounds identified in Ref. 1 that performed well on drug-likeness filters, to predict possible binding regions. These predicted binding modes are rescored with the Molecular Mechanics Poisson Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) approach to calculate the most likely binding site. Our findings suggest that the antagonist compounds antagonize FGF23 through the disruption of protein-protein interactions between FGF23 and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L.; Johung, Tessa B.; Gander, Jeffrey W.; Reichstein, Ari R.; Lampl, Brooke S.; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy--thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  17. Molecular biology of the stress response in the early embryo and its stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Zhongliang; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Stress is normal during early embryogenesis and transient, elevated stress is commonplace. Stress in the milieu of the peri-implantation embryo is a summation of maternal hormones, and other elements of the maternal milieu, that signal preparedness for development and implantation. Examples discussed here are leptin, adrenaline, cortisol, and progesterone. These hormones signal maternal nutritional status and provide energy, but also signal stress that diverts maternal and embryonic energy from an optimal embryonic developmental trajectory. These hormones communicate endocrine maternal effects and local embryonic effects although signaling mechanisms are not well understood. Other in vivo stresses affect the embryo such as local infection and inflammation, hypoxia, environmental toxins such as benzopyrene, dioxin, or metals, heat shock, and hyperosmotic stress due to dehydration or diabetes. In vitro, stresses include shear during handling, improper culture media and oxygen levels, cryopreservation, and manipulations of the embryo to introduce sperm or mitochondria. We define stress as any stimulus that slows stem cell accumulation or diminishes the ability of cells to produce normal and sufficient parenchymal products upon differentiation. Thus stress deflects downwards the normal trajectories of development, growth and differentiation. Typically stress is inversely proportional to embryonic developmental and proliferative rates, but can be proportional to induction of differentiation of stem cells in the peri-implantation embryo. When modeling stress it is most interesting to produce a 'runting model' where stress exposures slow accumulation but do not create excessive apoptosis or morbidity. Windows of stress sensitivity may occur when major new embryonic developmental programs require large amounts of energy and are exacerbated if nutritional flow decreases and removes energy from the normal developmental programs and stress responses. These windows correspond

  18. COMPENSATORY GROWTH AND FAT PARAMETERS ON BROILER FASTED IN EARLY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed withholding in the very early life ofbird on its compensatory growth capacity and fat parameters. A total of 60 mixed-sexes of one day oldRoss chicks were used in the experiment conducted with completely randomized design of 2 differentfeeding times after hatching, i.e.: T1: given access to feed and water ad libitum immediately afterhatching until 35d of age; and T2: withheld from feed (fasted but not from water for 48h after hatchingand then fed ad libitum until d35. The birds were weighed at the start of experiment and weeklythereafter, and DWG was then calculated. Feed intakes and FCR were also recorded weekly. At d36,abdominal fat was taken out from 2 birds per pen and was weighed. Breast meat (skinless from thesame birds was also sampled for total FA analysis. Final BW (d35 and total feed consumption of earlyfastedbirds were 1935.17±43.90 kg and 2745.55±47.48 kg and those of unfasted birds were2019.00±50.85 kg and 2910.84±128.10 kg, respectively. FCR of early-fasted and unfasted birds at d35were 1.42±0.03 and 1.45±0.07. The magnitude difference of DWG between early-fasted and unfastedbirds was 27% at d7, whereas at d35 the difference was only 4.5%. Abdominal fat percentage to live BWof early-fasted birds was 1.65±0.09% (male and 1.60±0.10% (female and that of unfasted birds was2.00±0.19% (male and 1.89±0.38% (female. Total FA contained in meat of early-fasted and unfastedbirds were 0.82±0.10 and 0.85±0.10 g/100gDM. Overall, BW and feed consumption of early-fastedbirds were significantly lower (P<0.05 than unfasted birds. DWG, FCR, abdominal fat and total FAcontained in meat were not significantly different (P>0.05 between early-fasted and unfasted birds. Inconclusion, holding birds without feed following hatch (under practical conditions may limit thecompensatory growth capacity of birds in the later age. Fasting applied in the very early life of broilerleads to

  19. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  20. Predictors of Responsiveness to Early Literacy Intervention: A 10-Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Elizabeth A.; McMaster, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to update previous reviews on factors related to students' responsiveness to early literacy intervention. The 14 studies in this synthesis used experimental designs, provided small-group or one-on-one reading interventions, and analyzed factors related to responsiveness to those interventions. Participants were…

  1. The Role Played by the Family in Shaping Early and Middle Adolescent Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Nation, Maury; Voight, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a multi-informant methodology, the current study examines the relative influence of multiple parental characteristics (civic responsibility, encouragement of civic action, parent-youth closeness) on adolescents' civic responsibility (local and global). The participants were 384 early and middle adolescents (47.9% male), randomly selected…

  2. Evidence-Based Early Reading Practices within a Response to Intervention System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursuck, Bill; Blanks, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    Many students who experience reading failure are inappropriately placed in special education. A promising response to reducing reading failure and the overidentification of students for special education is Response to Intervention (RTI), a comprehensive early detection and prevention system that allows teachers to identify and support struggling…

  3. Preterm Children at Early Adolescence and Continuity and Discontinuity in Maternal Responsiveness from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Leila; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Children whose mothers were consistently more responsive during the children's infancy and early adolescence achieved higher IQ and arithmetic scores, had more positive self-esteem, and were reported by teachers to exhibit fewer behavior problems than children of mothers who were consistently less responsive. (BC)

  4. The Role Played by the Family in Shaping Early and Middle Adolescent Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Nation, Maury; Voight, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a multi-informant methodology, the current study examines the relative influence of multiple parental characteristics (civic responsibility, encouragement of civic action, parent-youth closeness) on adolescents' civic responsibility (local and global). The participants were 384 early and middle adolescents (47.9% male), randomly selected…

  5. Early genetic responses in rat vascular tissue after simulated diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftedal, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Arve; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild; Flatberg, Arnar; Brubakk, Alf O

    2012-12-18

    Diving causes a transient reduction of vascular function, but the mechanisms behind this are largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze genetic reactions that may be involved in acute changes of vascular function in divers. Rats were exposed to 709 kPa of hyperbaric air (149 kPa Po(2)) for 50 min followed by postdive monitoring of vascular bubble formation and full genome microarray analysis of the aorta from diving rats (n = 8) and unexposed controls (n = 9). Upregulation of 23 genes was observed 1 h after simulated diving. The differential gene expression was characteristic of cellular responses to oxidative stress, with functions of upregulated genes including activation and fine-tuning of stress-responsive transcription, cytokine/cytokine receptor signaling, molecular chaperoning, and coagulation. By qRT-PCR, we verified increased transcription of neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (Nr4a3), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), cytokine TWEAK receptor FN14 (Tnfrsf12a), transcription factor class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40 (Bhlhe40), and adrenomedullin (Adm). Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF1 subunit HIF1-α was stabilized in the aorta 1 h after diving, and after 4 h there was a fivefold increase in total protein levels of the procoagulant plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) in blood plasma from diving rats. The study did not have sufficient power for individual assessment of effects of hyperoxia and decompression-induced bubbles on postdive gene expression. However, differential gene expression in rats without venous bubbles was similar to that of all the diving rats, indicating that elevated Po(2) instigated the observed genetic reactions.

  6. Deformation and crack growth response under cyclic creep conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, F.W. Jr. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    To increase energy efficiency, new plants must operate at higher and higher temperatures. Moreover, power generation equipment continues to age and is being used far beyond its intended original design life. Some recent failures which unfortunately occurred with serious consequences have clearly illustrated that current methods for insuring safety and reliability of high temperature equipment is inadequate. Because of these concerns, an understanding of the high-temperature crack growth process is very important and has led to the following studies of the high temperature failure process. This effort summarizes the results of some recent studies which investigate the phenomenon of high temperature creep fatigue crack growth. Experimental results which detail the process of creep fatigue, analytical studies which investigate why current methods are ineffective, and finally, a new approach which is based on the T{sup *}-integral and its ability to characterize the creep-fatigue crack growth process are discussed. The potential validity of this new predictive methodology is illustrated.

  7. Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI INCREASED EARLY GROWTH OF TROPICAL TREE SEEDLINGS IN ADVERSE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rate of reforestation  has increased throughout the countries in Southeast Asia region during the last 20 years.  At the same time, inconvenient situations such as forest destruction, forest exploitation, illegal logging, clear-cut forest areas, old agricultural lands, post-wildfire areas, conversion  of natural  forests into  plantations, resettlement areas, mine  lands,  and amended adverse soils have also been increasing  significantly. Mycorrhizas, hovewer,  play important role  to increase  plant  growth,  enrich  nutrient content  and enhance  survival rates of forest tree species in temperate  and sub-tropical  regions.  Unfortunately, a little information so far is available  regarding  the effect of mycorrhizas on growth  of tree species growing  in tropical  forests. In relevant,  several experiments  were carried  out to determine whether  ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi and arbuscular  mycorrhizal (AM fungi can enhance mycorrhizal colonization, nutrient content, and plant growth of some tropical rain forest tree species in Indonesia under nursery  and field conditions.   The families of tropical  tree species used in the experiment were  Thymelaeaceae (Aquilaria crassna, Leguminosae  (Sesbania grandifolia, Guttiferae (Ploiarium alternifolium and Calophyllum hosei, Apocynaceae (Dyera polyphylla and Alstonia scholaris, and Dipterocarpaceae (Shorea belangeran. These families are important as they provide timber  and non-timber  forest products (NTFPs.   This paper discusses the role of mycorrhizal fungi in increasing  early  growth  of tropical  tree seedlings in adverse soil.

  9. Early developed section of the jaw as an index of prenatal growth conditions in adult roe deer Capreolus capreolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen

    2006-01-01

    -maturing bones are poor predictors of resource limitations during early development, as later benign conditions may lead to compensatory growth. We analysed the temporal growth dynamics of different sections of the lower jaw of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and found that the medioanterior section of the lower...... post partum and, as such, potentially leaves a fingerprint of prenatal growth conditions that is evident even in adult individuals. This supports earlier findings in ungulates of a shift in skeletal growth spurts after weaning, and suggests that the choice of skeletal index for population and cohort......Increasing evidence suggests that conditions in early life have important consequences for ultimate body size and fitness. Skeletal parts are often used as retrospective indices of body size and growth constraints because of their resistance to seasonal variation in resource availability. Yet, slow...

  10. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  11. Prediction and set-dependent scaling of early postural responses in cerebellar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmann, D; Horak, F B

    1997-02-01

    We reported previously that patients with cerebellar deficits were unable to scale the magnitude of their early automatic postural responses to the predicted amplitudes of surface translations based on central set from prior experience. The present study investigated whether this deficit in set-dependent amplitude scaling was based predominantly on the cerebellar patient's disability (i) to predict perturbation amplitudes on the basis of prior experience, (ii) to scale the gain or magnitude of upcoming postural responses or (iii) to habituate postural responses. The increase in size of the early postural response when a larger than actual platform amplitude was expected and decrease when a smaller one was expected was defined as a measure of set-dependent amplitude prediction. The suppression of the postural response when the same platform velocity was repeated was used as a measure of habituation. The correlation between the size of early postural responses and platform amplitudes when presented serially, but not randomly, tested the ability to scale the gain of postural responses based on prior experience. Results show that although cerebellar patients could predict perturbation amplitudes based on prior experience, they could not use this prediction to modify precisely the gain of responses. The ability to habituate the magnitude of postural responses was not affected by cerebellar lesions. Thus, the cerebellum might not be critical for predicting upcoming events or for habituating to repeated postural stimuli, although it is important for accurate tuning of response gain based on prediction.

  12. Growth response of eight tropical turfgrass species to salinity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Water Resources, 1995; California State Water Resour- ces control board .... a scale of 1 - 9, with 9 as green, dense and uniform turf, and 1 as thin and completely .... tion of energy that is needed for growth and the loss of.

