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Sample records for early growth period

  1. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I during the early postnatal period in intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Naho; Shoji, Hiromichi; Suganuma, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Natsuki; Kantake, Masato; Murano, Yayoi; Sakuraya, Koji; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is essential for perinatal growth and development; low serum IGF-I has been observed during intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We investigated the effects of recombinant human (rh) IGF-I in IUGR rats during the early postnatal period. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation in pregnant rats. IUGR pups were divided into two groups injected daily with rhIGF-I (2 mg/kg; IUGR/IGF-I, n = 16) or saline (IUGR/physiologic saline solution (PSS), n = 16) from postnatal day (PND) 7 to 13. Maternal sham-operated pups injected with saline were used as controls (control, n = 16). Serum IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 3 and 5 were measured on PND25. The expression of Igf-i, IGF-I receptor (Igf-ir), Igfbp3, and 5 mRNA in the liver and brain was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction on PND25. Immunohistochemical staining of the liver for IGF expression was performed. Mean bodyweight on PND3 and PND25 in the IUGR pups (IUGR/IGF-I and IUGR/PSS) was significantly lower than that of the control pups. Serum IGF-I and hepatic Igf-ir mRNA in the IUGR pups were significantly lower than those in the control pups. In the IUGR/IGF-I group, hepatic Igfbp3 mRNA and liver immunohistochemical staining were increased. In the IUGR/PSS and control pups, there were no significant differences between these two groups in serum IGFBP3 and IGFBP5, hepatic Igf-i and Igfbp-5 mRNA, or brain Igf mRNA. No benefits on body and brain weight gain but an effective increase in hepatic IGFBP-3 was observed after treatment with 2 mg/kg rhIGF-I during the early postnatal period. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Effect of the Nerve Growth Factor Mimetic GK-2 on Brain Structural and Functional State in the Early Postresuscitation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Avrushchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 used to improve the structural and functional state of the brain in the early postresuscitation period. Material and methods. Cardiac arrest was induced in mature male albino rats for 12 minutes, followed by resuscitation. The neurological state of the resuscitated animals was assessed by a scoring scale. On postresuscitation day 7, the density and composition of neuronal populations of Purkinje cells in the lateral cerebellar region and pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector were determined by a differential morphometric analysis. The results were statistically processed using the ANOVA method. Results. The use of GK-2 was found to accelerate neurological recovery in the resuscitated animals. On day 7 after 12-minute cardiac arrest, the resuscitated animals showed neuronal dystrophic changes and death in the neuronal populations highly susceptible to ischemia. It was shown that the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 contributed to a reduction in the magnitude and depth of postresuscitation changes in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and prevented dystrophic changes in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1 sector. The findings suggest that GK-2 has a neuroprotective effect in the recovery period after total body ischemia. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the efficiency of the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 in improving the brain structural and functional state in the early postresuscitation period. This determines perspectives for the use of GK-2 to prevent and correct posthypoxic encephalopathies. Key words: the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2, postresuscitation period, neuronal dystrophic changes and death, neurological status.

  3. No Weight Catch-Up Growth of SGA Infants Is Associated with Impaired Insulin Sensitivity during the Early Postnatal Period

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    Tong-yan Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between weight catch-up growth and insulin sensitivity in small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods. Forty-four singleton SGA subjects met the inclusion criteria and finished-3-month followup. Body weight, length, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin (FI levels were measured at 3 days and 3 months. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by FI and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Results. According to the change of weight Z-score, forty-four subjects were divided into two groups: noncatch-up growth (NCUG and catch-up growth (CUG. By 3 months of age, the body weight, body length and BMI of NCUG group were significantly lower than those of CUG group. The FI and HOMA were significantly higher in NCUG group. The change of weight Z-score during 3 months was inversely related to the HOMA at 3 months. Conclusion. Our data exemplified that no weight catch-up growth during the first 3 months was associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in SGA infants.

  4. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  5. Unstable periodic orbits and chaotic economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, K.; Saiki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically find many unstable periodic solutions embedded in a chaotic attractor in a macroeconomic growth cycle model of two countries with different fiscal policies, and we focus on a special type of the unstable periodic solutions. It is confirmed that chaotic behavior represented by the model is qualitatively and quantitatively related to the unstable periodic solutions. We point out that the structure of a chaotic solution is dissolved into a class of finite unstable periodic solutions picked out among a large number of periodic solutions. In this context it is essential for the unstable periodic solutions to be embedded in the chaotic attractor

  6. Validation of the periodicity of growth increment deposition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validation of the periodicity of growth increment deposition in otoliths from the larval and early juvenile stages of two cyprinids from the Orange–Vaal river ... Linear regression models were fitted to the known age post-fertilisation and the age estimated using increment counts to test the correspondence between the two for ...

  7. Radioecological studies in early period of NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Ryushi

    2004-01-01

    Japanese tuna-fishing boat Fukuryumaru No.5 was exposed to heavy radioactive fallout due to the nuclear test explosion carried out by U.S.A. at Bikini Atoll of Marshal Islands in the central part of Pacific Ocean on March 1, 1954. Following this accident, radioactivity was detected in various environmental samples including rain, marine fishes and agricultural crops. Science Council of Japan organized the new research group of many scientists in the field of fisheries, agricultural, medical and biological studies and radiation protection studies. Government of Japan established National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in 1957. In this Institute various radioecological studies have been carried out. In this paper, some of these radioecological studies carried out in early period of NIRS are described. (author)

  8. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  9. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Hochlef, H.; Ben Salem, L.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  10. Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; O'Callaghan, Finbar J; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Martyn, Christopher N

    2004-02-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We investigated the relationship between brain growth in different periods of pre- and postnatal life and cognitive function in 221 9-year-old children whose mothers had taken part in a study of nutrition in pregnancy and whose head circumference had been measured at 18 weeks gestation, birth and 9 months of age. Cognitive function of the children and their mothers was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Full-scale IQ at age 9 years rose by 1.98 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 3.62] for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 months and by 2.87 points (95% CI 1.05 to 4.69) for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 years of age, after adjustment for sex, number of older siblings, maternal IQ, age, education, social class, duration of breastfeeding and history of low mood in the post-partum period. Postnatal head growth was significantly greater in children whose mothers were educated to degree level or of higher socio-economic status. There was no relation between IQ and measurements of head size at 18 weeks gestation or at birth. These results suggest that brain growth during infancy and early childhood is more important than growth during foetal life in determining cognitive function.

  11. Footprint analysis during the growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpon, J B

    1994-01-01

    Static footprints were obtained from 672 healthy white subjects ranging in age from newborn to 15 years. The length of the footprint was measured and the medial longitudinal arch was evaluated. The findings showed that the feet grew most rapidly up to 3 years of age. From age 3 onward, the feet maintained an almost constant growth rate, which was the same for both sexes until age 12 years, when girls' feet stopped growing, but boys' feet exhibited further growth. From birth up to 2 years of age, there was a higher incidence of flat feet. Rapid progression of plantar arch development was observed between 2 and 6 years of age.

  12. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  13. Body Composition Growth Patterns in Early Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Wibaek, Rasmus; Kaestel, Pernille

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify subgroups with distinct fat and fat-free growth patterns in the first 6 months of life and describe predictors of these different patterns. METHODS: A total of 510 apparently healthy Ethiopian infants were followed from birth to 6 months of a...... in regular anthropometric assessment and could be a mechanism linking early growth with later obesity and cardiometabolic risk....

  14. The amazing growth of the early church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The church grew rapidly during the first centuries. The question is: Why? Generations of scholars approached this question from different perspectives and with different methods. Historical research, analysis of early Christian texts and theological reflection were the most common methods used to shed light on the growth of the church. In this contribution five different models of growth were discussed, using the approach of A.M. Schor as a point of departure. These models of church growth were put under the headings of an apostolic mission model, values reproduction model, social reaction model, network model with an institutional model added.

  15. Swords and sabers during the Early Islamic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander, David

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article offers a discussion on early swords and sabers during the Early Islamic Period, from the Topkap’ Sarayi collection to written, iconographic and archeological sources.

    El presente art’culo trata las espadas y sables utilizados en los primeros tiempos del Islam a partir de la colecció—n del Topkap’ Sarayi y de las fuentes escritas, iconogr‡ficas y arqueol—gicas.

  16. The early period of the universal Fermi interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiomno, J.

    1984-01-01

    A critical analysis of the contributions which lead, in the early period, to the discovery of the universality of Fermi-type weak interactions is made. In particular the current references to this universality as 'Puppi's triangle' are shown to be incorrect. (Author) [pt

  17. Gardens, knowledge and the sciences in the early modern period

    CERN Document Server

    Remmert, Volker; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the outstanding contributions made by botany and the mathematical sciences to the genesis and development of early modern garden art and garden culture. The many facets of the mathematical sciences and botany point to the increasingly “scientific” approach that was being adopted in and applied to garden art and garden culture in the early modern period. This development was deeply embedded in the philosophical, religious, political, cultural and social contexts, running parallel to the beginning of processes of scientization so characteristic for modern European history. This volume strikingly shows how these various developments are intertwined in gardens for various purposes.

  18. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... germination and early seedling growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Chromium ... chromium on seed germination and seedling growth- biomass in early ..... such critical regulatory mechanisms are likely to operate in seeds at ...

  19. Nutritional Transition Period in Early Larvae Clarias Gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ing, N.S.; Chew, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional transition period of Clarias gariepinus were described based on the early development from hatching to 120 hours after hatching (hAH) reared at 27.5 - 28.6 degree Celsius. Newly hatched larvae had a large greenish yolk sac volume (0.99 ± 0.31 mm"3) located below a straight undeveloped digestive tract, mouth not opened, eyes unpigmented and the larvae lie on the bottom of rearing tank. During endogenous feeding period, the larval feeding system has developed rapidly with development oesophagus. Yolk sac were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (36 hAH, 0.19 ± 0.11 mm"3), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 68 hAH when yolk was completely exhausted. Yolk sac volume was significantly different by time at hatching, 6, 12 and 18 to 36 hAH (ANOVA, P<0.05). At 36 hAH, the larvae commenced feeding once morphologically developed with opened anus, functional jaw and intestine, and demonstrated horizontally swimming. The rudimentary chemoreceptors like olfactory organs and taste buds that were found on the barbels and oral cavity assisted in food detection and commenced feeding without vision. Due to the cannibalistic behaviour at early stage, feed are suggested to be provided during 36 hAH and avoided delay feeding in the larval rearing. (author)

  20. Theoretical growth rates, periods, and pulsation constants for long-period variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.W.; Wood, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical values of the growth rate, period, and pulsation constant for the first three radial pulsation modes in red giants (Population II and galactic disk) and supergiants have been derived in the linear, nonadiabatic approximation. The effects of altering the surface boundary conditions, the effective temperature (or mixing length), and the opacity in the outer layers have been explored. In the standard models, the Q-value for the first overtone can be much larger (Q 1 1 roughly-equal0.04); in addition, the Q-value for the fundamental mode is reduced from previous values, as is the period ratio P 0 /P 1 . The growth rate for the fundamental mode is found to increase with luminosity on the giant branch while the growth rate for the first overtone decreases. Dynamical instabilities found in previous adiabatic models of extreme red giants do not occur when nonadiabatic effects are included in the models. In some massive, luminous models, period ratios P 0 /P 1 approx.7 occur when P 0 approx.2000--5000 days; it is suggested that the massive galactic supergiants and carbon stars which have secondary periods Papprox.2000--7000 days and primary periods Papprox.300--700 days are first-overtone pulsators in which the long secondary periods are due to excitation of the fundamental mode. Some other consequences of the present results are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on the mode of pulsation of the Mira variables. Subject headings: stars: long-period variables: stars: pulsation: stars: supergiants

  1. Catalan family companies with high growth during the crisis period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Arimany-Serrat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to analyze the financial and economic health of the Catalan family companies with high growth during the crisis period (2008-2013, as an engine of job creation and economic development of the territory, identifying the economic and financial characteristics. Design/methodology/approach: The data used comes from the financial statements of the high growth Catalan companies during the crisis period of 2008-2013, in particular it collects a sample of the 140 high growth Catalan companies where a 70% of them are family businesses, there is a financial and economic analysis using descriptive statistics of these family businesses with a regression model to achieve results and conclusions. Findings: During the 2008-2013 crisis, Catalan family companies with high growth that are mostly small businesses have a good economic and financial health, with moderate innovation and a great potential for survival. Research limitations/implications: It would be convenient to make the same study in similar territories where most of the companies are family businesses, in order to compare the financial and economic analysis, valuing the impact of these companies in the business. Practical implications: It allows valuing the projection of these kinds of family companies, mostly in Catalonia, in a financial and economic level, identifying if they have a proper financial strategy. Social implications: The results show that these companies have great financial and economic health and have a better response during a crisis period. Originality / value: The study shows that family businesses have moderate indebtedness and acceptable rendibility in the crisis period, although, since they are small businesses the lack of innovation and patents can lead to future problems.

  2. [Hospitals and other philanthropic foundations in early Byzantine period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, R Vedat; Ataç, Adnan

    Early Byzantine Period includes between A.D. 330 when Constantinople was established and A.D. 518 when Justinus I became emperor. In this time period, a lot of philanthropic foundations such as hospitals, hospices, orphanages, rest homes and soup kitchens are established. Many of patriarchs and religious men opened them. In some of them, it refers to there was patients' care. The oldest hospital in Constantinople was established by Hasios Marcianos, and was next to Saint Irene Church. In addition to this Empress Flacilla wife of Theodosius the Great made hospitals restored and visited patients regularly. Hospitals were not limited in the center of Empire. Hospitals and other philanthropic foundations were established in Antiochia, Alexandria, Nikea, Adrianopolis, Castoria and Jerusalem. The concept of the modern hospital (the actual care, 'hospitality' and treatment of visitors) for the civilian masses in Europe didn't come to fruition until post Constantine and the rise of Christianity. While these early Christian hospitals were grossly over their heads regarding medical capability (they essentially served as last stops for the dying or quarantine centers), the concept of providing care to the public was the actual intent. In this regard, the first civilian hospitals were developed.

  3. The right infant nutrition: do nutrition and growth matter in the 6 to 24 month period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Agostoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades several studies tested the hypothesis that at early developmental stages certain foods or nutrients, in specific amounts, fed during limited sensitive periods, may lead to clinical alterations that take place decades later (early nutritional programming of long term health. In spite of suggestions from different early dietary habits, epidemiologic data show that episodes of rapid growth (growth acceleration hypothesis, whichever the dietary habits, are associated with later unfavorable health conditions and should be prevented. Early fast weight gain may be associated with increased likelihood of developing insulin resistance, dyslipidemic conditions, obesity, elevated blood pressure, and endothelial dysfunction. Accordingly, infant’s growth pattern may represent the interaction between genetic background and environment, inclusive of nutrition. The branch of science focusing on these aspects is known as epigenetics. Different studies have shown on the other hand a reduced growth in infants with specific disorders (milk allergy, HIV even before the overt clinical symptoms of the disease. Within this context the nutritionist’s task is the prevention of deficiencies, but intervention strategies to prevent malnutrition should emphasize improvements in linear growth in the first 2-3 years of life rather than aim at gaining weight, to prevent the event of rapid early weight gain. The present constraints of the global economic crisis require cost/benefit analyses for all the interventions to optimize nutrition and growth in early years. Recent indications for complementary feeding indicate the beneficial effects of introducing earlier food items such as egg and fish, together with breastfeeding continuation through the first year, in reducing the later risk of immune allergic disorders and metabolic impairments. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014

  4. Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Naohiro; Dowswell, Therese; Nagai, Shuko; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-08-02

    Maternal complications including psychological and mental health problems and neonatal morbidity have been commonly observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following the birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic with long-term effects on women, their babies, and their families. To assess outcomes for women and babies of different home-visiting schedules during the early postpartum period. The review focuses on the frequency of home visits, the duration (when visits ended) and intensity, and on different types of home-visiting interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 January 2013) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (including cluster-RCTs) comparing different types of home-visiting interventions enrolling participants in the early postpartum period (up to 42 days after birth). We excluded studies in which women were enrolled and received an intervention during the antenatal period (even if the intervention continued into the postnatal period) and studies recruiting only women from specific high-risk groups. (e.g. women with alcohol or drug problems). Study eligibility was assessed by at least two review authors. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias were carried out independently by at least two review authors. Data were entered into Review Manager software. We included data from 12 randomised trials with data for more than 11,000 women. The trials were carried out in countries across the world, and in both high- and low-resource settings. In low-resource settings women receiving usual care may have received no additional postnatal care after early hospital discharge.The interventions and control conditions varied considerably across studies with trials focusing on three broad types of comparisons: schedules involving more versus fewer postnatal home visits (five studies), schedules

  5. Working hours in a period of low economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Walterskirchen, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    Collectively agreed reductions of working hours phased out in Europe in the 1990s. During the last two decades, working time became more flexible and heterogeneous. Working hours of full-time employees in the EU hardly changed. The strong increase in part-time work was the outstanding phenomenon. Today, one third of female employees and almost ten percent of male employees work part-time. In a period of slow growth, productivity gains will be squeezed by subdued investment and low capacity ut...

  6. [Intrauterine devices in the immediate, early and late postabortion period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nun, S

    1971-01-01

    2146 cases of IUD insertions after hospitalization for abortion at a hospital in Chile were studied. In 1514 cases the IUDs were inserted immediately after abortion, in 430 cases between 1-5 days after the operation, and in 202 cases between 5-40 days after. It is concluded that immediate or early insertion results in a somewhat lower retention rate, but offers the advantage of making it possible to treat a greater number of patients, many of whom would not return later to have the IUD inserted. The incidence of removal for medical causes was very low and immediate insertion was found to be harmless. The medical causes of removal were the usual ones of bleeding, pain, and infection; the most frequent cause of interruption of use was expulsion, which tends to occur during the 1st few months of use and among younger women. The probability of failure due to pregnancy was somewhat higher than in the case of insertion during the intermenstrual period. Cases of voluntary removal tend to increase after prolonged use, and a study to analyze the actual reasons for this fact is necessary.

  7. Genetics of early growth vigour in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid early growth vigour, 70–75 days to flowering. Figure 1. Frequency distributions of early growth vigour based on seedling length in parents (DPL15, ILL7663 and ILL6002) and F2 populations derived from two crosses (DPL15 × ILL7663; DPL15 × ILL6002) in lentil. 324. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 92, No. 2, August 2013 ...

  8. Early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition, and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    , intervention studies, and studies focusing on the potential mechanisms behind associations between early nutrition and different aspects of growth. There has been a special interest in factors with potential mediating effects between early nutrition and later growth such as growth factors and growth-related......Early nutrition is an important factor regulating both early and long-term growth and body composition, and therefore has important effects on the risk of later overweight and obesity. There is a lot of activity within this research area with a wealth of publications including observational studies...... hormones, appetite-related hormones, and factors with a potential programming effect, e.g., epigenetic programming. For this short review we have included 11 papers which we found of special interest published during the period from July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016. We have chosen to focus mainly on 2 areas...

  9. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  10. A Three-period Samuelson-Diamond Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomgren-Hansen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Samuelson (1958) analyses a three-period model, whereas Diamod (1965) considers a two-period model. This difference poses the question whether the insights derived by analysing the simple two-period model carry over in the more complicated three-period case. They do. The Samuelson model (no produ...

  11. Facial growth and oral function in a case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis during an 8-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, S; Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    The present report is a detailed analysis of facial growth and oral function in a girl with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis of the temporomandibular joints. She was followed from 9 to 17 years of age prior to and after orthognathic surgery. Facial growth was assessed by facial photographs, dental...... on these observations it is suggested that the conventional treatment strategy with postponement of orthodontic or orthognathic surgical treatment until cessation of growth is abandoned and that early treatment should be undertaken to maintain occlusal stability throughout the growth period....

  12. Maternal Alcohol Consumption During the Perinatal and Early Parenting Period: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2016-02-01

    Despite potential health risks for women and children, one in five women report alcohol use during pregnancy and a significant proportion of those who quit during pregnancy return to drinking post-delivery. This study seeks to understand the longitudinal patterns of alcohol consumption before, during pregnancy and post-delivery, and the role of maternal characteristics for purposes of informing prevention design. General growth mixture models were used to describe the average developmental patterns of maternal weekly drinking quantity at six time points, from preconception through child entering kindergarten, as well as heterogeneity in these patterns among 9100 mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study representing the 2001 US national birth cohort. Four distinct classes of mothers were defined by their longitudinal alcohol consumption patterns: Low Probability Drinkers (50.3 %), Escalating Risk Drinkers (12.0 %), Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (27.4 %), and Early Parenting Quitters (10.2 %). Heterogeneous covariate associations were observed. For example, mothers who gave birth after age 36 were twice as likely to be Escalating Risk Drinkers and Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (vs Low Probability Drinkers), but not more likely to be Early Parenting Quitters, when compared to mothers who gave birth between the ages of 26 and 35. There is significant heterogeneity in maternal longitudinal alcohol use patterns during the perinatal period. Baseline maternal characteristics and behavior associated with these heterogeneous patterns provide valuable tools to identify potential risky drinkers during this critical time period and may be synthesized to tailor pre- and postnatal clinical counseling protocols.

  13. Laboratory contamination in the early period of radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rona, E.

    1979-01-01

    Meagre records exist of the levels of contamination and human exposure encountered by those who took part in the early research on radioactive materials. In order to throw some light on the nature and extent of the problem the author presents some recollections of the conditions of the laboratories in which she worked from 1924-1940. These include the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, the Radium Institute of Vienna and the Curie Institute. The health, radiation injuries and causes of death of some early workers are discussed. Although the effects of acute exposure were recognised early on, there was less awareness of the possible effects of chronic exposure, and lack of prompt clinical signs of injury encouraged complacency. Laboratory contamination was often seen more as a problem affecting experimental results than as a health hazard. (author)

  14. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, S; Chawla, H S; Goyal, A; Gauba, K; Mohanty, U

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier calliper. After 3 years follow-up, the impressions were recorded again and dental casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured again at this stage and were compared with the baseline data using the paired t-test and the chi square test. There is a significant increase in the intercanine (3.93 + 1.70 mm) and intermolar width (1.49 + 1.77 mm) during the transition period from primary to early mixed dentition in both the arches and both the sexes. The gender-wise comparison showed a greater increase in males than in females, but this was not statistically significant. A thorough knowledge of growth changes during various stages of the mixed dentition period are important for a pediatric dentist to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment planning during preventive and interceptive orthodontics.

  15. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sangwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier calliper. After 3 years follow-up, the impressions were recorded again and dental casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured again at this stage and were compared with the baseline data using the paired t-test and the chi square test. Results: There is a significant increase in the intercanine (3.93 + 1.70 mm and intermolar width (1.49 + 1.77 mm during the transition period from primary to early mixed dentition in both the arches and both the sexes. The gender-wise comparison showed a greater increase in males than in females, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: A thorough knowledge of growth changes during various stages of the mixed dentition period are important for a pediatric dentist to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment planning during preventive and interceptive orthodontics.

  16. Temperature effects on early season cotton growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; Reddy, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental factor controlling growth and developmental rates of plants, yet little specific information is available regarding cotton (Gossypium hisutum L.) responses to temperature. Information covering a wide range of temperatures would be useful for predicting both developmental and growth rates in cotton. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in naturally lit, temperature- and CO 2 -controlled cabinets from soon after emergence until 56 d after emergence (DAE). The cabinets were maintained at 20/12, 25/17, 30/22, 35/27, and 40/32C day/night cycles. Plant heights, number of nodes, and leaf areas were determined weekly throughout the experiment, and dry weight measurements were obtained at three intervals. Mainstem elongation, leaf area growth, and biomass accumulation rates were very sensitive to temperature about 3 wk after emergence. Prior to that time, they were relatively insensitive to temperature. The temperature optimum for stem elongation, leaf area expansion, and biomass accumulation was 30/22 C. Developmental rates, as depicted by number of mainstem nodes produced, number of fruiting branches, and fruiting branch nodes, were not as sensitive to temperatures above 30/22 C as were growth rates. Four times as many fruiting branches were produced at 30/22 C as at 20/12 C; whereas more vegetative branches were produced at low temperatures. All flower buds abscised from plants grown at 40/32 C. Essentially, all bolls and squares were retained at 30/22 C while a 10% boll and square loss was observed at 35/27 C during the early reproductive period. Less time was required for this cultivar to produce squares at any temperature, suitable for growing cotton, than was suggested by previous experiments

  17. Genetic and environmental trends of early growth traits in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from the Elsenburg Dormer sheep stud were used to estimate genetic and environmental change in early growth traits from 1943 to 1990. .... The Elsenburg stud is not only the foundation Dormer stud, ... derivative-free algorithm. Genet.

  18. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  19. Periodization of the early postnatal development in the rat with particular attention to the weaning period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádalová, Ivana; Babický, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S1-S7 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat * ontogenic development * presuckling period * suckling period * weaning period Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  20. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic

  1. Serum Growth Hormone and Glucose Levels in Acute Exercise and in the Recovery Period in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Kučukalić-Selimović

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone exerts several metabolic effects, including effects on proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Among the many metabolic activities of GH, two contradictory actions were described: acute and early insulin-like activity and chronic and late anti-insulin like activity also called diabetogenic activity. A dramatic increase in plasma concentration of GH was found during endurance exercise, but its role during exercise is not well known. According to its metabolic effects a possible role of growth hormone may be in maintenance of glucose level during exercise. The aim of this study was to analyze dynamics of changes in GH and glucose levels during acute workload and in the recovery period, in a group of well trained athletes. All the subjects exercised for 30 minutes on cycle ergometer in sitting position (work intensity 50% of VO2 max, RPM 60/min. Serum GH concentrations were measured by IRMA (immunoradiometric assays method in blood samples obtained at rest and 6-min intervals during exercise, and 15-min intervals during recovery period. Serum glucose levels were determined by standard enzymatic method glucose oxidase (GOD PAP at the same intervals. There were no correlations between serum GH and glucose levels either during exercise or in the recovery period. There were no differences between glucose levels during exercise, so we can not exclude possible role of GH in glucose concentration maintenance.

  2. The early period of the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Freguglia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores the early development of the calculus of variations in continental Europe during the Eighteenth Century by illustrating the mathematics of its founders. Closely following the original papers and correspondences of Euler, Lagrange, the Bernoullis, and others, the reader is immersed in the challenge of theory building. We see what the founders were doing, the difficulties they faced, the mistakes they made, and their triumphs. The authors guide the reader through these works with instructive commentaries and complements to the original proofs, as well as offering a modern perspective where useful. The authors begin in 1697 with Johann Bernoulli’s work on the brachystochrone problem and the events leading up to it, marking the dawn of the calculus of variations. From there, they cover key advances in the theory up to the development of Lagrange’s δ-calculus, including: • The isoperimetrical problems • Shortest lines and geodesics • Euler’s Methodus Inveniendi and the two Addi...

  3. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  4. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  5. Gender differences in early-career wage growth

    OpenAIRE

    Napari, Sami

    2007-01-01

    In Finnish manufacturing, the gender wage gap more than doubles during the first ten years in the labor market. This paper studies the factors contributing to the gender gap in early-career wage growth. The analysis shows that the size of the gender gap in wage growth varies with mobility status the gap being much higher when changing employers compared to within-firm wage growth. Several explanations for the gender gap in wage growth based on human capital theory and theory of compensating w...

  6. Modulation of gene expression by nutritional state and hormones in Bombyx larvae in relation to its growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Bembem; Keshan, Bela

    2017-11-01

    Insect growth and development are mainly regulated via synchronization of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as nutrition and hormones. Previously we have demonstrated that larval growth period influences the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in the fat body of Bombyx larvae. In the present study we demonstrate that Bombyx larvae at the terminal growth period (TGP, after critical weight) had a significantly greater increase in the expression level of Akt in the fat body than at the active growth period (AGP, before critical weight). The larvae at TGP also showed an increase in the expression level of ecdysone receptors (EcRB1 and USP1) and ecdysone-induced early genes (E75A and broad). The treatment of bovine insulin and methoprene to larvae at AGP induced the transcript levels of Akt, irrespective of the nutritional status of the larvae. However, in larvae at TGP, insulin repressed the transcript level of Akt. On contrary, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression level of Akt in TGP larvae, but at feeding only. Insulin and 20E thus showed an antagonistic action on the Akt expression level in TGP larvae under feeding. The studies thus showed that larval growth period influences the expression level of Akt and ecdysone receptors in Bombyx. Further, the growth period and nutrition modulate the effect of exogenous hormones on Akt expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal agricultural youth workers' concerns on development - growth in adolescence period and utilization of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep simsek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull

  8. Carbide-forming groups IVB-VIB metals: a new territory in the periodic table for CVD growth of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiyu; Fu, Lei; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-07-09

    Early transition metals, especially groups IVB-VIB metals, can form stable carbides, which are known to exhibit excellent "noble-metal-like" catalytic activities. We demonstrate herein the applications of groups IVB-VIB metals in graphene growth using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Similar to the extensively studied Cu, Ni, and noble metals, these transition-metal foils facilitate the catalytic growth of single- to few-layer graphene. The most attractive advantage over the existing catalysts is their perfect control of layer thickness and uniformity with highly flexible experimental conditions by in situ converting the dissolved carbons into stable carbides to fully suppress the upward segregation/precipitation effect. The growth performance of graphene on these transition metals can be well explained by the periodic physicochemical properties of elements. Our work has disclosed a new territory of catalysts in the periodic table for graphene growth and is expected to trigger more interest in graphene research.

  9. Ground state solutions for asymptotically periodic Schrodinger equations with critical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the Nehari manifold and the concentration compactness principle, we study the existence of ground state solutions for asymptotically periodic Schrodinger equations with critical growth.

  10. [Pregnancy and labor associated with encephalopathy in neonates during the early neonatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrablin, S; Drazancić, A; Letica, N; Tadić, V

    1992-01-01

    Pregnancy complications, drugs and surgical interventions during pregnancy, fetal growth, medications and interventions during labor, labor complications as well as fetal heart activity during labor in a group of 114 term infants without malformations, but with signs of central nervous system (CNS) damage throughout early neonatal period are compared with paired group of term healthy infants born in the same presentation and mode of delivery. Among prelabor factors only maternal hypertension (found in 16.7% of encephalopathy children versus 0.8% in a control group) was significantly correlated with CNS damage. Fetal growth retardation and long term ritodrine administration were found more frequent in encephalopathy than in healthy group of infants, although statistical significance between the groups could not be demonstrated. A prolonged second stage of labor, high oxytocin dosage, too frequent uterine contractions and vacuum extractions were found significantly correlated with neonatal encephalopathy. CTG pattern during labor was normal in only 28.9% of children, with encepalopathy prepathologic in 46.4% and pathologic in 24.7%. The respective percentages for healthy newborns were: 82.5%, 16.25% and 1.2%. All differences between the groups were statistically significant. Mean duration of prepathologic CTG score in the group of infants with encephalopathy (78.8 minutes) as well as of pathologic score (51.7 minutes) was significantly longer than in healthy infants (23.7 minutes prepathologic and 7 minutes pathologic).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Interceptive orthopedics for the correction of maxillary transverse and sagittal deficiency in the early mixed dentition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Talapaneni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentofacial Orthopedics directed to a hypoplastic maxilla in the prepubertal period redirects growth of the maxilla in the vertical, transverse and sagittal planes of space. The orthopedic correction of maxillary hypoplasia in the early mixed dentition period thus intercepts the establishment of permanent structural asymmetry in the mandible and helps in the achievement of optimal dentofacial esthetics. This paper presents the growth redirection in a hypoplastic maxilla of an 8-year-old girl with simultaneous rapid maxillary expansion and protraction headgear therapy for a period of 11 months which corrected the posterior unilateral cross-bite, the positional asymmetry of the mandible and established an orthognathic profile in the individual.

  12. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  13. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON EARLY GROWTH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ridwan

    ABSTRACT. Drought and high temperatures are said to have triggered increased tree mortality and could be linked to the menace of climate change. This research therefore investigated the effect of drought stress on early growth of Adansonia digitata where seedlings were exposed to different watering frequencies (Once ...

  14. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  15. Early Growth Of Some Introduced Agroforestry Species In Akure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the early growth performance of potted seedlings of Grevillea robusta, Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia lebbeck, Prosopis juliflora and Acacia mearnsii . Two types of potting containers were used - the conventional black polypot (size: 10 cm x 15 cm) and the transparent \\"pure water\\' bags (size: 14 cm x 15 ...

  16. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  17. Catch-Up Growth Occurs after Diarrhea in Early Childhood123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephanie A.; Black, Robert E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Sack, R. Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6–12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12–18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18–24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of

  18. PREVENTION OF NIPPLE CRACKS OF THE MAMMARY GLAND IN THE EARLY POSTNATAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina L. Travina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservation and prolongation of the lactation period is not only a guarantee of the child's full physical and mental development but also one of the most important methods for reducing the risk of developing breast cancer. Problems with the mammary gland nipple in a woman in the early postnatal period lead to a refusal of lactation. We carried out a retrospective analysis (period from 2010 to 2016 of the causes of traumatizing mammary gland nipples in the early postnatal period in 172 women (mean age 29.1 ± 4.3 years. Methods of prevention and treatment of nipple injuries in the early postnatal period have been offered for the lactation period prolongation.

  19. Platelet-derived growth factor predicts prolonged relapse-free period in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Iezzi, Ennio; Marfia, Girolama A; Simonelli, Ilaria; Musella, Alessandra; Mandolesi, Georgia; Fresegna, Diego; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Furlan, Roberto; Finardi, Annamaria; Mataluni, Giorgia; Landi, Doriana; Gilio, Luana; Centonze, Diego; Buttari, Fabio

    2018-04-14

    In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS. In addition, immune cells may promote brain repair during the post-acute phases, by secreting different growth factors involved in neuronal and oligodendroglial cell survival. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a neurotrophic factor that could be particularly involved in clinical recovery. Indeed, PDGF promotes long-term potentiation of synaptic activity in vitro and in MS and could therefore represent a key factor improving the clinical compensation of new brain lesions. The aim of the present study is to explore whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PDGF concentrations at the time of diagnosis may influence the clinical course of RR-MS. At the time of diagnosis, we measured in 100 consecutive early MS patients the CSF concentrations of PDGF, of the main pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and of reliable markers of neuronal damage. Clinical and radiological parameters of disease activity were prospectively collected during follow-up. CSF PDGF levels were positively correlated with prolonged relapse-free survival. Radiological markers of disease activity, biochemical markers of neuronal damage, and clinical parameters of disease progression were instead not influenced by PDGF concentrations. Higher CSF PDGF levels were associated with an anti-inflammatory milieu within the central nervous system. Our results suggest that PDGF could promote a

  20. Early enrichment effects on brain development in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): no evidence for a critical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Aarestrup, Kim; Thomassen, Søren T.