  13. Growth response of a deep-water ferromanganese crust to evolution of the Neogene Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    A deep-water ferromanganese crust from a Central Indian Ocean seamount dated previously by 10Be and 230Th(excess) was studied for compositional and textural variations that occurred throughout its growth history. The 10Be/9Be dated interval (upper 32 mm) yields an uniform growth rate of 2.8 ?? 0.1 mm/Ma [Frank, M., O'Nions, R.K., 1998. Sources of Pb for Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts: a record of Himalayan erosion. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 158, pp. 121-130.] which gives an extrapolated age of ~ 26 Ma for the base of the crust at 72 mm and is comparable to the maximum age derived from the Co-model based growth rate estimates. This study shows that Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitation did not occur from the time of emplacement of the seamount during the Eocene (~ 53 Ma) until the late Oligocene (~ 26 Ma). This paucity probably was the result of a nearly overlapping palaeo-CCD and palaeo-depth of crust formation, increased early Eocene productivity, instability and reworking of the surface rocks on the flanks of the seamount, and lack of oxic deep-water in the nascent Indian Ocean. Crust accretion began (older zone) with the formation of isolated cusps of Fe-Mn oxide during a time of high detritus influx, probably due to the early-Miocene intense erosion associated with maximum exhumation of the Himalayas (op. cit.). This cuspate textured zone extends from 72 mm to 42 mm representing the early-Miocene period. Intense polar cooling and increased mixing of deep and intermediate waters at the close of the Oligocene might have led to the increased oxygenation of the bottom-water in the basin. A considerable expansion in the vertical distance between the seafloor depth and the CCD during the early Miocene in addition to the influx of oxygenated bottom-water likely initiated Fe-Mn crust formation. Pillar structure characterises the younger zone, which extends from 40 mm to the surface of the crust, i.e., ~ 15 Ma to Present. This zone is characterised by > 25% higher

  14. Bone age is the best predictor of growth response to recombinant human growth hormone in Turner′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Nagwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH is approved for use in children with Turner′s syndrome (TS in most industrialized countries and is recommended in the recently issued guidelines. We determined the growth responses of girls who are treated with rhGH for TS, with an aim to identify the predictors of growth response. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six prepubertal girls with TS, documented by peripheral blood karyotype, were enrolled. All the patients received biosynthetic growth hormone therapy with a standard dose of 30 IU/m 2 /week. The calculated dose per week was divided for 6 days and given subcutaneously at night. Results: This study showed that rhGH therapy provides satisfactory auxological results. Bone age delay is to be considered as a predictive factor which may negatively influence the effect of rhGH therapy on final height. The growth velocity in the preceding year is the most important predictor of rhGH therapy response. Conclusion: These observations help us to guide rhGH prescription, to reduce the risks and costs.

  15. Growth abnormalities in the population exposed in utero and early postnatally to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueliang L. Guo; Chen-Chin Hsu [National Cheng Kung Univ. Medical College, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Lambert, G.H. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the findings in children exposed to various levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds in utero and early postnatally. Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil-disease{close_quotes}) mothers were Taiwanese women exposed to PCBs and their heat-degradation products form the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1979. Children of these mothers were born growth retarded, with dysmorphic physical findings, and delayed cognitive development compared with unexposed children. In this article, findings in Yu-Cheng children born between 1978 and 1985 are summarized and compared with two other well-documented cohorts of children prenatally exposed to different levels of PCBs. Results of the investigation in Yu-Cheng children will provide important information about the toxicities, health effects, and mechanisms of PCB/PCDF exposure and demonstrate that the developing human is more sensitive than the adult to the toxic effects of these chemicals. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panuccio, M.R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Saleem Akhtar, Saqib;

    2014-01-01

    been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its develop- ment. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds...... of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germi- nated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which...... parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity...

  17. An association of adult personality with prenatal and early postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2014-01-01

    individuals participated in a follow-up at 20–34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed...... by multiple linear regression adjusting for single-mother status, parity, mother’s age, father’s age, parental social status, age at EPQ measurement, intelligence, and adult size. Results: Male infants with lower weight, length, and head-circumference at birth and the following three years grew up to have...... influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development. Keywords: Eysenck personality questionnaire, Lie-scale, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Birth weight, Birth length, Birth head-circumference...

  18. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...... of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... with additional commercially important eel species. Furthermore, we model growth during the critical first phase in larval ontogeny, i.e. the yolk sac stage, and test for maternal effects. The eggs of A. anguilla typically have numerous oil droplets that coalesce into a single large oil droplet, while the zygote...

  19. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR 1 IN CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE WITH LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Kurabekova; O. P. Shevchenko; O. M. Tsiroulnikova; I. E. Tsiroulnikova; G.A. Olefirenko; S. V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in the development of the immune response, as well as in the process of liver regeneration. Measuring the level of TGF-β1 may have important clinical implications in liver transplantation, because cytokine concentration in the tissue and in blood plasma varies with different liver diseases. Aim. To analyze the dynamics of TGF-β1 levels in children-recipients with liver transplant from related donors, including from incompatible blood gro...

  20. Intravenous calcitriol therapy in an early stage prevents parathyroid gland growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masatomo; Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Hirakata, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Background. Both the phenotypic alterations of parathyroid (PT) cells, e.g. down-regulation of the calcium-sensing receptor, and the increase of the PT cell number in nodular hyperplasia are the main causes of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism. It is of great importance to prevent PT growth in an early stage. Methods. To examine a more effective method of calcitriol therapy for the prevention of PT hyperplasia, we randomized haemodialysis patients with mild hyperparathyroidism to receive either daily orally administered calcitriol (n = 33) or intravenous calcitriol (n = 27) over a 12-month study period. Calcitriol was modulated so as to keep the serum intact PTH level between 100 and 150 pg/ml. Results. Both groups showed similar reductions of the serum PTH level and similar increases in serum calcium. In both groups, there were no significant changes in the serum phosphate level. Long-term daily oral calcitriol therapy failed to prevent the increase of both maximum PT volume and total volume, as assessed by ultrasonography; however, intravenous calcitriol therapy successfully suppressed this progression. In the daily, oral group, both the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the N-telopeptide cross-linked of type I collagen (NTX) significantly decreased, which was probably due to the PTH suppression. However, these bone metabolism markers remained stable in the intravenous group. The total dosage of calcitriol during the study was comparable in both groups. Conclusions. These data indicate that intravenous calcitriol therapy in an early stage of secondary hyperparathyroidism is necessary to prevent PT growth and to keep a good condition of bone metabolism. PMID:18515308

  1. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  2. New developments in the treatment of early-onset spinal deformity: role of the Shilla growth guidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morell SM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sean M Morell,1 Richard E McCarthy2 1Department of Orthopaedics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA Abstract: Early-onset scoliosis is a complex condition with multiple facets. The goal of treating any spinal deformity is to improve the condition of the patient with the least intervention necessary. A system that allows for continuation of natural spinal growth while correcting the deformity should be the goal of treating this complex condition. The SHILLA growth guidance system allows for continued growth of the pediatric spine while correcting and guiding the apex and guiding the future growth of the curvature. The system involves selective fusion across the apex of the curvature, and minimally invasive instrumentation is then used above and below the apex to allow for continued growth of the spine. A review of recent literature on the SHILLA growth guidance system shows promising results. Early animal models showed continued growth across unfused levels with minimal facet articular damage. Comparative studies to traditional growing rods showed significantly less total surgeries along with comparable correction and longitudinal growth. The SHILLA growth guidance system is a good option for this complex patient group. Results are comparable with other growing constructs with significantly less operative interventions. The SHILLA system allows for natural growth of the pediatric spine while correcting the scoliotic deformity in a minimally invasive method. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the SHILLA system surgical technique and the associated literature concerning this topic. Keywords: scoliosis, SHILLA, growing, early-onset, growth friendly

  3. Growth Response of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings to Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management,. Michael ... Fish feed is responsible for 60-80% of production cost in aquaculture ... Previous studies showed however that heat treatment could drastically reduce the toxicity of.

  4. Growth response and heavy metals tolerance of Axonopus affinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... assayed heavy metals, suggesting a synergistic effect between this species and the rhizobacterium in response ... soils, mainly in regions of copper and gold with great ..... enhance plant biomass production in mine tailings at.

  5. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....

  6. Growth Responses of Wheat Cultivars to Rock Phosphate in Hydroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ASHRAF; RAHMATULLAH; M.A.MAQSOOD; S.KANWAL; M.A.TAHIR; L.ALI

    2009-01-01

    Screening cultivars to grow under conditions of low phosphorus (P) availability and utilize P efficiently from compounds of low solubility in soils may be beneficial to overcome poor plant growth in P-deficient soils.The growth behavior and P utilization efficiency of seven wheat cultivars grown in hydroponics were studied,using rock phosphate as P source.The wheat cultivars grown for 30 days were significantly different in biomass accumulation,P uptake and P utilization efficiency.The dry matter production of all the cultivars was significantly correlated with P uptake,which in turn correlated to the drop in the root medium pH.The ranking of wheat cultivars on the basis of dry matter yield,P uptake and P utilization efficiency was Zamindar 80 > Yccora > C 271 > WL 711 > Barani 83 > PARI 73 > Rohtas.The cultivar Zamindar 80 appeared to possess the best growth potential in P-deficient soils.

  7. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  8. Early transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana to polymetallic contamination: implications for the identification of potential biomarkers of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Barrutia, Oihana; Ribas, Griselda; Garbisu, Carlos; Becerril, José M

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contaminated sites are frequently characterized by the simultaneous presence of several heavy metals. However, many studies report metal-induced plant responses after long-term exposure to just one metal. By contrast, whole genome expression microarrays were employed here to investigate the early (3 h) transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to polymetallic treatment (Pb, Hg, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mn) at low (L) and high (H) concentrations. After 3 h of exposure to polymetallic treatment, a total of 1315 noticeably (≥2-fold) and significantly (P < 0.05) differentially expressed genes were identified: 656 and 351 upregulated and 314 and 200 downregulated genes in L and H treatments, respectively. Functional analysis revealed that many genes involved in oxidative stress and perception/signalling/regulation systems were activated. Genes encoding proteins involved in hormone regulation (jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, and auxins), glucosinolate metabolism and sulphur and nitrogen transport were also modulated. RT-qPCR analysis of four downregulated (AOP2, SAUR16, BBX31, and MTPC3) and upregulated genes (ASN1, DIN2, BT2, and EXL5), markedly responsive to both L and H treatments, validated our microarray data and suggested the potential of some of these genes (AOP2, SAUR16, ASN1, and DIN2) as early biomarkers of metal exposure. Relevant changes in gene expression occur as early as 3 h after exposure to polymetallic treatment. Four genes deserve further studies as novel putative biomarkers of early metal exposure and also owing to their potential implications in stress-related mechanisms: sulphur balance (AOP2), phytohormone regulation of plant growth and development (SAUR16), ammonium detoxification (ASN1) and senescence (DIN2).

  9. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-06-15

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. Although some black holes with masses more than 10(9) times that of the Sun have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes; this is because the initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Here we report a measurement of the amount of black hole growth in galaxies at redshift z = 6-8 (0.95-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang), based on optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations. Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their host galaxies throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest-energy X-rays. This suggests that black holes grew significantly more during these early bursts than was previously thought, but because of the obscuration of their ultraviolet emission they did not contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe.

  10. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  11. Selective regulation of nerve growth factor expression in developing cutaneous tissue by early sensory innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizard Tom N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing vertebrate peripheral nervous system, the survival of sympathetic neurons and the majority of sensory neurons depends on a supply of nerve growth factor (NGF from tissues they innervate. Although neurotrophic theory presupposes, and the available evidence suggests, that the level of NGF expression is completely independent of innervation, the possibility that innervation may regulate the timing or level of NGF expression has not been rigorously investigated in a sufficiently well-characterized developing system. Results To address this important question, we studied the influence of innervation on the regulation of NGF mRNA expression in the embryonic mouse maxillary process in vitro and in vivo. The maxillary process receives its innervation from predominantly NGF-dependent sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion and is the most densely innervated cutaneous territory with the highest levels of NGF in the embryo. When early, uninnervated maxillary processes were cultured alone, the level of NGF mRNA rose more slowly than in maxillary processes cultured with attached trigeminal ganglia. In contrast to the positive influence of early innervation on NGF mRNA expression, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA and neurotrophin-3 (NT3 mRNA rose to the same extent in early maxillary processes grown with and without trigeminal ganglia. The level of NGF mRNA, but not BDNF mRNA or NT3 mRNA, was also significantly lower in the maxillary processes of erbB3-/- mice, which have substantially fewer trigeminal neurons than wild-type mice. Conclusions This selective effect of initial innervation on target field NGF mRNA expression provokes a re-evaluation of a key assertion of neurotrophic theory that the level of NGF expression is independent of innervation.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of High-Temperature Stress in Developing Barley Caryopses :Early Stress Responses and Effects on Storage Compound Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elke Mangelsen; Joachim Kilian; Klaus Harter; Christer Jansson; Dierk Wanke; Eva Sundberg

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature stress,like any abiotic stress,impairs the physiology and development of plants,including the stages of seed setting and ripening.We used the Aflymetrix 22K Barley1 GeneChip microarray to investigate the response of developing barley(Hordeum vulgare)seeds,termed caryopses,after 0.5,3,and 6 h of heat stress exposure;958 induced and 1122 repressed genes exhibited spatial and temporal expression patterns that provide a detailed insight into the caryopses'early heat stress responses.Down-regulation of genes related to storage compound biosynthesis and cell growth provides evidence for a rapid impairment of the caryopsis' development.Increased levels of sugars and amino acids were indicative for both production of compatible solutes and feedback-induced accumulation of substrates for storage compound biosynthesis.Metadata analysis identified embryo and endosperm as primary locations of heat stress responses,indicating a strong impact of short-term heat stress on central developmental functions of the caryopsis.A comparison with heat stress responses in Arabidopsis shoots and drought stress responses in barley caryopses identified both conserved and presumably heat-and caryopsis-specific stress-responsive genes.Summarized,our data provide an important basis for further investigation of gene functions in order to aid an improved heat tolerance and reduced losses of yield in barley as a model for cereal crops.

  13. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient...

  14. Characterisation of the fibroblast growth factor dependent transcriptome in early development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Branney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FGF signaling has multiple roles in regulating processes in animal development, including the specification and patterning of the mesoderm. In addition, FGF signaling supports self renewal of human embryonic stem cells and is required for differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into a number of lineages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given the importance of FGF signaling in regulating development and stem cell behaviour, we aimed to identify the transcriptional targets of FGF signalling during early development in the vertebrate model Xenopus laevis. We analysed the effects on gene expression in embryos in which FGF signaling was inhibited by dominant negative FGF receptors. 67 genes positively regulated by FGF signaling and 16 genes negatively regulated by FGF signaling were identified. FGF target genes are expressed in distinct waves during the late blastula to early gastrula phase. Many of these genes are expressed in the early mesoderm and dorsal ectoderm. A widespread requirement for FGF in regulating genes expressed in the Spemann organizer is revealed. The FGF targets MKP1 and DUSP5 are shown to be negative regulators of FGF signaling in early Xenopus tissues. FoxD3 and Lin28, which are involved in regulating pluripotency in ES cells are shown to be down regulated when FGF signaling is blocked. CONCLUSIONS: We have undertaken a detailed analysis of FGF target genes which has generated a robust, well validated data set. We have found a widespread role for FGF signaling in regulating the expression of genes mediating the function of the Spemann organizer. In addition, we have found that the FGF targets MKP1 and DUSP5 are likely to contribute to the complex feedback loops involved in modulating responses to FGF signaling. We also find a link between FGF signaling and the expression of known regulators of pluripotency.

  15. Blossoms from black hole seeds: properties and early growth regulated by supernova feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habouzit, Mélanie; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2017-07-01

    Massive black holes (BHs) inhabit local galaxies, including the Milky Way and some dwarf galaxies. BH formation, occurring at early cosmic times, must account for the properties of BHs in today's galaxies, notably why some galaxies host a BH, and others do not. We investigate the formation, distribution and growth of BH 'seeds' by using the adaptive mesh refinement code ramses. We develop an implementation of BH formation in dense, low-metallicity environments, as advocated by models invoking the collapse of the first generation of stars, or of dense nuclear star clusters. The seed masses are computed one-by-one on-the-fly, based on the star formation rate and the stellar initial mass function. This self-consistent method to seed BHs allows us to study the distribution of BHs in a cosmological context and their evolution over cosmic time. We find that all high-mass galaxies tend to host a BH, whereas low-mass counterparts have a lower probability of hosting a BH. After the end of the epoch of BH formation, this probability is modulated by the growth of the galaxy. The simulated BHs connect to low-redshift observational samples, and span a similar range in accretion properties as Lyman-break analogs. The growth of BHs in low-mass galaxies is stunted by strong supernova (SN) feedback. The properties of BHs in dwarf galaxies thus remain a testbed for BH formation. Simulations with strong SN feedback, which is able to quench BH accretion in shallow potential wells, produce galaxies and BHs in better agreement with observational constraints.

  16. Responses to betaine and inorganic sulphur of sheep in growth performance and fibre growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamidoust, M; Alikhani, M; Ghorbani, G R; Edriss, M A

    2014-12-01

    Sulphur-containing amino acids (SAA) are essential and usually the first limiting amino acids for growth, milk and wool production. The keratin fibre that grows from epidermal tissue is rich in SAA. The rate of fibre growth and its S content are influenced by the availability of SAA. Betaine is a dietary source for a labile methyl group and actively participates in methionine metabolism by donating methyl groups for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Ruminants are capable of synthesizing SAA from inorganic S sources, and most bacteria in the rumen can use inorganic S to meet their requirements for growth. The objective of this study was to examine whether betaine and an inorganic sulphur supplement could provide methyl groups and sulphur amino acids in a way that growth performance and wool production of ewes and lambs are improved. Treatments performed included betaine supplementation, sulphate supplementation and betaine plus sulphate supplementation with five replications for each treatment. The dry matter intake of the ewes was affected by betaine plus sulphate supplementation (p betaine plus sulphate supplementation increased (p 0.05) between treatments. In the ewes, plasma methionine concentration increased (p betaine plus sulphate treatment. No corresponding difference (p > 0.05) was observed in plasma methionine concentration in the lambs. It can be concluded that betaine plus sulphate supplementation has the potential to change wool characteristics in the ewes, while these compounds were without any effect on growth and wool production of the lambs. Combining the two supplements was advantageous.

  17. Effects of spacing on early growth rate and carbon sequestration in Pinus brut ia Ten. plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, N.; Aydin, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of initial spacing on early growth and carbon sequestration rates in Turkish red pine plantations up to 12 years old, established with improved seeds and deep soil cultivation. Area of study: The study was conducted on experimental sites established in two locations within the Turkish red pine natural distribution areas, namely Du acı and Nebiler close to Antalya city. Material and methods: Data were collected from the experimental sites established as a Nelder design (fan-shaped), with 72 rays and 18 arcs (circles), and trees were planted (almost square) at distances ranging from 1.15 to 4.77 m. Soil type of both sites is loamy, with soil clay content varying between 70-87% in Duacı and 51-70% in Nebiler. Soils are deep being more than one m in both sites, but rockier in Nebiler, providing better soil drainage in this site. Main results: The results showed that mean total height was greater at closer spacing than those of wider spacing until age eight. Growth retardation at wider spacing in early years may be related to water loss due to evaporation in hot summer days and weed suppression. Following the age eight, competition among trees appears to be the major factor reducing the growth and carbon fixation. Diameter at breast height and individual tree volume increased, while stand volume, mean annual volume increment and annual carbon storage per hectare considerably decreased for wider spacing. Our results suggest that in order to obtain higher yield and more carbon fixation, short rotation plantations should initially be established in closer spacing, followed by thinning in subsequent years as required by silvicultural concerns. In this context, spacing 3.0 × 1.0 m or 3.0 × 1.5 m (3.0 and 4.5 m2 growing area per tree, respectively) seems to be more plausible, providing farm machinery for maintenance and harvesting. We also found that mean annual volume increment per unit area can be

  18. Rice identification at the early stage of the rice growth season with single fine quad Radarsat-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Pengbin; Shen, Kejian; Pei, Zhiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether rice identification and acreage estimation accuracy at the early stage of the rice growth season using single fine quad Radarsat-2 images could meet the demand of rice monitoring. The Leizhou site (20°52'N, 110°05'E) is located in Guangdong Province in southern China and is dominated by rice paddies. There was a lack of optical data acquisitions during certain years. There are two rice growth seasons per year. Multitemporal Radarsat-2 products were acquired in the early rice growth season of 2014. First, multi-temporal backscattering coefficients and polarimetric parameters based on H/A/Alpha and Yamaguchi polarimetric decomposition theories were extracted and analyzed to distinguish between rice paddies and other typical land cover types, which could help select the optimal rice growth stage and image characteristics for early season classification. Second, an object-oriented technique was applied to time series backscattering coefficient images (HH, HV, VH, VV), H/A/Alpha images (Entropy, Anistropy and Alpha) and Yamaguchi images (volume, double-bounce, surface and helix). Based on the segmentation images, the supervised Bayes, KNN, SVM and Decision tree classifier were used to identify rice. The results indicated that in flat area, 1) Backscatter images and Yamaguchi images were better than H/A/Alpha images in the rice identification application, and 2) At the early rice growth season, the 0430-Yamaguchi image combined with the objectoriented decision tree algorithm were capable of delivering highly accurate maps of rice (0.9236), while the 0524- backscatter image combined with the object-oriented decision tree algorithm could acquire the highest classification accuracy (0.9278) at the end of the rice growth season. Jointing stage is considered to be appropriate for rice identification at the early season. The study demonstrated that it was possible to identify rice at the early season with single quad C

  19. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood......-free mass index (FFMI) at 3 years. Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) eliminated the effect of early growth (P= 0·01). Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) also eliminated the positive relation between BWZ and FMI (P= 0·009). No effect modification...... of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass....

  20. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z......Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood...... of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass....

  1. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants....... METHODS: Two-thousand three hundred forty-three LBW infants were randomly allocated 1:1 to "early BCG" (intervention group) or "late BCG" (current practice). Furthermore, a subgroup (N = 1717) were included in a two-by-two randomised trial in which they were additionally randomised 1:1 to vitamin...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  2. Growth responses of the balsam fir and black spruce spacing trials. Information report No. N-X-291

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsh, M.B.; Lavigne, M.B.; Donnelly, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    The report describes the initial growth responses of plots thinned to a range of spacings in three balsam fir stands and three black spruce stands on the Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland and western Newfoundland. Statistical analyses were conducted of nominal vs actual spacing and merchantable trees at rotation. Results are given for the effects of thinning on actual conditions, total volume growth, diameter growth and volume growth responses, and 10-year growth responses.

  3. The need for data science in epidemic modelling. Comment on: "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Leon; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    In their review, Chowell et al. consider the ability of mathematical models to predict early epidemic growth [1]. In particular, they question the central prediction of classical differential equation models that the number of cases grows exponentially during the early stages of an epidemic. Using examples including HIV and Ebola, they argue that classical models fail to capture key qualitative features of early growth and describe a selection of models that do capture non-exponential epidemic growth. An implication of this failure is that predictions may be inaccurate and unusable, highlighting the need for care when embarking upon modelling using classical methodology. There remains a lack of understanding of the mechanisms driving many observed epidemic patterns; we argue that data science should form a fundamental component of epidemic modelling, providing a rigorous methodology for data-driven approaches, rather than trying to enforce established frameworks. The need for refinement of classical models provides a strong argument for the use of data science, to identify qualitative characteristics and pinpoint the mechanisms responsible for the observed epidemic patterns.

  4. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, J L; Zebis, M K; Aagaard, P

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas, qualitatively, the relative proportion of type IIX muscle fibers decreased. Multiple regression analysis showed that while increased MVC positively influenced both early and late RFD, decreased-type IIX negatively influenced early RFD only. In conclusion, early and late RFD responded differently to high-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force.