    2012-01-01

    was released into nature and recaptured at smoltification. These stream-reared smolts developed smaller brains than the hatchery reared smolts, irrespective of initial enrichment treatment. These novel findings do not support the hypothesis that there is a critical early period determining the brain growth...... trajectory. In contrast, our results indicate that brain growth is plastic in relation to environment. In addition, we show allometric growth in brain substructures over juvenile development, which suggests that comparisons between groups of different body size should be made with caution. These results can......In hatcheries, fish are normally reared in barren environments, which have been reported to affect their phenotypic development compared with wild conspecifics. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins were reared in conventional barren hatchery trays or in either of two types...

  1. Periodic matrix population models: growth rate, basic reproduction number, and entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaër, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This article considers three different aspects of periodic matrix population models. First, a formula for the sensitivity analysis of the growth rate lambda is obtained that is simpler than the one obtained by Caswell and Trevisan. Secondly, the formula for the basic reproduction number R0 in a constant environment is generalized to the case of a periodic environment. Some inequalities between lambda and R0 proved by Cushing and Zhou are also generalized to the periodic case. Finally, we add some remarks on Demetrius' notion of evolutionary entropy H and its relationship to the growth rate lambda in the periodic case.

  2. Early growth and chronic disease: a public health overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Infant and childhood growth result from and reflect a range of influences in pre- and postnatal life. These include nutrition, burden of infection and the psycho-social environment. Nutrition in young children is dependent on individual level factors such as fetal experience, infant feeding and weaning practices, and on societal factors such as education of women and economic conditions. The relationship of early postnatal growth to adult disease may be indicative or causal, and may reveal both biological and sociological processes. Although non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, the relationships of these three conditions to infant growth differ. Poor infant growth has been associated with higher levels of NIDDM and ischaemic heart disease, but lower levels of adult obesity. Most research has been of populations living in developed countries at different stages of nutritional transition. However, differences in context are not simply limited to the stage of the nutritional transition. They also need to consider the nature of that transition and its social correlates, which may result in the clustering of aetiological influences such as increased body mass and poverty. The size of effect of the relationship of infant growth to adult disease is important not only to determine its relative aetiological importance but also for its potential for public health policy. Such policy also needs to consider the relationships of infant growth to a range of outcomes, both health and human capital, which are not the subject of this workshop.

  3. Labour productivity and economic growth in the EU in post-crisis period

    OpenAIRE

    Auzina-Emsina, Astra

    2014-01-01

    Labour productivity and economic growth are the major factors to sustain and improve the performance and competitiveness of countries. The paper is devoted to the analysis of recent trends of labour productivity and economic growth in the European Union (EU) countries in post-crisis period in comparison with the trends in pre-crisis and crisis periods. The paper analyses the impact of changes in labour productivity and the effect on the macroeconomic indicators. The research focuses on the Eu...

  4. Food, growth and time: Elsie Widdowson's and Robert McCance's research into prenatal and early postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2014-09-01

    Cambridge scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson are best known for their work on the British food tables and wartime food rations, but it is their research on prenatal and early postnatal growth that is today seen as a foundation of the fields studying the impact of environment upon prenatal development and, consequently, adult disease. In this essay I situate McCance's and Widdowson's 1940s human and 1950s experimental studies in the context of pre-war concerns with fetal growth and development, especially within biochemistry, physiology and agriculture; and the Second World War and post-war focus on the effects of undernutrition during pregnancy upon the fetus. I relate Widdowson's and McCance's research on the long-term effects of early undernutrition to the concern with recovery from early trauma so pertinent in post-war Europe and with sensitive (critical) periods, a concept of high importance across different fields. Finally I discuss how, following a hiatus in which fetal physiology engaged with different questions and stressed fetal autonomy, interest in the impact of environment upon prenatal growth and development revived towards the end of the twentieth century. The new field of "developmental origins of health and disease", I suggest, has provided a context in which Widdowson's and McCance's work has regained importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  6. Sea Surface Temperatures in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool During the Early Pliocene Warm Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, P. S.; Ravelo, A. C.; Griffith, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) plays an important role in both regional and global climate, but the response of this region to anthropogenic climate change is not well understood. While the early Pliocene is not a perfect analogue for anthropogenic climate change, it is the most recent time in Earth history when global temperatures were warmer than they are today for a sustained period of time. SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific was 2-4○C warmer in the early Pliocene compared to today. A Mg/Ca SST at ODP site 806 in the western equatorial Pacific indicates that SST were stable through the last 5Ma (Wara et al., 2005). We generated a G. sacculifer Mg/Ca record in the Indian Ocean (ODP sit 758) for the last 5 Ma, which also shows that IPWP SST has remained relatively stable through the last 5 Ma and was not warmer in the early Pliocene compared today. A recent paper suggests that the Mg/Ca of seawater may have varied through the last 5 Ma and significantly affected Mg/Ca SST estimates (Medina-Elizalde et al., 2008). However, there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of seawater Mg/Ca variations through time. We will present a detailed examination of these uncertainties to examine the possible range of seawater Mg/Ca through the last 5 Ma. Due to the lack of culturing work of foraminifera at different Mg/Ca ratios in the growth water there is also uncertainty in how changes in seawater Mg/Ca will affect the temperatures signal in the proxy. We will explore how uncertainties in the record of seawater Mg/Ca variations through time and its effect on the Mg/Ca SST proxy potentially influence the interpretation of the Mg/Ca SST records at ODP sites 806 and 758 in the IPWP, and ODP site 847 in the eastern equatorial Pacific. We will also explore how adjustment of the Mg/Ca SST estimates (due to reconstructed Mg/Ca seawater variations) affects the δ18O of water when adjusted Mg/Ca SST estimates are paired with δ18O measurements of the same samples.

  7. Flooding tolerance in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) at early vegetative and reproductive growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic flooding at any growth stage greatly affects growth and yield of crops. In order to develop flooding tolerant cotton cultivar and to identify the most sensitive growth stage to periodic flooding, a field experiment was conducted in which 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were subjected to two week flooding at seedling/early vegetative, flower and boll formation growth stages. Pre- and post-flooding soil analysis was also carried out. Nitrate-N was greatly reduced due to flooding applied at all growth stages, whereas NH4-N increased significantly. Similarly, Fe and Mn were also increased to many folds in flooded soils. Under hypoxic conditions, depletion of nitrates and toxic effects of accumulated NH4, Fe and Mn caused severe damages to cotton plants and even death of plants. Of the three growth stages, early vegetative growth stage is most sensitive to two week flooding. Flooding imposed at the flowering and boll formation growth stages caused a substantial amount of yield penalty. On the basis of survival percentage, the 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were categorized into tolerant (61%), moderately tolerant (31=60%) and sensitive (31%) to short term flooding. At the seedling or early vegetative growth stage, genotypes DPL-SR-2 followed by 124-F and MNH-427 were most tolerant to flooding, while AET-5, N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were ranked as sensitive to flooding stress. At the flowering stage, the genotype NIAB-92 followed by S-14 and MNH-427 were highly tolerant to flooding. At the boll formation stage, genotypes DPL-70010-N followed by GH-11-9-75 and B-2918-2 were highly tolerant waterlogging. More than 50% of the genotypes maintained the degree of flooding tolerance at three growth stages. However, on the basis of survival percentage at three growth stages, genotypes MNH-564, FH-114, MNH-786 and CIM-573 were included in the tolerant group and the genotypes N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were included in the sensitive group. These

  8. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Reed

    Full Text Available Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  9. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Brien

    Full Text Available Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days. Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d, was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d, with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245, mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7 that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5 that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species.

  10. Early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni

    2018-01-01

    and body composition as outcome measures in countries where obesity and related diseases in later life is a large public health problem. For this short review, we have included 10 publications on the topic of early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition, and later obesity. We think these 10......Adequate nutrition in the first 2 years of life is essential for both short- and long-term health. Malnutrition in the early years of life increases the risk of later chronic diseases. There is a wealth of studies available within this area of research, and this chapter specifically looks at growth...... included publications, published during the period of July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017, are of special interest and all present findings can shape future research on this topic. We have chosen to focus on 3 key areas in this review; (i) human milk composition, including studies on breast milk minerals...

  11. Intestinal Obstruction in Early Neonatal Period: A 3-Year Review Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Failure to pass meconium by a full-term neonate within the first 24 hours should raise a suspicion of bowel obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine pattern of presentation, diagnosis and outcome of management of intestinal obstruction in the early neonatal period in the Neonatal Care Unit ...

  12. Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Hatfield, B.B.; Ralls, K.; Ames, J.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated mortality appears to be the main reason for both sluggish growth and periods of decline in the threatened California sea otter population. We assessed causes of mortality from salvage records of 3,105 beach-cast carcasses recovered from 1968 through 1999, contrasting two periods of growth with two periods of decline. Overall, an estimated 40%-60% of the deaths were not recovered and 70% of the recovered carcasses died from unknown causes. Nonetheless, several common patterns were evident in the salvage records during the periods of population decline. These included greater percentages of (1) prime age animals (3-10 yr), (2) carcasses killed by great white shark attacks, (3) carcasses recovered in spring and summer, and (4) carcasses for which the cause of death was unknown. Neither sex composition nor the proportion of carcasses dying of infectious disease varied consistently between periods of population increase and decline. The population decline from 1976 to 1984 was likely due to incidental mortality in a set-net fishery, and the decline from 1995 to 1999 may be related to a developing live-fish fishery. Long-term trends unrelated to periods of growth and decline included a decrease in per capita pup production and mass/length ratios of adult carcasses over the 31-yr study. The generally high proportion of deaths from infectious disease suggests that this factor has contributed to the chronically sluggish growth rate of the California sea otter population.

  13. Bifurcations of a periodically forced microbial continuous culture model with restrained growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingli; Yuan, Qigang

    2017-08-01

    A three dimensional microbial continuous culture model with a restrained microbial growth rate is studied in this paper. Two types of dilution rates are considered to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the model. For the unforced system, fold bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are detected, and numerical simulations reveal that the system undergoes degenerate Hopf bifurcation. When the system is periodically forced, bifurcation diagrams for periodic solutions of period-one and period-two are given by researching the Poincaré map, corresponding to different bifurcation cases in the unforced system. Stable and unstable quasiperiodic solutions are obtained by Neimark-Sacker bifurcation with different parameter values. Periodic solutions of various periods can occur or disappear and even change their stability, when the Poincaré map of the forced system undergoes Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, flip bifurcation, and fold bifurcation. Chaotic attractors generated by a cascade of period doublings and some phase portraits are given at last.

  14. Does the Length of Fielding Period Matter? Examining Response Scores of Early Versus Late Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigman Richard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the potential effects of a shortened fielding period on an employee survey’s item and index scores and respondent demographics. Using data from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s 2011 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey, we investigate whether early responding employees differ from later responding employees. Specifically, we examine differences in item and index scores related to employee engagement and global satisfaction. Our findings show that early responders tend to be less positive, even after adjusting their weights for nonresponse. Agencies vary in their prevalence of late responders, and score differences become magnified as this proportion increases. We also examine the extent to which early versus late responders differ on demographic characteristics such as grade level, supervisory status, gender, tenure with agency, and intention to leave, noting that nonminorities and females are the two demographic characteristics most associated with responding early.

  15. Early childhood neurodevelopment after intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Terri A; Grunau, Ruth E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Pinnamaneni, RagaMallika; Foran, Adrienne; Alderdice, Fiona A

    2015-01-01

    Children who experienced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes in early childhood. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes from 6 months to 3 years after IUGR. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and CINAHL databases were searched by using the search terms intrauterine, fetal, growth restriction, child development, neurodevelopment, early childhood, cognitive, motor, speech, language. Studies were eligible for inclusion if participants met specified criteria for growth restriction, follow-up was conducted within 6 months to 3 years, methods were adequately described, non-IUGR comparison groups were included, and full English text of the article was available. A specifically designed data extraction form was used. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using well-documented quality-appraisal guidelines. Of 731 studies reviewed, 16 were included. Poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes after IUGR were described in 11. Ten found motor, 8 cognitive, and 7 language delays. Other delays included social development, attention, and adaptive behavior. Only 8 included abnormal Doppler parameters in their definitions of IUGR. Evidence suggests that children are at risk for poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes following IUGR from 6 months to 3 years of age. The heterogeneity of primary outcomes, assessment measures, adjustment for confounding variables, and definitions of IUGR limits synthesis and interpretation. Sample sizes in most studies were small, and some examined preterm IUGR children without including term IUGR or AGA comparison groups, limiting the value of extant studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Changes in food processing and occlusal dental wear during the early agricultural period in northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James T

    2008-01-01

    Crown dimensions and occlusal surface wear rate and wear plane were evaluated using paired first and second mandibular molars from a sample of 84 Early Agricultural period (1600 B.C.-A.D. 200) skeletons from northwest Mexico. Although this period represents a major shift in subsistence strategies in the Sonoran Desert, from food-foraging to agriculture, archaeological and dental pathology studies have identified this period as one of relative dietary stability. It was therefore predicted that very little variation in occlusal wear would have occurred between the early phase (San Pedro: 1600-800 B.C.) and late phase (Cienega: 800 B.C.-A.D. 200). Comparison of crown diameters identified some phenotypic differences between sexes but not between archaeological phases. Molar occlusal surfaces were then divided into four quadrants, and wear scores recorded for each quadrant. Principle axis analysis was performed between total wear scores of paired, adjacent first and second mandibular molars to assess rate and occlusal wear plane over time. The analysis demonstrated that both wear rate and wear plane increased from the early to the late phase of the Early Agricultural period. These results indicate that although diet may have indeed remained stable during this period in the Sonoran Desert increases in the rate of wear and wear plane may reflect changes in food-processing techniques. It is suggested that more intensive processing of agricultural products during the Cienega phase simultaneously softened the diet to create more tooth-contact wear and introduced more grit to cause faster and more angled wear on the molar occlusal surfaces. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Early Outcomes of Endoscopic Vein Harvesting during the Initial Learning Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Yeon Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH method has been used in coronary artery bypass surgery in many countries. We started using the EVH method recently, and investigated the results during the early learning period. Methods: Between March 2012 and June 2014, 75 patients (31 patients in the EVH method group, and 44 patients in the open method group who underwent isolated first-time coronary artery bypass grafting using vein grafts were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the early outcomes including graft patency and risk factors for leg wound complications. For assessing the patency of vein graft, we performed coronary computed tomography angiography during the immediate postoperative period and 6 months later. Results: Mean harvesting time of endoscopic method was about 15 minutes. Patency rate during the immediate operative period and the 6-month patency rate were similar between the two groups (postoperative period: EVH 100% vs. open method 94.4%, p=0.493; at 6 months: EVH 93.3% vs. open method 90.9%, p=0.791. Leg wound complications occurred more frequently in the open method group (EVH 3.2% vs. open method 13.6%, p=0.127. According to the analysis, age was an independent risk factor for leg wound complications. Conclusion: EVH is a feasible method even for beginners and can be performed satisfactorily during their learning period.

  18. Statistical fluctuation phenomenon of early growth fission chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chun; Song Lingli

    2008-01-01

    The early growth of neutron population within a supercritical system of fissile material is of a statistical nature and may depart significantly from the average time dependence neutron population. The probability of a source neutron sponsoring a persistent fission chain was considered for a supercritical system. Then the probability distribution in time of the neutron population reaching a preset level was deduced based on the probability P(n,t) of n neutron at time t. By combing the above two probabilities, the probability that at time t after the system reached critical there were no neutron in the system was derived. The P(t) of Godiva neutron excursion at supercritical, and the pre-burst probability of BARS were calculated by this model, and were found agree with the experiment result. (authors)

  19. Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Dissection of Growth Period Traits in Soybean (Glycine max Using Association Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxiong Liu

    Full Text Available The growth period traits are important traits that affect soybean yield. The insights into the genetic basis of growth period traits can provide theoretical basis for cultivated area division, rational distribution, and molecular breeding for soybean varieties. In this study, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS was exploited to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL for number of days to flowering (ETF, number of days from flowering to maturity (FTM, and number of days to maturity (ETM using 4032 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers with 146 cultivars mainly from Northeast China. Results showed that abundant phenotypic variation was presented in the population, and variation explained by genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction were all significant for each trait. The whole accessions could be clearly clustered into two subpopulations based on their genetic relatedness, and accessions in the same group were almost from the same province. GWAS based on the unified mixed model identified 19 significant SNPs distributed on 11 soybean chromosomes, 12 of which can be consistently detected in both planting densities, and 5 of which were pleotropic QTL. Of 19 SNPs, 7 SNPs located in or close to the previously reported QTL or genes controlling growth period traits. The QTL identified with high resolution in this study will enrich our genomic understanding of growth period traits and could then be explored as genetic markers to be used in genomic applications in soybean breeding.

  20. Growth and physiological response of tomato plants to different periods of nitrogen starvation and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, V.; Amor, del F.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Young, vegetative-state tomato plants, starved of N for 1, 3 or 7 d, followed, in each case, by a 7-d recovery period with nutrient solution containing N, were examined. Relative growth rate (RGR), leaf photosynthesis and leaf expansion were reduced after only 1 d of N starvation.Tissue N

  1. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity....... Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during...... the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems...

  2. Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm and Coarctation of Aorta in a Woman at Early Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Sener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of aorta and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm are frequently missed congenital cardiac defects that their diagnosis might be delayed. To our knowledge, coincidence of these cardiac defects is unusual and has not been reported in the literature before. Here, we present a patient with coarctation of aorta and ruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm leading to aorto-right atrial fistula in the early postpartum period and our management of this unusual case.

  3. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangwan; H S Chawla; A Goyal; K Gauba; U Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier ...

  4. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kansuda Leelahapongsathon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM. Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1, during the dry period (P2, and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3, using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows.

  5. Chronology of the early period of the Ananyino cultural and historical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzminykh Sergei V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the chronology of the early period in the Ananyino cultural and historical area development are discussed in the article. The chronology is based upon the objects imported from the Black Sea region, Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia and their Ananyino replicas or imitations. Radiocarbon dates have also been taken into account. The period under consideration is divided into two stages (I-1 and I-2. They are characterized by differing technological facilities that had determined the appearance of a differing set of material culture objects. The first stage, the transition from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, is dated within the 9th to mid-8th century BC. The second phase (mid-8th to first quarter/first half of the 7th century BC is associated with the spread of Caucasian imports in the Volga-Kama area and mostly in the post-Maklasheevka culture sites. On the basis of these imports it is possible to claim that the Ananyino area was included into the international trade and exchange system of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia. Monuments of the early period of the Ananyino cultural and historical area are primarily synchronized with the pre-Scythian funeral monuments of the steppe zone of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.

  6. The effects of early time laser drive on hydrodynamic instability growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Suter, L. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Masse, L. P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15

    Defects on inertial confinement fusion capsule surfaces can seed hydrodynamic instability growth and adversely affect capsule performance. The dynamics of shocks launched during the early period of x-ray driven National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions determine whether perturbations will grow inward or outward at peak implosion velocity and final compression. In particular, the strength of the first shock, launched at the beginning of the laser pulse, plays an important role in determining Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) oscillations on the ablation front. These surface oscillations can couple to the capsule interior through subsequent shocks before experiencing Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. We compare radiation hydrodynamic simulations of NIF implosions to analytic theories of the ablative RM and RT instabilities to illustrate how early time laser strength can alter peak velocity growth. We develop a model that couples the RM and RT implosion phases and captures key features of full simulations. We also show how three key parameters can control the modal demarcation between outward and inward growth.

  7. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Eagderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of reared Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, were studied from hatching to 50 days post-hatching (dph. The larvae were sampled, their left sides photographed and seven morphometric characters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, snout length, caudal peduncle and predorsal length were measured. Allometric growth patterns were calculated as a power function of total length and described using the growth coefficient to find important steps in early life history. The total length of the newly hatched larvae and fry were 10.59±0.8 and 38.8±2.9 mm at 1 and 50 dph, respectively. Morphogenesis and differentiation were the highest rates during the first 11 days of early development, i.e. endogenous feeding period. There were higher growth rate of head, snout and tail regions compared with those of other organs from the hatch up to yolk sac absorption, followed by positive or almost isometric patterns, after the begin of exogenous feeding, showing priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities. This study confirmed that most of morphological changes of this species are occurred from hatching until the onset of exogenous feeding i.e. during the lecithotrophic phase.

  8. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  9. Investigation of Maternal-Infant Attachment In The Early Postpartum Period With Evidence Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Gulesen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthy attachment is a key concept in creating a positive environment for the development of the infant after birth. The earlier and the healthier the mother creates a communication and interaction with her baby, a stronger maternal-infant attachment will be developed. The time period immediately after birth is the most convenient time for the initiation of positive mother-infant relationship as it is the most intense period of attachment. The aim of this article was to define mother-infant attachment and to examine the evidence-based practices for midwives and nurses who play a role in the development of this attachment in the early postpartum period. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 177-182

  10. Early Period of Modern Architecture in Turkey - A Case Study of Eskisehir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasozen, Rana

    2017-10-01

    Modern architecture in the Western World bore fruit at the beginning of the 20th Century in consequence of the process of modernity and seeking of the proper architecture for it. It was formed firstly towards the end of the 1920s. The main reason of this nonsynchronous development was the inadequacy of enlightenment and industrial revolution during the Ottoman Empire and the lack of formation of an intellectual infrastructure which provides the basis of modernity. However, the Ottoman Westernization occurring in the 19th century constituted the foundations of the Republic modernity founded in 1923. The earliest modern architectural designs in Turkey were first practised by European architects after the foundation of the Republic and internalised and practised extensively by the native architects afterwards. The early modern architecture of Turkey, named as “1930s Modernism”, continued until the beginning of the World War II. This period was formed in between the periods of first and second nationalist architecture movements. The early modern architecture period of Turkey was a period which high-quality designs were made. It was practised and internalised not only in big cities such as Ankara and in Istanbul, but also in the medium and small cities of the country. This situation was not just about a formal exception but about the internalisation of modernity by the society. Eskisehir is one of the most important pioneering cities of the Republic period in terms of industrial and educational developments. The earliest modern buildings were built as the public buildings by the state and non-citizen architects in the inadequate conditions of the country in terms of economy and professional people. The earliest modern houses of the city designed by these architects were the prototypes for the later practices which offered the citizens a new lifestyle. The modern houses were the symbols of prestige and status for the owners and the dwellers. The features of early

  11. Tax Rates, Tax Evasion, and Growth in a Multi-period Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Caballé; Judith Panadés

    2007-01-01

    We extend the basic tax evasion model to a multi-period economy exhibiting sustained growth. When individuals conceal part of their true income from the tax authority, they face the risk of being audited and hence of paying the corresponding fine. Both taxes and fines determine individual saving and the rate of capital accumulation. We show that, if the penalty imposed on tax evaders is proportional to the amount of evaded taxes, then the growth rate is decreasing in the tax rate. However, th...

  12. Characterization of Pinus pinaster seedling growth in different photo- and thermoperiods in a phytotron as a basis for early selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, A.; Kremer, A. [INRA, Laboratory of Forest Trees Genetics and Breeding, Cestas (France); Dormling, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1995-07-01

    Seedlings of Pinus pinaster families exhibiting monocyclic or polycyclic adult growth patterns, were cultivated in climate chambers during two successive growth periods separated by a period of low temperature to satisfy the chilling requirement. Six treatments combining photoperiod and temperature factors were tested. The morphology of the apex was assessed and height and biomass measured. First season seedlings grown in continuous light varied in apex morphology from the typical juvenile rosette to the adult bud usually found outdoors on 2-yr-old plants. It seems possible to distinguish monocyclic and polycyclic populations at an early stage by characters related to development and growth height. The results indicate that special environmental conditions during seedling development may be used as a tool in the search for criteria for early selection. 35 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Urine Biochemistry in the Early Postoperative Period after Cardiac Surgery: Role in Acute Kidney Injury Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Toledo Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently suggested that sequential urine electrolyte measurement in critically ill patients may be useful in monitoring kidney function. Cardiac surgery is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU. In this paper, we describe the sequential behavior of urine electrolytes in three patients in the early (first 60 hours postoperative period after cardiac surgery according to AKI status: no AKI, transient AKI, and persistent AKI. We have found that the patient with no AKI had stable and high concentrations of sodium (NaU and chloride (ClU in sequential spot samples of urine. AKI development was characterized in the other two patients by decreases in NaU and ClU, which have started early after ICU admission. Transient AKI was marked by also transient and less severe decreases in NaU and ClU. Persistent AKI was marked by the less favorable clinical course with abrupt and prolonged declines in NaU and ClU values. These electrolytes in urine had a behavior like a “mirror image” in comparison with that of serum creatinine. We suggest that sequential urine electrolytes are useful in monitoring acute kidney injury development in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery.

  14. Prediction of leakage current of non-ceramic insulators in early aging period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hag, Ayman H. [Electrical Engineering Department, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Jahromi, Ali Naderian [Kinectrics Inc., Transmission and Distribution Technologies, Toronto (Canada); Sanaye-Pasand, Majid [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Tehran (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    The paper presents a neural network based prediction technique for the leakage current (LC) of non-ceramic insulators during salt-fog test. Nearly 50 distribution class silicone rubber (SIR) insulators with three different voltage classes have been tested in a salt-fog chamber, where the LC has been continuously recorded for at least 100 h. A boundary for early aging period is defined by the rate of change of the LC instead of a fixed threshold value. Consequently, the Gaussian radial basis network has been adopted to predict the level of LC at the early stage of aging of the SIR insulators and is compared with a classical network. The initial values of LC and its rate of change at 10 min intervals for the first 5 h are selected as the input to the network, and the final value of LC of the early aging period is considered as the output of the network. It is found that Gaussian radial basis function network with a random optimizing training method is an appropriate network to predict the LC with a 3.5-5.3% accuracy, if the training data and the testing data are selected from the same type of SIR insulators. (author)

  15. Early growth and development impairments in patients with ganglioside GM3 synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, A; Wang, D; Bright, A; Sency, V; Zhou, A; Xin, B

    2016-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GSD) causes a complete absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The individuals affected by this disorder manifest severe irritability, intractable seizures and profound intellectual disability. However, we have found that most newborns seem symptom-free for a period of time after birth. In order to further understand the onset of the disease, we investigated the early growth and development of patients with this condition through this study. We compared 37 affected individuals with their normal siblings and revealed that all children with GSD had relatively normal intrauterine growth and development, as their weight, length and head circumference were similar to their normal siblings at birth. However, the disease progresses quickly after birth and causes significant constitutional impairments of growth and development by 6 months of age. Neither breastfeeding nor gastrostomy tube placement made significant difference on growth and development as all groups of patients showed the similar pattern. We conclude that GSD causes significant postnatal growth and developmental impairments and the amount of gangliosides in breast milk and general nutritional intervention do not seem to alter these outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [An unexpected stage of alkalosis in the dynamics of the early posthemorrhagic period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, A V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made on acid-base metabolism in early posthemorrhagic period as exemplified by examination of patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It has been ascertained that hemorrhage is accompanied by a mixed variant of the acid-base state (ABS) deviation, namely metabolic lactate-acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. In the time-related course of posthemorrhagic period such deviations persist in patients with lethal outcome; with the disease running a favourable course the above deviations are found to return to normal quite soon. The development of complications leads to staging in ABC, its stages being as follows: stage I--the initial stage, stage II--persisting metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, stage III--alkalosis, stage IV--normalization, with stage III of ABS being encouraged by hypocapnia caused by function disorders of the lungs in early posthemorrhagic period, normalization of cell metabolism, increase in the rate of urination as a reflection of the third earlier identified stage of water metabolism, with the H+ excretion in the urine at the previous level. The identified ABS stage III threatens coming trouble, being accompanied by metabolic deviations together with a risk of function disorder of the myocardium.

  17. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  18. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  19. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihe Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  20. Early Seizures Prematurely Unsilence Auditory Synapses to Disrupt Thalamocortical Critical Period Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heightened neural excitability in infancy and childhood results in increased susceptibility to seizures. Such early-life seizures are associated with language deficits and autism that can result from aberrant development of the auditory cortex. Here, we show that early-life seizures disrupt a critical period (CP for tonotopic map plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1. We show that this CP is characterized by a prevalence of “silent,” NMDA-receptor (NMDAR-only, glutamate receptor synapses in auditory cortex that become “unsilenced” due to activity-dependent AMPA receptor (AMPAR insertion. Induction of seizures prior to this CP occludes tonotopic map plasticity by prematurely unsilencing NMDAR-only synapses. Further, brief treatment with the AMPAR antagonist NBQX following seizures, prior to the CP, prevents synapse unsilencing and permits subsequent A1 plasticity. These findings reveal that early-life seizures modify CP regulators and suggest that therapeutic targets for early post-seizure treatment can rescue CP plasticity.

  1. Early and late hot extremes, and elongation of the warm period over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founda, Dimitra; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Pierros, Fragiskos

    2017-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean has been assigned as one of the most responsive areas in climate change, mainly with respect to the occurrence of warmer and drier conditions. In Greece in particular, observations suggest prominent increases in the summer air temperature which in some areas amount to approximately 1 0C/decade since the mid 1970s, while Regional Climate Models simulate further increases in the near and distant future. These changes are coupled with simultaneous increase in the occurrence of hot extremes. In addition to changes in the frequency and intensity of hot extrems, timing of occurrence is also of special interest. Early heat waves in particular, have been found to increase thermal risk in humans. The study explores variations and trends in timing, namely the date of first and last occurrence of hot extremes within the year, and subsequently the hot extremes period (season), defined as the time interval (number of days) between first and last hot extremes occurrence, over Greece. A case study for the area of Athens covering a longer than 100-years period (1897-2015) was conducted first, which will be extended to other Greek areas. Several heat related climatic indices were used, based either on predefined temperature thresholds such as 'tropical days' (daily maximum air temperature, Tmax >30 0C), 'tropical nights' (daily minimum air temperature, Tmin >20 0C), 'hot days' (Tmax >35 0C), or on local climate statistics such as days with Tmax (or Tmin) > 95th percentile. The analysis revealed significant changes in the period of hot extremes and specifically elongation of the period, attributed to early rather than late hot extremes occurrence. An earlier shift of the first tropical day and the first tropical night occurrence by approximately 2 days/decade was found over the study period. An overall elongation of the 'hot days' season by 2.6 days/decade was also observed, which is more prominent since the early 1980s. Over the last three decades, earlier

  2. Radiodiagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux in the early postoperative period after adenomectomy of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gytlan, I.D.; Shekhter, A.I.; Vinarov, A.Z.; Uskov, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Altogether 204 patients aged 43 to 81 were examined in the early postoperative period after adenomectomy of the prostate. Passive VUR was detected by means of routine cystography, X-ray TV cystography, direct radionuclide cystography and ultrasonic investigation. The presence of VUR in ultrasonic investigation was established by the signs of dilatation of renal pelves and calycles in filling in of the bladder with antiseptic solution. Ultrasonic investigation made it possible to diagnose VUR of 3-4 degree. Active VUR was detected by miction cystography and X-ray TV miction cystography on the day of removal of drainage tubes from the bladder. Unlike the radionuclide and ultrasonic methods, these two methods made it possible to assess the state of the bladder cervix and urethra. The authors proposed an optimum sequence of the use of diagnostic methods for early detection of VUR and prevention of severe complications

  3. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Pattern transition between periodic Liesegang pattern and crystal growth regime in reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzi, István; Ueyama, Daishin

    2009-01-01

    The pattern transition between periodic precipitation pattern formation (Liesegang phenomenon) and pure crystal growth regimes is investigated in silver nitrate and potassium dichromate system in mixed agarose-gelatin gel. Morphologically different patterns were found depending on the quality of the gel, and transition between these typical patterns can be controlled by the concentration of gelatin in mixed gel. Effect of temperature and hydrodynamic force on precipitation pattern structure was also investigated.

  5. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early postpartum period subsequently conceived twin fetuses. It can be speculated that the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period partly contributes to the increased incidence of undesirable twin births in multiparous dairy cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE GROWTH RATE OF MAIZE PRODUCTION IN THE PRE - SAP, SAP AND POST - SAP PERIODS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyinbo Oyakhilomen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to provide empirical evidence on the growth rates of maize production in three sub - periods in Nigeria namely pre - Structural Adjustment Programme period, Structural Adjustment Program period and post - Structural Adjustment Programme period. Secondary data on maize production in Nigeria during the Pre - Structural Adjustment Programme period (1970 to 1985, Structural Adjustment period (1986 to 1994 and post - Structural Adjustment Programme period (1995 to 2007 were employed in this study. A growth rate model was used to estimate the growth rates of maize in the three sub - periods. The results of the analysis showed that the instantaneous growth rates of maize production are - 0.1%, 5.7% and 2.4% and the compound rates of growth of maize production are - 0.001%, 0.059% and 0.024% for the pre - Structural Adjustment Programme, Structural Adjustment Programme and post - Structural Adjustment Programme periods respectively. The higher compound growth rate of maize production in the Structural Adjustment Programme period implies that the policy reforms in the period was more effective in ensuring increased growth of maize production over that of other periods in Nigeria. Therefore, despite the myriads of problems associated with the programme in Nigeria, it was beneficial to maize production in Nigeria.

  7. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  8. Endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period after major colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeloef, S; Larsen, M H H; Schou-Pedersen, A M V

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period promotes myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of colon cancer surgery on endothelial function and the association with the l-arginine-nitric oxide...... was attenuated in the first days after colon cancer surgery indicating acute endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction correlated with disturbances in the L-arginine - nitric oxide pathway. Our findings provide a rationale for investigating the hypothesized association between acute endothelial...... dysfunction and cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02344771....

  9. Endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period after major colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeløf, Sara; Larsen, Mikkel Hjordt; Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt

    2017-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period promotes myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of colon cancer surgery on endothelial function and the association with the l-arginine-nitric oxide...... was attenuated in the first days after colon cancer surgery indicating acute endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction correlated with disturbances in the L-arginine – nitric oxide pathway. Our findings provide a rationale for investigating the hypothesized association between acute endothelial...... dysfunction and cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery. Clinical trial registration. NCT02344771....

  10. The Conservation of Early Post-Medieval Period Coins Found in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aive Viljus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with archaeological find material with a low silver content and the problems of conserving such material. The aim of the research was to find the most suitable method for the conservation of poorly preserved early post-medieval period coins with varying composition. For this, first, the composition of both the metal and the corrosion products of the archaeological coins were analysed, after which comparative experiments of different cleaning methods were carried out in order to find out the least harmful and most efficient method. A test was also performed to determine the necessity and efficiency of stabilizing the surface of the coins after cleaning.