  5. The effect of optimal space allowance on growth performance and physiological responses of pigs at different stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Kim, K S; Kim, J E; Kim, D W; Seol, K H; Lee, S H; Chae, B J; Kim, Y H

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the optimal space allowance for maximizing the growth performance of pigs at each of the following five growth stages (based on BW ranges): stage 1, 11 to 25 kg BW; stage 2, 25 to 45 kg BW; stage 3, 45 to 65 kg BW; stage 4, 65 to 85 kg BW; and stage 5, 85 to 110 kg BW. A total of 1590 crossbred (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) pigs were assigned to one of four treatments at each growth stage, with three replicates each. Pen areas at each growth stage were 6, 11, 16, 19.5 and 20 m2 for stages 1 to 5, respectively. Space allowances for the four treatments at each growth stage were modified by varying the number of pigs per pen (22, 25, 28 and 31 pigs in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively). Blood samples were collected on the final day of each growth stage. The average daily gain (ADG) decreased significantly with decreased space allowances at all growth stages, except at stage 2. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) was not significantly affected by space allowances at stages 1 to 4; however, at stage 5, there was a linear effect of space allowance on ADFI. Thus, the feed conversion ratio showed results similar to those for ADG. Serum cortisol concentrations, indicating the level of stress response, increased as space allowances decreased. The highest serum cortisol concentrations were observed in T3 at stages 2 to 5. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in association with a small space allowance than with at large space allowance at stages 2, 4 and 5. Serum interleukin-1β levels also increased in a significant linear manner at every growth stage in pigs reared at a low space allowance, except at stage 4 (P=0.068). This study found that limited space allowance decreases the growth performance of pigs and induces stress and inflammatory responses. We confirmed that no significant effect of space allowance on growth performance and serum cortisol concentrations are observed between T1 and T2 across all growth

  6. Cost effectiveness of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on early child development outcomes in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowani, Saima; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood programs are heralded as a way to improve children's health and educational outcomes. However, few studies in developing countries calculate the effectiveness of quality early childhood interventions. Even fewer estimate the associated costs of such interventions. The study here looks at the costs and effectiveness of a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial on children from birth to 24 months in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Responsive stimulation and/or enhanced nutrition interventions were integrated in the Lady Health Worker program in Pakistan. Outcomes suggest that children who receive responsive stimulation had significantly better development outcomes at 24 months than those who only received enhanced nutrition intervention. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the results verifies that early childhood interventions that include responsive stimulation are more cost effective than a nutrition intervention alone in promoting children's early development. Costs of a responsive stimulation intervention integrated in an existing community-based service providing basic health and nutrition care is approximately US$4 per month per child. We discuss these findings and make recommendations about scaling up and costs for future early child development programs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  8. A Response Analysis of Economic Growth to Environmental Risk: A Case Study of Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunpeng; Ji, Jianyue; Yu, Xiaoli

    The economic growth is one kind of risk sources for environmental pollution. Taking Qingdao as sample, using principal component analysis, Granger causality test and impulse response function, this paper aims to find the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution. The result shows that the economic growth is Granger cause of environmental risk which are influenced by time lags. The influence is progressive, gradual, and long-standing.

  9. Competition alters tree growth responses to climate at individual and stand scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin R. Ford; Ian K. Breckheimer; Jerry F. Franklin; James A. Freund; Steve J. Kroiss; Andrew J. Larson; Elinore J. Theobald; Janneke HilleRisLambers

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how climate affects tree growth is essential for assessing climate change impacts on forests but can be confounded by effects of competition, which strongly influences tree responses to climate. We characterized the joint influences of tree size, competition, and climate on diameter growth using hierarchical Bayesian methods applied to permanent sample...

  10. Seedling growth responses to soil resources in the understory of a wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Ellen K; Kobe, Richard K; Vriesendorp, Corine F

    2011-09-01

    Plant growth responses to resources may be an important mechanism that influences species' distributions, coexistence, and community structure. Irradiance is considered the most important resource for seedling growth in the understory of wet tropical forests, but multiple soil nutrients and species have yet to be examined simultaneously with irradiance under field conditions. To identify potentially limiting resources, we modeled tree seedling growth as a function of irradiance and soil nutrients across five sites, spanning a soil fertility gradient in old-growth, wet tropical forests at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We measured an array of soil nutrients including total nitrogen (total N), inorganic N (nitrate [NO3-] and ammonium [NH4+]), phosphate (PO4-), and sum of base cations (SBC; potassium, magnesium, and calcium). Shade in the forest understory did not preclude seedling growth correlations with soil nutrients. Irradiance was a significant predictor of growth in 52% of the species, inorganic N in 54% (NO3- in 32%; NH4+ in 34%), total N in 47%, SBC in 39%, and PO4- in 29%. Overall, growth was correlated with both irradiance and soil nutrients in 45% of species and with soil nutrients only in an additional 48%; rarely was irradiance alone correlated with growth. Contrary to expectations, the magnitudes of growth effects, assessed as the maximum growth response to significant resources for each species, were similar for irradiance and most soil nutrients. Among species whose growth correlated with soil nutrients, the rank importance of nutrient effects was SBC, followed by N (total N, NO3-, and/or NH4+) and PO4-. Species' growth responsiveness (i.e., magnitudes of effect) to irradiance and soil nutrients was negatively correlated with species' shade tolerance (survival under 1% full sun). In this broad survey of species and resources, the nearly ubiquitous effects of soil nutrients on seedling growth challenge the idea that soil nutrients are less

  11. EARLY RESPONSIVE to DEHYDRATION 15, a new transcription factor that integrates stress signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Murilo S; Fontes, Elizabeth P B; Fietto, Luciano G

    2011-12-01

    The Early Responsive to Dehydration (ERD) genes are defined as those genes that are rapidly activated during drought stress. The encoded proteins show a great structural and functional diversity, with a particular class of proteins acting as connectors of stress response pathways. Recent studies have shown that ERD15 proteins from different species of plants operate in cross-talk among different response pathways. In this mini-review, we show the recent progress on the functional role of this diverse family of proteins and demonstrate that a soybean ERD15 homolog can act as a connector in stress response pathways that trigger a programmed cell death signal.

  12. Transcriptional dynamics reveal critical roles for non-coding RNAs in the immediate-early response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Aitken

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The immediate-early response mediates cell fate in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and is dysregulated in many cancers. However, the specificity of the response across stimuli and cell types, and the roles of non-coding RNAs are not well understood. Using a large collection of densely-sampled time series expression data we have examined the induction of the immediate-early response in unparalleled detail, across cell types and stimuli. We exploit cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE time series datasets to directly measure promoter activities over time. Using a novel analysis method for time series data we identify transcripts with expression patterns that closely resemble the dynamics of known immediate-early genes (IEGs and this enables a comprehensive comparative study of these genes and their chromatin state. Surprisingly, these data suggest that the earliest transcriptional responses often involve promoters generating non-coding RNAs, many of which are produced in advance of canonical protein-coding IEGs. IEGs are known to be capable of induction without de novo protein synthesis. Consistent with this, we find that the response of both protein-coding and non-coding RNA IEGs can be explained by their transcriptionally poised, permissive chromatin state prior to stimulation. We also explore the function of non-coding RNAs in the attenuation of the immediate early response in a small RNA sequencing dataset matched to the CAGE data: We identify a novel set of microRNAs responsible for the attenuation of the IEG response in an estrogen receptor positive cancer cell line. Our computational statistical method is well suited to meta-analyses as there is no requirement for transcripts to pass thresholds for significant differential expression between time points, and it is agnostic to the number of time points per dataset.

  13. The Local CNP/GC-B system in growth plate is responsible for physiological endochondral bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Kazumasa; Osawa, Kenji; Yasoda, Akihiro; Yamanaka, Shigeki; Fujii, Toshihito; Kondo, Eri; Koyama, Noriaki; Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Miura, Masako; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2015-05-27

    Recent studies revealed C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor, guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B) are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth. As they exist ubiquitously in body, we investigated the physiological role of the local CNP/GC-B in the growth plate on bone growth using cartilage-specific knockout mice. Bones were severely shorter in cartilage-specific CNP or GC-B knockout mice and the extent was almost the same as that in respective systemic knockout mice. Cartilage-specific GC-B knockout mice were shorter than cartilage-specific CNP knockout mice. Hypertrophic chondrocyte layer of the growth plate was drastically reduced and proliferative chondrocyte layer, along with the proliferation of chondrocytes there, was moderately reduced in either cartilage-specific knockout mice. The survival rate of cartilage-specific CNP knockout mice was comparable to that of systemic CNP knockout mice. The local CNP/GC-B system in growth plate is responsible for physiological endochondral bone growth and might further affect mortality via unknown mechanisms.

  14. Mathematical Modelling of a Brain Tumour Initiation and Early Development: A Coupled Model of Glioblastoma Growth, Pre-Existing Vessel Co-Option, Angiogenesis and Blood Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cai

    Full Text Available We propose a coupled mathematical modelling system to investigate glioblastoma growth in response to dynamic changes in chemical and haemodynamic microenvironments caused by pre-existing vessel co-option, remodelling, collapse and angiogenesis. A typical tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is designed to model pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated based on the haemodynamic environment which is obtained by coupled modelling of intravascular blood flow with interstitial fluid flow. The haemodynamic changes, including vessel diameter and permeability, are introduced to reflect a series of pathological characteristics of abnormal tumour vessels including vessel dilation, leakage, angiogenesis, regression and collapse. Migrating cells are included as a new phenotype to describe the migration behaviour of malignant tumour cells. The simulation focuses on the avascular phase of tumour development and stops at an early phase of angiogenesis. The model is able to demonstrate the main features of glioblastoma growth in this phase such as the formation of pseudopalisades, cell migration along the host vessels, the pre-existing vasculature co-option, angiogenesis and remodelling. The model also enables us to examine the influence of initial conditions and local environment on the early phase of glioblastoma growth.

  15. Mathematical Modelling of a Brain Tumour Initiation and Early Development: A Coupled Model of Glioblastoma Growth, Pre-Existing Vessel Co-Option, Angiogenesis and Blood Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Wu, Jie; Li, Zhiyong; Long, Quan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a coupled mathematical modelling system to investigate glioblastoma growth in response to dynamic changes in chemical and haemodynamic microenvironments caused by pre-existing vessel co-option, remodelling, collapse and angiogenesis. A typical tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is designed to model pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated based on the haemodynamic environment which is obtained by coupled modelling of intravascular blood flow with interstitial fluid flow. The haemodynamic changes, including vessel diameter and permeability, are introduced to reflect a series of pathological characteristics of abnormal tumour vessels including vessel dilation, leakage, angiogenesis, regression and collapse. Migrating cells are included as a new phenotype to describe the migration behaviour of malignant tumour cells. The simulation focuses on the avascular phase of tumour development and stops at an early phase of angiogenesis. The model is able to demonstrate the main features of glioblastoma growth in this phase such as the formation of pseudopalisades, cell migration along the host vessels, the pre-existing vasculature co-option, angiogenesis and remodelling. The model also enables us to examine the influence of initial conditions and local environment on the early phase of glioblastoma growth.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in epigenomic responses of stem cells to extreme fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Fabien; Wijetunga, N Ari; Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Zhao, Yong Mei; Greally, John M; Einstein, Francine H

    2014-10-10

    Extreme fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to a range of adult diseases through an unknown mechanism of cellular memory. We tested whether heritable epigenetic processes in long-lived CD34(+) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells showed evidence for re-programming associated with the extremes of fetal growth. Here we show that both fetal growth restriction and over-growth are associated with global shifts towards DNA hypermethylation, targeting cis-regulatory elements in proximity to genes involved in glucose homeostasis and stem cell function. We find a sexually dimorphic response; intrauterine growth restriction is associated with substantially greater epigenetic dysregulation in males, whereas large for gestational age growth predominantly affects females. The findings are consistent with extreme fetal growth interacting with variable fetal susceptibility to influence cellular ageing and metabolic characteristics through epigenetic mechanisms, potentially generating biomarkers that could identify infants at higher risk for chronic disease later in life.

  17. [Early physical growth and disease analysis among children born delivered by HBsAg-positive mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X H; Wang, Q; Zheng, W; Li, X H; Jiang, Q Q; Zhou, C F; Qiu, L Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To estimate the early physical growth and disease in children born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Three areas as Xihu in Hangzhou, Lanxi in Jinhua, and Haiyan in Jiaxing in Zhejiang province were selected by cluster sampling. The growth outcomes of children born to HBsAg-positive mothers (exposure group) and matched 1∶1 women uninfected with HBV (control group) in 2014 were investigated and compared at birth, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, respectively. There were totally 342 children in each group. Results: The incidences of low birth weight (LBW) for children born to exposure and control group were 1.8% (6/342), and 2.6% (9/342), respectively (P=0.433); and, rates of preterm birth were 2.3% (8/342), and 2.0% (7/342), respectively (P=0.794). The mean birth weight of children born to mothers without HBV infection (3.4±0.4) kg was dramatically higher than children in exposure group (3.3±0.4) kg (P=0.019). At 18 months, the average head circumference was significantly greater among children in control group (47.3±1.3) cm than children in exposure group (47.0±2.0) cm (P=0.038). Additional, mean birth weeks, height, weight, increases in height/weight/head circumference each month, weight/height/head circumference for age Z scores, proportion of growth retardation and low weight, disease prevalence were not observed statistically differences between two groups (P>0.05). All children born to HBsAg-positive mothers were received three-dose HBV vaccination. The rate of hepatitis B immunoglobulin for births born to HBsAg-positive was 98.8% (338/342). Mother to children transmission of HBV at 18 months was 1.0% (1/97). Conclusion: No significant differences in growth development and disease prevalence were found among children born to HBsAg-positive women and women without HBV infection.