  11. The public health challenge of early growth failure in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M F; Martorell, R

    2013-05-01

    Recent recognition of the early onset and high prevalence of wasting (30%) and stunting (20%) among infants 0-5 months in India draws attention to the need to understand the causes and develop prevention strategies. Such growth failure has dire consequences in the short (increased mortality) and long-term (loss of human capital and increased risk of chronic diseases). Food interventions before 6 months will increase morbidity/mortality through contamination in settings of poor sanitation and hygiene. Waiting to improve nutrition only after the initiation of complementary feeding at 6 months is a missed opportunity and may permanently alter life trajectory and potential. This underscores the importance of maternal nutrition. Iron and folic acid and protein energy supplementation during pregnancy are interventions that can improve maternal nutrition and birth outcomes. Maternal supplementation during lactation should be considered as a means to improve maternal and child outcomes, although the evidence needs strengthening. Support and counseling are also required to improve maternal diets and promote exclusive breastfeeding. Programs focused on improving maternal nutrition across the continuum of preconception, pregnancy and lactation are likely to have the greatest impact as mothers are central gatekeepers to the health and future of their children.

  12. Growth problems of stellar black holes in early galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, M. C.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.

    2018-06-01

    The nature of the seeds of the observed high-z super-massive black holes (SMBH) is unknown. Although different options have been proposed, involving e.g. intermediate mass direct collapse black holes, BH remnants of massive stars remain the most natural explanation. To identify the most favorable conditions (if any) for their rapid growth, we study the accretion rate of a M• = 100M⊙ BH formed in a typical z = 10 galaxy under different conditions (e.g. galaxy structure, BH initial position and velocity). We model the galaxy baryonic content and follow the BH orbit and accretion history for 300 Myr (the time span in 10 > z > 7), assuming the radiation-regulated accretion model by Park & Ricotti (2013). We find that, within the limits of our model, BH seeds cannot grow by more than 30%, suggesting that accretion on light-seed models are inadequate to explain high-z SMBH. We also compute the X-ray emission from such accreting stellar BH population in the [0.5 - 8] keV band and find it comparable to the one produced by high-mass X-ray binaries. This study suggests that early BHs, by X-ray pre-heating of the intergalactic medium at cosmic dawn, might leave a specific signature on the HI 21 cm line power spectrum potentially detectable with SKA.

  13. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  14. Vanuatu mortuary practices over three millenia : Lapita to early European contact period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, F.; Spriggs, M.; Bedford, S.; Buckley, H.

    2011-01-01

    New discoveries and previously-unpublished data on burials from south, central, and north Vanuatu are reviewed in this paper, offering a synthesis of mortuary practices over three millennia, from Lapita to the early European contact period. Relying on five attributes describing the practices and behaviours (body and bone treatment, position and orientation of the body, ornaments and associated artefacts, and use of single or multiple burial), the analysis emphasizes two major episodes of structural changes in the overall funerary system following initial settlement of Vanuatu. The first occurred towards the end of the Lapita period and the second is indicated by the distinctiveness of the second millennium AD burials. A possible interpretation of these changes, following the lines of Thomas's 'genealogical approach' (2001) is proposed. (author). 70 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Early Environmental Enrichment Enhances Abnormal Brain Connectivity in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Brito, Verónica; Pla, Laura; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Batallé, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Crispi, Fatima; Udina, Esther; Figueras, Francesc; Ginés, Silvia; Gratacós, Eduard

    2017-10-12

    The structural correspondence of neurodevelopmental impairments related to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that persists later in life remains elusive. Moreover, early postnatal stimulation strategies have been proposed to mitigate these effects. Long-term brain connectivity abnormalities in an IUGR rabbit model and the effects of early postnatal environmental enrichment (EE) were explored. IUGR was surgically induced in one horn, whereas the contralateral one produced the controls. Postnatally, a subgroup of IUGR animals was housed in an enriched environment. Functional assessment was performed at the neonatal and long-term periods. At the long-term period, structural brain connectivity was evaluated by means of diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and by histological assessment focused on the hippocampus. IUGR animals displayed poorer functional results and presented altered whole-brain networks and decreased median fractional anisotropy in the hippocampus. Reduced density of dendritic spines and perineuronal nets from hippocampal neurons were also observed. Of note, IUGR animals exposed to enriched environment presented an improvement in terms of both function and structure. IUGR is associated with altered brain connectivity at the global and cellular level. A strategy based on early EE has the potential to restore the neurodevelopmental consequences of IUGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Goktas

    Full Text Available The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for 3 consecutive early embryonic stages in the chick embryo. In conjunction with the in vivo growth and hemodynamics data, in vitro reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was performed to track changes in transcript expression relevant to histogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic arterial wall. Our non-invasive extended OCT imaging technique for the microstructural data showed continuous vessel growth. OCT data coupled with the PIV technique revealed significant but intermitted increases in wall shear stress (WSS between first and second assigned stages and a noticeable decrease afterwards. Growth rate, however, did not vary significantly throughout the embryonic period. Among all the genes studied, only the MMP-2 and CASP-3 expression levels remained unchanged during the time course. Concurrent relationships were obtained among the transcriptional modulation of the genes, vascular growth and hemodynamics-related changes. Further studies are indicated to determine cause and effect relationships and reversibility between mechanical and molecular regulation of vasculogenesis.

  17. Comparing Early Postoperative Period Analgesic Effect of Dexketoprofene Trometamol and Lornoxicam in Mediastinoscopy Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiroglu, Gonul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed comparing early postoperative period analgesic effectiveness and the effects on opioid consumption of intravenous dexketoprofen and lornoxicam that are given preemptively. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, planned elective mediastinoscopy, were included in this prospective randomized study. These patients were classified in two groups, group D for dexketoprofene trometamol and group L for lornoxicam, randomly. 20 minutes before the operation 50 mg dexketoprofene trometamol and 8 mg lornoxicam were injected intravenously for group D and group L respectively. In postoperative intensive care unit, pain scores, mean arterial pressures, heart rates and peripheric O2 saturations of patients were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 60, 90 and 120th minutes. Results: When we evaluate the VAS score of the groups, there was a significant decrease in group D in all measured timesstatistically compairing to group L (p0.05). Conclusion: Since intravenous dexketoprofen, applied preemptively, has more potent analgesic effect and causing less opioid consumption in early postoperative period, is better than intravenous lornoxicam. PMID:25610155

  18. Pronoia in the Military Organization of the Byzantine Empire at Early Palaeologian Period (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotovskiy Vladimir A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author disclosed the role of pronoia in the military organization of the Byzantine Empire at early Palaeologian period. The concrete cases of the award allow recognizing the proniarety as the Byzantine military institution dealing exclusively with the military leadership. The grant of pronoia was a replacement for traditional rewards of military commanders of noble origin. However, in some cases it was identified that compulsory military service was a function of power which was granted to the proniares in addition to the tax quota. Holders of pronoia were not only the Romans military commanders but also the mercenaries. Such awards could reduce the costs of imperial treasury for direct payments. In the case of proniares-Byzantines, depending on posotis, we can talk about the conferring upon pronoia the representatives of various levels of the military leadership. The pronoias granted as a reward or the compensation for losses incurred as a result of the performance of official engagements, could be transferred to the commanders of low levels which were recruited from among stratiotes (obviously, dekarhes. Definition of the role of pronoia in military practice of the early palaeologian period which would be possible in the identification of the proportion of pronoiares and strateia contingents and the correlation of victories and defeats, won by them, is impossible in practice.

  19. Prediction of rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns and seizures on continuous EEG with early epileptiform discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, J; Herta, J; Draschtak, S; Pötzl, G; Pirker, S; Fürbass, F; Hartmann, M; Kluge, T; Baumgartner, C

    2015-08-01

    Continuous EEG (cEEG) is necessary to document nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), as well as rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' (RPPIIU) including periodic discharges, rhythmic delta activity, and spike-and-wave complexes in neurological intensive care patients. However, cEEG is associated with significant recording and analysis efforts. Therefore, predictors from short-term routine EEG with a reasonably high yield are urgently needed in order to select patients for evaluation with cEEG. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of early epileptiform discharges (i.e., within the first 30 min of EEG recording) on the following: (1) incidence of ictal EEG patterns and RPPIIU on subsequent cEEG, (2) occurrence of acute convulsive seizures during the ICU stay, and (3) functional outcome after 6 months of follow-up. We conducted a separate analysis of the first 30 min and the remaining segments of prospective cEEG recordings according to the ACNS Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology as well as NCS criteria and review of clinical data of 32 neurological critical care patients. In 17 patients with epileptiform discharges within the first 30 min of EEG (group 1), electrographic seizures were observed in 23.5% (n = 4), rhythmic or periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' in 64.7% (n = 11), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 11.8% (n = 2). In 15 patients with no epileptiform discharges in the first 30 min of EEG (group 2), no electrographic seizures were recorded on subsequent cEEG, RPPIIU were seen in 26.7% (n = 4), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 73.3% (n = 11). The incidence of EEG patterns on cEEG was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.008). Patients with early epileptiform discharges developed acute seizures more frequently than patients without early epileptiform discharges (p = 0.009). Finally, functional

  20. Management of Very Early-onset Fetal Growth Restriction: Results from 92 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellen, Friederike; Beckmann, Annika; Banz-Jansen, Constanze; Weichert, Jan; Rody, Achim; Bohlmann, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate management of early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to define outcome according to obstetric setting. During an 11-year period (2000-2011), data of patients presenting with IUGR and preterm delivery of less than 30 weeks of gestation at a tertiary perinatal center were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 92 pregnancies were investigated. Delivery was indicated for fetal reasons in 38 out of 92 patients. Sixteen children of our cohort died within one year post partum, out of which eight had suffered from severe early-onset IUGR causing iatrogenic preterm delivery. Concerning the fetal outcome, gestational age at delivery and antenatal exposure to corticosteroids were found to be crucial. In some cases, respiratory distress syndrome prophylaxis and a "wait and see" approach to management in favor of a prolongation of the pregnancy might be favorable. Randomized prospective trials in early-onset IUGR with threatened preterm deliveries are needed in order to define guidelines for an individually tailored management of early-onset preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder in the perinatal period: early infant and maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankley, Gaynor; Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Power, Josephine; Lewis, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    This study examines pregnancy and early infant outcomes of pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder presenting for obstetric services to a major metropolitan maternity hospital in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective case review of pregnancy and early infant outcomes on 42 women who had been diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder via psychiatric assessment using DSM-IV-R criteria was undertaken. Outcomes were compared with a control group of 14,313 consisting of women and infants of non-affected women from the same hospital over the same period of time. Women presenting for obstetric services with a clinical diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder experienced considerable psychosocial impairment. They anticipated birth as traumatic and frequently requested early delivery. High comorbidity with substance abuse was found and high rates of referral to child protective services. Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder were significantly more likely to have negative birth outcomes such as lowered Apgar scores, prematurity and special care nursery referral when compared with controls. These findings offer preliminary evidence to be considered by clinicians in developing treatments and services for the perinatal care of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. Further research is required in order to develop evidence informed clinical guidelines for the management of women with Borderline Personality Disorder and their infants. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. [Angiopoietins predict long-term outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage during an early period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Dong; Wei, Huijie; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Rongcai; Yue, Shuyuan; Zhang, Jianning

    2015-05-19

    To evaluate the association between serum levels of angiopoietins (Ang) during an early period (within 72 h) and clinical outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). This prospective study was conducted at Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Blood samples from 37 aSAH patients were collected at 8 h (or GOSE). Those with GOSE > 5 were counted as a good outcome while those with GOSE ≤ 5 had a poor outcome. A total of 37 patients with aSAH and 39 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. The aSAH patients showed a significant rise of Ang-1 within 8 h as compared with HC. The outcomes were good (n = 15) and poor (n = 22). Serum Ang-1 at 8 h (or < 8 h), 24 h and 72 h in good outcomers showed significantly higher than that in poor outcomers [(52 ± 24) vs (37 ± 17) mg/L, (62 ± 26) vs (45 ± 17) mg/L, (107 ± 27) vs (72 ± 18) mg/L]. The serum level of Ang-1 at 8 h and 24 h was one of independent risk factors for aSAH patients by multiariable Logistic regression analysis [adjected OR (95% CI) 1.095 (1.015-1.181) and 1.109 (1.016-1.211)] (P < 0.05). High serum level of Ang-1 during an early period (within 72 h) was associated with good outcomers (r = 0.627, P < 0.001). The serum levels of angiopoietins are significantly altered in aSAH patients, especially higher in good outcomers. And abnormal levels of angiopoietins may affect early brain injury (EBI) after SAH, structural integrity and recovery of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and long-term outcomes in aSAH patients.

  3. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  4. Journal “Topics in Early Childhood Special Education”: assessment of the periodical and articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Celso Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Journals have the purpose of dissemination and communication of scientific knowledge. As a vehicle to the dissemination of scientific productions, it is necessary the periodical assessment to evaluate the quality of research: accuracy, reliability and seriousness. The objective of this study is to assess the journal Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, considering for the analysis the whole journal and the formal and the contents aspects of all articles. The analysis revealed that the periodical satisfactorily fulfills the normalization criterion, the authors’ instruction criterion and the articles assessment criterion. However, it was identified the need for major accuracy in the bibliographic legend that should appear on all pages of articles. Regarding the analysis of the articles it was observed the lack of keywords and a wide variety of information in the abstracts, which they were sometimes not related to the key aspects of the research. All authors and institutions are from United States of America and the type of study most published it was the research report. The participants’ characterization indicated that the journal broachs different types of special needs, but there is more studies about autism. The study data confirm the journal purpose that is providing relevant and current information on all aspects of early education for children with special needs, including their families. It was pointed the need for more articles from other countries beyond the North American continent, including the participation of researcher from other countries. Additionally, the model used for the journal assessment showed to be effective in providing data quality, reliability and accuracy of the whole periodical and the studies that it was published in the journal.

  5. The effect of manganese on early growth of fluted pumpkin ( telfairia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of manganese on early growth of fluted pumpkin (telfairia occidentalis hook f) in an ultisol. ER Orhue, CNC Nwaoguala. Abstract. The trials were conducted at the experimental site of University of Benin Teaching and Research Farm to determine the influence of Mn on early growth, nutrient content and uptake by ...

  6. Factors of economic growth in Palestine: an empirical Analysis during the period of (1994-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mahmoud Abu-Eideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the impact of the size of domestic working labour force, real gross domestic capital formation, real domestic exports and imports of goods and services, and political instability on real gross domestic product( RGDP in Palestine during the period of 1994 -2013. To examine the empirical relationship between these explanatory variables and real (GDP growth the study adopted a standardized Cobb- Douglas production function by using the annual official data of the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS, and applying the Ordinary least Square method (OLS and Second Order Auto Correlation Techniques. The empirical results of the model applied indicated that there is a positive relationship between the size of domestic working labour force, real gross domestic capital formation, real domestic exports and real gross domestic product( RGDP, and a negative relationship between real domestic imports of goods and services, and political instability and the real growth of (GDP. The study suggested several recommendations that can boost the level of growth, among them the most important one, is the urgent need for more investment in the economy as it leads to more formation of domestic capital which can count more in terms of economic growth in many ways.

  7. Assessment of growth dynamics of human cranium middle fossa in foetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomra, Andrzej; Kędzia, Alicja; Dudek, Krzysztof; Bogacz, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Available literature analysis demonstrated smallness of studies of cranial base. The goal of the study was to analyse the medial fossa of the human cranium in the foetal period against other fossae. Survey material consisted of 110 human foetuses at a morphological age of 16-28 weeks of foetal life, CRL 98-220 mm. Anthropological, preparation method, reverse method and statistical analysis were utilized. The survey incorporated the following computer programmes: Renishaw, TraceSurf, AutoCAD, CATIA. The reverse method seems especially interesting (impression with polysiloxane (silicone elastomer of high adhesive power used in dentistry) with 18 D 4823 activator. Elicited impression accurately reflected complex shape of cranium base. On assessing the relative rate of cranium medial fossa, the rate was found to be stable (linear model) for the whole of the analysed period and is 0.19%/week, which stands for the gradual and steady growth of the middle fossa in relation to the whole of the cranium base. At the same time, from the 16th till 28th week of foetal life, relative volume of the cranium middle fossa increases more intensively than cranium anterior fossa, whereas the cranium middle fossa volume as compared with the cranium posterior fossa is definitely slower. In the analysed period, the growth rate of the cranium base middle fossa was bigger in the 4th and 5th weeks than in the 6th and 7th weeks of foetal life. The investigations revealed cranium base asymmetry of the left side. Furthermore, the anterior fossae volume on the left side is significantly bigger than the one of the fossae on the right side. Volume growth rate is more intensive in the 4th and 5th than in the 6th and 7th weeks of foetal life. In the examined period, the relative growth rate of cranium base middle fossa is 0.19%/week and it is stable - linear model. The study revealed correlations in the form of mathematical models, which enabled foetuses age assessment.

  8. Early childhood development when second-trimester ultrasound dating disagrees with last menstrual period: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal Jagteshwar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When an ultrasound-based estimate of gestational age (GA is less (greater than an estimate based on a definite last menstrual period, the fetus may grow slower (faster than average. While the association between these discrepancies in GA estimates and adverse perinatal outcomes has been examined extensively, there is scant evidence about long-term effects, such as child neurodevelopment. Methods Using data from a prospective cohort study titled, NICHD Study of Successive Small-for-Gestational Age Births, we examined if GA discrepancies in early second trimester of pregnancy (17 weeks’ gestation are associated with: (1 impaired motor and mental function at 13 months (measured using Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley, and (2 impaired cognitive development at five years (assessed by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised Intelligence Quotient (WPPSI-R in the infant. The study population consisted of 572 (30% of the overall sample of 1,945 women who presented for prenatal care in Norway and Sweden between 1986 and 1988. Results Our results showed that GA discrepancies in early second trimester are significantly associated with birthweight. We found no significant relationship, however, with the Bayley development scores at 13 months and with the WPPSI-R IQ measures at five years. Conclusions GA discrepancies at 17 weeks’ gestation are not associated child neurodevelopment. These discrepancies do, however, relate to birthweights, providing a basis for detecting fetal growth patterns early in the second trimester of pregnancy. Our study, however, was unable to evaluate the impact of first-trimester discrepancies on impaired neurodevelopment in the infant.

  9. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dongxi, E-mail: lidongxi@mail.nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Xu Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu Yong [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-01-31

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  10. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxi; Xu Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu Yong

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  11. [Clinical efficiency of Vasonat in neurometabolic therapy of patients with ischemic stroke at early rehabilitation period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasova, G B; Tyksanbaeva, G U; Orazalieva, D B; Kasymova, S K

    2011-01-01

    Research of efficiency and safety of Vasonat has been carried out. 31 patients aged 46-75 years who had had hemispheric athero- thrombotic or hemodynamic schemic stroke with moderate severity and being treated in 2-5-month of early rehabilitation period have been observed. The control group of patients received placebo. Results of the study, 4 weeks treatment using Vasonat in the dosage of 500 mg/day have shown positive effect on common signs of the disease by decreasing headache intensity, dizziness, a nausea, and on focal neurological symptoms by decreasing hemiparesis degree; psychoemotional and mnestic activity (main memory and attention) improved as well. It was more distinct in patients with localization of the stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain. It was also noted more rapid improvement of motion function and quality of life of patients.

  12. Sword of the early sarmatian period from the Ik-Zay interfluve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmaylov Iskander L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A sword discovered in 2001 as a stray find in the area of Chaply village (Aznakayevsky District of the Tatarstan Republic is analyzed in the article. The sword is kept at Aznakayevsky Local History Museum. The shape of its guard and blade allowed the author to suggest its Sarmatian origin. Similar artifacts of Sarmatian culture suggest dating the sword by the late 4th - late 3rd cc. A.D., i.e. by the Prohorovo (Early Sarmatian period. This find is unique for the entire South-Eastern Tatarstan and was discovered far to the north of the main distribution area of the Sarmatian artifacts. It provides grounds for inclusion of this territory into the Prohorovo cultural area and should promote a more thorough study of artifacts at interfluves of minor rivers – the Kama tributaries – in order to identify and research barrows.

  13. Physical health problems experienced in the early postoperative recovery period following total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szötz, Kirsten; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Hørdam, Britta

    2015-01-01

    of exercising in the early recovery period after discharge from hospital following total knee replacement. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. A total of 86 patients were included following first-time elective total knee replacement. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS......: The majority of the patients experienced leg oedema (90.7%). Secondary to this were pain (81.4%), sleeping disorders (47.7%) problems with appetite (38.4%) and bowel function (34.9%) were the most frequently identified physical health problems. In total, 69.8% of the patients indicated that they did...... not exercise or only partly exercise as recommended, but without associated experience of pain. CONCLUSION: Patients experienced a wide range of physical health problems following total knee replacement and deviation from recommended self-training was identified. These findings are valuable for health...

  14. Greek states of the early historic period: systematizing the evidence contained in the Homeric poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Zolotnikova

    2013-06-01

    Based on the descriptions of the states occurring in the Homeric poems, it is supposed to demonstrate that, in terms of organization, a state of the early historic period presented a clear tripartite structure – a body of basileis (“kings”, a body of the elders and an assembly (“agora” of the people; an addition to those, there were also minor public offices, which could be held by representatives of the people. It is the intention of this paper to analyze these institutions with regard to their exact functions, roles, and importance in the states as described in the epic diction. In conclusion, it will be argued that a state as presented in the Homeric poems appeared as a self-governed autonomous community, which in its general features might approximate a city-state (polis; however, it was still too underdeveloped to be compared with states of that type.

  15. Jimma Town: Foundation and Early Growth from ca. 1830 to 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifu Yonas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the early history of Jimma town and its growth from its foundation until 1936. It explores social, economic and administrative themes, but also attempts to show the interrelationship between these themes. The town of Jimma evolved during this period from being the home-town of a relatively homogenous society and culture into a place of residence for a diverse and increasingly cosmopolitan population. Economically, the story of Jimma during this period is one of both continuity and change. It is a story of continuity because Jimma, which had been a center of trade from the very beginning, continued to be so during this period. There was significant change, however, because unlike the previous decades in which Jimma had served as a point of exchange or transit for elite goods that mostly originated from beyond the borders of the Oromo Kingdom (such as slaves, ivory and musk, during this period the town developed into the chief center for the collection, organization and export of a cash crop that was grown locally (coffee.

  16. Periodontal diseases at the transition from the late antique to the early mediaeval period in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodanović, Marin; Peroš, Kristina; Zukanović, Amila; Knežević, Marjana; Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2012-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the transition from the late antique to the early mediaeval period in Croatia had a negative impact on the periodontal health. 1118 skulls were examined for dental calculus, alveolar bone resorption, fenestrations, dehiscences and root furcation involvement. The prevalence of teeth with calculus varied from 40.7% in the LA sample of continental parts of Croatia to 50.3% in the LA sample of Adriatic Croatia. The prevalence of alveolar bone resorption ranged between 21.2% in the EM sample from continental Croatia and 32.3% in the LA sample from Adriatic Croatia. The prevalence of individuals with alveolar bone dehiscences varied from 8.6% in the LA sample from continental Croatia up to 15.0% in the EM sample from Adriatic Croatia. The prevalence of individuals with alveolar bone fenestrations varied from 21.5% in the LA sample from Adriatic Croatia up to 36.2% in the LA sample from continental Croatia. The prevalence of individuals with exposed root bifurcations or trifurcations varied from 9.0% in the EM sample from Adriatic Croatia up to 20.7% in the EM sample from continental Croatia. Statistically significant differences were found between samples. The transition from the late antique to the early mediaeval period in Croatia did not have a negative impact on periodontal health. Studies of periodontal health of ancient populations should be performed to provide a better and more reliable reconstruction of living conditions in the past. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword

    1995-01-01

    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  18. Analysis of Puerarin and Chemical Compositions Changes in Kudzu Root during Growth Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiguo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kudzu root is one of the earliest medicinal plants listed in traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, chemical compositions changes of kudzu roots from one year old to five years old were analyzed with respect to puerarin, acid-insoluble polysaccharides, acid-soluble polysaccharides, reducing sugar, protein, free amino acids, and lipid. In addition, the puerarin content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The results showed that acid-soluble polysaccharides content of kudzu root increased with each growth period. In contrast, the acid-insoluble polysaccharides decreased significantly. The contents of reducing sugar and puerarin in kudzu root decreased significantly during its growth period. Beyond that, the contents of protein, free amino acids, and lipid in kudzu root ranged from 31.8 to 45.8 g/kg, 2.21 to 4.33 g/kg, and 32.2 to 76.9 g/kg, respectively. The trend of protein content coincided with the total content of free amino acids, in contrast to lipid. This paper provides a set of data and the select of kudzu root for the processing and development of new products of kudzu root.

  19. Growth and nutritional status of preschool children in India: a study of two recent time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Pronab; Bharati, Susmita; Som, Suparna; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2011-06-01

    Preschool children call for focused attention in India because India has the highest percentage of undernourished children in the world. To compare the growth and nutritional status of Indian preschool children for the periods 1998/99 and 2005/06, Using data on weight and length/height as well as the sociodemographic background of preschool children from the National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) from 1998/99 and 2005/06, we determined the distribution of weight and length/height and their association with sociodemographic variables. The distributions of weight and length/height around the mean remained remarkably stable over age but were much greater in India than the international norms. The rates of growth of mean weight and length/ height were far lower in India than the international norms up to the age of 2 years. The temporal trend indicates declines in the percentages of undernourished (low weight-for-age) and stunted (low height-for-age) children over the 7-year period, although the degree of improvement was far better for stunting than for underweight. Mother's educational status is the only variable that has been found to influence child nutrition. The level of mothers' education needs urgent attention with top priority to reduce the prevalence of underweight and stunting of children. This also implies that, for future benefit, girls should be given more facilities for better education. Breastfeeding and weaning practices also need special attention.

  20. Treponemal disease in the middle Archaic to early Woodland periods of the western Tennessee River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria Ostendorf

    2006-10-01

    The high frequency of late prehistoric New World treponemal disease is attributable to the demographic changes concomitant with the adoption of agriculture. However, these demographic changes in group mobility and site density episodically preceded intensive plant domestication, suggesting possible staggered temporal change in observed treponemal disease case frequency. Thirteen convincing and an additional two probable (N = 581) cases of treponemal disease were identified in an eight-site skeletal sample spanning the Middle (6,000-3,000 BCE) to Late (2,500-ca. 1,000 to 500 BCE) Archaic and Early Woodland (500 BCE-0 CE) periods from the western Tennessee River Valley. Treponemal disease cases are infrequent in both the Middle (3/115, 2.6%) and Late (2 to 4 cases, subsistence economy across the Archaic-Woodland temporal boundary in the western Tennessee River Valley remained, as elsewhere, based on intensive hunting and collecting, the demographic corollaries of treponemal disease would apparently not be met. However, the traditional horizon marker of the Woodland period is the adoption of pottery, an activity associated with sedentism.

  1. Early MRI changes in glioblastoma in the period between surgery and adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Amelio, Dante; Ricciardi, Giuseppe K; Zoccatelli, Giada; Magon, Stefano; Pizzini, Francesca; Alessandrini, Franco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Amichetti, Maurizio; Beltramello, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the increase in MRI contrast enhancement (CE) occurring in glioblastoma during the period between surgery and initiation of chemo-radiotherapy, thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were analyzed by early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) imaging within three days of surgery and by pre-adjuvant magnetic resonance (PAMR) examination before adjuvant therapy. Areas of new CE were investigated by use of EPMR diffusion-weighted imaging and PAMR perfusion imaging (by arterial spin-labeling). PAMR was acquired, on average, 29.9 days later than EPMR (range 20-37 days). During this period an increased area of CE was observed for 17/37 patients. For 3/17 patients these regions were confined to areas of reduced EPMR diffusion, suggesting postsurgical infarct. For the other 14/17 patients, these areas suggested progression. For 11/17 patients the co-occurrence of hyperperfusion in PAMR perfusion suggested progression. PAMR perfusion and EPMR diffusion did not give consistent results for 3/17 patients for whom small new areas of CE were observed, presumably because of the poor spatial resolution of perfusion imaging. Before initiation of adjuvant therapy, areas of new CE of resected glioblastomas are frequently observed. Most of these suggest tumor progression, according to EPMR diffusion and PAMR perfusion criteria.

  2. Preharvest Interval Periods and their relation to fruit growth stages and pesticide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alister, Claudio; Araya, Manuel; Becerra, Kevin; Saavedra, Jorge; Kogan, Marcelo

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticide formulations and fruit growth stages on the Pre-harvest Interval Period (PHI). Results showed that pesticide formulations did not affect the initial deposit and dissipation rate. However, the fruit growth stage at the application time showed a significant effect on the above-mentioned parameters. Fruit diameter increases in one millimeter pesticide dissipation rates were reduced in -0.033mgkg -1 day -1 (R 2 =0.87; p<0.001) for grapes and -0.014mgkg -1 day -1 (R 2 =0.85; p<0.001) for apples. The relation between solar radiation, air humidity and temperature, and pesticide dissipation rates were dependent on fruit type. PHI could change according to the application time, because of the initial amount of pesticide deposit in the fruits and change in the dissipation rates. Because Maximum Residue Level are becoming more restrictive, it is more important to consider the fruit growth stage effects on pesticide when performing dissipation studies to define PHI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Association of malignancy with rapid growth in early lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin were studied to determine (a) the relationship of malignancy to dose, (b) the types of lesions and circumstances leading to overt malignancy, and (c) the growth rates of lesions progressing to malignancy versus those of lesions remaining benign. High doses of radiation were shown to be associated with the production of epidermal cancers, the maximum yield being obtained at 6,400 rads. Conversely, a peak yield of noncancerous lesions was obtained at 1,600 rads. This association between malignancy and high dose was consistent for cancers evolving from warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers. Although the proportion of warts among the induced lesions was much higher than that of the cysts or chronic ulcers (76, 14, and 10%, respectively), the likelihood of warts becoming cancerous was substantially lower (14, 23, and 21%). The combined data for all doses showed that the latency period of the epidermal cancers was significantly (P = 0.015) shorter than that of the benign tumors. Rapid growth rates were observed for warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers progressing to overt cancer, and these did not overlap at any point on the growth scale with rates for benign tumors. This finding suggested that the potential for malignant development had been established early in the carcinogenic process, very likely at induction

  4. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  5. Examination of the Pattern of Growth of Cerebral Tissue Volumes From Hospital Discharge to Early Childhood in Very Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Anderson, Peter J; Matthews, Lillian G; Neil, Jeffrey J; Kapur, Kush; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-08-01

    Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years. Prospective cohort study of VPT infants (childhood and outcomes in VPT infants. Low brain volumes observed in VPT infants are exaggerated at 7 years. Low brain volume in infancy is associated with long-term functional outcomes, emphasizing the persisting influence of early brain development on subsequent growth and outcomes.

  6. Residual Effect of Chromium on Early Growth of Fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    some agronomic characters, nutrient content, nutrient uptake and crude protein content of fluted ... Results revealed that the plant height, stem girth, leaf area, number of leaves, dry matter yield, ..... oxygen and this will lead to slow growth and.

  7. Comparison of two models of intrauterine growth restriction for early catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkhalili, Yasaman; Moulin, Julie; Zbinden, Irene; Aprikian, Olivier; Macé, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Two models of intrauterine growth restriction, maternal food restriction (FR), and dexamethasone (DEX) exposure were compared for early postnatal catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mated dams were randomly divided into three groups at 10 days gestational age. Group FR was food restricted (50% of nongestating rats) during the last 11 days of gestation; Group DEX received DEX injections during the last week of gestation, and Group CON, the control group, had no intervention. Birth weight, catch-up growth, body weight, and food intake were measured in male offspring for 22 wk. Body composition, blood glucose, and plasma insulin in response to a glucose load were assessed at 8, 16, and 22 wk. Pups from both FR and DEX dams had similarly lower birth weights than CON (22% and 25%, P growth, which occurred during the suckling period, was much more rapid in FR than DEX offspring (6 vs. 25 days, 95% CI). Postweaning, there were no significant differences between groups in food intake, body weight, body fat, and plasma insulin, but baseline plasma glucose at 22 wk and 2-h glucose area-under-the-curve at 8 and 22 wk were greater only in FR vs. CON offspring (P restriction is a more sensitive model than DEX exposure for studies aimed at investigating the link between low birth weight, early postnatal catch-up growth, and later development of glucose intolerance.

  8. Assessing the Effects of Soil Humic and Fulvic Acids on Germination and Early Growth of Native and Introduced Grass Varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senesi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The presence of humic acid (HA) generally affects positively and at various extent the germination and early growth of all varieties examined but in some cases negative effects are measured on the early growth...

  9. Annual Growth of Contract Costs for Major Programs in Development and Early Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    also affect cost growth behavior . Second, periods of structural changes contributed additional constant shifts in the growth. Two such overlapping...implementation of the Better Buying Power (BBP) initiatives to emphasize cost consciousness, improve efficiency, strengthen acquisition workforce...our modeling indicates that the defense system exhibits a self-correcting behavior that adjusts for prior differences between the actual growth and the

  10. Threshold Dynamics of a Huanglongbing Model with Logistic Growth in Periodic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of seasonal activity of psyllid on the dynamics of Huanglongbing (HLB infection. A new model about HLB transmission with Logistic growth in psyllid insect vectors and periodic coefficients has been investigated. It is shown that the global dynamics are determined by the basic reproduction number R0 which is defined through the spectral radius of a linear integral operator. If R0 1, then the disease persists. Numerical values of parameters of the model are evaluated taken from the literatures. Furthermore, numerical simulations support our analytical conclusions and the sensitive analysis on the basic reproduction number to the changes of average and amplitude values of the recruitment function of citrus are shown. Finally, some useful comments on controlling the transmission of HLB are given.

  11. Comparison of Early-period Results of Nasal Splint and Merocel Nasal Packs in Septoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingöl, Fatih; Budak, Ali; Şimşek, Eda; Kılıç, Korhan; Bingöl, Buket Özel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty. In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period. Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. Patients were divided into two groups (n=30 in each group). An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors - pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pain 24 hours after operation (p=0.05), while visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nasal obstruction, night sleep, eating difficulties, and pain during packing removal were lower in the nasal splint group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative bleeding (p=0.23). Significantly less bleeding occurred during removal of the packing in the nasal splint group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that the nasal splint was more comfortable and effective in terms of causing lesser bleeding and pain during removal of packing. PMID:29392071

  12. Impact of Complete Parenteral Nutrition on Metabolic Processes in Cancer Patients in the Early Postoperative Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Obukhova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate blood glucose levels during complete parenteral nutrition (CPN, by using the three-in-one system with a high glucose level. Subjects and methods. Thirty adult patients without diabetes mellitus (including 18 men were examined. Twelve and 18 patients were operated on for colonic and gastric cancers, respectively. CPN (Oliclinomel No. 7 — 1000, 1500 ml; glucose, 240 g in 1500 ml, Baxter, Belgium was carried out at the Surgery Department in the early postoperative period (3-5 postoperative days with stable hemodynamics and no organ dysfunction (acute respiratory, renal, hepatic failure. The preparation was administered at a rate of about 83 ml/h over 18 hours. Insulin was not used. Serum glucose concentrations were measured before the study and then for 24 hours at an interval of 6 hours. Results. Glucose concentrations were not found to exceed the allowable values in the majority of patients during CPN at the given rate. In 5 (16.7% patients, short-term glucose increases up to 13.3 mmol/l were corrected, by decreasing the infusion rate. There was no hypoglycemia or other complications during CPN. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that three-in-one parenteral feeding is safe and causes no metabolic disturbances if simple principles are followed, the basic ones of which are to observe the intake of an adequate total dose and the rate of administration of nutrients. Key words: parenteral feeding, hyperglycemia, metabolic disturbances.

  13. Studies on radioimmunoassay diagnosis of cow pregnancy at an early period by milk sample communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meiwen

    1986-01-01

    Cow pregancy was diagnosed at an early period by milk sample communication and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Liquid milk samples were converted into solid forms on filter paper and mailed to the laboratory from appointed locations, and concentrations of progesterone in milk samples were then determined by RIA method. Milks were sampled 19 and 23 days after mating. Criterion used for the judgement of cow pregnancy was as follows: When the progesterone content in milk was 5 ng/ml or less, the cow was not pregnant; when progesterone content was between 5-11 ng/ml, it was doubtful; when progesterone content was 11 ng/ml or more, it was pregnant. According to this criterion, among 215 cows, 131 were pregnant, 73 were not pregnant, and 11 were doubtful. The results were further checked by palpation 3 months after inseminations. The unpregnancy and pregnancy accuracies were 97.6% and 89.2%, respectively. Forther milk samples were collected on 44 days for above cows that had been diagnosed on 19 and 23 days showing pregnancy to diagnose embryo forming. Among 91 cows, 74 had embryo. 7 had none, and the other 10 were doubtful. The embryo and unembryo accuracies were 94.6% and 100% respectively checking by palpation 3 months after inseminations

  14. Pronoia in the Military Organization of the Byzantine Empire at Early Palaeologian Period. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseevich Zolotovskiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author disclosed the role of pronoia in the military organization of the Byzantine Empire at early Palaeologian period. The concrete cases of the award allow recognizing the proniarety as the Byzantine military institution dealing exclusively with the military leadership. The grant of pronoia was a replacement for traditional rewards of military commanders of noble birth. However, in some cases it was identified that compulsory military service was a function of power which was granted to the proniares in addition to the tax quota. Holders of pronoia were not only the Romans military commanders but also the mercenaries. Such awards could reduce the costs of imperial treasury for direct payments. In the case of proniares-Byzantines, depending on posotis, we can talk about the conferring upon pronoia the representatives of various levels of the military leadership. The pronoias granted as a reward or the compensation for losses incurred as a result of the performance of official engagements, could be transferred to the commanders of low levels which were recruited from among stratiotes (obviously, dekarhes.

  15. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth.

  16. The Red Blood Cell Membrane of Preterm Infants in the Early Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the nanostructure of red blood cell membranes and erythrocyte index in preterm neonatal infants.Subjects and methods. The trial enrolled 47 neonatal infants, including 33 preterm infants who were included in a study group and 14 fullterm infants who formed a comparative group. The gestational age of the preterm infants was 33.3±1.9 weeks and the birth weight was 2065.4±304.8 g. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte indices were estimat ed and the red blood cells were examined using an atomicforce microscope.Results. At birth, the preterm infants showed macrocytosis, intrauterine poikylocytosis, and the impaired nanostructure of red blood cell membranes. Intrauterine hypoxia affects the red blood cell membrane nanostructures: a phospholipid bilayer and a spectrin matrix, without damaging the membrane protein component. The detected changes are reversible and directed to maintaining the functional ability of red blood cells in a critical situation. At birth, gestational age, a baby's weight, hemoglobin, and blood cholesterol and standard bicarbonate levels influence the parameters of a red blood cell component. The early neonatal period was characterized by an active process on the red blood cell membranes and a change of morphological forms, suggesting the continuing postnatal rearrangement of erythropoiesis and a preterm infant's adaptation to new environmental conditions.

  17. Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the common sunflower (Sanay cultivar) using spectral discrimination techniques. H Turhan, L Genc, SE Smith, YB Bostanci, OS Turkmen ...

  18. Early fetal size and growth as predictors of adverse outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Figueras, Francesc; Wøjdemann, Karen R

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fetal size and growth between the first and second trimesters and subsequent adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: A cohort was created of 7,642 singleton pregnancies cared for in three obstetric units associated with Copenhagen University. Data were...... obtained from ultrasound measurements at 11-14 weeks (crown-rump length, biparietal diameter) and 17-21 weeks (biparietal diameter). Fetal size was assessed by gestation-specific z scores, and fetal growth between the first and second trimester was calculated individually using conditional centiles....... The main outcome measures were preterm delivery, smallness for gestational age, and perinatal death. RESULTS: Slow growth of the biparietal diameter less than the 10th and less than the 2.5th conditional centiles between first and second trimesters occurred in 10.4% and 3.6% of the population, respectively...

  19. A case of functional growth hormone deficiency and early growth retardation in a child with IFT172 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela K; Kinning, Esther; Iida, Aritoshi; Wang, Zheng; Miyake, Noriko; Ikegawa, Shiro; McNeilly, Jane; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2015-04-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of rare conditions that present through a wide range of manifestations. Given the relative common occurrence of defects of the GH/IGF-I axis in children with short stature and growth retardation, the association between ciliopathies and these defects needs further attention. Our patient is a boy who was born at term and noted to have early growth retardation and weight gain within the first 18 months of life. Biochemical tests demonstrated low IGF-I but a normal peak GH on stimulation and an adequate increase in IGF-I on administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. His growth responded well to rhGH therapy. Subsequently he also developed a retinopathy of his rods and cones, metaphyseal dysplasia, and hypertension with renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated compound heterozygous mutations of IFT172, thus consistent with a ciliopathy. This is the first reported case of a child with a mutation in IFT172 who presented with growth retardation in early childhood and was initially managed as a case of functional GH deficiency that responded to rhGH therapy. This case highlights the importance of ciliary function in pituitary development and the link between early onset growth failure and ciliopathies.

  20. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  1. Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...

  2. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  3. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  4. Delayed phenotypic expression of growth hormone transgenesis during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darek T R Moreau

    Full Text Available Should growth hormone (GH transgenic Atlantic salmon escape, there may be the potential for ecological and genetic impacts on wild populations. This study compared the developmental rate and respiratory metabolism of GH transgenic and non-transgenic full sibling Atlantic salmon during early ontogeny; a life history period of intense selection that may provide critical insight into the fitness consequences of escaped transgenics. Transgenesis did not affect the routine oxygen consumption of eyed embryos, newly hatched larvae or first-feeding juveniles. Moreover, the timing of early life history events was similar, with transgenic fish hatching less than one day earlier, on average, than their non-transgenic siblings. As the start of exogenous feeding neared, however, transgenic fish were somewhat developmentally behind, having more unused yolk and being slightly smaller than their non-transgenic siblings. Although such differences were found between transgenic and non-transgenic siblings, family differences were more important in explaining phenotypic variation. These findings suggest that biologically significant differences in fitness-related traits between GH transgenic and non-transgenic Atlantic salmon were less than family differences during the earliest life stages. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the ecological risk assessment of genetically modified animals.

  5. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.; van Vugt, J. M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester serum specimens of 23

  6. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J.W.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.; van Vugt, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods: PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester

  7. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. NEWBORNS OF HIGH RISK GROUPS AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC ACTIVITY DURING THE PERIOD OF EARLY ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Tumaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study characteristics of electrophysiological cardiac activity in children of risk groups and to assess possibilities of Holter-electrocardiography (H-ECG in revealing of cardiac dysfunction during the period of early adaptation. Patients and methods: 250 newborns were examined. The main group consisted of 200 children with cerebral ischemia (CI. This group was divided into 2 subgroups: 100 full-term and 100 premature (at various gestation age infants. Control group contained 50 children born at 38–40th weeks of gestation with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery, APGAR score of 8–9 points. Complex examination included H-ECG according the standard technic with evaluation of the hearth rate (HR during sleep and wakefulness; HRmin, HRmax; arrhythmias, conductivity disorders, duration of the intervals; rhythm variability. Results: according to the ECG children with CI, especially premature ones, and children delivered via Cesarean section more often had ST-T disturbances, arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, less often — sinus bradycardia and conductivity disorders, Q-Tc prolongation. H-EGC revealed decrease of sleep HR, HRmin and HRmax in children with CI especially in delivered via Cesarean section. The most common arrhythmia was supraventricular extrasystole.  Pauses in rhythms and variability were the highest in premature children delivered via Cesarean section. Conclusions: hypoxia/ischemia is a trigger for development of cardiovascular dysfuncion in newborns. Premature and children delivered via Cesarean section form a group of high risk. H-ECG widens possibilities of revealing of symptoms of cardiac dysfunction (disturbances at the basal level of functioning, of adaptation resources of the sinus node, electric instability of the myocardium and heart rate variability in children of risk group for development of cardiovascular disorders. 

  9. Prediction of acute renal allograft rejection in early post-transplantation period by soluble CD30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wang; Shunliang, Yang; Weizhen, Wu; Qinghua, Wang; Zhangxin, Zeng; Jianming, Tan; He, Wang

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of serum sCD30 for prediction of acute graft rejection, we analyzed clinical data of 231 patients, whose serum levels of sCD30 were detected by ELISA before and after transplantation. They were divided into three groups: acute rejection group (AR, n = 49), uncomplicated course group (UC, n = 171) and delayed graft function group (DGF, n = 11). Preoperative sCD30 levels of three groups were 183 +/- 74, 177 +/- 82 and 168 +/- 53 U/ml, respectively (P = 0.82). Significant decrease of sCD30 was detected in three groups on day 5 and 10 post-transplantation respectively (52 +/- 30 and 9 +/- 5 U/ml respectively, P sCD30 values on day 5 post-transplantation (92 +/- 27 U/ml vs. 41 +/- 20 U/ml and 48 +/- 18 U/ml, P sCD30 levels on day 10 post-transplantation were virtually similar in patients of three groups (P = 0.43). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that sCD30 level on day 5 post-transplantation could differentiate patients who subsequently suffered acute allograft rejection from others (area under ROC curve 0.95). According to ROC curve, 65 U/ml may be the optimal operational cut-off level to predict impending graft rejection (specificity 91.8%, sensitivity 87.1%). Measurement of soluble CD30 on day 5 post-transplantation might offer a noninvasive means to recognize patients at risk of impending acute graft rejection during early post-transplantation period.

  10. Energy metabolism of thoracic surgical patients in the early postoperative period. Effect of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, L S; Bertolini, R; Janni, A; Gioia, A; Angeletti, C A

    1996-03-01

    To determine the effect of elective thoracic surgery on energy metabolism and gas exchange and to evaluate whether the 30-degree sitting position would affect these variables. Prospective, unblinded, controlled study. Surgical ICU in a university hospital. Twenty-two adult patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection. Posture change from supine to 30-degree sitting position. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory quotient (RQ), and energy expenditure (EE) were measured by means of computerized indirect calorimetry before and after surgery. Heart rate and respiratory frequency were measured continuously during gas exchange measurement. Blood gases were analyzed with an automated blood gas analyzer. Preoperatively, altering position did not affect energy metabolism, gas exchange, and cardiopulmonary variables. Postoperatively, the measured EE was 116% of the expected value. Mean EE and VO2 values for each position were higher than the preoperative values for the corresponding postures (pMean percent increases in EE, VO2, and VCO2 were significantly lower in the 30-degree sitting position than in the supine position (EE: 7.9+/-2.7% vs 14.4+/-2.3%; pexchange for each position were worse than the preoperative values for the corresponding postures (pMean arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory frequency for each position were higher than the preoperative values for the corresponding postures (pmean values of these variables occurred between the two positions postoperatively. The early postoperative period of patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery is characterized by a condition of impaired gas exchange and by a hypermetabolic state. Hypermetabolism can be partly mitigated by assuming the 30-degree sitting position.

  11. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter W; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; Ptransplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.

  12. Single rice growth period was prolonged by cultivars shifts, but yield was damaged by climate change during 1981-2009 in China, and late rice was just opposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fulu; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Wenjiao; Liu, Yujie; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Meng; Liu, Fengshan

    2013-10-01

    Based on the crop trial data during 1981-2009 at 57 agricultural experimental stations across the North Eastern China Plain (NECP) and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR), we investigated how major climate variables had changed and how the climate change had affected crop growth and yield in a setting in which agronomic management practices were taken based on actual weather. We found a significant warming trend during rice growing season, and a general decreasing trend in solar radiation (SRD) in the MLRYR during 1981-2009. Rice transplanting, heading, and maturity dates were generally advanced, but the heading and maturity dates of single rice in the MLRYR (YZ_SR) and NECP (NE_SR) were delayed. Climate warming had a negative impact on growth period lengths at about 80% of the investigated stations. Nevertheless, the actual growth period lengths of YZ_SR and NE_SR, as well as the actual length of reproductive growth period (RGP) of early rice in the MLRYR (YZ_ER), were generally prolonged due to adoption of cultivars with longer growth period to obtain higher yield. In contrast, the actual growth period length of late rice in the MLRYR (YZ_LR) was shortened by both climate warming and adoption of early mature cultivars to prevent cold damage and obtain higher yield. During 1981-2009, climate warming and decrease in SRD changed the yield of YZ_ER by -0.59 to 2.4%; climate warming during RGP increased the yield of YZ_LR by 8.38-9.56%; climate warming and decrease in SRD jointly reduced yield of YZ_SR by 7.14-9.68%; climate warming and increase in SRD jointly increased the yield of NE_SR by 1.01-3.29%. Our study suggests that rice production in China has been affected by climate change, yet at the same time changes in varieties continue to be the major factor driving yield and growing period trends. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viboud

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon, especially for pathogens that are not airborne. Sub-exponential growth profiles may result from heterogeneity in contact structures or risk groups, reactive behavior changes, or the early onset of interventions strategies, and consideration of “deceleration parameters” may be useful to refine existing mathematical transmission models and improve disease forecasts.

  14. [Dynamics and modeling of water content of ten shrub species in their growth period in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sen; Yan, Xue-Jiao

    2012-12-01

    Based on the two successive years observation of the water content of ten representative shrub species in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China, this paper studied the dynamics of the water content of these shrub species during their growth period and related affecting factors, with the prediction models of the shrub water content established. For the ten shrub species, their minimal water content during growth period was higher than 100% , and most of the species had a water content higher than 200% within the period from the late phase of leaf-unfolding to early phase of leaf-falling. Euonymus verrucosus, Sorbaria sorbifolia, and Sambucus williamsii were incombustible in their whole growth period due to the extremely high water content, while Syringa reticulate, Philadelphus schrenkii, Euonymus verrucosus, Spiraea chamaedryfolia, Lonicera maackii, Lonicera ruprechtiana, and Rhamnus parvifolia were combustible only in the phases of budding and leaf-falling. Soil moisture content and daily maximum temperature had effects on the water content of most (7) of the ten shrubs, and canopy drought severity index affected the water content of 5 of the ten shrubs. The established 9 prediction models could explain more than 35% of the water content variance of the shrub species, with a mean MRE of 35.9% and a mean MRE of 13.4%.

  15. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van Reenen, C G; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-06-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2 successive 12-wk periods (period 1 and period 2). In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, effects of partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 and partially replacing dry matter (DM) intake from maize silage and barley straw by concentrate during period 2 were tested. Solid feed during period 1 consisted of maize silage, barley straw, and concentrate (25:25:50 on a DM basis). Solid feed during period 2 consisted of maize silage and barley straw (50:50 ratio on DM basis) for the nonconcentrate groups, and maize silage, barley straw and concentrates (25:25:50 on a DM basis) for the concentrate groups. At the end of period 1 (n=16) and at the end of period 2 (n=90), parameters of animal performance, rumen development, rumen fermentation, ruminal drinking, and abomasal damage were examined. Partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 resulted in early rumen development (ERD) at the end of period 1, characterized by increased rumen weight, and an increased epithelial and absorptive surface area. Both ERD and partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased the rumen development score at the end of period 2. Although ERD calves consumed more solid feed and less milk replacer during period 1 and 2 than non-ERD calves, carcass weight gains at 25 wk were identical, and utilization of the solid feed provided appeared similar to that of milk replacer. Partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased dressing percentage and warm carcass weight. Plaque formation at the rumen mucosa was unaffected by ERD or partially replacing roughage by concentrates and generally low in all calves. The prevalence of large scars in

  16. Early growth of tumour cells in lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poll, P.H.A.

    1981-01-01

    As the treatment of metastases is a very important problem in human and veterinary medicine (for instance osteosarcoma is notorious for its high deathrate due to this problem), proof was sought for the hypothesis that the doubling time of early metastases is shorter than that of tumor cells of an older age. This is of fundamental importance for the therapeutic problem: is a favourable effect to be expected from a limited dose of radiation on the lungs when metastases are still very small or even invisible. If the hypothesis holds true, it would be justified to treat patients, even though a small group of patients will be treated unnecessarily; clinical experience shows that some patients have not developed metastases without adjuvant treatment. The interest was directed at the very early (1-cell, 2-cell etc.) stages. Obviously these are not detectable in patients and therefore an experimental study with tumourcells in the lungs of mice was devised. The expectation is that the theoretical approach may produce an additional basis for the radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic treatment of patients, in whom the tumourload has been diminished by treatment of the primary tumour but where metastases, although frequently not detectable must be expected. (Auth.)

  17. Retrieving chronological age from dental remains of early fossil hominins to reconstruct human growth in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher

    2010-10-27

    A chronology of dental development in Pan troglodytes is arguably the best available model with which to compare and contrast reconstructed dental chronologies of the earliest fossil hominins. Establishing a time scale for growth is a requirement for being able to make further comparative observations about timing and rate during both dento-skeletal growth and brain growth. The absolute timing of anterior tooth crown and root formation appears not to reflect the period of somatic growth. In contrast, the molar dentition best reflects changes to the total growth period. Earlier initiation of molar mineralization, shorter crown formation times, less root length formed at gingival emergence into functional occlusion are cumulatively expressed as earlier ages at molar eruption. Things that are similar in modern humans and Pan, such as the total length of time taken to form individual teeth, raise expectations that these would also have been the same in fossil hominins. The best evidence there is from the youngest fossil hominin specimens suggests a close resemblance to the model for Pan but also hints that Gorilla may be a better developmental model for some. A mosaic of great ape-like features currently best describes the timing of early hominin dental development.

  18. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Orellana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil. cv. Fino were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment and 1.35 (T2 treatment, which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Yleaf and stem (Ystem water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Yleaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Ystem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Yleaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Ystem - Yleaf  = DY was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees.

  19. Wooden Breast Myodegeneration of Pectoralis Major Muscle Over the Growth Period in Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvo, H-K; Lindén, J; Airas, N; Immonen, K; Valaja, J; Puolanne, E

    2017-01-01

    Wooden breast (WB) myopathy of broiler chickens is a myodegenerative disease of an unknown etiology and is macroscopically characterized by a hardened consistency of the pectoralis major muscle. Our aim was to describe the development and morphology of WB over the growth period in broilers. Additionally, the effect of restricted dietary selenium on the occurrence of WB was examined by allocating the birds in 2 dietary groups: restricted and conventional level of selenium. The experiment included 240 male broilers that were euthanized at ages of 10, 18, 24, 35, 38, or 42 days and evaluated for WB based on abnormal hardness of the pectoralis major muscle. The severity and the distribution of the lesion and presence of white striping were recorded. The first WB cases were seen at 18 days; 13/47 birds (28%) were affected and the majority exhibited a mild focal lesion. In subsequent age groups the WB prevalence varied between 48% and 73% and the lesion was usually diffuse and markedly firm. White striping often coexisted with WB. Histological evaluation performed on 111 cases revealed a significant association of myodegeneration and lymphocytic vasculitis with WB. Vasculitis and perivascular cell infiltration were restricted to the veins. Restricted dietary selenium did not affect the occurrence of WB ( P = .44). Our results indicate that WB starts focally and spreads to form a diffuse and more severe lesion.

  20. Effects of exposure to radiation during the fetal period on behavior and growth in baby mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, I; Kameyama, Y [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1979-03-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to a small dose of radiation during the fetal period upon behavior and growth, 2 groups of 13-day-old fetal mice were irradiated. One group consisted of 18 fetal mice given 25 R and the other of 15 given 100 R. The control group consisted of 18 fetal mice 13 days old. After birth they were all placed in the center of an open area (50 x 50 x 25 cm) for 3 minutes so as to determine the number of squares traversed ad lib. (the number which their extremities traversed for 3 minutes) and the time day when they began walking and grooming. After they were observed for 3 minutes, the time at which reflex actions such as speedy righting and auditory startle were observed was confirmed. There were no differnces between the 25 R-irradiated group and the control group. In the 100 R-irradiated group, walking was observed earlier than in the control group, and the number of squares traversed increased.

  1. Effects of exposure to radiation during the fetal period on behavior and growth in baby mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Ichiro; Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1979-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to a small dose of radiation during the fetal period upon behavior and growth, 2 groups of 13-day-old fetal mice were irradiated. One group consisted of 18 fetal mice given 25 R and the other of 15 given 100 R. The control group consisted of 18 fetal mice 13 days old. After birth they were all placed in the center of an open area (50 x 50 x 25 cm) for 3 minutes so as to determine the number of squares traversed ad lib. (the number which their extremities traversed for 3 minutes) and the time day when they began walking and grooming. After they were observed for 3 minutes, the time at which reflex actions such as speedy righting and auditory startle were observed was confirmed. There were no differnces between the 25 R-irradiated group and the control group. In the 100 R-irradiated group, walking was observed earlier than in the control group, and the number of squares traversed increased. (Ichikawa, K.)

  2. [GC-MS analysis of essential oil from Curcuma aromatica rhizome of different growth periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Ming-ming; Huang, Xiu-lan; Liu, Hua-gang; Lai, Mao-xiang; Wei, Meng-han

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the essential oil from the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica of different growth periods, and to provide the scientific reference for reasonable cultivation and quality control of this plant. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC-MS. The relative contents were determined with area normalization method. The main volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica were basically the same. Among these volatile constituents, curdione was the major. The relative content of curdione was 16.35% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county, and 15.81% in the rhizome of one-year-old plant in Mingyang farm, Nanning city. The relative content of eucalyptol in the 2-year-old cultivated rhizome in Hengxian county was 15.40%, and 14.59% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county. beta-Elemene, beta-caryophyllene,eugenol and germacrone were also the main constituents in the rhizome essential oil. Volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica are similar to each other,but the relative content of each component is different. This result can provide the scientific foundation for the cultivation of Curcuma aromatica.

  3. [Influence of submerged macrophytes on phosphorus transference between sediment and overlying water in the growth period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Zhi; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Yu, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Chen, Qiu-Min; Li, Zhen-Guo

    2012-02-01

    In order to study the process of phosphorus transfer between sediment and overlying water, Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were cultured in spring, Potamogeton crispus was cultured in winter. Changes of environmental factors and phosphorus concentrations in water and sediment were investigated. The results indicated that: submerged macrophytes could reduce all phosphorus fractions in the overlying water. Phosphorus concentrations in overlying water maintained in a relative low level in the growth period of submerged macrophytes. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 0.03-0.05, 0.04-0.12, 0.02-0.11 mg x L(-1), respectively. All phosphorus fractions in sediment were reduced. The maximum value between submerged macrophyte and control of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 35.34, 60.67 and 25.92 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh) and pH in overlying water increased (DO 10.0-14.0 mg x L(-1), Eh 185-240 mV, pH 8.0-11.0) in the submerged macrophytes groups. Submerged macrophytes increased Eh( -140 - -23 mV) and maintained pH(7.2-8.0) in neutral range. The results indicated that submerged macrophytes affected phosphorus transferring between sediment and overlying water through increasing DO, Eh and pH in overlying water, and Eh in sediment.

  4. [The effect of breast massage at different time in the early period after cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J Y; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y J; Yang, M J; Li, X W; Sun, L L

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of breast massage at different time in the early period on maternal lactation after cesarean section. Methods: 80 women delivered by cesarean section were randomly selected from maternity ward of a hospital in Shandong province during Jan. 2013 to Jan. 2015; which were divided into four groups, with 20 patients in each. Three groups received 3 times of breast massage every 24 hoursbeginning from 2, 12 and 24 h after cesarean section, respectively. The control group didn't receive any breast massage. The starting time and status of lactation were observed and recorded after cesarean section. 5 ml venous blood sample was drawn from each patient respectively at 2 h before cesarean, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after cesarean to test the level of serum prolactin. The lactation status of each group was compared. Results: The P (50) ( P (25)- P (75)) of starting time of lactation of the three massage groups and control group were 3 (2-6) h, 4 (2-8) h, 4 (3-12) h and 4 (2-12) h, respectively, whose differences showed no statistical significance ( H =3.32, P= 0.345).The number of delivered women with adequate lactation 24 hours after cesarean was 10 in the group who received massage beginning from 2 h after cesarean; while the number was only 2 in the control group. The number of delivered women with adequate lactation 48 hours after cesarean was 18 in the group who received massage beginning from 2 h after cesarean; while the number was 8 in the control group. The differences showed statistical significances ( P values were 0.021 and 0.008, respectively). The serum prolactin level in the group of delivered women who received massage from 2 h after cesarean was separately (195.9±78.5), (176.0±96.5), (216.4±110.0), (190.0±56.8) and (184.8±69.6) μg/L at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after cesarean, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (which were (128.8±40.6), (127.3±66.8), (162.2±58.8), (145.1±64.7) and (141.7±49

  5. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  6. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  7. Employment growth in rural regions of the EU; A quantitative analysis for the period 1980-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposti, R.; Godeschalk, F.E.; Kuhmonen, T.; Post, J.H.; Sotte, F.; Terluin, I.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this report it is examined whether rural regions in the EU with a relatively high (low) employment growth in the 1980s and early 1990s have some common socio-economic characterics, which can contribute to the explanation of their employment performance. We have grouped the socio-economic

  8. New Plants at Prague Castle and Hradčany in the Early Modern Period. A History of Selected Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, J.; Čulíková, Věra; Kosňovská, J.; Frolík, Jan; Matiášek, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2012), s. 103-114 ISSN 1804-848X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Prague Castle * Early Modern Period * archaeobotany Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2012-01-benes.pdf

  9. The rise of the managerial state in Indonesia : institutional transition during the early independence period. 1950-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakih, Farabi

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes the production of a new elite group in Indonesia, the managers, during the early independence period. Indonesia faced lack of expertise and a government incapable of managing a national plan. The expansion of the managerial class was the result of the lack of leadership of

  10. Modeling of thin films growth processes in the early stage for atoms with covalent bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupik, V A; Margolin, V I; Su, Chu Trong

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation for obtaining thin film’s growth process at an early stage with the proposed model of atoms with isotropic and anisotropic interactions been considered. Carrying out the procedure for analyzing the problem on the basis of the program being implemented, computer simulation of thin film growth processes has been carried out on several examples. The results of computer simulation of the growth process of thin film on a given substrate and an aggregate in a vacuum condition are shown. Some characteristic distributions of the obtained structure have been carried out to evaluate the proposed adequate model and to reflect the high complexity of thin films growth process. (paper)

  11. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  13. Sudden and unexpected and near death during the early neonatal period: A multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Tsao

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion: More effort on promotion of autopsy to discover the underlying disease is necessary and helpful. To build up an alarm system or protocol for education and early detection is the basis to prevent this tragedy.

  14. High dose progesterone effects the growth of early chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Qamar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of high dose progesterone on the development of early chick embryo. Study Design: Lab based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in Army Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Poultry Sciences, Rawalpindi from June 2010 - December 2010. Material and Methods: Forty five specific pathogen free, fertile, eggs of Fyoumi species of chick were selected at zero hour of incubation. They were incubated at 37.5oC and 75% relative humidity for 26 hrs until the embryos reached stage 8 of the development. Then on stage 8 the eggs were divided into three groups consisting of 15 eggs per group. The first group (GI) was incubated without any operation. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were injected with two and twenty times more than physiologic does of progesterone respectively. After 48 hours of incvbation, all embryos were examined for their development under light microscopy. Results: All the embryos of G1 and G2 showed normal development according to their stage of development, while 4 out of 11 embryos of G3 were under developed and their survival rate was also less. Conclusion: Exogenous progesterone at levels twenty times above its physiologic range effects the development of chick embryos. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this effect. (author)

  15. Catch-up growth in early treated patients with growth hormone deficiency. Dutch Growth Hormone Working Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, B; Rikken, B; Wit, J M

    1995-01-01

    Catch-up growth of 26 children with growth hormone deficiency during four years of growth hormone treatment, which was started young (< 3 years), was compared with that of 16 children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet. In children with growth hormone deficiency mean (SD) height SD score increased from -4.3 (1.8) to -1.9 (1.4) and in patients with coeliac disease from -1.8 (0.9) to -0.1 (0.8). Height SD score after four years correlated positively with injection frequency and height S...

  16. Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2011-02-01

    As in industrial and engineering systems, there is a need to quantitatively study and analyze the many constituents of complex natural biological systems as well as agro-ecosystems via research-based mechanistic modeling. This objective is normally addressed by developing mathematically built descriptions of multilevel biological processes to provide biologists a means to integrate quantitatively experimental research findings that might lead to a better understanding of the whole systems and their interactions with surrounding environments. Aided with the power of computational capacities associated with computer technology then available, pioneering cropping systems simulations took place in the second half of the 20th century by several research groups across continents. This overview summarizes that initial pioneering effort made to simulate plant growth and photosynthesis of crop canopies, focusing on the discovery of gaps that exist in the current scientific knowledge. Examples are given for those gaps where experimental research was needed to improve the validity and application of the constructed models, so that their benefit to mankind was enhanced. Such research necessitates close collaboration among experimentalists and model builders while adopting a multidisciplinary/inter-institutional approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  18. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Orellana, Y.; Ortuno, M. F.; Conejero, W.; Ruiz-Sanchez, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. cv. Fino) were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS) threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment) and 1.35 (T2 treatment), which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Y{sub l}eaf) and stem (Y{sub s}tem) water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF) and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Y{sub l}eaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Y{sub s}tem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Y{sub l}eaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Y{sub s}tem - Y{sub l}eaf {Delta}{Psi}) was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC) was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1 analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2 when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  20. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2007-05-11

    The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1) analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2) when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  1. Early-Life Telomere Dynamics Differ between the Sexes and Predict Growth in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Parolini

    Full Text Available Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection regimes, including sex- and context-dependent variation in early-life, and the covariation between telomere dynamics and growth, is scant. In this study of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica we investigated the sex-dependent telomere erosion during nestling period, and the covariation between relative telomere length and body and plumage growth. Finally, we tested whether any covariation between growth traits and relative telomere length depends on the social environment, as influenced by sibling sex ratio. Relative telomere length declined on average over the period of nestling maximal growth rate (between 7 and 16 days of age and differently covaried with initial relative telomere length in either sex. The frequency distribution of changes in relative telomere length was bimodal, with most nestlings decreasing and some increasing relative telomere length, but none of the offspring traits predicted the a posteriori identified group to which individual nestlings belonged. Tail and wing length increased with relative telomere length, but more steeply in males than females, and this relationship held both at the within- and among-broods levels. Moreover, the increase in plumage phenotypic values was steeper when the sex ratio of an individual's siblings was female-biased. Our study provides evidence for telomere shortening during early life according to subtly different dynamics in either sex. Furthermore, it shows that the positive covariation between growth and

  2. Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrijkotte Tanja GM

    2009-03-01

    the first years of life is a modifiable factor for the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in later life. Moreover, identification of specific vulnerable periods during development may reveal suitable timeframes for early interventions.

  3. Stimulation effect of early growth in crops by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Song, H.S.; Kim, J.K.; Lee, Y.K.; Lee, Y.B.

    1998-01-01

    Germination rate and early growth in crop such as rice,soybean,and perilla were observed after irradiation of γ-ray (Co-60) in order to determine the effects of low does radiation. The low dose radiation was able to improve the early growth in crops and their agricultural characters. Germination rate of 2Gy-irradiatied rice seeds was high and also were seeding height and fresh weight of the 0.5 Gy-irradiated. Germination rate and early growth of soybean were high in 4Gy-irradiated group. Perilla gew of so promisingly after after low dose irradiation, however there slightly increasing effects on germination rate, seeding height and fresh weight at 2Gt-, 1Gy-, and 1Gy irradiated group, respectively. (author)

  4. Early treatment with GH alone in Turner syndrome: prepubertal catch-up growth and waning effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, Malgorzata; De Luca, Filippo; Bergamaschi, Rosalba; Guarneri, Maria Pia; Mazzanti, Laura; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Petri, Antonella; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Salzano, Giuseppina; Lombardo, Fortunato

    2004-11-01

    In order to ascertain the advantages of early GH treatment in Turner syndrome (TS), we started a prospective study aimed at evaluating prepubertal height gain in a cohort of 29 girls who were treated with the same pro-kilo GH dose (1.0 IU/kg per week) since they were less than 6 years old and for at least 5 years before entering puberty. Following a minimum of 6 months of baseline observations, 29 girls with TS were enrolled for this prospective study provided that they (a) were less than 6 years old, (b) were below -1.0 standard deviation score (SDS) for height, (c) had a projected adult height (PAH) lower than the respective target height (TH) and (d) had a height velocity (HV) lower than -1.0 SDS. All the selected girls underwent a 5-year treatment with biosynthetic GH at a stable dose of 1.0 IU/kg per week and were periodically measured during the treatment period in order to evaluate height, HV and PAH. After a dramatic acceleration during the 1st year, HV was attenuated during the subsequent years, reaching its nadir at the 5th year. Height deficiency under therapy progressively decreased from entry onwards, shifting from -2.4+/-0.7 to -1.0+/-1.2 SDS. In the same period, mean PAH progressively increased, although after 5 years it remained lower than the average TH. (a) An effective growth-promoting strategy in TS should be based on early GH treatment, as suggested by our results. (b) This strategy could result in a prepubertal normalization of height, thus allowing the appropriate timing for the induction of puberty. (c) An initial GH dose of 1.0 IU/kg per week may be suitable during the first years of therapy, as shown by our data documenting an important waning effect of GH therapy only after the 4th year of treatment. (d) No acceleration of bone maturation was observed under this treatment regimen.

  5. Root and aerial growth in early-maturing peach trees under two crop load treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrisqueta, I.; Conejero, W.; López-Martínez, L.; Vera, J.; Ruiz Sánchez, M.C.

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of the paper were to study the pattern of root growth (measured by minirhizotrons) in relation to trunk, fruit and shoot growth and the effects of crop load on tree growth and yield in peach trees. Two crop load (commercial and low) treatments were applied in a mature early-maturing peach tree orchard growing in Mediterranean conditions. Root growth dynamics were measured using minirhizotrons during one growing season. Shoot, trunk and fruit growth were also measured. At harvest, all fruits were weighed, counted and sized. Roots grew throughout the year but at lower rates during the active fruit growth phase. Root growth was asynchronous with shoot growth, while root and trunk growth rates were highest after harvest, when the canopy was big enough to allocate the photo-assimilates to organs that would ensure the following season’s yield. Shoot and fruit growth was greater in the low crop load treatment and was accompanied by a non-significant increase in root growth. High level of fruit thinning decreased the current yield but the fruits were more marketable because of their greater size.