  18. Responses of ephemeral plant germination and growth to water and heat conditions in the southern part of Gurbantunggut Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xueqing; JIANG Jin; WANG Yuanchao; LUO Weilin; SONG Chunwu; CHEN Junjie

    2006-01-01

    Ephemeral plants in the southern part of Gurbantunggut Desert were systematically monitored from 2002 to 2004 and the meteorological data and soil moisture during the same period were analyzed.The results show that the ephemeral plants germination and growth are sensitive to the changes of water and heat condition. The time for daily temperature over 0℃ in early spring in 2003 was delayed nearly 10 d compared with that in 2002, while the soil water changed little in the same period. Observation showed that there were 28 ephemeral species germinated in 2002, their life period was about 70 d in spring, and the maximum cover of ephemeral synusia reached 46.4%. However, only 17 ephemeral species germinated in 2003, their life period was about 50 d in spring, and their maximum cover was only 20.8%.The height of ephemeral plants was significantly higher in 2002 than that in 2003. It can be seen that ephemeral plant germination and growth in spring are strongly dependent on temperature. The changes of water conditions can affect ephemerals germination and growth as well. Because no heavy precipitation occurred during summer in 2002, only a few ephemerophytes were observed in autumn after ephemerals completed their life circle in early spring. However,about 60 mm precipitation was recorded from July to August both in 2003 and in 2004. Some ephemerals such as Erodium oxyrrhynchum and Carex physodes,etc. covered the dune surface rapidly with a cover >10%. Therefore, the ephemerals not only germinate in autumn after the early spring, some species may germinate in summer if adequate rainfall occurs. The study on responses of ephemerals growth to water and heat conditions not only has a certain ecological significance but also contributes a better understanding to the effect of climate changes on the desert surface stability.

  19. Response of the growth plate of uremic rats to human growth hormone and corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.F. Barbosa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with chronic renal failure in general present growth retardation that is aggravated by corticosteroids. We describe here the effects of methylprednisolone (MP and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH on the growth plate (GP of uremic rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal nephrectomy in 30-day-old rats, followed by 20 IU kg-1 day-1 rhGH (N = 7 or 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7 or 20 IU kg-1 day-1 rhGH + 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7 treatment for 10 days. Control rats with intact renal function were sham-operated and treated with 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7 or vehicle (N = 7. Uremic rats (N = 7 were used as untreated control animals. Structural alterations in the GP and the expression of anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and anti-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I by epiphyseal chondrocytes were evaluated. Uremic MP rats displayed a reduction in the proliferative zone height (59.08 ± 4.54 vs 68.07 ± 7.5 µm, P < 0.05 and modifications in the microarchitecture of the GP. MP and uremia had an additive inhibitory effect on the proliferative activity of GP chondrocytes, lowering the expression of PCNA (19.48 ± 11.13 vs 68.64 ± 7.9% in control, P < 0.0005 and IGF-I (58.53 ± 0.96 vs 84.78 ± 2.93% in control, P < 0.0001, that was counteracted by rhGH. These findings suggest that in uremic rats rhGH therapy improves longitudinal growth by increasing IGF-I synthesis in the GP and by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation.

  20. Growth inhibition in early life-stage tests predicts full life-cycle toxicity effects of lead in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munley, Kathleen M; Brix, Kevin V; Panlilio, Jennifer; Deforest, David K; Grosell, Martin

    2013-03-15

    The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive freshwater organism tested to date for several metals (Co, Cu, Pb, Ni) based on 28 d early life-stage (ELS) tests in which growth was the most sensitive endpoint. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has expressed concern that growth in 28 d ELS tests with mollusks may overpredict toxicity because of the potential for recovery in a full life-cycle (LC) test. Consequently, the USEPA only accepts the survival endpoint for these tests in establishing water quality criteria (WQC). To address this concern, the current study aimed to test the sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Pb in a 56 d full LC test evaluating survival, growth, reproductive and embryonic growth endpoints and compare the estimated effect levels to those established using the 28 d ELS test design. The most sensitive endpoints in this study were 28 d growth and 56 d egg mass production, both with a NOEC of Snails exposed to 1.0 and 2.7 μg L(-1) Pb showed full and partial recovery from growth inhibition between 28 and 56 d. While this recovery supports the USEPA's concern about the 28 d growth endpoint; considering the reproductive lifespan of L. stagnalis and the recovery dose-response, we conclude that the 28 d growth endpoint will be within a factor of 3 of full LC endpoints. This is consistent with the level of precision previously determined for fish ELS tests, which the USEPA accepts for WQC derivation, and suggests that tests using 28 d ELS growth endpoint for L. stagnalis may be acceptable for inclusion in WQC derivation.

  1. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C; Thompson, Elaine C; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R; Kraus, Nina

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But this auditory learning rarely occurs in ideal listening conditions-children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3-5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features-even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response

  2. Growth and yield of anthurium in response to sawdust mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objectives of the study were to analyze the effect of sawdust mulch on the: (1 soil characteristics; (2 growth and flower yield of the anthurium cv. 'Apalai'. Assay was conducted in a totally randomized design in subdivided plots, with five treatments and eight replications. The treatment consisted of five volumes of sawdust 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80L m-2, distributed over the bed, every three months. Soil, plants and flower stalks were evaluated during two years. Soil temperature, moisture, organic matter, bulk density and water retention conditions were improved, while the leaf area of plants and the yield of flower stalks were increased when the soil were mulched with sawdust. In addition to increasing soil organic matter, however, no change occurred in the level of nutrients in plants. Sawdust also improved the dimension of flower stalks. Application of 40L m-2 of sawdust every three months is recommended.

  3. Modular Transcriptional Networks of the Host Pulmonary Response during Early and Late Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, Brendon P; van Lieshout, Miriam H; Blok, Dana C; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-05-12

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spneu) remains the most lethal bacterial pathogen and the dominant agent of community-acquired pneumonia. Treatment has perennially focused on the use of antibiotics, albeit scrutinized due to the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Spneu strains. Immunomodulatory strategies have emerged as potential treatment options. Although promising, immunomodulation can lead to improper tissue functions either at steady state or upon infectious challenge. This argues for the availability of tools to enable a detailed assessment of whole pulmonary functions during the course of infection, not only those functions biased to the defense response. Thus, through the use of an unbiased tissue microarray and bioinformatics approach, we aimed to construct a comprehensive map of whole-lung transcriptional activity and cellular pathways during the course of pneumococcal pneumonia. We performed genome-wide transcriptional analysis of whole lungs before and 6 and 48 h after Spneu infection in mice. The 4,000 most variable transcripts across all samples were used to assemble a gene coexpression network comprising 13 intercorrelating modules (clusters of genes). Fifty-four percent of this whole-lung transcriptional network was altered 6 and 48 h after Spneu infection. Canonical signaling pathway analysis uncovered known pathways imparting protection, including IL17A/IL17F signaling and previously undetected mechanisms that included lipid metabolism. Through in silico prediction of cell types, pathways were observed to enrich for distinct cell types such as a novel stromal cell lipid metabolism pathway. These cellular mechanisms were furthermore anchored at functional hub genes of cellular fate, differentiation, growth and transcription. Collectively, we provide a benchmark unsupervised map of whole-lung transcriptional relationships and cellular activity during early and late pneumococcal pneumonia.

  4. Growth responses of Picea mongolica seedlings to defoliation rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Chun-jing; HAN Shi-jie; QI Shu-yan; XU Wen-duo; LI Dao-tang

    2005-01-01

    Picea mongolica W. D. Xu. is an endemic species in China. The spruce forest is only found in semi-arid habitat in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Based on the simulative defoliation experiment, it was proved that Picea mongolica seedlings had the compensatory and overcompensatory effects under the certain defoliation rate. The results of variance analysis on growth indexes showed that in PM Ⅰ (natural regeneration seedlings under Picea mongolica forest), the differences of H1 (height in June 23) and H2 (height in September 3) were extremely significant, and the difference of D(diameter at the breast height) were not significant. In PM Ⅱ (artificial regeneration seedlings under Betula platyphylla Suk. forest), the difference of H1 was significant, the difference of H2 was not significant, and the difference of D was extremely significant. The regression equations were established and the compensatory and overcompensatory points were obtained. In PM Ⅰ , the compensatory points of H1, H2, and D were 0.7628, 0.7436, 0.5725, and the overcompensatory points were 0.6056, 0.5802 and 0.2909 respectively. In PM Ⅱ, the compensatory points of H1, H2, and D are 0.5012, 0.3421, 0.2488, and the overcompensatory points are 0.4137, 0.2633 and 0.0747 respectively. These results suggested that the induction of compensatory growth mechanisms in spruce seedlings required a threshold level of defoliation, and the insects in Picea mongolica forest could be controlled in a certain degree.

  5. Growth hormones therapy in immune response against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frare, Eduardo Osório; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Caldeira, Jerri C; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; Prado, José Clóvis do

    2010-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an important hypophyseal hormone that is primarily involved in body growth and metabolism. In mammals, control of Trypanosoma cruzi parasitism during the acute phase of infection is considered to be critically dependent on direct macrophage activation by cytokines. To explore the possibility that GH might be effective in the treatment of Chagas' disease, we investigated its effects on the course of T. cruzi infection in rats, focusing our analyses on its influences on parasitemia, NO, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma concentration and on histopathological alterations and parasite burden in heart tissue. T. cruzi-infected male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with 5 ng/10 g body weight/day of GH. Animals treated with GH showed a significant reduction in the number of blood trypomastigotes during the acute phase of infection compared with untreated animals (P<0.05). For all experimental days (7, 14 and 21 post infection) of the acute phase, infected and GH treated animals reached higher concentrations of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and nitric oxide as compared to untreated and infected counterparts (P<0.05) Histopathological observations of heart tissue revealed that GH administration also resulted in fewer and smaller amastigote burdens, and less inflammatory infiltrate and tissue disorganization, indicating a reduced parasitism of this tissue. These results show that GH can be considered as an immunomodulator substance for controlling parasite replication and combined with the current drug used may represent in the future a new therapeutic tool to reduce the harmful effects of Chagas' disease.

  6. Effects of clustered transmission on epidemic growth Comment on "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing the early growth profile of an epidemic outbreak is key for predicting the likely trajectory of the number of cases and for designing adequate control measures. Epidemic profiles characterized by exponential growth have been widely observed in the past and a grounding theoretical framework for the analysis of infectious disease dynamics was provided by the pioneering work of Kermack and McKendrick [1]. In particular, exponential growth stems from the assumption that pathogens spread in homogeneous mixing populations; that is, individuals of the population mix uniformly and randomly with each other. However, this assumption was readily recognized as highly questionable [2], and sub-exponential profiles of epidemic growth have been observed in a number of epidemic outbreaks, including HIV/AIDS, foot-and-mouth disease, measles and, more recently, Ebola [3,4].

  7. An Examination of Growth in Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness in Early Childhood: An Individual Growth Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Christina Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…

  8. Early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years in Malaysia: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Gan, Wan Ying; Tan, Kit-Aun

    2016-01-01

    Background The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. Methods/Design This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Ne...