  6. Early parenteral nutrition and growth outcomes in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyses, Helen E; Johnson, Mark J; Leaf, Alison A; Cornelius, Victoria R

    2013-04-01

    The achievement of adequate nutritional intakes in preterm infants is challenging and may explain the poor growth often seen in this group. The use of early parenteral nutrition (PN) is one potential strategy to address this problem, although the benefits and harms are unknown. We determined whether earlier administration of PN benefits growth outcomes in preterm infants. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Eight RCTs and 13 observational studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 553 and 1796 infants). The meta-analysis was limited by disparate growth-outcome measures. An assessment of bias was difficult because of inadequate reporting. Results are given as mean differences (95% CIs). Early PN reduced the time to regain birth weight by 2.2 d (1.1, 3.2 d) for RCTs and 3.2 d (2.0, 4.4 d) in observational studies. The maximum percentage weight loss with early PN was lower by 3.1 percentage points (1.7, 4.5 percentage points) for RCTs and by 3.5 percentage points (2.6, 4.3 percentage points) for observational studies. Early PN improved weight at discharge or 36 wk postmenstrual age by 14.9 g (5.3, 24.5 g) (observational studies only), but no benefit was shown for length or head circumference. There was no evidence that early PN significantly affects risk of mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, chronic lung disease, intraventricular hemorrhage, or cholestasis. The results of this review, although subject to some limitations, show that early PN provides a benefit for some short-term growth outcomes. No evidence that early PN increases morbidity or mortality was found. Neonatal research would benefit from the development of a set of core growth outcome measures.

  7. Effect of radiation on the early period of gametogenesis in Tilapia mossambika Peters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilevskij, D.A.; Ivojlov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Tilapia mossambica Peters larvae 10 days after hatching were X-irradiated at 350 R, and the number of germinative cells at different stages of development was followed. In the control, 10-day larvae possessed primordial germ cells and gonia; 15-day larvae had mostly gonia; in 20-day larvae some gonia were entering early prophase of meiosis; 25-day larvae possessed gonia and early meiotic prophase oocytes; and 30-day larvae had oogonia, oocytes at early prophase and at the previtellogenesis stage. After the irradiation, 13- and 14-day larvae showed some mitotic disturbances; however the mass death of germ cells was observed after their entering the pachytene stage in fishes 25 days old

  8. Clinical study of electrophysiological changes of optic nerves in early period of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Liang Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the value of pattern visual evoked potential(PVEPand flash electroretinogram(FERGin early diagnosis and prevention of diabetic retinopathy(DR, analyzing the correlation of early stage DR with PVEP and FERG.METHODS:Sixty patients, 30 males and 30 females, participated in observation group. Their average age was 19.42±7.78years. The duration of DM was RESULTS:In observation group, P100 amplitude decreased and P100 latency increased, compared to those of control group(PPCONCLUSION: PVEP are sensitive to optic neuron damage; FERG is desirable to detect the lesion of Müller cells and bipolar cells. P100 amplitude by PVEP, b-wave amplitude by FERG may be the most sensitive parameter for DR at early stage.

  9. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend trend > 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  10. Social inequality in fetal growth: a comparative study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the period 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Diderichsen, F; Arntzen, A

    2008-01-01

    ,077,584; Finland n = 400,442; Norway n = 929,458; Sweden n = 1,761,562). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Slope index of inequality (SII) and mean differences in birthweight for gestational age, SII and risk differences in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. RESULTS: In all countries....... CONCLUSION: The economic recession in Denmark in the 1980s was concurrent with an increase in disparities in fetal growth, whereas the economic recession in Finland and Sweden in the early 1990s did not substantially increase the socioeconomic inequality in fetal growth. The economic growth in the later part...... of the 1990s may have diminished the socioeconomic inequality in fetal growth in Finland, Norway, and Sweden....

  11. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure–ground segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-01-01

    The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure–ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure–ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activity in early visual cortex to different stages of figure–ground segregation, we briefly disrupted activity in areas V1/V2 at various moments in time using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to stimulation we presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between figure border detection and surface segregation. We concurrently recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to examine how neural correlates of figure–ground segregation were affected by TMS. Results show that disruption of V1/V2 in an early time window (96–119 msec) affected detection of figure stimuli and affected neural correlates of figure border detection, border ownership, and surface segregation. TMS applied in a relatively late time window (236–259 msec) selectively deteriorated performance associated with surface segregation. We conclude that areas V1/V2 are not only essential in an early stage of figure–ground segregation when figure borders are detected, but subsequently causally contribute to more sophisticated stages of figure–ground segregation such as surface segregation. PMID:23170239

  12. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-11-01

    The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure-ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activity in early visual cortex to different stages of figure-ground segregation, we briefly disrupted activity in areas V1/V2 at various moments in time using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Prior to stimulation we presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between figure border detection and surface segregation. We concurrently recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to examine how neural correlates of figure-ground segregation were affected by TMS. Results show that disruption of V1/V2 in an early time window (96-119 msec) affected detection of figure stimuli and affected neural correlates of figure border detection, border ownership, and surface segregation. TMS applied in a relatively late time window (236-259 msec) selectively deteriorated performance associated with surface segregation. We conclude that areas V1/V2 are not only essential in an early stage of figure-ground segregation when figure borders are detected, but subsequently causally contribute to more sophisticated stages of figure-ground segregation such as surface segregation.

  13. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure-ground segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, M.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    .The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual

  14. Mortality after discharge from the intensive care unit during the early weekend period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, N; Schierbeck, J; Pedersen, L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a result of a shortage of intensive care capacity, patients may be discharged prematurely early during weekends which may lead to an increased mortality and risk of readmission to intensive care units (ICU). We examined whether discharge from the ICU during the first part...

  15. The Origin of the Soul from Antiquity to the early Modern Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, L.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the soul became a systematic subject of speculation in Greek philosophy and medicine. In early Christian thought, three theories evolved: the soul was held to be either generated from the parents (traducianism) or it was believed to be formed by a special act of creation on God’s part

  16. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  17. Inequality of Income Distribution and Economics Growth in the Regions of Russia in the Post-Crisis Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Arkadyevich Grigoryev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Income distribution is one of the factors influencing economic growth. At present time, the regional aspect of such influence is an important sphere of research. The present article is intended to view the aspects of the influence of income distribution differentiation on economic growth on the example of the Russian regions in post-crisis period. The research results are presented in the form of regression model, estimating the differences in the growth rates of gross regional products in Russia in post-crisis 2010. The explanatory variables are Gini coefficients as an indicator of income inequality, and a number of other indicators characterizing the regional development in 2006 — 2010. Special attention is paid to the influence of 2008 crisis on the differences of regions by the level of dependent variable. Cross-sectional regression model based on the Russian Federation regions data shows the positive influence of changes in income distribution on the rate of economic growth. The general result of the research is confirmation of the hypothesis of the influence of income inequality on economic growth at the regional level in Russia. The observed effect is positive and statistically significant. The effect is relatively short-term, both from the point of view of the dependent variable (the yearly growth rate of GRP is used in the model, and from the point of view of the time lag between the year of dependent variable observation, 2010, and the period of observation, for which the Gini coefficient is significant in regression equation (2006-2007. Pre-crisis value of the Gini coefficient does not determined the differences in economic growth in the regions of Russia in 2011-2012. The results can be used in predicting the pace of regional development in Russia in the post-crisis period, as well as in the implementation of regional economic policy in times of crisis in order to maximize regional economic growth after the crisis

  18. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2016-10-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible-infectious-removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  19. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible–infectious–removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  20. A Tale of Two Generations: Creativity Growth and Gender Differences over a Period of Education and Curriculum Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ping Chung; Lau, Sing

    2013-01-01

    The Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests were translated into Chinese and later fully computerized for research in Hong Kong. The normative data of two cohorts (1994 and 2002) of school children were employed to test the hypothesis that growth in creative thinking occurs in a society or culture during a period of education and curriculum reforms that…

  1. Maintaining the CSR-identity of Sustainable Entrepreneurial Firms: The role of corporate governance in periods of business growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, M.; Blok, V.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the maintenance of the CSR-identity of sustainable entrepreneurial firms (SEFs) during periods of business growth. Our aim is to explore to what extent corporate governance mechanisms can be seen as effective mechanisms to maintain the CSR-identity of growing SEFs. To this

  2. Modeling the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (a(w)) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h(0), which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or a(w) were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase.

  3. Modeling the Lag Period and Exponential Growth of Listeria monocytogenes under Conditions of Fluctuating Temperature and Water Activity Values▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S.; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (aw) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h0, which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or aw were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase. PMID:20208022

  4. Analysis of a time-delayed mathematical model for tumour growth with an almost periodic supply of external nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihe; Bai, Meng; Zhang, Fangwei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the existence, uniqueness and exponential stability of almost periodic solutions for a mathematical model of tumour growth are studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a delay in the cell proliferation process. Using a fixed-point theorem in cones, the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solutions for different parameter values of the model is proved. Moreover, by the Gronwall inequality, sufficient conditions are established for the exponential stability of the unique almost periodic solution. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  5. Controlled growth of periodically aligned copper-silicide nanocrystal arrays on silicon directed by laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberger, Philipp; Reinhardt, Hendrik M.; Rhinow, Daniel; Riedel, René; Werner, Simon; Hampp, Norbert A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a versatile tool for the controlled growth and alignment of copper-silicide nanocrystals. The method takes advantage of a unique self-organization phenomenon denoted as laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). Copper films (3 ± 0.2 nm) are sputter-deposited onto single crystal silicon (100) substrates with a thin oxide layer (4 ± 0.2 nm), and subsequently exposed to linearly polarized nanosecond laser pulses (τ ≈ 6 ns) at a central wavelength of 532 nm. The irradiation triggers dewetting of the Cu film and simultaneous formation of periodic Cu nanowires (LIPSS), which partially penetrate the oxide layer to the Si substrate. These LIPSS act as nucleation centers for the growth of Cu-Si crystals during thermal processing at 500 °C under forming gas 95/5 atmosphere. Exemplified by our model system Cu/SiO2/Si, LIPSS are demonstrated to facilitate the diffusion reaction between Cu and underlying Si. Moreover, adjustment of the laser polarization allows us to precisely control the nanocrystal alignment with respect to the LIPSS orientation. Potential applications and conceivable alternatives of this process are discussed.

  6. Patterns of Growth in Early Childhood and Infectious Disease and Nutritional Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia. These factors contribute to fetal growth restriction and premature delivery, which put many infants on a different growth trajectory. Postnatal exposure to microbes resulting in diarrhea and febrile infectious diseases and poor quality diet further compromise growth. Determinants of growth faltering after birth vary by setting and are not independent of each other. For example, the adverse effects of diarrhea on growth may be mitigated by a high-quality diet. Global estimates suggest that 25% of stunting can be attributed to fetal growth restriction and even more in countries in South Asia with a high prevalence of low birth weight. Infectious diseases may contribute a similar amount and subclinical enteric infections can result in intestinal dysfunction with adverse effects on nutrition and growth. Dietary factors, especially consumption of complementary foods of insufficient quality, have a paramount role in growth faltering in the critical period of infancy. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. [Dietary prevention of protein-energy malnutrition during early postoperative period in elderly patients with gastroduodenal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiĭ, A Iu; Protopopova, O B

    2012-01-01

    The modified diet of postoperative rehabilitation program in elderly patients with gastroduodenal ulcers and prognosis of development of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is presented. It is shown that early initiated special diet in postoperative period, blocks mechanisms of malnutrition and can significantly improve the functional status of the small intestine and activate, thus, membrane digestion, which leads to normalization of all types of metabolism in elderly patients. In comparison with control group, where 72% of patients in postoperative period had malnutrition, malnutrition in the study group revealed a mild degree in only 17.3% of patients.

  8. Torsional oscillations and observed rotational period variations in early-type stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Henry, G.W.; Kurfürst, P.; Karlický, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, č. 1 (2017), s. 933-939 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01116S; GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : MHD * chemically peculiar stars * early-type stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  9. Two critical periods in early visual cortex during figure–ground segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Wokke, Martijn E; Sligte, Ilja G; Steven Scholte, H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-01-01

    .The ability to distinguish a figure from its background is crucial for visual perception. To date, it remains unresolved where and how in the visual system different stages of figure-ground segregation emerge. Neural correlates of figure border detection have consistently been found in early visual cortex (V1/V2). However, areas V1/V2 have also been frequently associated with later stages of figure-ground segregation (such as border ownership or surface segregation). To causally link activit...

  10. The English and the Control of Christianity in the Early Edo Period

    OpenAIRE

    SCREECH, Timon

    2012-01-01

    The history of Japan's de-Christianization in the early seventeenth century has often been told, but is here re-examined using new data, much of it previously unknown. The turn against Catholicism is variously attributed to fear of invasion or cultural difference, but most scholars agree the Dutch played little role, seldom engaging with theological issues. Neglected has been the activities of the English, whose East India Company was in Japan 1613-1626. Investigation of its records reveal...

  11. Maternal depression and suicide at immediate prenatal and early postpartum periods and psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peixia; Ren, Hui; Li, Hong; Dai, Qin

    2018-03-01

    Maternal depression has been intensively explored; however, less attention has been paid to maternal suicide. No studies to date have observed maternal depression and suicide at immediate prenatal and early postpartum stages. In total, 213 Chinese women were recruited in hospitals after they were admitted for childbirth. All completed a short-term longitudinal survey at perinatal stages. Women reported lower depression scores (6.65) and higher suicidal ideation incidence (11.74%) after childbirth. Prenatal depression raised the possibility of prenatal suicidal ideation, while prenatal depression and suicidal ideation increased postpartum depression and suicidal ideation. At immediate prenatal stage, marital satisfaction protected women from depression, while miscarriage experiences and self-esteem increased the risk. At early postpartum stage, in contrast, being first-time mother, marital satisfaction, and harmony with mother-in-law prevented them from depression. Our study is among the first to confirm that women have decreased depression but increased suicidal ideation at early postpartum, and a causal relationship between them, which are worthy of public attention. Potential protective (marital satisfaction, being first-time mother, and harmony with mother-in-law) or risk factors (miscarriage experiences and self-esteem) of maternal depression and suicidal ideation are identified at perinatal stages. This offers reliable guidance for clinical practice of health care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EARLY OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS BY THE TAROT TELESCOPES: PERIOD 2001-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Gendre, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Telescopes a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires telescopes are two robotic observatories designed to observe the prompt optical emission counterpart and the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present data acquired between 2001 and 2008 and discuss the properties of the optical emission of GRBs, noting various interesting results. The optical emission observed during the prompt GRB phase is rarely very bright: we estimate that 5%-20% of GRBs exhibit a bright optical flash (R < 14) during the prompt gamma-ray emission, and that more than 50% of the GRBs have an optical emission fainter than R = 15.5 when the gamma-ray emission is active. We study the apparent optical brightness distribution of GRBs at 1000 s showing that our observations confirm the distribution derived by other groups. The combination of these results with those obtained by other rapid slewing telescopes allows us to better characterize the early optical emission of GRBs and to emphasize the importance of very early multiwavelength GRB studies for the understanding of the physics of the ejecta.

  13. STATISTICAL GROWTH MODELING OF LONGITUDINAL DT-MRI FOR REGIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY BRAIN DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Fletcher, P Thomas; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

    2012-01-01

    A population growth model that represents the growth trajectories of individual subjects is critical to study and understand neurodevelopment. This paper presents a framework for jointly estimating and modeling individual and population growth trajectories, and determining significant regional differences in growth pattern characteristics applied to longitudinal neuroimaging data. We use non-linear mixed effect modeling where temporal change is modeled by the Gompertz function. The Gompertz function uses intuitive parameters related to delay, rate of change, and expected asymptotic value; all descriptive measures which can answer clinical questions related to growth. Our proposed framework combines nonlinear modeling of individual trajectories, population analysis, and testing for regional differences. We apply this framework to the study of early maturation in white matter regions as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Regional differences between anatomical regions of interest that are known to mature differently are analyzed and quantified. Experiments with image data from a large ongoing clinical study show that our framework provides descriptive, quantitative information on growth trajectories that can be directly interpreted by clinicians. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal analysis of growth functions to explain the trajectory of early brain maturation as it is represented in DTI.

  14. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O 2 , 6 h; postnatal day 7 , P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight ( P controls and was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of mouse GH ( P controls. In addition, rhGH treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. DNA biosynthesis content and intensiveness in mice thymus at early periods following fast neutron irradiation with different energy rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indyk, V.M.; Antonenko, G.I.; Parnovskaya, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Biosynthesis of dna of the thymic glands of animals irradiated by fast neutrons with different energy values in the early post-irradiation period is investigated. It is shown that the rate of mass recovery in organs, their cellular nature, dna content and indices of their specific activity have the dose and time dependences, as well as they considerably differ at different neutron energies and different quality radiation. With the increase of neutron energy value their biological effectiveness decreases

  16. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  18. Early development and growth of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybnikár, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Mareš, J.; Cileček, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2011), s. 217-225 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : early ontogeny * specific growth rate * length-weight relationship * factor of weight condition Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.mendelu.cz/dok_server/slozka.pl?id=51329;download=82072

  19. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass

  20. Early Childhood Memory and Attention as Predictors of Academic Growth Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipek, Deborah; Valentino, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to assess how well measures of short-term and working memory and attention in early childhood predicted longitudinal growth trajectories in mathematics and reading comprehension. Analyses also examined whether changes in memory and attention were more…

  1. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  2. Effect of drought stress on early growth of Adansonia digitata (L.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought and high temperatures are said to have triggered increased tree mortality and could be linked to the menace of climate change. This research therefore investigated the effect of drought stress on early growth of Adansonia digitata where seedlings were exposed to different watering frequencies (Once daily, after 3, ...

  3. Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination, early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and some physiological characteristics were evaluated for four cauliflower species in seven treatments of salinity including 0 (control), 34, 68, 102, 136, 170 and 204 mM NaCl in a three replicated randomized completely block design (RCBD). This result shows ...

  4. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  5. Formation of the Periotic Space During the Early Fetal Period in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Aoi; Ohtsuki, Sae; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2018-04-01

    The inner ear is a very complicated structure, composed of a bony labyrinth (otic capsule; OC), membranous labyrinth, with a space between them, named the periotic labyrinth or periotic space. We investigated how periotic tissue fluid spaces covered the membranous labyrinth three-dimensionally, leading to formation of the periotic labyrinth encapsulated in the OC during human fetal development. Digital data sets from magnetic resonance images and phase-contrast X-ray tomography images of 24 inner ear organs from 24 human fetuses from the Kyoto Collection (fetuses in trimesters 1 and 2; crown-rump length: 14.4-197 mm) were analyzed. The membranous labyrinth was morphologically differentiated in samples at the end of the embryonic period (Carnegie stage 23), and had grown linearly to more than eight times in size during the observation period. The periotic space was first detected at the 35-mm samples, around the vestibule and basal turn of the cochlea, which elongated rapidly to the tip of the cochlea and semicircular ducts, successively, and almost covered the membranous labyrinth at the 115-mm CRL stage or later. In those samples, several ossification centers were detected around the space. This article thus demonstrated that formation of the membranous labyrinth, periotic space (labyrinth), and ossification of the OC occurs successively, according to an intricate timetable. Anat Rec, 301:563-570, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Temporal trends of latency period and perinatal survival after very early preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Herrera, José A; Urgal, Amaya; Lazarraga, Cristina; Benítez, María J; Gómez, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    This paper shows temporal trends of latency period and perinatal survival after preterm premature rupture of membranes at or before 28 weeks (very early PPROM). We have studied retrospectively medical records of all cases of very early PPROM attended in our Obstetric Department from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. A total of 327 cases of very early PPROM were attended, representing 0.4 % of all deliveries, 3.68 % of all preterm births and 15 % of cases all of PPROM. The mean gestational age at delivery was 27 weeks (range 20-34). The mean duration of latency period for the total of 327 cases was 12.1 days (range 0-83, SD 13.3), with a clear trend to its increase from 2005 (p 2000-2010, perinatal deaths reached 30.6 % of all cases, with a clear trend to decrease as gestational age at diagnosis increased, and over the years of study. We have also found a high rate of obstetric complications and a high rate of cesarean deliveries. The upward trend in the duration of latency period in all groups over the years of study and the encouraging perinatal survival observed, even in previable PPROM, are incentives to follow expectant/conservative management in these cases.

  7. Determining the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species of a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Pena-Claros, M.

    2012-07-01

    To determine the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species from a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, a fire scar was used as a marker point to verify the annual nature of tree rings. The number of tree rings formed between the 1995 fire scar and the collection of the cross sections in 2002 was visually identified. The seven species showed annual growth rings. In most cases, boundaries between rings were marked by the presence of marginal parenchyma and wall-thick ed fibers formed at the end of the growing season. Growth lenses and false rings were recorded in some species. Tree rings can be carefully used in Santa Cruz forests to determine rates of growth. This information is crucial for defining forest management practices in tropical regions. (Author) 21 refs.

  8. Early detection by MRI and conservative therapy of lumbar spondylolysis in the growing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tohru; Namba, Hiromichi; Kasai, Tsutomu; Ohta, Susumu

    1996-01-01

    Since 1991 the early cases of spondylolysis in the growing stage have been diagnosed with MRI and treated conservatively by the authors. The final results were obtained in 153 cases (207 arches). The fusion rate of the separated part of these arches was 82% of the total. Treatment consisted mainly of prohibition of exercise and wearing a hard brace. The brace was more effective when worn not only during the day but also throughout the night. On MRI T 1 -weighted images low signal intensity changes of the pars interarticularis proved that bony fusion had been attained with conservative therapy. (author)

  9. Early detection by MRI and conservative therapy of lumbar spondylolysis in the growing period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tohru; Namba, Hiromichi; Kasai, Tsutomu; Ohta, Susumu [Yoshida Orthopaedic Hospital, Toyota, Aichi (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    Since 1991 the early cases of spondylolysis in the growing stage have been diagnosed with MRI and treated conservatively by the authors. The final results were obtained in 153 cases (207 arches). The fusion rate of the separated part of these arches was 82% of the total. Treatment consisted mainly of prohibition of exercise and wearing a hard brace. The brace was more effective when worn not only during the day but also throughout the night. On MRI T{sub 1}-weighted images low signal intensity changes of the pars interarticularis proved that bony fusion had been attained with conservative therapy. (author)

  10. High Resolution AFM and Single-Cell Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Geobacter sulfurreducens Biofilms Early in Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Nikolai, E-mail: nikolai.lebedev@nrl.navy.mil; Strycharz-Glaven, Sarah M.; Tender, Leonard M., E-mail: nikolai.lebedev@nrl.navy.mil [Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-08-21

    Atomic force microscopy and confocal resonance Raman microscopy (CRRM) of single-cells were used to study the transition of anode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms from lag phase (initial period of low current) to exponential phase (subsequent period of rapidly increasing current). Results reveal that lag phase biofilms consist of lone cells and tightly packed single-cell thick clusters crisscrossed with extracellular linear structures that appears to be comprised of nodules approximately 20 nm in diameter aligned end to end. By early exponential phase, cell clusters expand laterally and a second layer of closely packed cells begins to form on top of the first. Abundance of c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt) is threefold greater in two-cell thick regions than in one-cell thick regions. The results indicate that early biofilm growth involves two transformations. The first is from lone cells to two-dimensionally associated cells during lag phase when current remains low. This is accompanied by formation of extracellular linear structures. The second is from two- to three-dimensionally associated cells during early exponential phase when current begins to increase rapidly. This is accompanied by a dramatic increase in c-Cyt abundance.

  11. High Resolution AFM and Single-Cell Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Geobacter sulfurreducens Biofilms Early in Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Nikolai; Strycharz-Glaven, Sarah M.; Tender, Leonard M.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy and confocal resonance Raman microscopy (CRRM) of single-cells were used to study the transition of anode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms from lag phase (initial period of low current) to exponential phase (subsequent period of rapidly increasing current). Results reveal that lag phase biofilms consist of lone cells and tightly packed single-cell thick clusters crisscrossed with extracellular linear structures that appears to be comprised of nodules approximately 20 nm in diameter aligned end to end. By early exponential phase, cell clusters expand laterally and a second layer of closely packed cells begins to form on top of the first. Abundance of c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt) is threefold greater in two-cell thick regions than in one-cell thick regions. The results indicate that early biofilm growth involves two transformations. The first is from lone cells to two-dimensionally associated cells during lag phase when current remains low. This is accompanied by formation of extracellular linear structures. The second is from two- to three-dimensionally associated cells during early exponential phase when current begins to increase rapidly. This is accompanied by a dramatic increase in c-Cyt abundance.

  12. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28 or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV, calbindin (CB, and calretinin (CR neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6. Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  13. Early Period Results and Clinical Characteristics of Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Sivrihisar State Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim was to identify the characteristics of the patient that performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a new established endoscopy unit of a state hospital. We want to present the spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases in our hospitals region. Material and Method: We analyzed patients upper endoscopy results according to age, sex, complaints, clinical characteristics, type of anesthesia, and the necessity of biopsy. We reviewed 256 patients data between 2013 December-2014 July. All endoscopies were performed by same surgeon. Results: The highest complaint was epigastric pain (n=112, 43, 8%. Other complaints were followed as dyspepsia (n=84, 32.8%, heartburn (n=42, 16.4%, nausea (n=4, 1.6%, vomiting (n=2, 0.8%, dysphagia (n=6, 2.3%. We determined 218 gastritis (85.2%, 64 hiatal hernia (25%, 120 esophagitis (46.9%, 76 duodenitis (29.7%, 4 gastric ulcer (1.6%, 18 duodenal ulcers (7%, 20 bile reflux (7.8%, 26 Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD in patients (10.2%. 10 patients reported as normal (3.9%. Biopsy was performed in 186 of the patients. Discussion: Endoscopy can become an early diagnostic examination by increasing the availability of endoscopy. Also alarm symptoms should not be ignored and endoscopy should perform immediately in symptomatic patients. As an early result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies that performed in this study; gastritis, esophagitis, duodenitis and hiatal hernia are common gastrointestinal diseases in our region.

  14. Risk of Porphyromonas gingivalis recolonization during the early period of periodontal maintenance in initially severe periodontitis sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Osamu; Miura, Mayumi; Hamachi, Takafumi; Maeda, Katsumasa

    2006-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a critical pathogen of periodontal diseases including recurrent periodontitis. The profound effects of active periodontal treatment (APT) on P. gingivalis elimination were previously demonstrated and revealed that the subsequent P. gingivalis-free or -suppressed status seems to be maintained during early periodontal maintenance (PMT). The aim of the present study was to show the occurrence of microbial recolonization during this early PMT period. In total, 128 sites from 11 generalized chronic periodontitis patients and one generalized aggressive periodontitis patient underwent clinical and microbiologic examination at baseline (Exam-I), after APT (Exam-II), and in PMT (Exam-III). Exam-III was carried out an average of 4.5 +/- 3.5 months after Exam-II. Detection and quantification of putative pathogens were performed using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The PMT used was effective in maintaining the clinical conditions improved by APT. However, in microbiological examinations, Exam-III showed higher detection frequency and levels of P. gingivalis than Exam-II. This suggests that a P. gingivalis recolonization started in the early PMT period. P. gingivalis-increased sites then showed significantly more severe signs of periodontitis in Exam-I than P. gingivalis-stable sites (bleeding on probing frequency: 76.7% versus 56.5%; suppuration frequency: 41.9% versus 12.9%). On the other hand, in Exam-II, no significant differences of clinical parameters were noted between P. gingivalis-increased and -stable sites. Severe periodontitis sites before APT seemed to place them at risk of P. gingivalis recolonization in the early PMT period, and this microbial restoration could be a cause of recurrent periodontitis.

  15. Mitral restenosis in the early postoperative period of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomerantzeff Pablo Maria Alberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty eight year old woman, who had undergone mitral comissurotomy and subsequently developed early restenosis, presented with major comissural fusion and verrucous lesions on the cuspid edges of the mitral valve, with normal subvalvar apparatus. Patient did well for the first six months after surgery when she began to present dyspnea on light exertion. A clinical diagnosis of restenosis was made, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. She underwent surgery, and a stenotic mitral valve with verrucous lesions suggesting Libman-Sacks' endocarditis was found. Because the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE had not been confirmed at that time, a bovine pericardium bioprosthesis (FISICS-INCOR was implanted. The patient did well in the late follow-up and is now in NYHA Class I .

  16. Mitral restenosis in the early postoperative period of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantzeff, P M; Corrêa, J D; Brandão, C M; de Assis, R V; Jatene, A D

    1999-04-01

    A forty-eight year old woman, who had undergone mitral comissurotomy and subsequently developed early restenosis, presented with major comissural fusion and verrucous lesions on the cuspid edges of the mitral valve, with normal subvalvar apparatus. Patient did well for the first six months after surgery when she began to present dyspnea on light exertion. A clinical diagnosis of restenosis was made, which was confirmed by an echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. She underwent surgery, and a stenotic mitral valve with verrucous lesions suggesting Libman-Sacks' endocarditis was found. Because the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had not been confirmed at that time, a bovine pericardium bioprosthesis (FISICS-INCOR) was implanted. The patient did well in the late follow-up and is now in NYHA Class I.

  17. Possible effects of an early diagnosis and treatment in patients with growth hormone deficiency: the state of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Scalini, Perla; Farello, Giovanni; Verrotti, Alberto

    2017-09-16

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a relatively uncommon and heterogeneous endocrine disorder presenting in childhood with short stature. However, during the neonatal period, the metabolic effects of GHD may to require prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. An increasing amount of data suggests the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment of GHD because of its auxological, metabolic, and neurodevelopmental features with respect to the patients diagnosed and treated later in life.The available results show favourable auxological outcomes for patients with GHD diagnosed and treated with r-hGH early in life compared with those from patients with GHD who do not receive this early diagnosis and treatment. Because delayed referral for GHD diagnosis and treatment is still frequent, these results highlight the need for more attention in the diagnosis and treatment of GHD.Despite these very encouraging data regarding metabolic and neurodevelopmental features, further studies are needed to better characterize these findings. Overall, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of GHD needs to be addressed.

  18. Effect of Periods of Field Establishment and Irrigation on Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two irrigation regimes on the growth and yield performance of Thevetia peruviana (Pers) Schum were evaluated during the 2010 and 2011 rainy seasons. The study was carried out at the Research Farms of the Bio-fuel and Alternate Renewable Energy Ltd, Edidi, Kwara State in the southern Guinea savannah of Nigeria.

  19. Distributions of crystals and gas bubbles in reservoir ice during growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jun Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dominant factors of the physical properties of ice in ice thermodynamics and mechanics, in-situ observations of ice growth and decay processes were carried out. Two samplings were conducted in the fast and steady ice growth stages. Ice pieces were used to observe ice crystals and gas bubbles in ice, and to measure the ice density. Vertical profiles of the type and size of ice crystals, shape and size of gas bubbles, and gas bubble content, as well as the ice density, were obtained. The results show that the upper layer of the ice pieces is granular ice and the lower layer is columnar ice; the average crystal size increases with the ice depth and remains steady in the fast and steady ice growth stages; the shape of gas bubbles in the upper layer of ice pieces is spherical with higher total content, and the shape in the middle and lower layers is cylinder with lower total content; the gas bubble size and content vary with the ice growth stage; and the ice density decreases with the increase of the gas bubble content.

  20. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  1. Histological and allometric growth analysis of eye in Caspian kutum, Rutilus kutum Kamensky, 1901 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae during early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Hasanpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish larvae have several sensory systems that are functional at or soon after hatching and then are developed further during larval and juvenile stages. This study was conducted to investigate development of the eye in Rutilus kutum, based on histological and allometric growth analysis during early developmental stages up to 35 day post hatching with emphasis on retinal morphology. For this purpose, the histological sections were prepared and allometric growth pattern of the eye was calculated. The results showed that the most eye’s structures along with the retina of the newly hatched larvae, as the inner sensory (photosensitive tissue were completely differentiated. Allometric growth pattern of the eye diameter up to the inflexion point (7 dph was somewhat positive and then it became negative. The results revealed that the Caspian kutum is dependence on visual capability as visual feeder during their larval period which itself explains completion of eye structures and the high growth rate of eye before 3 dph i.e. beginning of mixed feeding.

  2. Irreversibility of a bad start: early exposure to osmotic stress limits growth and adaptive developmental plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Shiun; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Kam, Yeong-Choy

    2012-05-01

    Harsh environments experienced early in development have immediate effects and potentially long-lasting consequences throughout ontogeny. We examined how salinity fluctuations affected survival, growth and development of Fejervarya limnocharis tadpoles. Specifically, we tested whether initial salinity effects on growth and rates of development were reversible and whether they affected the tadpoles' ability to adaptively accelerate development in response to deteriorating conditions later in development. Tadpoles were initially assigned to either low or high salinity, and then some were switched between salinity levels upon reaching either Gosner stage 30 (early switch) or 38 (late switch). All tadpoles initially experiencing low salinity survived whereas those initially experiencing high salinity had poor survival, even if switched to low salinity. Growth and developmental rates of tadpoles initially assigned to high salinity did not increase after osmotic stress release. Initial low salinity conditions allowed tadpoles to attain a fast pace of development even if exposed to high salinity afterwards. Tadpoles experiencing high salinity only late in development metamorphosed faster and at a smaller size, indicating an adaptive acceleration of development to avoid osmotic stress. Nonetheless, early exposure to high salinity precluded adaptive acceleration of development, always causing delayed metamorphosis relative to those in initially low salinity. Our results thus show that stressful environments experienced early in development can critically impact life history traits, having long-lasting or irreversible effects, and restricting their ability to produce adaptive plastic responses.