  9. Transforming growth factor- 1 C-509T polymorphism, oxidant stress, and early-onset childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad T; Gauderman, W James; McConnell, Rob; Lin, Pi-Chu; Gilliland, Frank D

    2007-12-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is involved in airway inflammation and remodeling, two key processes in asthma pathogenesis. Tobacco smoke and traffic emissions induce airway inflammation and modulate TGF-beta1 gene expression. We hypothesized that the effects of functional TGF-beta1 variants on asthma occurrence vary by these exposures. We tested these hypotheses among 3,023 children who participated in the Children's Health Study. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs4803457 C>T and C-509T (a functional promoter polymorphism) accounted for 94% of the haplotype diversity of the upstream region. Exposure to maternal smoking in utero was based on smoking by biological mother during pregnancy. Residential distance from nearest freeway was calculated based on residential address at study entry. Children with the -509TT genotype had a 1.8-fold increased risk of early persistent asthma (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.95). This association varied marginally significantly by in utero exposure to maternal smoking. Compared with children with the -509CC/CT genotype with no in utero exposure to maternal smoking, those with the -509TT genotype with such exposure had a 3.4-fold increased risk of early persistent asthma (95% CI, 1.46-7.80; interaction, P = 0.11). The association between TGF-beta1 C-509T and lifetime asthma varied by residential proximity to freeways (interaction P = 0.02). Children with the -509TT genotype living within 500 m of a freeway had over three-fold increased lifetime asthma risk (95% CI, 1.29-7.44) compared with children with CC/CT genotype living > 1500 m from a freeway. Children with the TGF-beta1 -509TT genotype are at increased risk of asthma when they are exposed to maternal smoking in utero or to traffic-related emissions.

  10. Response of pine hypocotyl sections to growth regulators and related substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zakrzewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth response of Pinus silvestris hypocotyl sections to some synthetic growth regulators and related substances was studied. Elongation of hypocotyl sections was stimulated by naphtaleneacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, in-dole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, indoleaoetic amide, indoleacetic nitrile and coumarin. Indole-3-acetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid extended period of growth up to 16 and 24 hours, respectively. Growth was inhibited by kinetin, trans-cinnamic acid and 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid. No effect of gibberellic acid, tryptophan and biotin was observed.

  11. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-01-01

    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  12. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kawamura

    Full Text Available Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for

  13. Evidence for an Early Origin of Vernalization Responsiveness in Temperate Pooideae Grasses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Meghan; Fjellheim, Siri

    2016-01-01

    The ability of plants to match their reproductive output with favorable environmental conditions has major consequences both for lifetime fitness and geographic patterns of diversity. In temperate ecosystems, some plant species have evolved the ability to use winter nonfreezing cold (vernalization) as a cue to ready them for spring flowering. However, it is unknown how important the evolution of vernalization responsiveness has been for the colonization and subsequent diversification of taxa within the northern and southern temperate zones. Grasses of subfamily Pooideae, including several important crops, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and oats (Avena sativa), predominate in the northern temperate zone, and it is hypothesized that their radiation was facilitated by the early evolution of vernalization responsiveness. Predictions of this early origin hypothesis are that a response to vernalization is widespread within the subfamily and that the genetic basis of this trait is conserved. To test these predictions, we determined and reconstructed vernalization responsiveness across Pooideae and compared expression of wheat vernalization gene orthologs VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and VRN3 in phylogenetically representative taxa under cold and control conditions. Our results demonstrate that vernalization responsive Pooideae species are widespread, suggesting that this trait evolved early in the lineage and that at least part of the vernalization gene network is conserved throughout the subfamily. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of vernalization responsiveness was important for the initial transition of Pooideae out of the tropics and into the temperate zone. PMID:27474116

  14. Evidence for an Early Origin of Vernalization Responsiveness in Temperate Pooideae Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Meghan; Schubert, Marian; Marcussen, Thomas; Fjellheim, Siri; Preston, Jill C

    2016-09-01

    The ability of plants to match their reproductive output with favorable environmental conditions has major consequences both for lifetime fitness and geographic patterns of diversity. In temperate ecosystems, some plant species have evolved the ability to use winter nonfreezing cold (vernalization) as a cue to ready them for spring flowering. However, it is unknown how important the evolution of vernalization responsiveness has been for the colonization and subsequent diversification of taxa within the northern and southern temperate zones. Grasses of subfamily Pooideae, including several important crops, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and oats (Avena sativa), predominate in the northern temperate zone, and it is hypothesized that their radiation was facilitated by the early evolution of vernalization responsiveness. Predictions of this early origin hypothesis are that a response to vernalization is widespread within the subfamily and that the genetic basis of this trait is conserved. To test these predictions, we determined and reconstructed vernalization responsiveness across Pooideae and compared expression of wheat vernalization gene orthologs VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and VRN3 in phylogenetically representative taxa under cold and control conditions. Our results demonstrate that vernalization responsive Pooideae species are widespread, suggesting that this trait evolved early in the lineage and that at least part of the vernalization gene network is conserved throughout the subfamily. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of vernalization responsiveness was important for the initial transition of Pooideae out of the tropics and into the temperate zone.

  15. Tree growth response of Fokienia hodginsii to recent climate warming and drought in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiajia; Gou, Xiaohua; Deng, Yang; Zhang, Ruibo; Liu, Wenhuo; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Ming; Chen, Yao; Zheng, Wuji

    2017-09-01

    To date, few attempts have been made to assess the influence of climate change on forest ecosystems and on the relationship between tree growth and climate in humid areas of low latitudes. In this paper, we studied the response of tree growth and forest ecosystem to climate change by using Fokienia hodginsii tree-ring cores from the northern Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwest of China. Tree growth correlates the highest (r = -0.64, p changing with time as revealed by a moving correlation analysis. Tree growth is significantly (p changed under different climate conditions. The meteorological data suggested that from 1961 to 1987 it was cold and wet in the study area and radial growth is limited by winter and spring temperatures. This restriction is weaker if the climate is appropriate in general. However, from 1988 to 2014, the combined effects of recent warming and decreasing precipitation have led to an increasing response of tree-ring width to drought. In addition, a large proportion of mature F. hodginsii mortality occurred from 2007 to 2013, which corresponds with a drastic reduction of radial growth (narrowest in recent 100 years). The recent drought, induced by decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature, may have passed the threshold which F. hodginsii could tolerate, causing tree growth reduction, tree growth-climate relationship change, as well as catastrophic tree mortality. All these changes may lead to further responses of the local ecosystem to climate change which should be highly regarded.

  16. Seed quality characteristics of Pinus halepensis – seed germination strategy and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Tsitsoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus halepensis is a Mediterranean tree species occupying areas of high tourist interest, where it forms aesthetic and recreational forests. However, intense human pressure, adverse climatic conditions and overgrazing degrade Aleppo pine forest ecosystems and render the natural regeneration of this species difficult. The ecological, landscape, recreational and soil conservation uses of P. halepensis along with its aesthetic value, make this species important for landscape planning and multi-purpose forestry. For these reasons, artificial regeneration may be required in order to render ecosystem restoration faster. Although P. halepensis is characterized by a high germination capacity and a constant temperature of 20 °C is considered optimal for germination, no research has dealt with the germination behaviour and early growth of seedlings under alternative temperature conditions similar to those dominating outdoors. Moreover, little research was conducted on seed quality characteristics of this species. Thus, in this study seed quality of P. halepensis was estimated by measuring purity, number of seeds per kg, weight of 1000 seeds, average seed weight, seed moisture content and percentage of empty seeds. Also, seed germination capacity, germination rate, percentage of infected and not germinated viable seeds, abnormal seedlings as well as the total seedling length were studied under laboratory (alternative temperature and chamber (constant temperature conditions with the same photoperiod. Results showed that the percentage of empty seeds and abnormal seedlings was extremely low and the total germination percentage was very high (87–90% in both environments. Germination capacity, germination rate and the total length of seedlings did not show any differences among the two growth environments.

  17. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing.

  18. FAST MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: GROWTH OF COLLISIONLESS PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TURBULENT MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)

    2015-07-20

    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.

  19. Growth, development, and behavior in early childhood following prenatal cocaine exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D A; Augustyn, M; Knight, W G; Pell, T; Zuckerman, B

    2001-03-28

    Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peer-reviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity, scope, or kind from the sequelae of multiple other risk factors. Many findings once thought

  20. Use of Allelopathic Traits of Several Medicinal Plants on Some Germination Characteristics and Early Growth of Wheat and Wild Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Piraste Anoshe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem pollution and weed resistance to herbicides have led researchers to pay more attention to natural herbicides. To examine allelopathic effects of liquorice, rosemary, chamomile and eucalypt on germination characteristics and early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and wild oat (Avena fatua L., a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and four replicates was conducted at Cereal Laboratory of College of Agricultural, Shiraz University, Iran in 2010. The results showed that rosemary essential oil had most negative effect on germination percentage (G%, seedling length (SL, radicle length (RL, shoot to root length ratio (S/R, relative water content (RWC and total water content (TWC. The lowest negative effect on G%, SL, RL and TWC was obtained from eucalypt essential oil and the least effect on RWC was observed from liquorice essential oil treatments. Most reduction on S/R was obtained from chamomile essential oil. The effect of stem essential oil on all measured traits, except G%, was more than leaf essential oil. Also wild oat was found to be more responsive than wheat to rosemary and chamomile essential oils. Considering these results, it appeared that control of wild oat by using such essential oil as rosemary and chamomile might be possible under some conditions with appropriate cautions.

  1. The genome-wide early temporal response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress induced by cumene hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Wei; Martins, Ana M; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Mendes, Pedro; Shulaev, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known biological process that occurs in all respiring cells and is involved in pathophysiological processes such as aging and apoptosis. Oxidative stress agents include peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide, cumene hydroperoxide, and linoleic acid hydroperoxide, the thiol oxidant diamide, and menadione, a generator of superoxide, amongst others. The present study analyzed the early temporal genome-wide transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress induced by the aromatic peroxide cumene hydroperoxide. The accurate dataset obtained, supported by the use of temporal controls, biological replicates and well controlled growth conditions, provided a detailed picture of the early dynamics of the process. We identified a set of genes previously not implicated in the oxidative stress response, including several transcriptional regulators showing a fast transient response, suggesting a coordinated process in the transcriptional reprogramming. We discuss the role of the glutathione, thioredoxin and reactive oxygen species-removing systems, the proteasome and the pentose phosphate pathway. A data-driven clustering of the expression patterns identified one specific cluster that mostly consisted of genes known to be regulated by the Yap1p and Skn7p transcription factors, emphasizing their mediator role in the transcriptional response to oxidants. Comparison of our results with data reported for hydrogen peroxide identified 664 genes that specifically respond to cumene hydroperoxide, suggesting distinct transcriptional responses to these two peroxides. Genes up-regulated only by cumene hydroperoxide are mainly related to the cell membrane and cell wall, and proteolysis process, while those down-regulated only by this aromatic peroxide are involved in mitochondrial function.

  2. The genome-wide early temporal response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress induced by cumene hydroperoxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sha

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a well-known biological process that occurs in all respiring cells and is involved in pathophysiological processes such as aging and apoptosis. Oxidative stress agents include peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide, cumene hydroperoxide, and linoleic acid hydroperoxide, the thiol oxidant diamide, and menadione, a generator of superoxide, amongst others. The present study analyzed the early temporal genome-wide transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress induced by the aromatic peroxide cumene hydroperoxide. The accurate dataset obtained, supported by the use of temporal controls, biological replicates and well controlled growth conditions, provided a detailed picture of the early dynamics of the process. We identified a set of genes previously not implicated in the oxidative stress response, including several transcriptional regulators showing a fast transient response, suggesting a coordinated process in the transcriptional reprogramming. We discuss the role of the glutathione, thioredoxin and reactive oxygen species-removing systems, the proteasome and the pentose phosphate pathway. A data-driven clustering of the expression patterns identified one specific cluster that mostly consisted of genes known to be regulated by the Yap1p and Skn7p transcription factors, emphasizing their mediator role in the transcriptional response to oxidants. Comparison of our results with data reported for hydrogen peroxide identified 664 genes that specifically respond to cumene hydroperoxide, suggesting distinct transcriptional responses to these two peroxides. Genes up-regulated only by cumene hydroperoxide are mainly related to the cell membrane and cell wall, and proteolysis process, while those down-regulated only by this aromatic peroxide are involved in mitochondrial function.

  3. The bradykinin B2 receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Wolterink, A.F.W.M.; Bader, M.; Boele, L.C.L.; Kleij, D. van der

    2009-01-01

    The endogenous danger signal bradykinin was recently found implicated in the development of immunity against parasites via dendritic cells. We here report an essential role of the B2 (B2R) bradykinin receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection. Mice deficient in B2R (B2R-/- mice

  4. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  5. Pre-Service Teacher Disposition Development: Cultural Reciprocity and Responsivity in Early Childhood Special Education Practica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenberg, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative Case Study explored the integrative process of pre-service teachers' disposition development for cultural reciprocity and responsiveness. Over the course of ten months, pre-service teachers completed two Early Childhood Special Education practica in diverse urban communities. The pre-service teachers were placed in public…

  6. Responsive Parenting: Establishing Early Foundations for Social, Communication, and Independent Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Mothers whose infants varied in early biological characteristics (born at term, n = 120; born at very low birth weight [VLBW], n = 144) were randomized to a target group (n = 133) or developmental feedback comparison group (n = 131) to determine whether learning responsive behaviors would facilitate infant development. The target condition…

  7. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  8. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  9. Transcriptional response of bronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification of early mediators of host defense.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.B.; Sterkenburg, M.A. van; Rabe, K.F.; Schalkwijk, J.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Datson, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    The airway epithelium responds to microbial exposure by altering expression of a variety of genes to increase innate host defense. We aimed to delineate the early transcriptional response in human primary bronchial epithelial cells exposed for 6 h to a mixture of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha or heat-inact

  10. Allelopathic potential of Chrozophora tinctoria on early growth of Barley and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Aliloo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory bioassay was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of Chrozophora tinctoria on germination and seedling growth of barley and wheat. Aqueous leave extracts of C. tinctoria at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % concentrations were prepared and distilled water was used as a control. Results showed that germination percentage of two species decreased with increasing the extract concentrations; however, wheat germination was relatively resistant to allelochemicals than barley. In contrast to germination behavior, seedling traits showed different responses. The extracts improved seedling dry weights, particularly barley, whereas seedling lengths were inhibited. Roots of both species were more affected than shoots by extracts. The extracts reduced seed reserve mobilization significantly (p≤0.05. It was concluded that the used extract had inhibitory effects on seed germination of the crops; however, at seedling stages the effects were severely reduced.

  11. Value of sympathetic skin response test in the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一宁; 贾志荣; 石昕; 孙相如

    2004-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy is common in diabetes mellitus. The early stage of diabetic neuropathy is often symptomless and difficult to be treated. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the results of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) test and the development of diabetic neuropathy, and explore the use of SSR as an objective basis for the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.Methods The latencies and amplitudes of initiation and of the N and P waves were determined by SSR testing of the extremities of 80 diabetic patients and 30 healthy controls. Results The latencies of initiation and of the N and P waves were significantly (P0.05). All but two patients (97.5%) demonstrated abnormal SSR in at least one limb. Conclusions SSR can detect early dysfunction of the small sympathetic fibers in people affected by diabetes mellitus, and may be a useful electrophysiological test for the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Effects of Surface Chemical Composition on the Early Growth Stages of α-Sexithienyl Films on Silicon Oxide Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinelli, Franco; Moulin, Jean-François; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Como, Enrico Da; Massi, Massimiliano; Murgia, Mauro; Muccini, Michele; Biscarini, Fabio; Wie, Jiang; Kingshott, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In organic field effect transistors, charge transport is confined to a narrow region next to the organic/dielectric interface. It is thus extremely important to determine the morphology and the molecular arrangement of the organic films at their early growth stages. On a substrate of technological i

  13. The Impact of Early Academic Growth on College Readiness: A Study of a Suburban Chicago School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find some of the key factors determining college readiness. School districts are under increased pressure to provide all students with experiences and the preparation to ensure they are college-ready. This study investigates a few key, potential factors in the journey to college readiness: early academic growth,…

  14. Growth responses of Phragmites karka - a candidate for second generation biofuel from degraded saline lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer Ahmed, Muhammad; Shoukat, Erum; Abideen, Zainul; Aziz, Irfan; Gulzar, Salman; Ajmal Khan, M.

    2017-04-01

    following order: root > senesced leaves > young leaves. Moreover, plants maintained nutrient homeostasis (K+, Ca++, Mg++, NO-) by selective uptake via root and transport towards leaf. Moderate salinity increased instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and water use efficiency with stomatal density and smaller pore size compared to control which supported unchanged photosynthetic rate by protecting light harvesting machinery. Low photosynthetic rate in early phase of higher salinity was related to reduced stomatal conductance, while in later phase (15-30 days) due to decreased carboxylation efficiency, effective quantum yield and Fv/Fm (at noon). In conclusion, organ specific responses to short and long term exposure in moderate salinity ensures successful plant survival, whereas long term exposure tohigh salinitywas toxic for plant growth. It is recommended that P. karka could be grown as a biofuel crop on marginally saline and degraded lands.

  15. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokini

  16. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokini

  17. Impaired muscle growth and response to insulin-like growth factor 1 in dysferlin-mediated muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonbreun, Alexis R.; Fahrenbach, John P.; Deveaux, Kieran; Earley, Judy U.; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in dysferlin cause muscular dystrophy, and dysferlin has been implicated in resealing membrane disruption in myofibers. Given the importance of membrane fusion in many aspects of muscle function, we studied the role of dysferlin in muscle growth. We found that dysferlin null myoblasts have a defect in myoblast–myotube fusion, resulting in smaller myotubes in culture. In vivo, dysferlin null muscle was found to have mislocalized nuclei and vacuolation. We found that myoblasts isolated from dysferlin null mice accumulate enlarged, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2)-positive lysosomes. Dysferlin null myoblasts accumulate transferrin-488, reflecting abnormal vesicular trafficking. Additionally, dysferlin null myoblasts display abnormal trafficking of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor, where the receptor is shuttled to LAMP2-positive lyososomes. We studied growth, in vivo, by infusing mice with the growth stimulant IGF1. Control IGF1-treated mice increased myofiber diameter by 30% as expected, whereas dysferlin null muscles had no response to IGF1, indicating a defect in myofiber growth. We also noted that dysferlin null fibroblasts also accumulate acidic vesicles, IGF receptor and transferrin, indicating that dysferlin is important for nonmuscle vesicular trafficking. These data implicate dysferlin in multiple membrane fusion events within the cell and suggest multiple pathways by which loss of dysferlin contributes to muscle disease. PMID:21127009

  18. Impaired muscle growth and response to insulin-like growth factor 1 in dysferlin-mediated muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonbreun, Alexis R; Fahrenbach, John P; Deveaux, Kieran; Earley, Judy U; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2011-02-15

    Loss-of-function mutations in dysferlin cause muscular dystrophy, and dysferlin has been implicated in resealing membrane disruption in myofibers. Given the importance of membrane fusion in many aspects of muscle function, we studied the role of dysferlin in muscle growth. We found that dysferlin null myoblasts have a defect in myoblast-myotube fusion, resulting in smaller myotubes in culture. In vivo, dysferlin null muscle was found to have mislocalized nuclei and vacuolation. We found that myoblasts isolated from dysferlin null mice accumulate enlarged, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2)-positive lysosomes. Dysferlin null myoblasts accumulate transferrin-488, reflecting abnormal vesicular trafficking. Additionally, dysferlin null myoblasts display abnormal trafficking of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor, where the receptor is shuttled to LAMP2-positive lysosomes. We studied growth, in vivo, by infusing mice with the growth stimulant IGF1. Control IGF1-treated mice increased myofiber diameter by 30% as expected, whereas dysferlin null muscles had no response to IGF1, indicating a defect in myofiber growth. We also noted that dysferlin null fibroblasts also accumulate acidic vesicles, IGF receptor and transferrin, indicating that dysferlin is important for nonmuscle vesicular trafficking. These data implicate dysferlin in multiple membrane fusion events within the cell and suggest multiple pathways by which loss of dysferlin contributes to muscle disease.

  19. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tudorica

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB. Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM. After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant, ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction, kep (intravasation rate constant, and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT Ktrans, τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05 correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism.

  20. Abnormal early brain responses during visual search are evident in schizophrenia but not bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMeerten, Nicolaas J; Dubke, Rachel E; Stanwyck, John J; Kang, Seung Suk; Sponheim, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show deficits in processing visual stimuli but neural abnormalities underlying the deficits are unclear and it is unknown whether such functional brain abnormalities are present in other severe mental disorders or in individuals who carry genetic liability for schizophrenia. To better characterize brain responses underlying visual search deficits and test their specificity to schizophrenia we gathered behavioral and electrophysiological responses during visual search (i.e., Span of Apprehension [SOA] task) from 38 people with schizophrenia, 31 people with bipolar disorder, 58 biological relatives of people with schizophrenia, 37 biological relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and 65 non-psychiatric control participants. Through subtracting neural responses associated with purely sensory aspects of the stimuli we found that people with schizophrenia exhibited reduced early posterior task-related neural responses (i.e., Span Endogenous Negativity [SEN]) while other groups showed normative responses. People with schizophrenia exhibited longer reaction times than controls during visual search but nearly identical accuracy. Those individuals with schizophrenia who had larger SENs performed more efficiently (i.e., shorter reaction times) on the SOA task suggesting that modulation of early visual cortical responses facilitated their visual search. People with schizophrenia also exhibited a diminished P300 response compared to other groups. Unaffected first-degree relatives of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed an amplified N1 response over posterior brain regions in comparison to other groups. Diminished early posterior brain responses are associated with impaired visual search in schizophrenia and appear to be specifically associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. SPOC1-Mediated Antiviral Host Cell Response Is Antagonized Early in Human Adenovirus Type 5 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Sabrina; Kinkley, Sarah; Bürck, Carolin; Mund, Andreas; Wimmer, Peter; Schubert, Tobias; Groitl, Peter; Will, Hans; Dobner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about immediate phases after viral infection and how an incoming viral genome complex counteracts host cell defenses, before the start of viral gene expression. Adenovirus (Ad) serves as an ideal model, since entry and onset of gene expression are rapid and highly efficient, and mechanisms used 24–48 hours post infection to counteract host antiviral and DNA repair factors (e.g. p53, Mre11, Daxx) are well studied. Here, we identify an even earlier host cell target for Ad, the chromatin-associated factor and epigenetic reader, SPOC1, recently found recruited to double strand breaks, and playing a role in DNA damage response. SPOC1 co-localized with viral replication centers in the host cell nucleus, interacted with Ad DNA, and repressed viral gene expression at the transcriptional level. We discovered that this SPOC1-mediated restriction imposed upon Ad growth is relieved by its functional association with the Ad major core protein pVII that enters with the viral genome, followed by E1B-55K/E4orf6-dependent proteasomal degradation of SPOC1. Mimicking removal of SPOC1 in the cell, knock down of this cellular restriction factor using RNAi techniques resulted in significantly increased Ad replication, including enhanced viral gene expression. However, depletion of SPOC1 also reduced the efficiency of E1B-55K transcriptional repression of cellular promoters, with possible implications for viral transformation. Intriguingly, not exclusive to Ad infection, other human pathogenic viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, HIV-1, and HCV) also depleted SPOC1 in infected cells. Our findings provide a general model for how pathogenic human viruses antagonize intrinsic SPOC1-mediated antiviral responses in their host cells. A better understanding of viral entry and early restrictive functions in host cells should provide new perspectives for developing antiviral agents and therapies. Conversely, for Ad vectors used in gene therapy, counteracting mechanisms eradicating incoming

  2. High VEGF with Rapid Growth and Early Metastasis in a Mouse Osteosarcoma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-You Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A murine model of osteosarcoma was developed to investigate the association between the expression of VEGF and the progression of osteosarcoma. Two human osteosarcoma cell lines with distinct VEGF expressions were introduced into proximal tibiae of immuno-deficient SCID mice, either by direct injection through the cortical bone or surgical exposing and drilling on the tibial metaphysis to seed tumor cells. Bone tumors were obvious on microCT within 4 weeks following osteosarcoma cell inoculation through surgical delivery. In contrast, direct injection without drilling often resulted in periosteal tumors. Although neoplasms were developed regardless of VEGF levels, orthotopic tumors derived from high VEGF-expressing cells were detected 2 weeks earlier on CT images than the ones from VEGF negative cells. At sacrifice, high VEGF tumors were distinctively larger in size and more frequently invaded the adjacent bone tissue. Multiple metastatic lesions were found in all the lung tissues at 8 weeks from high VEGF group, whereas only 1 of 7 VEGF negative tumors exhibited pulmonary metastasis. Overall, this model developed with the surgical tumor cell delivery results in histological and radiographic features more consistent with primary osteosarcoma. Interestingly, VEGF expression correlates with the early establishment, rapid tumor growth, and the development of pulmonary metastasis.