  3. Conceptual basis for prescriptive growth standards from conception to early childhood: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uauy, R; Casanello, P; Krause, B; Kuzanovic, J P; Corvalan, C

    2013-09-01

    maternal uterine environment from the time before conception, through embryonic development until fetal growth is complete. The remaining challenge is how 'early' will we be able to act, now that we can better monitor fetal growth. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  4. Paracetamol/acetaminophen (single administration) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Doris; Abalos, Edgardo; Gyte, Gillian M L; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2013-01-31

    Perineal pain is a common but poorly studied adverse outcome following childbirth. Pain may result from perineal trauma due to bruising, spontaneous tears, surgical incisions (episiotomies), or in association with operative births (ventouse or forceps assisted births). To determine the efficacy of a single administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) systemic drugs used in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain We updated the search of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register on 6 November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a single dose compared with placebo for women with early postpartum perineal pain. We excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Two review authors assessed each paper for inclusion and extracted data. One review author reviewed the decisions and confirmed calculations for pain relief scores. We did not identify any new trials from the updated search so the results remain unchanged as follows.We have included 10 studies describing two dosages of paracetamol. Of these, five studies (526 women) assessed 500 mg to 650 mg and six studies (841 women) assessed 1000 mg of paracetamol. We chose to use random-effects meta-analyses because of the heterogeneity in dosage used. Studies were from the 1970s to the early 1990s, and there was insufficient information to assess the risk of bias adequately, hence the findings need to be interpreted within this context.More women experienced pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (average risk ratio (RR) 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59 to 2.89, 10 studies, 1279 women). In addition, there were significantly fewer women having additional pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, eight studies, 1132 women). Both the 500 mg to 650 mg and 1000 mg doses were effective in providing more pain relief than placebo.Maternal and neonatal potential adverse drug effects were not assessed in

  5. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  6. Ezh2 Controls an Early Hematopoietic Program and Growth and Survival Signaling in Early T Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Danis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL is an aggressive subtype of ALL distinguished by stem-cell-associated and myeloid transcriptional programs. Inactivating alterations of Polycomb repressive complex 2 components are frequent in human ETP-ALL, but their functional role is largely undefined. We have studied the involvement of Ezh2 in a murine model of NRASQ61K-driven leukemia that recapitulates phenotypic and transcriptional features of ETP-ALL. Homozygous inactivation of Ezh2 cooperated with oncogenic NRASQ61K to accelerate leukemia onset. Inactivation of Ezh2 accentuated expression of genes highly expressed in human ETP-ALL and in normal murine early thymic progenitors. Moreover, we found that Ezh2 contributes to the silencing of stem-cell- and early-progenitor-cell-associated genes. Loss of Ezh2 also resulted in increased activation of STAT3 by tyrosine 705 phosphorylation. Our data mechanistically link Ezh2 inactivation to stem-cell-associated transcriptional programs and increased growth/survival signaling, features that convey an adverse prognosis in patients.

  7. X-irradiation of mice in the early fetal period. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegel, H.; Weber, L.; Schmahl, W.

    1979-01-01

    Pregnant NMRI mice were X-irradiated with 50, 100 and 200 R, respectively, on the twelfth gestational day. The brains of their offspring were weighed and examined for acetylcholinesterase and Na,K-ATPase activities from birth until the 64th postnatal day. The postnatal brain weights were influenced by the prenatal irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. At birth the brains of the treated animals weighed less than those of the controls. After a limited period of restitution (postnatal days 3 to 10), weights fell again, as compared to the controls, and persisted at subnormal levels. This was assumed to be a sequel of surplus neuron cell formation and their speedy degradation as soon as neuronal function had been established. The curves of the activites (per gram of brain tissue) of acetylcholinesterase as well as Na,K-ATPase showed oscillating compensatory responses to the prenatal irradiation. Activities were preferentially found at supernormal levels, the oscillation lasting as long as the restitution period of the brain weights. With the 50 R and 100 R groups, enzyme activities were steadily above the control levels from the 16th until the 48th day after birth. On the 64th postnatal day all enzyme activities but one (200 R, Na,K-ATPase) had returned to the control levels. Oscillating responses to prenatal X-irradiation have been described for the DNA-synthesis in livers and brains of mice during the first three postnatal weeks. From this perspective, our results are discussed as the outcome of radiation-induced alterations in genome activity. (orig.) [de

  8. [Pathology of amniogenesis in the early prenatal period of human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulazhenko, V P; Bragina, Z N

    1989-08-01

    Morphological and, in a number of cases, cytogenetical investigation has been performed in 420 intact embryonal sacs and in embryos 7-8-week-old, obtained at spontaneous abortions (272) and at tubal pregnancy (148). Among these cases 202 (48.1%) intact empty embryonal sacs, 75 (17.9%) embryos with panorganodysplasia, 25 (6%) embryos with isolated developmental defects and 118 (28%) phenotypically normal embryos have been revealed. Pathology of amniogenesis such as aplasia or hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity is noted in 136 (32.4%) cases. Among 75 embryos with panorganodysplasia anomalies such as hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity in combination with a partial extra-amniotic++ position of the embryos in exocelom (10.7%), aplasia (5.3%) or hypoplasia (17.3%) amniotic peduncle is present in 43 (57.3%) observations. Out of 40 such cases at spontaneous abortions, cytogenetically investigated, in 27 (67.5%) chromosomal disorders (tetraploidy, triploidy, autosomal trisomy and monosomy) are revealed. Aplasia and hypoplasia of the amniotic cavity are considered as pathology of histogenesis at the tissue stage of the early human ontogenesis, that most evidently occurs as a result of asplasia, destruction or anomaly of embryoblast during the first phase of gastrulation on the 7th-11th day of the intrauterine development.

  9. Prediction of Late Postoperative Hemorrhage after Whipple Procedure Using Computed Tomography Performed During Early Postoperative Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ga Jin; Kim, Suk; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Chang Won; Seo, Hyeong Il; Kim, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Un

    2018-01-01

    Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is an uncommon but serious complication of Whipple surgery. To evaluate the radiologic features associated with late PPH at the first postoperative follow up CT, before bleeding. To evaluate the radiological features associated with late PPH at the first follow-up CT, two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the initial postoperative follow-up CT images of 151 patients, who had undergone Whipple surgery. Twenty patients showed PPH due to vascular problem or anastomotic ulcer. The research compared CT and clinical findings of 20 patients with late PPH and 131 patients without late PPH, including presence of suggestive feature of pancreatic fistula (presence of air at fluid along pancreaticojejunostomy [PJ]), abscess (fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas), fluid along hepaticojejunostomy or PJ, the density of ascites, and the size of visible gastroduodenal artery (GDA) stump. CT findings including pancreatic fistula, abscess, and large GDA stump were associated with PPH on univariate analysis ( p ≤ 0.009). On multivariate analysis, radiological features suggestive of a pancreatic fistula, abscess, and a GDA stump > 4.45 mm were associated with PPH ( p ≤ 0.031). Early postoperative CT findings including GDA stump size larger than 4.45 mm, fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas, and air at fluid along PJ, could predict late PPH.

  10. The Preboreal-like Asian monsoon climate in the early last interglacial period recorded from the Dark Cave, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuyang; He, Yaoqi; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoshuang; Hong, Hui; Liu, Juan; Yu, Tsai-Luen; Li, Zhizhong; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2017-08-01

    Transitions of glacial-interglacial cycles are critical periods for Quaternary climate shifts. Here, we present new, decadal resolution Asian summer monsoon (ASM) record from three stalagmites obtained from the Dark Cave in southwestern China over 130-114 thousand years ago (ka, before CE 1950). Chronology was anchored by 28 230Th dates with typical uncertainties of ±0.3-1.0 kyr, allowing an assessment of timing and transition of climate changes during the onset and end of the last interglacial. An agreement between this new and previous stalagmite δ18O records supports that summer insolation predominates orbital-scale ASM evolution. A 2-3 kyr-long gradually increasing ASM period, analogous to the classical Preboreal episode in the early Holocene, follows the termination of a weak monsoon interval at 129.0 ± 0.8 ka. This finding suggests a strong influence of high-latitude ice-sheet dynamics on Asian monsoonal conditions during the early interglacial period. An abrupt end of the marine isotope stage 5e at 118.8 ± 0.6 ka was probably caused by the internal climate system threshold effects.

  11. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  12. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Scott; Maltrud, Mathew; Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Cameron-Smith, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH4 distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  13. Late Archaic–Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins. PMID:27849582

  14. Late Archaic-Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2016-11-29

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins.

  15. Observed Effects of Vegetation Growth on Temperature in the Early Summer over the Northeast China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxiang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vegetation on temperature is an emerging topic in the climate science community. Existing studies have mostly examined the effects of vegetation on daytime temperature (Tmax, whereas this study investigates the effects on nighttime temperature (Tmin. Ground measurements from 53 sites across northeastern China (NEC from 1982 to 2006 show that early summer (June Tmax and Tmin increased at mean rates of approximately 0.61 °C/10 year and 0.67 °C/10 year, respectively. Over the same period, the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI decreased by approximately 0.10 (accounting for 18% of the climatological NDVI for 1982–1991. It is highlighted that a larger increase in Tmax (Tmin co-occurred spatially with a larger (smaller decrease in NDVI. Deriving from such spatial co-occurrences, we found that the spatial variability of changes in Tmax (i.e., ΔTmax is negatively correlated with the spatial variability of changes in NDVI (i.e., ΔNDVI, while the spatial variability of changes in Tmin (i.e., ΔTmin is positively correlated (r2 = 0.10; p < 0.05 with that of ΔNDVI. Similarly, we detected significant positive correlations between the spatial variability of ΔNDVI and the change in surface latent heat flux (r2 = 0.16; p < 0.01 and in surface air specific humidity (r2 = 0.28; p < 0.001. These findings on the spatial co-occurrences suggest that the vegetation growth intensifies the atmospheric water vapor through evapotranspiration, which enhances the atmospheric downward longwave radiation and strengthens the greenhouse warming effects at night. Thereby, the positive correlation between ΔNDVI and ΔTmin is better understood. These results indicate that vegetation growth may not only exert effects on daytime temperature but also exert warming effects on nighttime temperature by increasing atmospheric water vapor and thus intensifying the local greenhouse effect. This study presents new observation evidence of the

  16. Emittance growth of an electron beam in a periodic channel due to transfer of longitudinal energy to transverse energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Most discussions about emittance growth and halo production for an intense electron beam in a periodic focusing channel assume that the total transverse energy is constant (or, in other words, that the transverse and longitudinal Hamiltonians are separable). Previous analyses that include variations in the total transverse energy are typically based on a transverse-longitudinal coupling that is either from two-dimensional space-charge modes or particle-particle Coulomb collisions. With the space-charge modes, the energy exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is periodic, and of constant magnitude. The total energy transfer for the case of the Coulomb collisions is negligible. This limited increase of energy in the transverse direction from these other effects will limit the amount of transverse emittance growth possible. In this paper, the authors investigate a mechanism in which there is a continual transfer of energy from the longitudinal direction to the transverse direction, leading to essentially unlimited potential transverse emittance growth. This mechanism is caused by an asymmetry of the beam's betatron motion within the periodic focusing elements. This analysis is based on thermodynamic principles. This mechanism exists for both solenoids and quadrupole focusing, although only solenoid focusing is studied here

  17. Growth hormone deficiency in the transition period: body composition and gonad function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balercia, G; Giovannini, L; Paggi, F; Spaziani, M; Tahani, N; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Radicioni, A

    2011-10-01

    Recombinant GH therapy is normally administered to GH-deficient children in order to achieve a satisfactory height - the main target during childhood and adolescence. However, the role of GH does not end once final height has been reached, but continues during the so-called transition period. In this phase of life, the body undergoes several changes, both physical and psychological, that culminate in adulthood. During this period, GH has a part in numerous metabolic functions. These include the lipid profile, where it increases HDL and reduces LDL, with the global effect of cardiovascular protection. It also has important effects on body composition (improved muscle strength and lean body mass and reduced body fat), the achievement of proper peak bone density, and gonad maturation. Retesting during the transition period, involving measurement of IGF-I plus a provocative test (insulin tolerance test or GHRH + arginine test), is thus necessary to establish any persistent GH deficiency requiring additional replacement therapy. The close cooperation of the medical professionals involved in the patient's transition from a pediatric to an adult endocrinologist is essential. The aim of this review is to point out the main aspects of GH treatment on body composition, metabolic and gonad functions in the transition period.

  18. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other...... and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible...

  19. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Koenig-Robert

    Full Text Available Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging, a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  20. Heart rate variability during sleep in healthy term newborns in the early postnatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, O M; Korotchikova, I; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W; Kerins, D

    2009-01-01

    Normative time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures were extracted during quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS) periods in 30 healthy babies. All newborn infants studied were less than 12 h old and the sleep state was classified using multi-channel video EEG. Three bands were extracted from the heart rate (HR) spectrum: very low frequency (VLF), 0.01–0.04 Hz; low frequency (LF), 0.04–0.2 Hz, and high frequency (HF), >0.2 Hz. All metrics were averaged across all patients and per sleep state to produce a table of normative values. A noticeable peak corresponding to activity in the RSA band was found in 80% patients during QS and 0% of patients during AS, although some broadband activity was observed. The majority of HRV metrics showed a statistically significant separation between QS and AS. It can be concluded that (i) activity in the RSA band is present during QS in the healthy newborn, in the first 12 h of life, (ii) HRV measures are affected by sleep state and (iii) the averaged HRV metrics reported here could assist the interpretation of HRV data from newborns with neonatal illnesses

  1. The Specific Features of an Early Period after Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shmyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to comparatively evaluate the perioperative clinical period in patients operated on via miniinvasive access and median sternotomy.Subjects and methods. A retrospective analysis included all patients who had undergone correction of mitral valve defect with or without tricuspid valve correction and atrial ablation. 121 and 112 patients were operated on through miniinvasive access (a study group and median sternothomy (a control group, respectively.Results. The duration (median [25; 75 percentiles] of aortic occlusion in the study group (89 [71; 120] min was significantly longer than that in the control group (65 [52; 84] min; р<0.01. Acute heart failure complicated the clinical course in 28 (23.1% and 15 (13.4% cases in the study and control groups, respectively; р=0.06. In the miniinvasiveaccess group, two deaths were caused by intraoperative aortic dissection. There was no significant difference in the length of stay in the intensive care unit and in that of hospitalization between the groups.Conclusion. The findings are generally correlated with the world data obtained while implementing the procedure. The frequency and pattern of complications due to miniinvasive correction of mitral valve defect require additional financial expenditures and human resources. It is necessary to analyze the longterm results of treatment for the reasonable evaluation of the efficiency and expediency of using this procedure.

  2. The radioimmunological determination of the insulin level in the early postnatal period of the pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.; Staszak, B.; Slebodzinski, A.

    1980-01-01

    The insulin level determined by means of the radioimmunoassay, in piglets, 1 - 21 days of age revealed marked changes with age of the animals, as illustrated by the hormonal profiles. In general, the postnatal insuline profile was characterized by a quick rise in the serum hormone concentration - the postnatal hiperinsulinemia - observed already in some litters within the first 48 hours of life. The peak of the hormone concentration was followed by a decrease to a relatively constant but low level, between the third day and 10 - 14 day. In the absolute terms, the insulin concentration at 0 - 6 hours averaged from 3.3+-1.42 to 11.0+-1.44 μU/ml and then increased to the maximum from 19.8+-1.44 to 30.3+-8.81 μU/ml (means +- S.E., p<0.01) found between 12 - 36 hour of life. In some of the pigs a low or a high insulin level came by turns. Any insulin level above 16 μU/ml was classified as ''an insulin peak'' and that below 8 μU/ml as ''an insulin depression''. The frequency of the peaks and the depressions per day was the highest during the first 2 days of life, that is during the period known from the highest mortality in this species. The preliminary observation suggest that a high frequency of the insulin depressions is somewhat related to the lower vitality or to the hypoglycemia state. (author)

  3. CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND PROGNOSIS OF BRONCHOPULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN ACUTE AND EARLY PERIODS OF SPINAL CORD TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Norkin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated 50 cytological preparations after fibro-optic bronchoscopy of 10 patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. The dynamics of broncho-pulmonary complications of spinal cord injuries was estimated on the basis of cytological broncho-alveolar lavage fluid investigations. In the work there were used clinico-neurologic methods, radiological (computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic (fibro-optic bronchoscopy and cytomorphological investigations. Cytomorphological investigations of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were carried out on the 3-4, 7, 14, 30th days. Cellular composition of the broncho-alveolar wash-out (endopulmonary cytogramme was estimated by calculation of more than 100 cells in 3 fields of the immersion microscope coverage. Quantitative changes of cellular elements were taken into account with respect to normal cell amount. The results were analyzed according to the average out method. Quantitative changes of inflammatory elements in endopulmonary cytogramme were determined by the degree of endobronchitic manifestations and were corresponding to clinico-radiological picture of development of broncho-pulmonary complications in different periods of spinal cord injury

  4. Manipulation of the Growth Hormone-Insulin-Like Growth Factor (GH-IGF) Axis: A Treatment Strategy to Reverse the Effects of Early Life Developmental Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Perry, Jo K; Vickers, Mark H

    2017-08-08

    Evidence from human clinical, epidemiological, and experimental animal models has clearly highlighted a link between the early life environment and an increased risk for a range of cardiometabolic disorders in later life. In particular, altered maternal nutrition, including both undernutrition and overnutrition, spanning exposure windows that cover the period from preconception through to early infancy, clearly highlight an increased risk for a range of disorders in offspring in later life. This process, preferentially termed "developmental programming" as part of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) framework, leads to phenotypic outcomes in offspring that closely resemble those of individuals with untreated growth hormone (GH) deficiency, including increased adiposity and cardiovascular disorders. As such, the use of GH as a potential intervention strategy to mitigate the effects of developmental malprogramming has received some attention in the DOHaD field. In particular, experimental animal models have shown that early GH treatment in the setting of poor maternal nutrition can partially rescue the programmed phenotype, albeit in a sex-specific manner. Although the mechanisms remain poorly defined, they include changes to endothelial function, an altered inflammasome, changes in adipogenesis and cardiovascular function, neuroendocrine effects, and changes in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Similarly, GH treatment to adult offspring, where an adverse metabolic phenotype is already manifest, has shown efficacy in reversing some of the metabolic disorders arising from a poor early life environment. Components of the GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-IGF binding protein (GH-IGF-IGFBP) system, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), have also shown promise in ameliorating programmed metabolic disorders, potentially acting via epigenetic processes including changes in miRNA profiles and altered DNA methylation. However, as

  5. [Bilirubin in the early neonatal period. Is there a positive aspect of hyperbilirubinemia?--A medical hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, K; Schlenzig, J S; Böhles, H

    1994-05-10

    The fact that almost all neonates exhibit a "physiological" jaundice, prompts the question whether bilirubin, usually exclusively considered a potentially toxic endproduct of the metabolism of heme, might not also have a positive task in the first days of life. A recently discovered property of bilirubin under in vitro conditions is its ability to combine with free oxygen radicals such as are produced in the oxidative metabolic processes of the neonate immediately following birth. In the present article, the concept of the anti-oxidative effect of bilirubin, and its translation to the early neonatal period is presented and discussed on the basis of a number of examples.

  6. [The complex approach to the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients with movement disorders in the early rehabilitation period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabirov, F A; Khaĭbullin, T I; Grigor'eva, O V

    2011-01-01

    We studied 110 patients, aged 34-71 years, in the early rehabilitation period after stroke who were admitted to a rehabilitation neurologic department of Kazan. The rehabilitation approach was based on the combination of several methods: kinesitherapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and cerebrolysin treatment. This complex reanimation allowed to achieve the marked functional restoration of movement abilities in many cases that was correlated with the normalization of brain bioelectric activity (the increase of alpha-rhythm spectral power, the decrease of slow-wave EEG components). The combined use of these three methods was more effective than a combination of any two of them.

  7. Micophenolat Mofetil Versus Azathioprine: Effects on Renal Graft Function in Early Posttransplant Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ljuca

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available All conventional immunosuppressive tree drugs-protocols are based on Cyclosporine; consisting of low doses of Cyclosporine (CsA, Azathioprine (AZA or Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF and Prednisolone, AZA has been used in clinical transplantation for more than 30 years and was the first immunosuppres-sive agent to achieve widespread use in organ transplantation. MMF was introduced in clinical practice in 1995 after several clinical trials proved that it was more efficient than AZA for prevention of acute rejection episodes. Our aim was to evaluate influence of AZA and MMF on renal graft function in early post-transplant stage. Study recruited 74 patients who underwent kidney transplantation in University Clinical Centre Tuzla. All patients received CsA and corticosteroid-based immunosuppression, as a part of triple immunosuppressive regiment, 40 patients received AZA and 34 MMF. In order to assess renal graft function, following parameters were evaluated: glomerular filtration rate GFR (ml/min creatinine clearance (CrCl (ml/min, 24 h urine output (ml/day, and from the serum potassium, sodium, urea and creatinine (mmol/dm3. Significantly higher average values of 24 hour urine output were recorded during first seven postoperative days in patients receiving MMF compared to those treated with AZA. Serum creatinine values showed statistically significant decrease, starting with the second postoperative day, in MMF vs. AZA group (168,7±70,5 vs. 119,9±42,6; p<0,0007. GFR was significantly higher in MMF compared to the AZA group of patients. On the first post-transplant day CrCl was higher in AZA group (24,3±10 vs. 17,5±7,3; p=0,01, next six days situation is reversed CrCl is significantly higher in the MMF group (43,7±15 vs. 53, 4±22, 8 p=0,006. MMF vs. AZA therapy was associated with protective effect against worsening of renal function in first seven post-transplant days.

  8. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... to term pigs. CONCLUSION: Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, while some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 weeks. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal...

  9. Dinosaur incubation periods directly determined from growth-line counts in embryonic teeth show reptilian-grade development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Kay, David Ian; Norell, Mark A

    2017-01-17

    Birds stand out from other egg-laying amniotes by producing relatively small numbers of large eggs with very short incubation periods (average 11-85 d). This aspect promotes high survivorship by limiting exposure to predation and environmental perturbation, allows for larger more fit young, and facilitates rapid attainment of adult size. Birds are living dinosaurs; their rapid development has been considered to reflect the primitive dinosaurian condition. Here, nonavian dinosaurian incubation periods in both small and large ornithischian taxa are empirically determined through growth-line counts in embryonic teeth. Our results show unexpectedly slow incubation (2.8 and 5.8 mo) like those of outgroup reptiles. Developmental and physiological constraints would have rendered tooth formation and incubation inherently slow in other dinosaur lineages and basal birds. The capacity to determine incubation periods in extinct egg-laying amniotes has implications for dinosaurian embryology, life history strategies, and survivorship across the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event.

  10. Early wide spacing in red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.): effects on stem form and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard T. Bormann

    1985-01-01

    A thinning trial was established in 1962 in a 7-year-old red alder stand in northwestern Washington. Spacings were 8 x 8 ft (dense), 12 x 12 it (intermediate), and 16 x 16 ft (open). The effect of early thinning on growth and stem form was measured in 1982, 20 years after spacing treatment. There was negligible tree lean and sweep in open and intermediate stands except...

  11. A study using Andrographis paniculata in diet on growth performance of Betong chicken: Starting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waree, W.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An eight-week experiment was conducted to study using Andrographis paniculata (AP on the growth performance of Betong chickens (0-8 weeks of age. Three hundred and fifteen head of 1 day old (mixed sex betong chicks were randomly allotted to 7 dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 15 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + 0.1% AP, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.3% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.5% AP, 6 basal diet + 0.6% AP and 7 basal diet + antibiotic 0.2%, respectively. The results showed no significant (P>0.05 difference among treatments in terms of weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and feed cost when AP was included up to 0.1-0.3 % of the diet compared with basal diet and basal diet + antibiotic. However, at levels higher than 0.5% AP, it tended to lower growth performance and feed intake thus causing inferior feed conversion ratio. Feed cost was also dramatically increased with the increasing levels of AP in the diet. No significant difference in mortality rate was found among groups. The average mortality was 1.37%.

  12. Compensatory growth response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum following short starvation periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Eisa; Farhadian, Omidvar; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Morshedi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    This sixty-day study was performed to determine the effects of short-term starvation and re-feeding cycles on growth, feeding performances and body composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three hundred trout fingerlings with an average initial weight of 17.5±0.06 g were randomly distributed in 15 circular fiberglass tanks. The fish were exposed to 5 different feeding regimes; control: continuously fed twice daily to apparent satiation; T1: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 2 days; T2: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 4 days; T3: starved for 3 days and re-fed for 12 days; T4: starved for 4 days and re-fed for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, feed utilization, whole body ash and moisture contents were not significantly ( P>0.05) different among the treatments. However, whole body protein content in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments ( Ptrout culture.

  13. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  14. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  15. Determinants of HIV-induced brain changes in three different periods of the early clinical course: A data mining analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokai Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To inform an understanding of brain status in HIV infection, quantitative imaging measurements were derived at structural, microstructural and macromolecular levels in three different periods of early infection and then analyzed simultaneously at each stage using data mining. Support vector machine recursive feature elimination was then used for simultaneous analysis of subject characteristics, clinical and behavioral variables, and immunologic measures in plasma and CSF to rank features associated with the most discriminating brain alterations in each period. The results indicate alterations beginning in initial infection and in all periods studied. The severity of immunosuppression in the initial virus host interaction was the most highly ranked determinant of earliest brain alterations. These results shed light on the initial brain changes induced by a neurotropic virus and their subsequent evolution. The pattern of ongoing alterations occurring during and beyond the period in which virus is suppressed in the systemic circulation supports the brain as a viral reservoir that may preclude eradication in the host. Data mining capabilities that can address high dimensionality and simultaneous analysis of disparate information sources have considerable utility for identifying mechanisms underlying onset of neurological injury and for informing new therapeutic targets.

  16. Pathways of early fatherhood, marriage, and employment: a latent class growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Pleck, Joseph H; Astone, Nan M; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2011-05-01

    In the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), young fathers include heterogeneous subgroups with varying early life pathways in terms of fatherhood timing, the timing of first marriage, and holding full-time employment. Using latent class growth analysis with 10 observations between ages 18 and 37, we derived five latent classes with median ages of first fatherhood below the cohort median (26.4), constituting distinct early fatherhood pathways representing 32.4% of NLSY men: (A) Young Married Fathers, (B) Teen Married Fathers, (C) Young Underemployed Married Fathers, (D) Young Underemployed Single Fathers, and (E) Young Later-Marrying Fathers. A sixth latent class of men who become fathers around the cohort median, following full-time employment and marriage (On-Time On-Sequence Fathers), is the comparison group. With sociodemographic background controlled, all early fatherhood pathways show disadvantage in at least some later-life circumstances (earnings, educational attainment, marital status, and incarceration). The extent of disadvantage is greater when early fatherhood occurs at relatively younger ages (before age 20), occurs outside marriage, or occurs outside full-time employment. The relative disadvantage associated with early fatherhood, unlike early motherhood, increases over the life course.

  17. Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Ha, Hoang; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Terrados, Jorge; Borum, Jens

    2003-11-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal, with high growth rates and fast internode formation in the summer, dropping to extremely low growth during January-February, the coldest and driest months in the year. In addition, growth and internode formation rates showed important inter-annual variability during the last decade. The complete reproductive period required 7-8 months. Flower initiation was maximal in June and peak propagule maturity occurred in December-January. Only one mature propagule developed for every 67 and 127 inflorescence buds formed at Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. Kandelia candel propagules begun to sink 10 days after being released, and after 18 days all propagules had negative buoyancy. The propagules developed roots within 19-68 days, depending on whether they were held on the water or sediment, and were capable of long range dispersal, for 15-20% of them dispersed more than 100 m within 1 day. The median age of K. candel plants ranged between 8.7 and 5.6 years, with a density of 1900 and 470 plants ha -1, in Sites 1 and 2. Plant mortality was high, with 64 and 74% of the plants surviving after a year at Sites 1 and 2. Life expectancy (i.e. median age-at-death) of only 2.2 and 2.7 years at Sites 1 and 2, respectively, indicates that mortality of young K. candel plants was specially high. Recruitment occurred in early spring, and did not suffice to balance the mortality within the annual period examined. These results suggest that the K. candel stands in Halong Bay might be maintained by a few years of high recruitment which would compensate for generally high mortality rates.

  18. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  20. Intervention for an Adolescent With Cerebral Palsy During Period of Accelerated Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubens, Rebecca; Silkwood-Sherer, Debbie J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe changes in body functions and structures, activities, and participation after a biweekly 10-week program of home physical therapy and hippotherapy using a weighted compressor belt. A 13-year-old boy with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System level II, was referred because of accelerated growth and functional impairments that limited daily activities. The Modified Ashworth Scale, passive range of motion, 1-Minute Walk Test, Timed Up and Down Stairs, Pediatric Balance Scale, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory Computer Adaptive Test, and Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire 17 were examined at baseline, 5, and 10 weeks. Data at 5 and 10 weeks demonstrated positive changes in passive range of motion, balance, strength, functional activities, and motivation, with additional improvements in endurance and speed after 10 weeks. This report reveals enhanced body functions and structures and activities and improved participation and motivation.

  1. The UK solar water heating industry: a period of development and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, John

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies examines the solar water heating sector in the UK and presents an illustration of the layout of a typical solar water heating system. The rising demand for solar water heating and growth in sales especially in the export market are noted. Developments within the UK solar water heating manufacturing industry are considered, and details are given of design and development in innovative policy infrastructure, and the SHINE 21 project supported by the EU's ADAPT programme and the UK Department of Trade and Industry involving collaboration between the solar water heating and plumbing industries. Developments in the new build sectors including in-roof solar collector products and the increasing number of solar water heating systems installed in UK houses are discussed along with the promising future for the market

  2. Features of the Early Adaptation Period of Newborns with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Depending on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.P. Ortemenka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the department of neonatal pathology of Chernivtsi regional children’s clinical hospital, 41 full-term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy have been exa­mined in order to study the features of early period of their adaptation depending on birth weight. It was found that the early adaptation period of full-term newborns with hypoxi­­c-ischemic encephalopathy and body weight adequate in terms of gestational age was characterized by: pathological deli­very in one third (32.1 % of cases and the birth of one fourth (25 % of infants with tight nuchal cord that three times more often (22.2 % of neonates led to severe asphyxia, associated with the development of the multiple organ failure (14.3 % of cases and seizures (17.9 % of observations. Full-term children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and body weight low in terms of gestational age are characterized by: lower gestational age (37–39 weeks at birth (84.6 % of children, which has been associated with young (under 20 years age of mothers in 15.4 % of cases, and twice as likely (61.5 % of children led to respiratory disorders at birth, requiring artificial lung ventilation.

  3. Accelerated radiochemotherapy in pancreatic cancer is not necessarily related to a pathologic pancreatic function decline in the early period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Eckehard; Seidel, Matthias; Micke, Oliver; Ruebe, Christian; Glashoerster, Marco; Schaefer, Ulrich; Willich, Normann A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the functional effects of ionizing radiation in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer in the early period after accelerated radiochemotherapy (ART). Methods and Materials: To analyze the exocrine component, the amino acid consumption test and fecal elastase 1 were performed in 13 patients immediately before and 4-8 weeks after ART. Pancreatic duct morphology was evaluated before therapy. Weight loss and clinical steatorrhea were recorded. Endocrine parameters were examined according to standardized criteria. Results: The relative change of the amino acid consumption test results and the median elastase concentration was 41.2% and 56.4%, respectively. Five patients still had normal test results after ART and 5 patients developed pathologic values. The median relative weight loss of the total body weight was 7.7% ± 4.5%. No steatorrhea occurred. Of the 5 patients with normal values, 3 had a mean organ dose of 41 Gy. The endocrine function measurements remained unchanged. Conclusion: Although a nominal reduction of exocrine function parameters occurred in most patients, ART was not necessarily related to a pathologic level in the early period. Diabetes was not established. The functional impairment that was existent in the patient population presumably contributed to the weight loss. Pancreatic enzyme preparations may also play a role in maintaining an anabolic state during and after radiochemotherapy

  4. Estimation of efficiency of new local rehabilitation method at the early post-operative period after dental implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pasechnik

    2017-01-01

      Summary Despite of success of dental implantation, there are often complications at the early post-operative period of implant placing associated with wound damage and aseptic inflammation. Purpose of the work is studying clinical efficiency of combined local application of new mucosal gel “Apior” and magnetotherapy at the early post-operative period after dental implantation. Combined local application of the mucosal gel “Apior” and pulsating low-frequency electromagnetic field in the complex medical treatment of patients after conducting an operation of setting dental implants favourably affects the common state of patients and clinical symptoms of inflammation in the area of operating wound. As compared with patients who had traditional anti-inflammatory therapy, the patients treated with local application of apigel and magnetoterapy had decline of edema incidence, of gingival mucosa hyperemia, of discomfort in the area of conducted operation. There occurred more rapid improvement of inflammation painfulness, which correlated with the improvement of hygienic state of oral cavity and promoted to prevention of bacterial content of damaged mucous surfaces. Estimation of microvasculatory blood stream by the method of ultrasonic doppler flowmetry revealed more rapid normalization of volume and linear high systole speed of blood stream in the periimplant tissues in case of use of new complex local rehabilitation method, that testified to the less pronounced inflammation of oral mucosa after the operation. The authors came to conclusion that the local application of the offered method of medical treatment of early post-operative complications of dental implantation reduces terms of renewal of structural-functional integrity of oral mucosa, helps in preventing development of inflammatory complications and strengthening endosseus implant. The inclusion in the treatment management of a new combined method of application of mucosal gel “Apior” and

  5. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-10-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance ( P MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control ( P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  6. Study of foetal heart rate patterns in pregnancy with intra-uterine growth restriction during antepartum period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardiazar, Z.; Abassalizade, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate foetal heart rate pattern during antepartum period in pregnancies suffering from intra-uterine growth restriction. Methods: The case control study was conducted at the Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran from April 2008 to April 2011. It comprised 100 pregnancies with intra-uterine growth restriction and 92 normal pregnancies. The foetal heart rate pattern including basal heart rate, beat-to-beat variation, non-stress test (NST) result and acceleration and deceleration patterns of the heart rate were determined in both groups during the antepartum period. Findings were compared between the two groups and their relation with pregnancy-foetal outcomes was specified in the case group. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the foetus mean basal heart rate in the two groups (p <0.960). Frequency of cases with non-reactive non-stress test in the Cases was significantly higher than Controls (p <0.005). The difference in heart rate acceleration was also not statistically significant (p <0.618). Frequency of cases with low birth weight and caesarian was non-significantly but borderline higher among the Cases (p <0.081 and 0.060, respectively). Conclusion: Abnormal foetal heart rate pattern is more common in pregnancies marked by intra-uterine growth restriction and is directly associated with worse pregnancy/foetal outcomes. (author)

  7. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Gross, J.J.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and

  8. Interannual differences in growth and hatch-date distributions of early juvenile European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: implications for recruitment

    KAUST Repository

    Aldanondo, Naroa

    2016-01-22

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. In order to understand better the recruitment variability in European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay, it is important to investigate the processes that affect survival during the early life stages. Anchovy juvenile growth trajectories and hatch-date distributions were inferred over a 3-year period based on otolith microstructure analysis. Otolith growth trajectories showed a characteristic shape depending on their hatch-date timing. Earlier-born juveniles had notably broader maximum increments than later born conspecifics, resulting in higher growth rates. This observation suggests that early hatching would be beneficial for larval and juvenile growth, and, therefore, survival. The estimated juvenile hatch-date distributions were relatively narrow compared with the extended anchovy spawning season (March-August) in the Bay of Biscay and indicated that only individuals originated mainly from the summer months (June-August) survived until autumn. Hatch-date distributions were markedly different among years and seemed to influence the interannual recruitment strength of anchovy. We conclude that years characterized by juvenile survivors originating from the peak spawning period (May and June) would lead to considerable recruitment success. Downwelling events during the peak spawning period seem to affect larval survival.