  3. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  4. Increased Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Sensory Neurons of Early Diabetic Rats Is Corrected by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lucia Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, characterized by early hyperalgesia and increased nerve growth factor (NGF, evolves in late irreversible neuropathic symptoms with reduced NGF support to sensory neurons. Electroacupuncture (EA modulates NGF in the peripheral nervous system, being effective for the treatment of DPN symptoms. We hypothesize that NGF plays an important pathogenic role in DPN development, while EA could be useful in the therapy of DPN by modulating NGF expression/activity. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. One week after STZ, EA was started and continued for three weeks. NGF system and hyperalgesia-related mediators were analyzed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG and in their spinal cord and skin innervation territories. Our results show that four weeks long diabetes increased NGF and NGF receptors and deregulated intracellular signaling mediators of DRG neurons hypersensitization; EA in diabetic rats decreased NGF and NGF receptors, normalized c-Jun N-terminal and p38 kinases activation, decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel, and possibly activated the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB. In conclusion, NGF signaling deregulation might play an important role in the development of DPN. EA represents a supportive tool to control DPN development by modulating NGF signaling in diabetes-targeted neurons.

  5. Blossoms from black hole seeds: properties and early growth regulated by supernova feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Habouzit, Melanie; Dubois, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Massive black holes (BHs) inhabit local galaxies, including the Milky Way and some dwarf galaxies. BH formation, occurring at early cosmic times, must account for the properties of BHs in today's galaxies, notably why some galaxies host a BH, and others do not. We investigate the formation, distribution and growth of BH `seeds' by using the adaptive mesh refinement code Ramses. We develop an implementation of BH formation in dense, low-metallicity environments, as advocated by models invoking the collapse of the first generation of stars, or of dense nuclear star clusters. The seed masses are computed one-by-one on-the-fly, based on the star formation rate and the stellar initial mass function. This self-consistent method to seed BHs allows us to study the distribution of BHs in a cosmological context and their evolution over cosmic time. We find that all high-mass galaxies tend to a host a BH, whereas low-mass counterparts have a lower probability of hosting a BH. After the end of the epoch of BH formation, ...

  6. EFFECTS OF EARLY NUTRITION INTERVENTION ON IGF1, IGFBP3, INTESTINAL DEVELOPMENT, AND CATCH-UP GROWTH OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-shan Qiu; Ting-ting Huang; Hui-ying Deng; Zhen-yu Shen; Zhi-yong Ke; Kai-yong Mei; Feng Lai

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of early nutritional intervention on the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1),insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), intestinal development, and catch-up growth of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats by giving the IUGR new born rats different protein level diet.Methods IUGR rat model was built by starvation of pregnant female rats. Twenty-four IUGR pups and 8 normal pups were divided randomly into 4 groups: normal control group (C group); IUGR control group(S group), IUGR low-protein diet group (SL group), and IUGR high-protein diet group (SH group). Detected the serum IGF1, IGFBP3, body weight,body length, intestinal weight length, intestinal villi height (VH), crypt depth (CD), villi absorbing area (VSA), mucous thickness (MT), and disaccharidase at the 4th week.Results (1) The SH group showed the fastest catch-up growth, serum IGF1, IGFBP3, VH, and VSA were significantly higher than those of normal control group and IUGR control group. The intestinal weight and length, and the activities of lactase and saccharase of the SH group also reached the normal control group level. (2) The SL group kept on small size, the serum IGF1, IGFBP3, and most of intestinal histological indexes were all significantly lower than other groups. (3) IGF-1, IGFBP3 were positively correlated to intestinal VH, VSA, saccharase, body weight and length.Conclusions The serum IGF1 was a sensitive index to the catch-up growth. The early nutritional intervention of highprotein diet after birth is helpful for the catch-up growth of IUGR through promoting the intestinal development and the absorption of nutrition.

  7. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109 aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast, bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness

  8. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 1. Responses in growth parameters and food conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyánková, L; Knízetová, H; Dĕdková, L; Hort, J

    2001-12-01

    1. HG and LG quail lines selected for high and low relative weight gain between 11 and 28 d of age (RG11-28), respectively, and an unselected C line were compared. Mature body weight of both selected lines was held at that of the C line. Progeny of generation 6 were used for analysis. 2. Divergent selection for RG11-28 brought about opposite changes in the growth rates shortly after hatching. 3. Parameters of the Richards function were used to describe the growth curve. The largest differences between HG and LG lines occurred in age (t+) and body weight (y+) at the inflection point of the growth curve (on average for both sexes 28% and 20%, respectively). For HG quail, the parameter t+ was 5 d later than that for LG quail (18.6 vs 14.1 d for males and 20.6 vs 15.6 d for females, respectively), and consequently the parameter y+ was greater (90.3 vs 84.0 g for males and 104.5 vs 96.1 g for females, respectively). The shape of the growth curve expressed by the y+/A ratio was substantialy different for HG and LG quail (44.8% vs 39.6% for males and 43.5% vs 36.8% for females, respectively). 4. The food/gain ratios for the fattening period (3 to 35 d of age) were 3.21, 3.47 and 3.34 for the HG, LG and C lines, respectively. The HG quail started to utilise food more efficiently than the LG quail as early as 10 to 14 d, that is, at the age when their relative growth rate first became greater. 5. The relative deviations of the HG and LG lines from the C line are discussed.

  9. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...... controls. The effect of acute exercise stress on PRL (p=.56) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects. Apart from a decrease in GH response in the strength-training group (p=.03) the pragmatic exercise intervention did not affect resting hormonal levels, or the response to acute exercise...

  10. Larval growth rate and sex determine resource allocation and stress responsiveness across life stages in juvenile frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Robin W; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-03-01

    The extent to which interactions between environmental stressors and phenotypic variation during larval life stages impose carry-over effects on adult phenotypes in wildlife are not clear. Using semi-natural mesocosms, we examined how chronically low food availability and size-specific phenotypes in larval amphibians interact and carry over to influence frog growth, resource allocation, endocrine activity and survival. We tagged three cohorts of larvae that differed in body size and developmental stage at 3 weeks after hatching, and tracked them through 10 weeks after metamorphosis in high and low food conditions. We found that growth and development rates during the early tadpole stage not only affected metamorphic rates, but also shaped resource allocation and stress responsiveness in frogs: the slowest growing larvae from low-food mesocosms exhibited a suppressed glucocorticoid response to a handling stressor; reduced growth rate and fat storage as frogs. We also show for the first time that larval developmental trajectories varied with sex, where females developed faster than males especially in food-restricted conditions. Last, while larval food restriction profoundly affected body size in larvae and frogs, time to metamorphosis was highly constrained, which suggests that the physiology and development of this ephemeral pond-breeding amphibian is adapted for rapid metamorphosis despite large potential variation in nutrient availability. Taken together, these results suggest that larval phenotypic variation significantly influences multiple dimensions of post-metamorphic physiology and resource allocation, which likely affect overall performance.

  11. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Young Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage. We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  12. Phytotoxicity of hexachlorocyclohexane: Effect on germination and early growth of different plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelo Pereira, R; Monterroso, C; Macías, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to select candidate plant species for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). For this purpose, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions of germination and growth, with nine plant species of economic and/or agricultural interest, in a soil contaminated with a heterogeneous mixture (at eight different levels of contamination) of the main HCH isomers (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH). The results revealed differences in the plant responses to the control soil and the soils containing HCH. Germination was not as strongly affected as other parameters such as the rate of germination and seedling vigour. In general, all of the species displayed signs of stress in response to the presence of HCH, although to different degrees. Some of the species used in the experiment (Hordeum vulgare L., Brassica sp., Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) were capable of mitigating the negative effects of HCH, and displayed a certain degree of resistance, as their biomass production was not greatly affected by the contaminant. These (tolerant) plants therefore appear to be ideal for phytoremediation purposes.

  13. Cancer drug troglitazone stimulates the growth and response of renal cells to hypoxia inducible factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taub, Mary, E-mail: biochtau@buffalo.edu

    2016-03-11

    Troglitazone has been used to suppress the growth of a number of tumors through apoptosis and autophagy. However, previous in vitro studies have employed very high concentrations of troglitazone (≥10{sup −5} M) in order to elicit growth inhibitory effects. In this report, when employing lower concentrations of troglitazone in defined medium, troglitazone was observed to stimulate the growth of primary renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. Rosiglitazone, like troglitazone, is a thiazolidinedione (TZD) that is known to activate Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Υ (PPARΥ). Notably, rosiglitazone also stimulates RPT cell growth, as does Υ-linolenic acids, another PPARΥ agonist. The PPARΥ antagonist GW9662 inhibited the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In addition, troglitazone stimulated transcription by a PPAR Response Element/Luciferase construct. These results are consistent with the involvement of PPARΥ as a mediator of the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In a number of tumor cells, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is increased, promoting the expression of HIF inducible genes, and vascularization. Troglitazone was observed to stimulate transcription by a HIF/luciferase construct. These observations indicate that troglitazone not only promotes growth, also the survival of RPT cells under conditions of hypoxia. - Highlights: • Troglitazone and rosiglitazone stimulate renal proximal tubule cell growth. • Troglitazone and linolenic acid stimulate growth via PPARϒ. • Linolenic acid stimulates growth in the presence of fatty acid free serum albumin. • Rosiglitazone stimulates transcription by a HRE luciferase construct.

  14. An analysis of elastic and plastic fruit growth of mango in response to various assimilate supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechaudel, Mathieu; Vercambre, Gilles; Lescourret, Françoise; Normand, Frederic; Génard, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Changes in elastic and plastic components of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv 'Cogshall') fruit growth were analyzed with a model of fruit growth over time and in response to various assimilate supplies. The model is based on water relations (water potential and osmotic and turgor pressures) at the fruit level. Variation in elastic fruit growth was modeled as a function of the elastic modulus and variation in turgor pressure. Variation in plastic fruit growth was modeled using the Lockhart (1965) equation. In this model, plastic growth parameters (yield threshold pressure and cell wall extensibility) varied during fruit growth. Outputs of the model were diurnal and seasonal fruit growth, and fruit turgor pressure. These variables were simulated with good accuracy by the model, particularly the observed increase in fruit size with increasing availability of assimilate supply. Shrinkage was sensitive to the surface conductance of fruit peel, the elasticity modulus and the hydraulic conductivity of fruit, whereas fruit growth rate was highly sensitive to parameters linked to changes in wall extensibility and yield threshold pressure, regardless of the assimilate supply. According to the model, plastic growth was generally zero during the day and shrinkage and swelling were linked to the elastic behavior of the fruit. During the night, plastic and elastic growths were positive, resulting in fruit expansion.

  15. Linking Tree Growth Response to Measured Microclimate - A Field Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. T.; Hoylman, Z. H.; Looker, N. T.; Jencso, K. G.; Hu, J.

    2015-12-01

    The general relationship between climate and tree growth is a well established and important tenet shaping both paleo and future perspectives of forest ecosystem growth dynamics. Across much of the American west, water limits growth via physiological mechanisms that tie regional and local climatic conditions to forest productivity in a relatively predictable way, and these growth responses are clearly evident in tree ring records. However, within the annual cycle of a forest landscape, water availability varies across both time and space, and interacts with other potentially growth limiting factors such as temperature, light, and nutrients. In addition, tree growth responses may lag climate drivers and may vary in terms of where in a tree carbon is allocated. As such, determining when and where water actually limits forest growth in real time can be a significant challenge. Despite these challenges, we present data suggestive of real-time growth limitation driven by soil moisture supply and atmospheric water demand reflected in high frequency field measurements of stem radii and cell structure across ecological gradients. The experiment was conducted at the Lubrecht Experimental Forest in western Montana where, over two years, we observed intra-annual growth rates of four dominant conifer species: Douglas fir, Ponderosa Pine, Engelmann Spruce and Western Larch using point dendrometers and microcores. In all four species studied, compensatory use of stored water (inferred from stem water deficit) appears to exhibit a threshold relationship with a critical bal