  9. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Greuningen Malou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003–2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998–2002. In addition, GPs’ retirement age was higher in 2003–2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age. Methods In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring. Results For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice

  10. Changes in growth and sleep across school nights, weekends and a winter holiday period in two Australian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Alex; Pignata, Silvia; Camporeale, Roberta; Scott, Kathryn; Dorrian, Jillian; Way, Anne; Ryan, Paul; Martin, James; Kennedy, Declan; Lushington, Kurt

    2018-01-26

    than evening types who can or morning types. This may be related to sleep restriction. Despite sleep being both later and longer during the school holidays, participants' growth slowed during the holiday period. It is possible that this may be a reflection of other behavioural changes in the holidays (increased food intake and reduced physical activity), as sleep timing during the school period was related to growth.

  11. Establishing the volatile profile of pig carcasses as analogues for human decomposition during the early postmortem period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Armstrong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following a mass disaster, it is important that victims are rapidly located as the chances of survival decrease greatly after approximately 48 h. Urban search and rescue (USAR teams may use a range of tools to assist their efforts but detector dogs still remain one of the most effective search tools to locate victims of mass disasters. USAR teams can choose to deploy human scent dogs (trained to locate living victims or human remains detection (HRD dogs (trained to locate deceased victims. However, little is known about the variation between live human scent and postmortem human remains scent and the timeframe during which one type of scent transitions to the other. The aim of the current study was to measure the change in the scent profile of human decomposition analogues during the first 72 h postmortem by measuring the volatile organic compounds (VOCs that comprise the odour. Three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L. were placed on a soil surface and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. Decomposition odour was sampled frequently up to 75 h postmortem and analysed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 105 postmortem VOCs were identified during the early postmortem period. The VOC profile during the early postmortem period was highly dynamic, changing both hourly and daily. A transition period was observed after 43 h postmortem, where the VOC profile appeared to shift from a distinct antemortem odour to a more generalised postmortem odour. These findings are important in informing USAR teams and their use of detector dogs for disaster victim recovery.

  12. Period doubling cascades of limit cycles in cardiac action potential models as precursors to chaotic early Afterdepolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Philipp; Bulelzai, M A K; Erhardt, André H

    2017-04-04

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological voltage oscillations during the repolarization phase of cardiac action potentials (APs). EADs are caused by drugs, oxidative stress or ion channel disease, and they are considered as potential precursors to cardiac arrhythmias in recent attempts to redefine the cardiac drug safety paradigm. The irregular behaviour of EADs observed in experiments has been previously attributed to chaotic EAD dynamics under periodic pacing, made possible by a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the deterministic AP system of differential equations. In this article we demonstrate that a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential model is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the genesis of chaotic EADs. We rather argue that a cascade of period doubling (PD) bifurcations of limit cycles in the full AP system paves the way to chaotic EAD dynamics across a variety of models including a) periodically paced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes, b) periodically paced and non-active cardiomyocytes as well as c) unpaced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our bifurcation analysis reveals that chaotic EAD dynamics may coexist in a stable manner with fully regular AP dynamics, where only the initial conditions decide which type of dynamics is displayed. EADs are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias and hence are of relevance both from the viewpoint of drug cardiotoxicity testing and the treatment of cardiomyopathies. The model-independent association of chaotic EADs with period doubling cascades of limit cycles introduced in this article opens novel opportunities to study chaotic EADs by means of bifurcation control theory and inverse bifurcation analysis. Furthermore, our results may shed new light on the synchronization and propagation of chaotic EADs in homogeneous and heterogeneous multicellular and cardiac tissue preparations.

  13. The effect of a period of intense exercise on the marker approach to detect growth hormone doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sven Christian; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Bourdon, Pitre C; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of several days of intense exercise on the growth hormone marker approach to detect doping with human growth hormone (hGH). In addition we investigated the effect of changes in plasma volume on the test. Fifteen male athletes performed a simulated nine-day cycling stage race. Blood samples were collected twice daily over a period of 15 days (stage race + three days before and after). Plasma volumes were estimated by the optimized CO Rebreathing method. IGF-1 and P-III-NP were analyzed by Siemens Immulite and Cisbio Assays, respectively. All measured GH 2000 scores were far below the published decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. The period of exercise did not increase the GH-scores; however the accompanying effect of the increase in Plasma Volume yielded in essentially lower GH-scores. We could demonstrate that a period of heavy, long-term exercise with changes in plasma volume does not interfere with the decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Early childhood growth and cognitive outcomes: Findings from the MAL-ED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Maphula, Angelina; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Rasheed, Muneera; Abreu, Claudia; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Shrestha, Rita; Pendergast, Laura; Mduma, Estomih; Koshy, Beena; Conaway, Mark R; Platts-Mills, James A; Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-02

    Although many studies around the world hope to measure or improve developmental progress in children to promote community flourishing and productivity, growth is sometimes used as a surrogate because cognitive skills are more difficult to measure. Our objective was to assess how childhood measures of anthropometry correlate with measures of child development in low-income settings with high prevalence of poor nutrition and enteric disease, to inform studies considering growth outcomes in the absence of direct child developmental skill assessment. Children from the MAL-ED study were followed from birth to 24 months of age in field sites in 8 low- and middle-income countries across 3 continents. Monthly weight, length, and head circumference measurements were performed. At 24 months, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was administered. We correlated cognitive measures at 24 months with anthropometric measurements from birth to 2 years comparing 3 constructs: absolute attained monthly measures, summative difference in measures from the mean growth curve, and rate of change in measures. Growth faltering at multiple time periods is related to Bayley cognitive outcomes at 24 months. Birthweight, overall growth by 18-24 months, and rate of growth in the 6- to 18-month period were most associated with 24-month developmental scores. In this study, head circumference measurements, compared with length, was more closely linked to cognitive scores at 24 months. Notably, all studies between growth and cognitive outcomes exhibited low r 2 values (0.001-0.049). Anthropometric measures, particularly head circumference, were related to cognitive development, although explaining a low percent of variance. When feasible, direct measures of child development may be more useful. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Numerical simulation of bubble growth and departure during flow boiling period by lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tao; Li, Weizhong; Yang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble departure diameter is proportional to g −0.425 in quiescent fluid. • The bubble release frequency is proportional to g 0.678 in quiescent fluid. • The simulation result supports the transient micro-convection model. • The bubble departure diameter has exponential relation with inlet velocity. • The bubble release frequency has linear relation with inlet velocity. -- Abstract: Nucleate boiling flows on a horizontal plate are studied in this paper by a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, where both quiescent and slowly flowing ambient are concerned. The process of a single bubble growth on and departure from the superheated wall is simulated. The simulation result supports the transient micro-convection model. The bubble departure diameter and the release frequency are investigated from the simulation result. It is found that the bubble departure diameter and the release frequency are proportional to g −0.425 and g 0.678 in quiescent fluid, respectively, where g is the gravitational acceleration. Nucleate boiling in slowly flowing ambient is also calculated in consideration of forced convection. It is presented that the bubble departure diameter and the release frequency have exponential relationship and linear relationship with inlet velocity in slowly flowing fluid, respectively

  16. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Evers, Johannes L H; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Peeters, Louis L; Coumans, Audrey B; Dumoulin, John C M

    2013-08-01

    When does a difference in human intrauterine growth of singletons conceived after IVF and embryo culture in two different culture media appear? Differences in fetal development after culture of embryos in one of two IVF media were apparent as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal fetal growth patterns are a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adult life. Previously, we have shown that the medium used for culturing embryos during the first few days after fertilization significantly affects the birthweight of the resulting human singletons. The exact onset of this growth difference was unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, all 294 singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer in the period July 2003 to December 2006 were included. These embryos originated from IVF treatments that were part of a previously described clinical trial. Embryos were allocated to culture in either Vitrolife or Cook commercially available sequential culture media. We analysed ultrasound examinations at 8 (n = 290), 12 (n = 83) and 20 weeks' (n = 206) gestation and used first-trimester serum markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG]. Differences between study groups were tested by the Student's t-test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, and linear multivariable regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders (for example, parity, gestational age at the time of ultrasound and fetal gender). A total of 294 singleton pregnancies (Vitrolife group nVL = 168, Cook group: nC = 126) from 294 couples were included. At 8 weeks' gestation, there was no difference between crown-rump length-based and ovum retrieval-based gestational age (ΔGA) (nVL = 163, nC = 122, adjusted mean difference, -0.04 days, P = 0.84). A total of 83 women underwent first-trimester screening at 12 weeks' gestation (nVL = 45, nC = 38). ΔGA, nuchal translucency (multiples of median, MoM) and PAPP-A (MoM) did not differ between the study

  17. Impact of Early Versus Late Diuretic Exposure on Metabolic Bone Disease and Growth in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Lucas E; O'Mara, Keliana L

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay. A total of 147 patients were included. Early initiation (n = 90) and late initiation (n = 57) arms were balanced with respect to birth weight and gestational age. There was no difference in incidence of MBD in the early group (76%) versus the late group (65%; p = 0.164). Stratification by cumulative dose showed incidence of 85% in patients receiving ≥8 mg/kg of furosemide, compared with 68% and 64% of those in the <4 mg/kg and 4 to 7.9 mg/kg strata, respectively (p = 0.06). The early group experienced greater reductions in length-for-age growth during diuretic therapy (-70% versus -40%; p = 0.009). Electrolyte abnormalities were more prevalent in the early group. Although there was no difference in duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced in the late group (75 versus 89 days; p = 0.003). Timing of diuretic initiation did not affect incidence of MBD. Increased cumulative furosemide exposure may be associated with higher incidence. Patients first exposed to diuretics within 2 weeks of life are at higher risk for electrolyte abnormalities and reduced growth velocity.

  18. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  19. Effects of Salinity on Seed Germination and Early Growth of Moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidombo, S.D; KOech, E.K

    2007-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Iam is a very important species because of it's multiple uses. The tree grows in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Central America and South America. In Kenya, it grows in drier regions of Baringo, Kibwezi, Mandera and the coastal strip. These regions are known to have substantially high level of soluble salts. The study aims at finding the effect of salinity on germination and early seedling growth of M. oleifera seedlings. This was tested in Moi University department of forestry laboratory by varying the concentration of Nacl moles (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09) in germination medium. The petri dishes with germination media were placed in the incubator at 30 degrees Celsius each containing 25 seeds of each treatment replicated four times. The effect of seedling growth and development was tested in the greenhouse. This was done by varying the concentration of Nacl moles (0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45) in the forest soil used in the experiment. After germination one seedling per treatment was randomly selected and then carefully dug. The root length, shoot height, total dry matter, stem dry matter and leaves dry matter were measured. This was repeated at intervals of one week for seven weeks. The data obtained from the experiments were analysed using ANOVA based on generalized linear modelling procedures. The tests indicated that M. oleifera seed germination and early seedling growth was significantly (p<0.05) affected by salinity. The seedlings also demonstrated development of swellings in the root region and the development of multiple stems for salt concentrations of 0.05 moles and above. These observations show that M. oleifera is affected by salinity in both seed germination and early seedling growth

  20. LONG-ORBITAL-PERIOD PREPOLARS CONTAINING EARLY K-TYPE DONOR STARS. BOTTLENECK ACCRETION MECHANISM IN ACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems

  1. LONG-ORBITAL-PERIOD PREPOLARS CONTAINING EARLY K-TYPE DONOR STARS. BOTTLENECK ACCRETION MECHANISM IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 877, Ensenada, Baja California, 22800 México (Mexico); Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Miroshnichenko, A. S., E-mail: gag@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: dgonzalez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: zhar@astro.unam.mx [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems.

  2. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, pStage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, pStage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (pstages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the canines showed the lowest correlation for both gender.

  4. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  5. Enacting Efficacy in Early Career: Narratives of Agency, Growth, and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Niehaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To explore how early career faculty in the field of higher education administration develop and enact their personal and professional identities. Background:\tParticipants sought to understand themselves, to understand their environments and the “rules” of the academic “game,” and to reconcile conflicts between their own values and identities and the expectations and culture of their environments. Methodology: In-depth case studies of seventeen early career scholars in the field. Contribution: The participants’ experiences underscore important implications for mentoring and socialization that takes into consideration the unique motivation and identity development of aspiring and new faculty members. Findings: Identifies the early career period as one where new faculty are working to develop a strong internal foundation upon which they can manage the many challenges of their personal and professional lives. Recommendations: The findings point to implications for practice, both in graduate education and in departments hiring new faculty members.

  6. The early postnatal period: Exploring women's views, expectations and experiences of care using focus groups in Victoria, Australia

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    Rayner Jo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence from Australia and overseas that the care provided in hospital in the early postnatal period is less than ideal for both women and care providers. Many health services face increasing pressure on hospital beds and have limited physical space available to care for mothers and their babies. We aimed to gain a more in-depth understanding of women's views, expectations and experiences of early postnatal care. Methods We conducted focus groups in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia in 2006. Fifty-two people participated in eight focus groups and four interviews. Participants included eight pregnant women, of whom seven were pregnant with their first baby; 42 women who were in the postpartum period (some up to twelve months after the birth of their baby; and two partners. All participants were fluent in English. Focus group guides were developed specifically for the study and explored participants' experiences and/or expectations of early postnatal care in hospital and at home, with an emphasis on length of hospital stay, professional and social support, continuity of care, and rest. Discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic network was constructed to describe and connect categories with emerging basic, organizing, and global themes. Results Global themes that emerged were: anxiety and/or fear; and the transition to motherhood and parenting. The needs of first time mothers were considered to be different to the needs of women who had already experienced motherhood. The women in this study were generally concerned about the safety of their new baby, and lacked confidence in themselves as new mothers regarding their ability to care for their baby. There was a consistent view that the physical presence and availability of professional support helped alleviate these concerns, and this was especially the case for women having a first baby. Conclusion Women have anxieties and fears

  7. Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (

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    Jaehyun Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon. Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12 which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (p<0.001, and there was a similar trend to between right and left beams. Body weight increased with antler growth but was not significant. Consequently it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth.

  8. Has growth mixture modeling improved our understanding of how early change predicts psychotherapy outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Early change in psychotherapy predicts outcome. Seven studies have used growth mixture modeling [GMM; Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class-latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sawyers (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291-322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] to identify patient classes based on early change but have yielded conflicting results. Here, we review the earlier studies and apply GMM to a new data set. In a university-based training clinic, 251 patients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire-45 [Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., Umphress, V., Lunnen, K., Okiishi, J., Burlingame, G., … Reisinger, C. W. (1996). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2). Wilmington, DE: American Professional Credentialing Services] at each psychotherapy session. We used GMM to identify class structure based on change in the first six sessions and examined trajectories as predictors of outcome. The sample was best described as a single class. There was no evidence of autoregressive trends in the data. We achieved better fit to the data by permitting latent variables some degree of kurtosis, rather than to assume multivariate normality. Treatment outcome was predicted by the amount of early improvement, regardless of initial level of distress. The presence of sudden early gains or losses did not further improve outcome prediction. Early improvement is an easily computed, powerful predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The use of GMM to investigate the relationship between change and outcome is technically complex and computationally intensive. To date, it has not been particularly informative.

  9. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Parental care mitigates carry-over effects of poor early conditions on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Poor developmental conditions can have long-lasting negative effects on offspring phenotypes, but impacts often differ among species. Contrasting responses may reflect disparities in experimental protocols among single-species studies or inherent differences among species in their sensitivity to early conditions and/or ability to mitigate negative impacts. We used a common experimental protocol to assess and compare the role of parental care in mitigating effects of poor early conditions on offspring among 4 sympatric bird species in the wild. We experimentally induced low incubation temperatures and examined effects on embryonic developmental rates, hatching success, nestling growth rates, and parental responses. We examined the generality of these effects across 4 species that differ in their phylogenetic history, breeding ecology, and life histories. We found that cooling led to delayed hatching in all species, but carry-over effects on offspring differed among species. Parents of some but not all species increased their offspring provisioning rates in response to experimental cooling with critical benefits for offspring growth rates. Our study shows for the first time that species exhibit clear differences in the degree to which they are affected by poor early conditions. Observed differences among species demonstrate that parental care is a critical mechanism for mitigating potential negative effects on offspring and suggest that parental responses may be constrained to varying degrees by ecology and life histories.

  11. Effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation on development of visual area 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tao, Xiaofeng; Wensveen, Janice M; Harwerth, Ronald S; Smith, Earl L; Chino, Yuzo M

    2011-09-14

    Providing brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation reduces the depth of amblyopia. To gain insights into the neural basis of the beneficial effects of this treatment, the binocular and monocular response properties of neurons were quantitatively analyzed in visual area 2 (V2) of form-deprived macaque monkeys. Beginning at 3 weeks of age, infant monkeys were deprived of clear vision in one eye for 12 hours every day until 21 weeks of age. They received daily periods of unrestricted vision for 0, 1, 2, or 4 hours during the form-deprivation period. After behavioral testing to measure the depth of the resulting amblyopia, microelectrode-recording experiments were conducted in V2. The ocular dominance imbalance away from the affected eye was reduced in the experimental monkeys and was generally proportional to the reduction in the depth of amblyopia in individual monkeys. There were no interocular differences in the spatial properties of V2 neurons in any subject group. However, the binocular disparity sensitivity of V2 neurons was significantly higher and binocular suppression was lower in monkeys that had unrestricted vision. The decrease in ocular dominance imbalance in V2 was the neuronal change most closely associated with the observed reduction in the depth of amblyopia. The results suggest that the degree to which extrastriate neurons can maintain functional connections with the deprived eye (i.e., reducing undersampling for the affected eye) is the most significant factor associated with the beneficial effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision.

  12. Contrasting shrub species respond to early summer temperatures leading to correspondence of shrub growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Stef; Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg; Myers-Smith, Isla H.

    2018-03-01

    The Arctic-alpine biome is warming rapidly, resulting in a gradual replacement of low statured species by taller woody species in many tundra ecosystems. In northwest North America, the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggests an increase in productivity of the Arctic and alpine tundra and a decrease in productivity of boreal forests. However, the responses of contrasting shrub species growing at the same sites to climate drivers remain largely unexplored. Here, we test growth, climate, and NDVI relationships of two contrasting species: the expanding tall deciduous shrub Salix pulchra and the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona from an alpine tundra site in the Pika valley in the Kluane Region, southwest Yukon Territories, Canada. We found that annual growth variability of both species at this site is strongly driven by early summer temperatures, despite their contrasting traits and habitats. Shrub growth chronologies for both species were correlated with the regional climate signal and showed spatial correspondence with interannual variation in NDVI in surrounding alpine and Arctic regions. Our results suggest that early summer warming represents a common driver of vegetation change for contrasting shrub species growing in different habitats in the same alpine environments.

  13. Placental pathology in early intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, J H W; Nikkels, P G J; Torrance, H L; Gravesteijn, J; Post Uiterweer, E D; Derks, J B; Koenen, S V; Visser, G H A; Van Rijn, B B; Franx, A

    2014-09-01

    To identify key pathological characteristics of placentas from pregnancies complicated by early intrauterine growth restriction, and to examine their relations with maternal hypertensive disease and umbilical artery Doppler waveform abnormalities. Single-center retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow patterns resulting in a live birth intrauterine growth restriction with or without hypertensive disease and pathological characteristics were compared between these various conditions according to predefined scoring criteria. Among 164 placentas studied, we found high rates of characteristic histopathological features that were associated with intrauterine growth restriction, including infarction (>5% in 42%), chronic villitis (21%), chronic chorioamnionitis (36%), membrane necrosis (20%), elevated nucleated red blood cells (89%), increased syncytial knotting (93%), increased villous maturation (98%), fetal thrombosis (32%) and distal villous hypoplasia (35%). Chronic inflammation of fetal membranes and syncytial knotting were more common in women with concomitant hypertensive disease as compared to women with normotensive IUGR (p < 0.05). Placentas from women with umbilical artery AREDF were more likely to show increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells and distal villous hypoplasia (p < 0.05). Placentas of women with early IUGR show high rates of several histological aberrations. Further, concomitant maternal hypertension is associated with characteristic inflammatory changes and umbilical artery AREDF with signs of chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS WITH CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION MANIFESTATION IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Limareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To optimize the management of postoperative renal allograft recipients through the introduction of methods for predicting risk of manifestation of cytomegalovirus infection on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the clinical and immunological status. Materials and methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 303 patients with end-stage renal disease, among them – were the recipients of renal allograft – 136, among whom 29 within 2 months after the operation had clinical signs of CMV infection. Assessable "CMV syndrome", laboratory evidence of CMV infection, the incidence of antigens (genes of HLA A, B and DRB *1, calculated goodness of fit χ2 and relative risk RR, changes MCP-1 in urine. Results. In renal allograft recipients with clinical and laboratory evidence of CMV infection in the early postoperative period, significantly more (χ2 > 3,8 met antigen B35. A positive association with CMV infection was detected also for DRB1 * 08, B21, B22, B41, A24 (9, B51 (5, DRB1*14 and DRB1*15. Protective effects possessed antigens / alleles of genes A26 (10, B14, B38 (16 B61 (40 and DRB1*16. MCP-1 levels in this group of recipients were raised to 2174,7 ± 296,3 pg/ml with a strong negative correlation with the levels of urea and creatinine in serum (r = 0,9, p < 0.001. Conclusion. Immunological markers of risk manifestation of CMV infection in recipients of kidneys in the early postoperative period are: the carriage of В35 и В55,56(22, В49(21, В41, DRB1*08 и DRB1*15, an increase of levels of MCP-1 in urine without increasing the levels of urea and creatinine in the serum. 

  15. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

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    E. Vieira Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS of umbilical cord blood (CB and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r £ 0.20 or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates.

  16. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Neto, E. [Serviço de Genética Médica, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratório Diagnósticos Laboratoriais Especializados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, A.A.; Almeida, R.F. [Laboratório Diagnósticos Laboratoriais Especializados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueiredo, M.P.; Porto, M.A.S. [Maternidade Escola, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, M.G. [Serviço de Genética Médica, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-13

    Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS) of umbilical cord blood (CB) and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r ≤ 0.20) or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates.

  17. Using CT perfusion during the early baseline period in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to assess for development of vasospasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanelli, Pina C.; Jou, Austin; Reichman, Melissa; Greenberg, Edward; Cayci, Zuzan; Gold, Rachel; John, Majnu; Ugorec, Igor; Rosengart, Axel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate computed tomography perfusion (CTP) during admission baseline period (days 0-3) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (A-SAH) for development of vasospasm. Retrospective analysis was performed on A-SAH patients from Dec 2004 to Feb 2007 with CTP on days 0-3. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) maps were analyzed for qualitative perfusion deficits. Quantitative analysis was performed using region-of-interest placement to obtain mean CTP values. Development of vasospasm was determined by a multistage hierarchical reference standard incorporating both imaging and clinical criteria. Student's t test and threshold analysis were performed. Seventy-five patients were included, 37% (28/75) were classified as vasospasm. Mean CTP values in vasospasm compared to no vasospasm groups were: CBF 31.90 ml/100 g/min vs. 39.88 ml/100 g/min (P < 0.05), MTT 7.12 s vs. 5.03 s (P < 0.01), and CBV 1.86 ml/100 g vs. 2.02 ml/100 g (P = 0.058). Fifteen patients had qualitative perfusion deficits with 73% (11/15) developed vasospasm. Optimal threshold for CBF is 24-25 mL/100 g/min with 91% specificity and 50% sensitivity, MTT is 5.5 s with 70% specificity and 61% sensitivity and CBV is 1.7 mL/100 g with 89% specificity and 36% sensitivity. These initial results support our hypothesis that A-SAH patients who develop vasospasm may demonstrate early alterations in cerebral perfusion, with statistically significant CBF reduction and MTT prolongation. Overall, CTP has high specificity for development of vasospasm. Future clinical implications include using CTP during the baseline period for early identification of A-SAH patients at high risk for vasospasm to prompt robust preventative measures and treatment. (orig.)

  18. Barbarians in the City: Burials of the Germans in the Urban Cemeteries of Northern Illyricum in the Early Byzantine Period

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    Miсhеl Kazanskiy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the topography of the burials of the Early Byzantine period (5th – 6th centuries, containing in their inventory items of German origin found in some cities of Northern Illyricum, whose necropolises were subjected to extensive excavations: Sirmium, Singidunum, Viminacium (present-day Northern Serbia. Two different types of burial places with German objects were witnessed on these city burials: isolated burials on cemeteries common to the whole population and separate cemeteries with the predominance of the German element. It can be assumed that these different types of organization of the funerary space correspond to different forms of settling of barbarians in the cities of the northern borderland of the Late Roman / Early Byzantine Illyricum. The barbarous presence in the urban burial context is very slight. In Syrmium, which repeatedly fell under the power of the barbarians (priests, gepids, a few barbarous burials were committed in cemeteries, which belonged mainly to the Roman city population, which indicates a fairly deep integration of the outgoing barbarians into the urban late-antique environment. In Singidunum and Viminacium, the frontier fortresses on the Danube, special “barbarian” cemeteries stand out, since the barbarians settled here were primarily a military force, that is, a separate social group with its own structure. It is also possible that unlike Sirmium, where archaeological traces of the presence of the Roman population are clearly revealed, barbarian mercenaries and their families accounted for a numerical majority in the garrison towns of the Danube borderland.

  19. Early life adversity during the infant sensitive period for attachment: Programming of behavioral neurobiology of threat processing and social behavior

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    Maya Opendak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

  20. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2017-01-01

    increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams’ additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we cannot confirm that temperature is the primary reason for kit mortality, under the conditions of plenty straw access for maternal nest......We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams...... building. Instead, prenatal and/or parturient litter size is the primary factor influencing early kit vitality. The results indicate that the focus should be on litter size and dam welfare around the times of gestation and birth to increase early kit survival in farmed mink....

  1. Early childhood growth patterns and school-age respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; den Dekker, Herman T; Kruithof, Claudia J; Reiss, Irwin K; Vrijheid, Martine; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-12-01

    Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s.d.s) of peak height and weight velocities (PHV and PWV, respectively), and body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity peak. Respiratory resistance and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured at 6 years of age. Wheezing patterns and asthma were prospectively assessed by annual questionnaires. We also assessed whether any association was explained by childhood weight status. Greater PHV was associated with lower respiratory resistance [Z-score (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.04, -0.01) per s.d.s increase] (n = 3382). Greater PWV and BMI at adiposity peak were associated with increased risks of early wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.11 (1.06, 1.16), 1.26 (1.11, 1.43), respectively] and persistent wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.09 (1.03, 1.16), 1.37 (1.17, 1.60), respectively] (n = 3189 and n = 3005, respectively). Childhood weight status partly explained these associations. No other associations were observed. PWV and BMI at adiposity peak are critical for lung developmental and risk of school-age wheezing. Follow-up studies at older ages are needed to elucidate whether these effects persist at later ages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The early inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrates positional effects in floral organ growth and meristem patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Powers, Stephen J; Phillips, Andy L; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter; Thomas, Stephen G

    2018-06-01

    Linear modelling approaches detected significant gradients in organ growth and patterning across early flowers of the Arabidopsis inflorescence and uncovered evidence of new roles for gibberellin in floral development. Most flowering plants, including the genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana, produce multiple flowers in sequence from a reproductive shoot apex to form a flower spike (inflorescence). The development of individual flowers on an Arabidopsis inflorescence has typically been considered as highly stereotypical and uniform, but this assumption is contradicted by the existence of mutants with phenotypes visible in early flowers only. This phenomenon is demonstrated by mutants partially impaired in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin (GA), in which floral organ growth is retarded in the first flowers to be produced but has recovered spontaneously by the 10th flower. We presently lack systematic data from multiple flowers across the Arabidopsis inflorescence to explain such changes. Using mutants of the GA 20-OXIDASE (GA20ox) GA biosynthesis gene family to manipulate endogenous GA levels, we investigated the dynamics of changing floral organ growth across the early Arabidopsis inflorescence (flowers 1-10). Modelling of floral organ lengths identified a significant, GA-independent gradient of increasing stamen length relative to the pistil in the wild-type inflorescence that was separable from other, GA-dependent effects. It was also found that the first flowers exhibited unstable organ patterning in contrast to later flowers and that this instability was prolonged by exogenous GA treatment. These findings indicate that the development of individual flowers is influenced by hitherto unknown factors acting across the inflorescence and also suggest novel functions for GA in floral patterning.

  3. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Macintosh

    Full Text Available Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD. Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the

  4. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  5. Establishment and Early Growth of Willow at Different Levels of Weed Competition and Nitrogen Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Lundkvist, Anneli; Forkman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of weed competition and nitrogen fertilization on the early growth performance of willow, cuttings of the clone Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) were planted in buckets together with model weeds (spring barley or white mustard) sown 15, 26, and 30 days after willow...... gave higher willow biomass production in willow with weeds sown after 26 or 30 days. Type of model weed had no effect on willow performance. Weed biomass and maximum shoot height were higher in weeds planted without willows compared to the willow-weed mixtures. A high nitrogen level gave more weed...... biomass when planted without willows and in the willow-weed mixture with weeds sown after 15 days. We conclude that for the given high density of willow, competition from weeds emerging soon after willow planting had strong effect on early production. Furthermore, if there is a risk of weed infestation...

  6. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  7. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae......, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young...... vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth...

  8. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. STRIDER (Sildenafil TheRapy in dismal prognosis early onset fetal growth restriction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pels, A; Kenny, L C; Alfirevic, Z

    2017-01-01

    randomised placebo-controlled trials have been launched. Women with a singleton pregnancy between 18 and 30 weeks with severe fetal growth restriction of likely placental origin, and where the likelihood of perinatal death/severe morbidity is estimated to be significant are included. Participants......BACKGROUND: Severe, early-onset fetal growth restriction due to placental insufficiency is associated with a high risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity with long-lasting sequelae. Placental insufficiency is the result of abnormal formation and function of the placenta with inadequate...... Restriction (STRIDER) collaboration is to evaluate the effectiveness of sildenafil versus placebo in achieving healthy perinatal survival through the conduct of randomised clinical trials and systematic review including individual patient data meta-analysis. METHODS: Five national/bi-national multicentre...

  10. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on early growth of soybean (Glycine mac (L). Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Yulidar

    2015-01-01

    Increase my in domestic soybean production is one of the government's program to reduce dependence on imported soybeans and soybean efforts to achieve self-sufficiency in 2015. An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of gamma ray irradiation of of 60 Cobalt on early growth of soybean seed. Variety Denna 2 varieties have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 400 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Ps Jumat PAIR-BATAN. Plant growth from each doses is proved to be varied. From germination viability on the third day, the highest percentage of seedling with leaves is on 100 Gy dose (73.75%), and 7, 14 and 21 day the lowest is on dose 400 Gy. (author)

  11. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  12. Early Acceleration of Mathematics Students and its Effect on Growth in Self-esteem: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2002-11-01

    The Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) database was employed to examine the educational practice of early acceleration of students of mathematics on the development of their self-esteem across the entire secondary grade levels. Students were classified into three different academic categories (gifted, honors, and regular). Results indicated that, in terms of the development of their self-esteem, gifted students benefited from early acceleration, honors students neither benefited nor were harmed by early acceleration, and regular students were harmed by early acceleration. Early acceleration in mathematics promoted significant growth in self-esteem among gifted male students and among gifted, honors, and regular minority students. When students were accelerated, schools showed similar average growth in self-esteem among gifted students and regular students and a large effect of general support for mathematics on the average growth in self-esteem among honors students.

  13. What Determines the Growth Ambition of Dutch Early-Stage Entrepreneurs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Verheul; Linda van Mil

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the ambition to grow among Dutch early-stage entrepreneurs (nascents and young business owners). We use Adult Population Survey data of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the Netherlands. Merging cross-sectional data of the years 2002 to 2007, we arrive at a sample of 409 nascents and 336 young business owners. Growth ambition is measured by asking the respondent which statement fits him or her best: (1) I want my company to be as large a...

  14. Trepanation in South-Central Peru during the early late intermediate period (ca. AD 1000-1250).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurin, Danielle S

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates trepanations from five well-contextualized prehistoric sites in the south-central highlands of Andahuaylas, Peru. The emergence of trepanation in this region coincides with the collapse of the Wari Empire, ca. ad 1000. Thirty-two individuals from Andahuaylas, AMS radiocarbon dated to the early Late Intermediate Period (ca. ad 1000-1250), were found to have 45 total trepanations. Various surgical techniques were being employed concurrently throughout the region. Scraping trepanations evinced the highest survival rate; circular grooving, drilling and boring, and linear cutting were far less successful. Evidence of perioperative procedures like hair shaving, poultice application, and possible cranioplasty use aimed to ensure the survival of a trepanation recipient. Postmortem trepanations, also present in Andahuaylas, were likely executed on corpses as a means of better understanding cranial anatomy and improving techniques. Similarities in trepanation patterns throughout the region attest to common motivations to engage in surgery. Although moderate physical head trauma seems to be the impetus for intervention in many cases of trepanation, other motivations included physiological and possibly psychosomatic factors. Nevertheless, treatment was not for everyone. In Andahuaylas, trepanations were withheld from subadults, females, and those individuals who practiced cranial modification. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. System and method for implementing periodic early discard in on-chip buffer memories of network elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, Andrea

    2013-05-14

    An advance is made over the prior art in accordance with the principles of the present invention that is directed to a new approach for a system and method for a buffer management scheme called Periodic Early Discard (PED). The invention builds on the observation that, in presence of TCP traffic, the length of a queue can be stabilized by selection of an appropriate frequency for packet dropping. For any combination of number of TCP connections and distribution of the respective RTT values, there exists an ideal packet drop frequency that prevents the queue from over-flowing or under-flowing. While the value of the ideal packet drop frequency may quickly change over time and is sensitive to the series of TCP connections affected by past packet losses, and most of all is impossible to compute inline, it is possible to approximate it with a margin of error that allows keeping the queue occupancy within a pre-defined range for extended periods of time. The PED scheme aims at tracking the (unknown) ideal packet drop frequency, adjusting the approximated value based on the evolution of the queue occupancy, with corrections of the approximated packet drop frequency that occur at a timescale that is comparable to the aggregate time constant of the set of TCP connections that traverse the queue.

  16. Efficacy of drainage blood reinfusion in early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Shelokova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To study effect of drainage blood reinfusion in early postoperative period (EPP after total hip arthroplasty (THA in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. Primary THA was performed in 51 RA pts with hip damage (49 female, 2 male aged from 26 to 68 years. 42 THA were performed with “Endosystems and Implants” (ESI endoprosthesis, and 21 — with “Mathys” endoprosthesis. The pts were divided into two groups. Standard infusion-transfusion therapy with donor blood components was performed in group 1 pts (n=26 to compensate blood loss in EPP. In group 2 pts (n=25 drainage blood reinfusion was done with active aspiration system Handy Vac TM ATS (Unomedical. Group 1 pts had more prominent circulatory and neurologic disturbances in EPP: hypodynamic variant of circulation with elevation of peripheral vascular resistance till 5-7 day of postoperative period, prominent hypersympathicotonia and a large number of posttransfusion reactions. Evaluation of hemodynamic and vegetative disturbances showed advantage of blood loss compensation and vegetative disturbances normalization with drainage blood reinfusion in EPP after THA in comparison with standard pts management.

  17. Early maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories: a longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative US birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Surkan, Pamela J; Ettinger, Anna K; Hock, Rebecca S; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Strobino, Donna M; Minkovitz, Cynthia S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal depressive symptoms are negatively associated with early child growth in developing countries; however, few studies have examined this relation in developed countries or used a longitudinal design with data past the second year of the child’s life. We investigated if and when early maternal depressive symptoms affect average growth in young children up to age 6 in a nationally representative sample of US children. Methods: Using data from 6,550 singleton births from the E...

  18. 215 mandible fractures in 120 children: demographics, treatment, outcomes, and early growth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren M; Bykowski, Michael R; Cray, James J; Naran, Sanjay; Rottgers, S Alex; Shakir, Sameer; Vecchione, Lisa; Schuster, Lindsay; Losee, Joseph E

    2013-06-01

    Optimal management of pediatric mandible fractures demands that the practitioner balance reduction and fixation with preservation of growth potential and function. The ideal synthesis of these goals has not yet been defined. The authors catalogue their experience with pediatric mandible fractures at a major pediatric teaching hospital with reference to demographics, injury type, treatment, and outcomes to inform future management of these injuries. Demographics, management, and outcomes of pediatric mandible fractures presenting over 10 years at a pediatric trauma center were assessed. Cephalometric analysis was conducted. Relationships among demographics, fracture type, management, outcomes, and growth were explored. Two hundred fifteen mandible fractures in 120 patients younger than 18 years were analyzed (average follow-up, 19.5 months). The condylar head and neck were fractured most frequently. Operative management was significantly more likely for children older than 12 years (pfractures were significantly associated with a higher rate of adverse outcomes (pmandibular function by patient or surgeon. No significant growth differences existed on cephalometric analysis between our cohort and age- and sex-matched controls (p>0.05). This study reports the demographics, treatment, and early follow-up of a sizable cohort of pediatric mandible fractures. Management principles for these injuries are outlined. Although definitive recommendations must be withheld until longer follow-up is available, the data presented here show that the treatment protocols used at the authors' center have yielded largely uncompromised mandibular function and growth thus far.

  19. Breast Milk Lipidome Is Associated with Early Growth Trajectory in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyon, Thomas; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Qannari, El Mostafa; Croyal, Mikaël; Soumah, Mohamed; David-Sochard, Agnès; Billard, Hélène; Legrand, Arnaud; Boscher, Cécile; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Human milk is recommended for feeding preterm infants. The current pilot study aims to determine whether breast-milk lipidome had any impact on the early growth-pattern of preterm infants fed their own mother’s milk. A prospective-monocentric-observational birth-cohort was established, enrolling 138 preterm infants, who received their own mother’s breast-milk throughout hospital stay. All infants were ranked according to the change in weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge. Then, we selected infants who experienced “slower” (n = 15, −1.54 ± 0.42 Z-score) or “faster” (n = 11, −0.48 ± 0.19 Z-score) growth; as expected, although groups did not differ regarding gestational age, birth weight Z-score was lower in the “faster-growth” group (0.56 ± 0.72 vs. −1.59 ± 0.96). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry lipidomic signatures combined with multivariate analyses made it possible to identify breast-milk lipid species that allowed clear-cut discrimination between groups. Validation of the selected biomarkers was performed using multidimensional statistical, false-discovery-rate and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) tools. Breast-milk associated with faster growth contained more medium-chain saturated fatty acid and sphingomyelin, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)-containing phosphethanolamine, and less oleic acid-containing triglyceride and DGLA-oxylipin. The ability of such biomarkers to predict early-growth was validated in presence of confounding clinical factors but remains to be ascertained in larger cohort studies. PMID:29385065

  20. Comparison of Swirl Sign and Black Hole Sign in Predicting Early Hematoma Growth in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xin; Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Wei, Xiao; Hu, Xi; Wang, Xing-Chen; Zhu, Dan; Li, Rui; Cao, Du; Xie, Peng

    2018-01-29

    BACKGROUND Early hematoma growth is associated with poor outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The swirl sign (SS) and the black hole sign (BHS) are imaging markers in ICH patients. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of these 2 signs for early hematoma growth. MATERIAL AND METHODS ICH patients were screened for the appearance of the 2 signs within 6 h after onset of symptoms. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth were assessed. The accuracy of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis. RESULTS A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. BHS was found in 30 (15%) patients, and SS was found in 70 (35%) patients. Of the 71 patients with early hematoma growth, BHS was found on initial computed tomography scans in 24 (33.8%) and SS in 33 (46.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of BHS for predicting early hematoma growth were 33.8%, 95.3%, 80.0%, and 72.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of SS were 46.5%, 71.3%, 47.0%, and 71.0%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.646 for BHS and 0.589 for SS (P=0.08). Multivariate logistic regression showed that presence of BHS is an independent predictor of early hematoma growth. CONCLUSIONS The Black hole sign seems to be good predictor for hematoma growth. The presence of swirl sign on admission CT does not independently predict hematoma growth in patients with ICH.

  1. The Relation Between the View on the Language and Educational Ideology in the Early Meiji Period in Japan Through the Discourse of Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufuko ICHIMIYA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Japanese language situation in early Meiji period will be analysed from the viewpoint of the provinces. In concrete terms, the origin of the idea that "an opaque language yields an unlcear ideology" – we can often find such a discourse through Meiji, Taisho and early Showa period – will be searched for by using primary sources in northern Kyushu, the southern part of Japan. This kind of idea can be seen in the writings of teachers and professors. Consequently, educational theories and teaching methods which had spread over the country in that period will be clues to analyse this subject. Moreover, I will try to compare the concept of "opaque language" in the Taisho period, during which dialects were considered as the representative example of such a language, with what was considered "opaque language" in the early Meiji period, when the definition of dialect and the concrete form of the standard language were still vague.

  2. Retrieving chronological age from dental remains of early fossil hominins to reconstruct human growth in the past

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, M. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A chronology of dental development in Pan troglodytes is arguably the best available model with which to compare and contrast reconstructed dental chronologies of the earliest fossil hominins. Establishing a time scale for growth is a requirement for being able to make further comparative observations about timing and rate during both dento-skeletal growth and brain growth. The absolute timing of anterior tooth crown and root formation appears not to reflect the period of somatic growth. In c...

  3. Growth performance and development of internal organ, and gastrointestinal tract of calf supplementation with calcium propionate at various stages of growth period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Wanbao; Zhang, Yawei; Jiang, Yuming; Meng, Qingxiang; Zhou, Zhenming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium propionate (CaP) supplementation on performance, the development of the internal organ, and gastrointestinal tract of calves at various stages of growth period, 54 male Jersey calves (age = 7 ± 1 d, body weight(BW) = 23.1 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allocated to three treatment groups. While control calves were fed basis dietary with no additives (0CaP), other treatment calves were fed basis dietary supplementation with CaP at 50 (5CaP) or 100 (10CaP) g kg−1 dry matter. The experiment lasted 160 d and was divided into three feeding stages: Stage 1 (d 0 to 30), Stage 2 (d 31 to 90), and Stage 3 (d 91 to160). Six calves from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered on days 30, 90, and 160 when at the conclusion of each experimental feeding stage. The BW of calves increased with 10CaP after feeding 90 d, whereas it increased with 5CaP and 10CaP at feeding 120d and 160d compared to 0CaP. The 10CaP group improved average daily gain (ADG) of calves at stage 2, and d120-160 of stage 3 compared with the 0CaP group. The ADG of 5CaP was greater than the 0CaP group only at 120–160 d of stage 3 compared with the 0CaP group. The results of feed efficiency were in agreed with ADG as no dry matter intake difference at all stages of growth period. The 10CaP treatment exhibited the greatest spleen weight among the treatment at the end of the experiment; the liver weight of the 5CaP and 10CaP calves at feeding 90 d and of the 10CaP calves at feeding 160 d and were greater than those of the 0CaP animals. The CaP at the tested doses increased the rumen weight after feeding 90d of Jersey calves, and also improved the development of intestine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with calcium propionate at the tested doses caused a beneficial effect in the growth performance and gastrointestinal tract traits of Jersey calves, thus to add 10% CaP before feeding 90 days was better and 5% CaP supplementation was expected at the period for

  4. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  5. Activity of toluene-degrading Pseudomonas putida in the early growth phase of a biofilm for waste gas treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.R.; Møller, S.; Molin, S.

    1997-01-01

    A biological trickling filter for treatment of toluene-containing waste gas was studied. The overall kinetics of the biofilm growth was followed in the early growth phase. A rapid initial colonization took place during the first three days. The biofilm thickness increased exponentially, whereas...

  6. Assessing the effect of phosphorus application on early growth of maize at Sunderbazar, Lamjung, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient element for maize production. A pot experiment was conducted during May-June, 2015 to assess the effects of different rates of P on early growth of maize plant at Sundarbazar, Lamjung. Two maize varieties (Rato Makai and Poshilo Makai-1 were subjected to four P levels (0 kg ha-1, 13 kg ha-1, 18 kg ha-1, and 23 kg ha-1 in randomized complete block design with four replications. The effects of different P level on root elongation, root biomass, plant height, root shoot biomass ratio and total dry matter were investigated at 45 days after sowing. For all parameters, the maximum value was obtained when soil was added with 18 kg P ha-1 & the minimum value under the control of 0 kg P ha-1. Maize varieties differed significantly in terms of all the parameters under study, and Poshilo Makai-1 performed better than Rato Makai at all P levels. So, from this result, it can be concluded that Poshilo Makai-1 appeared to be P efficient over Rato Makai at early growth stage. However, it would be necessary to look at the response of crop up to maturity and at wider range of P to have the better insight of their relative performance.

  7. Regulation of radiation-induced apoptosis by early growth response-1 gene in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with activation of certain immediate-early genes that function as transcription factors. These include members of jun or fos and early growth response (EGR) gene families. In particular, the functional role of EGR-1 in radiation-induced signaling is pivotal since the promoter of EGR-1 contains radiation-inducible CArG DNA sequences. The Egr-1 gene belongs to a family of Egr genes that includes EGR-2, EGR-3, EGR-4, EGR-α and the tumor suppressor, Wilms' tumor gene product, WT1. The Egr-1 gene product, EGR-1, is a nuclear protein that contains three zinc fingers of the C 2 H 2 subtype. The EGR-1 GC-rich consensus target sequence, 5'-GCGT/GGGGCG-3' or 5'-TCCT/ACCTCCTCC-3', has been identified in the promoter regions of transcription factors, growth factors, receptors, cell cycle regulators and pro-apoptotic genes. The gene targets mediated by Egr-1 in response to ionizing radiation include TNF-α , p53, Rb and Bax, all these are effectors of apoptosis. Based on these targets, Egr-1 is a pivotal gene that initiates early signal transduction events in response to ionizing radiation leading to either growth arrest or cell death in tumor cells. There are two potential application of Egr-1 gene in therapy of cancer. First, the Egr-1 promoter contains information for appropriate spatial and temporal expression in-vivo that can be regulated by ionizing radiation to control transcription of genes that have pro-apoptotic and suicidal function. Secondly, EGR-1 protein can eliminate 'induced-radiation resistance' by inhibiting the functions of radiation-induced pro-survival genes (NFκB activity and bcl-2 expression) and activate pro-apoptotic genes (such as bax) to confer a significant radio-sensitizing effect. Together, the reported findings from my laboratory demonstrate clearly that EGR-1 is an early central gene that confers radiation sensitivity and its pro-apoptotic functions are synergized by abrogation of induced radiation

  8. The correlation between variation of visual acuity and the anterior chamber depth in the early period after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-jian CHEN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation between the visual acuity variation and the anterior chamber depth in the early period after phacoemulsification.Methods Thirty-six eyes of 32 patients with age-related cataract underwent 3.2mm clear corneal incision phacoemulsification and intraocular lens(IOL implantation.The visual acuity was examined and horizontal curvature(K1,vertical curvature(K2,corneal astigmatism,and anterior chamber depth were measured with IOL-master preoperatively and also on 1,3,7 and 15 postoperative days.The changes in parameters were compared,and the correlations among visual acuity,corneal astigmatism and anterior chamber depth were analyzed.Results Before operation and 1d,3d,7d and 15d after operation,the corneal astigmatism was-0.87±0.40D,-1.92±1.38D,-1.69±1.13D,-1.45±0.79D and-1.36±0.74D;the anterior chamber depth was 3.08±0.35mm,4.04±0.38mm,4.28±0.29mm,4.22±0.17mm and 4.22±0.16mm;the visual acuity was 0.18±0.10,0.44±0.14,0.59±0.12,0.61±0.11 and 0.62±0.14.Significant difference was found between pre-operative and postoperative visual acuity,corneal astigmatism and anterior chamber depth,and it was also found in corneal astigmatism between 1d and 15d post operation(P < 0.05,as well as in anterior chamber depth and visual acuity between 1d and 3d post operation(P < 0.05.A positive correlation was found between visual acuity and corneal astigmatism on 1d(r=0.42,P < 0.05,3d(r=0.35,P < 0.05 and 7d(r=0.35,P < 0.05 post operation;and a negative correlation was found between visual acuity and anterior chamber depth on 3d(r=-0.29,P < 0.05,7d(r=-0.43,P < 0.01 and 15d(r=-0.37,P < 0.05 post operation.Conclusion Both the corneal astigmatism and the anterior chamber depth are correlated with the visual acuity variation in the early period after phacoemulsification.

  9. Limitation of the Predominant-Period Estimator for Earthquake Early Warning and the Initial Rupture of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Ide, S.

    2007-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is an important and challenging issue for the reduction of the seismic damage, especially for the mitigation of human suffering. One of the most important problems in earthquake early warning systems is how immediately we can estimate the final size of an earthquake after we observe the ground motion. It is relevant to the problem whether the initial rupture of an earthquake has some information associated with its final size. Nakamura (1988) developed the Urgent Earthquake Detection and Alarm System (UrEDAS). It calculates the predominant period of the P wave (τp) and estimates the magnitude of an earthquake immediately after the P wave arrival from the value of τpmax, or the maximum value of τp. The similar approach has been adapted by other earthquake alarm systems (e.g., Allen and Kanamori (2003)). To investigate the characteristic of the parameter τp and the effect of the length of the time window (TW) in the τpmax calculation, we analyze the high-frequency recordings of earthquakes at very close distances in the Mponeng mine in South Africa. We find that values of τpmax have upper and lower limits. For larger earthquakes whose source durations are longer than TW, the values of τpmax have an upper limit which depends on TW. On the other hand, the values for smaller earthquakes have a lower limit which is proportional to the sampling interval. For intermediate earthquakes, the values of τpmax are close to their typical source durations. These two limits and the slope for intermediate earthquakes yield an artificial final size dependence of τpmax in a wide size range. The parameter τpmax is useful for detecting large earthquakes and broadcasting earthquake early warnings. However, its dependence on the final size of earthquakes does not suggest that the earthquake rupture is deterministic. This is because τpmax does not always have a direct relation to the physical quantities of an earthquake.

  10. Maternal endothelial damage as a disorder shared by early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Dołegowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Marczuk, Natalia; Loj, Beata; Torbè, Andrzej

    2017-10-26

    Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are separate disease entities that have frequently been reported as sharing the same pathogenesis. In both of them, angiogenesis disorders and generalized endothelial damage with an accompanying inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we attempted to prove that both these processes demonstrate the same profile in early PE, late PE and IUGR patients, while the only difference is in the degree of exacerbation of the lesions. In 167 patients divided into four groups, three of those with early PE, late PE and IUGR and one control group, fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), high sensitive c-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibronectin were determined. The behavior of these parameters in each of the groups was studied, and correlations between them were sought for. Higher concentrations of sFlt-1, hsCRP and fibronectin and a lower concentration of PlGF were found in the study groups compared to the control group. Significant correlations were observed between the factors concerned. The higher values of disordered angiogenesis markers, endothelial damage markers and inflammatory markers both in the PE and the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) groups suggest the existence of shared disorders in the development of these pathologies. The correlations between disordered angiogenesis markers and endothelial damage markers argue in favor of a mutual relationship between these two processes in the development of pathologies evolving as secondary to placental ischemia. The results obtained confirm that the lesion profiles are the same in both PE and IUGR patients, which can be utilized in developing common diagnostic criteria.

  11. Early changes in plasma glucagon and growth hormone response to oral glucose in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F; Moghetti, P; Castello, R; Negri, C; Bonora, E; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying deterioration of glucose tolerance associated with hyperthyroidism are not completely understood. Increases in glucagon and growth hormone (GH) secretion have been previously found in hyperthyroid subjects, and could play a crucial role in this phenomenon. However, studies have not yet established the time sequence of changes in plasma glucose on the one hand and glucagon and GH on the other. To assess the early effects of thyroid hormone excess on glucose tolerance and plasma concentrations of the main glucoregulatory hormones, 12 nondiabetic euthyroid subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after triiodothyronine ([T3] 120 micrograms/d) was administered for 10 days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and GH were determined at fasting and after the glucose load. T3 administration caused a marked increase in serum T3 (8.8 +/- 0.6 v 2.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/L), with clinical and biochemical signs of thyrotoxicosis. During the treatment, plasma glucose significantly increased both at fasting and after the glucose load (basal, 5.3 +/- 0.1 v 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, P hormone excess rapidly impairs glucose tolerance. Altered secretion of GH is an early event in thyrotoxicosis accompanying the onset of hyperglycemia, whereas plasma glucagon is appropriately suppressed by the increased plasma glucose levels. Thus, GH but not glucagon may contribute to the early hyperglycemic effect of thyrotoxicosis.

  12. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko Nagy

    Full Text Available Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC, using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 ("T/I" mice. Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 ("T/I-het" dams that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and

  13. [Different strength intermittent treadmill training of growth period rats and related bone metabolism of the hormone influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shun-cheng; Ma, Xue-jun; Guo, Cheng-ji; Liu, Hong-zhen

    2012-05-01

    To explore the influence of different strength intermittent treadmill training of growth period rats on the bone metabolism, so as to provide the training intensity of teenagers to set theory support. Select 70 male four weeks Wistar rats according to body weight randomly divided into seven groups (n = 10): the control group and the exercise group. According to the VO2max the exercise group was divided into 6 groups: 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85% and 90% group. Nine weeks treadmill training, training six days a week, each group of training three times, each time not less than 10min, the interval was 30 min. The last movement after 24 h, took the femur and blood to measured the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mass (BMC) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), resist tartaric acid acidic phosphatase (Str-ACP). 1. The femoral BMD (0.1393 +/- 0.0031), BMC (0.4525 +/- 0.0335) of 70% group were significantly higher than those in the control group (BMD: 0.1200 +/- 0.0095, BMC: 0.3238 +/- 0.0485) and the other sports group (65% BMD:0.1339 +/- 0.0062, BMC: 0.4058 +/- 0.0492, 75% BMD: 0.1296 +/- 0.0015, BMC: 0.3869 +/- 0.0254, 80% BMD: 0.1223 +/- 0.0082, BMC: 0.3454 +/- 0.0483, 85% BMD: 0.1250 +/- 0.0044, BMC: 0.3731 +/- 0.0381, 90% BMD: 0.1171 +/- 0.0047, BMC: 0.3051 +/- 0.0286) (P growth period rat bone mass and bone mineral density to increase obviously.

  14. Photobiostimulation effects on germination and early growth of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L) produced by a semiconductor laser with λ=980nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michtchenko, A.; Hernandez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the exposure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) seeds to a IR laser radiation with λ=980nm produced by a semiconductor laser on germination and early growth had been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were irradiated to one of two laser intensities 15 mWcm - ''2 or 30 mWcm -2 for different periods of time 30, 60 or 120 s. Seeds exposed to a light intensity of 15mWcm -2 and an exposition time of 30 s. showed an increase on the percentage of seeds germinated normally while the percentage of seeds germinated abnormally decreased. At the same time there is a stimulation effect on the growth of the stem and on the growth of the root of 10% on wheat seedlings over control seedlings. Significant differences (ρ < 0.001) were observed between the control and the above treatment. (Author)

  15. Prediction of Mesiodistal Width of Unerupted Lateral Incisors, Canines and Premolars in Orthodontic Patients in Early Mixed Dentition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Toodehzaeim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Proper diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion are superior to treatment. Discrepancy between arch length and tooth size in mixed dentition period is a condition requiring timely diagnosis. Estimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted teeth according to the size of erupted ones can lead to earlier diagnosis of malocclusion. On the other hand, the best timing for serial extractions is before the eruption of lateral incisors. The aim of this study was to present prediction formulas for mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population based on the width of erupted permanent mandibular central incisors and maxillary first molars.Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dental models (60 males, 60 females of orthodontic patients between 11-25 years were evaluated in Yazd city. The measurements were made by a digital caliper on the widest mesiodistal width of teeth at the interproximal contacts. Data were analyzed to calculate the prediction equation.Results: The prediction equation in the upper jaw was y=0.57x+10.82 for males, y=0.7x+6.37 for females and y=0.64x+8.46 for both sexes. The equation for the lower jaw was y=0.76x+2.86 for males, y=0.74x+3.53 for females and y=0.77x+2.7 for both sexes.Conclusions: The prediction equations suggested in this study can predict the mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population in early mixed dentition period without taking radiographs.Keywords: Dentition, Mixed; Dentition, Permanent; Tooth, Unerupted

  16. [Effect of early nutrition on growth parameters and psychomotor development of children of very low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourková, I; Sobotková, D; Pilarová, M; Dittrichová, J; Vondrácek, J; Stranák, Z

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate influence of early nutrition on growth parameters and psychomotor development of children with very low birth weight (VLBW). A prospective clinical study. Institute for Care of Mother and Child, Prague. Thirty nine children of birth weight 1,000-1,499 were followed up to one year of their corrected age in a prospective study. The group was divided in two groups according to type of nutrition: 17 children (group A) were fed with milk of own mother - "preterm milk", 22 children (group B) were orally fed with mature milk from the Bank of mother milk - "term milk", which was fortified with BMF preparation (Nutricia, Netherlands). Both groups were comparable in basic anthropometric parameters (weight, lenght, circumference of head and thotax) and in psychosocial characteristics of their mothers. Growths parameters were monitored in weekly intervals for approximatelly eight weeks. In the period between 11th and 15th month of corrected age, the children were evaluated by a clinical psychologist on a blind basis in mental a motor development by using Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II). Statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test and t-test. No statistically significant differences between the two groups in evaluating the growth parameters were observed. The psychological examination demonstrated statistically significant differences in the motor development. The psychomotor developmental index (PVI) proved to be 84.4 +/- 14.6 in the group A and 94.3 +/- 12.5 in the group B (t-test = 2.28, pdevelopment between the two groups. The mean mentel developmental index (MVI) was 98.2 +/- 10.2 in the A group and 101.0 +/- 13.3 in the group B. Result of the study indicate favorable effect of fortification of breast milk in VLBW newborns, especially in view of the observed favorable influence of fortfication on motor development of the children.

  17. COMPENSATORY GROWTH AND FAT PARAMETERS ON BROILER FASTED IN EARLY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed withholding in the very early life ofbird on its compensatory growth capacity and fat parameters. A total of 60 mixed-sexes of one day oldRoss chicks were used in the experiment conducted with completely randomized design of 2 differentfeeding times after hatching, i.e.: T1: given access to feed and water ad libitum immediately afterhatching until 35d of age; and T2: withheld from feed (fasted but not from water for 48h after hatchingand then fed ad libitum until d35. The birds were weighed at the start of experiment and weeklythereafter, and DWG was then calculated. Feed intakes and FCR were also recorded weekly. At d36,abdominal fat was taken out from 2 birds per pen and was weighed. Breast meat (skinless from thesame birds was also sampled for total FA analysis. Final BW (d35 and total feed consumption of earlyfastedbirds were 1935.17±43.90 kg and 2745.55±47.48 kg and those of unfasted birds were2019.00±50.85 kg and 2910.84±128.10 kg, respectively. FCR of early-fasted and unfasted birds at d35were 1.42±0.03 and 1.45±0.07. The magnitude difference of DWG between early-fasted and unfastedbirds was 27% at d7, whereas at d35 the difference was only 4.5%. Abdominal fat percentage to live BWof early-fasted birds was 1.65±0.09% (male and 1.60±0.10% (female and that of unfasted birds was2.00±0.19% (male and 1.89±0.38% (female. Total FA contained in meat of early-fasted and unfastedbirds were 0.82±0.10 and 0.85±0.10 g/100gDM. Overall, BW and feed consumption of early-fastedbirds were significantly lower (P<0.05 than unfasted birds. DWG, FCR, abdominal fat and total FAcontained in meat were not significantly different (P>0.05 between early-fasted and unfasted birds. Inconclusion, holding birds without feed following hatch (under practical conditions may limit thecompensatory growth capacity of birds in the later age. Fasting applied in the very early life of broilerleads to

  18. Pneumomediastinum, Subcutaneous Emphysema, and Tracheal Tear in the Early Postoperative Period of Spinal Surgery in a Paraplegic Achondroplastic Dwarf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Kahraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia was first described in 1878 and is the most common form of human skeletal dysplasia. Spinal manifestations include thoracolumbar kyphosis, foramen magnum, and spinal stenosis. Progressive kyphosis can result in spinal cord compression and paraplegia due to the reduced size of spinal canal. The deficits are typically progressive, presenting as an insidious onset of paresthesia, followed by the inability to walk and then by urinary incontinence. Paraplegia can be the result of direct pressure on the cord by bone or the injury to the anterior spinal vessels by a protruding bone. Surgical treatment consists of posterior instrumentation, fusion with total wide laminectomy at stenosis levels, and anterior interbody support. Pedicle screws are preferred for spinal instrumentation because wires and hooks may induce spinal cord injury due to the narrow spinal canal. Pedicle lengths are significantly shorter, and 20–25 mm long screws are appropriate for lower thoracic and lumbar pedicles in adult achondroplastic There is no information about the appropriate length of screws for the upper thoracic pedicles. Tracheal injury due to inappropriate pedicle screw length is a rare complication. We report an extremely rare case of tracheal tear due to posterior instrumentation and its management in the early postoperative period.

  19. A rare case of os odontoideum from an Early Intermediate period tomb at the Huacas de Moche, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelbaum, A R; Castillo, S Uceda

    2015-12-01

    Os odontoideum is an uncommon vertebral anomaly where there is a smoothly corticated ossicle independent from a shortened odontoid peg. An example of os odontoideum was observed in an Early Intermediate period skeleton excavated from the Huacas de Moche (Moche IV, AD 400-700), Peru. The affected individual is a middle adult male who presents additional minor developmental anomalies of the axial skeleton. This individual was interred with a middle adult female who also has developmental anomalies of the axial skeleton, including block cervical vertebra (Klippel-Feil). Os odontoideum is infrequently reported in the medical literature and there continues to be debate about whether it is acquired or congenital. Unlike clinical cases, archaeological cases present an opportunity to examine the entirety of the skeleton. In the present case, there does not appear to be macroscopic or radiographic evidence for a healed fracture, and since the individual has multiple minor axial developmental anomalies, a congenital etiology is plausible. This case is the first to be described from the archaeological context of South America and one of few paleopathological examples worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP.

  1. Pedogenic calcite as evidence for an early Holocene dry period in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, G.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rainfall at the site of Union City, California, during early Holocene time appears to have been about half that of today, 470 mm/yr. We base this conclusion on detailed descriptions and particle-size analyses of 12 soil profiles and 1:20 scale logs of the fluvial stratigraphy in two 100-m-long, 5-m-deep excavations dug perpendicular to the axis of an alluvial fan along the Hayward fault. Subsidence and right-lateral movement along the fault allowed an offset stream to produce a nearly continuous alluvial record documented by 35 14C ages on detrital charcoal. Bk (calcitic) horizons in paleosols developed in the fan suggest that a relatively dry climatic period occurred from 10 to 7 ka (calendar-corrected ages). The pedogenic calcite exists primarily as vertically oriented filaments and fine, cavernous nodules formed at ped intersections. Soils and paleosols formed before 10 ka or since 7 ka did not have Bk horizons. Bk horizons that were buried suddenly at 7 ka were overlain by leached zones averaging 41 ?? 3 cm thick - about half the current depth of leaching.

  2. Early Medicaid Expansion In Connecticut Stemmed The Growth In Hospital Uncompensated Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpay, Sayeh; Buchmueller, Thomas; Levy, Helen

    2015-07-01

    As states continue to debate whether or not to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), a key consideration is the impact of expansion on the financial position of hospitals, including their burden of uncompensated care. Conclusive evidence from coverage expansions that occurred in 2014 is several years away. In the meantime, we analyzed the experience of hospitals in Connecticut, which expanded Medicaid coverage to a large number of childless adults in April 2010 under the ACA. Using hospital-level panel data from Medicare cost reports, we performed difference-in-differences analyses to compare the change in Medicaid volume and uncompensated care in the period 2007-13 in Connecticut to changes in other Northeastern states. We found that early Medicaid expansion in Connecticut was associated with an increase in Medicaid discharges of 7-9 percentage points, relative to a baseline rate of 11 percent, and an increase of 7-8 percentage points in Medicaid revenue as a share of total revenue, relative to a baseline share of 10 percent. Also, in contrast to the national and regional trends of increasing uncompensated care during this period, hospitals in Connecticut experienced no increase in uncompensated care. We conclude that uncompensated care in Connecticut was roughly one-third lower than what it would have been without early Medicaid expansion. The results suggest that ACA Medicaid expansions could reduce hospitals' uncompensated care burden. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Early developed section of the jaw as an index of prenatal growth conditions in adult roe deer Capreolus capreolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen

    2006-01-01

    -maturing bones are poor predictors of resource limitations during early development, as later benign conditions may lead to compensatory growth. We analysed the temporal growth dynamics of different sections of the lower jaw of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and found that the medioanterior section of the lower......Increasing evidence suggests that conditions in early life have important consequences for ultimate body size and fitness. Skeletal parts are often used as retrospective indices of body size and growth constraints because of their resistance to seasonal variation in resource availability. Yet, slow...... post partum and, as such, potentially leaves a fingerprint of prenatal growth conditions that is evident even in adult individuals. This supports earlier findings in ungulates of a shift in skeletal growth spurts after weaning, and suggests that the choice of skeletal index for population and cohort...

  4. The effect of dry period length and postpartum level of concentrate on milk production, energy balance, and plasma metabolites of dairy cows across the dry period and in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) improves energy balance (EB) in early lactation because of a reduction in milk yield. Lower milk yield results in lower energy demands and requires less energy intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DP length and concentrate level

  5. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  6. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muraro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Methods: Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years, and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child’s family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. Results: We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p < 0.01 and adolescence (low SEP= -0.01 z-score; high SEP= 0.45 z-score, p < 0.01, whereas upward mobility did not affect their linear growth. Conclusion: Expressive social mobility was observed, but SEP in childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  7. Impact of childhood asthma on growth trajectories in early adolescence: Findings from the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movin, Maria; Garden, Frances L; Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Svensdotter, Frida; Andersson, David; Kruse, Andreas; Cowell, Chris T; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the associations between childhood asthma and growth in early adolescence by accounting for the heterogeneity of growth during puberty has been largely unexplored. The objective was to identify sex-specific classes of growth trajectories during early adolescence, using a method which takes the heterogeneity of growth into account and to evaluate the association between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories in adolescence. Our longitudinal study included participants with a family history of asthma born during 1997-1999 in Sydney, Australia. Hence, all participants were at high risk for asthma. Asthma status was ascertained at 8 years of age using data from questionnaires and lung function tests. Growth trajectories between 11 and 14 years of age were classified using a latent basis growth mixture model. Multinomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between asthma and the categorized classes of growth trajectories. In total, 316 participants (51.6% boys), representing 51.3% of the entire cohort, were included. Sex-specific classes of growth trajectories were defined. Among boys, asthma was not associated with the classes of growth trajectories. Girls with asthma were more likely than girls without asthma to belong to a class with later growth (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.84). Excluding participants using inhaled corticosteroids or adjusting for confounders did not significantly change the results for either sex. We identified sex-specific heterogeneous classes of growth using growth mixture modelling. Associations between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories were found for girls only. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. An association of adult personality with prenatal and early postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent studies have noted differences in social acquiescence and interpersonal relations among adults born preterm or with very low birth weight compared to full term adults. In addition, birth weight has been observed to be negatively correlated with lie-scale scores in two ...... influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development. Keywords: Eysenck personality questionnaire, Lie-scale, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Birth weight, Birth length, Birth head-circumference...... individuals participated in a follow-up at 20–34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed...

  9. Early dietary treated patients with phenylketonuria can achieve normal growth and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Júlio C; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Almeida, Manuela F; Ramos, Elisabete; Guimarães, João T; Borges, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    In the past, overtreatment may have resulted in growth impairment in patients with phenylketonuria. The paper aims to investigate height and body composition in early treated patients with phenylketonuria who were diagnosed between 1981 and 2008. A cross-sectional study of 89 patients with phenylketonuria and 78 controls aged (mean ± SD, in years) 14.4 ± 6.6 and 15.9 ± 7.1, respectively, was undertaken, including anthropometric and body composition evaluation using bioelectrical impedance. Median Phe concentrations in the last year before study enrollment were used as a measure of metabolic control. Natural protein and amino acid mixture intakes were recorded in patients. No statistically significant differences were found on height z-scores between patients and controls aged less than 19 years (p=0.301), although all patients with classical phenylketonuria revealed negative height z-scores, resulting in a mean ± SD of -0.65 ± 0.41. Among participants aged 19 years or more, median (p25-p75) of height was significantly higher in controls [168.0 cm (159.2-174.8)] than in patients [160.5 cm (151.9-167.5)] (p=0.017). No significant differences were found between patients and controls regarding fat mass, fat free mass, muscular mass, body cell mass index and phase angle. Our results suggest that early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria born after 1992 can achieve normal growth and body composition, although the negative height z-score in patients with classical phenylketonuria strengthens the continuous need to optimize the quality of their protein intake. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eggs in Early Complementary Feeding and Child Growth: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Stewart, Christine P; Gallegos Riofrío, Carlos Andres; Malo, Carla; Reinhart, Gregory; Palacios, Ana; Karp, Celia; Chapnick, Melissa; Cox, Katherine; Waters, William F

    2017-07-01

    Eggs are a good source of nutrients for growth and development. We hypothesized that introducing eggs early during complementary feeding would improve child nutrition. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Cotopaxi Province, Ecuador, from March to December 2015. Children ages 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to treatment (1 egg per day for 6 months [ n = 83]) and control (no intervention [ n = 80]) groups. Both arms received social marketing messages to encourage participation in the Lulun Project ( lulun meaning "egg" in Kichwa). All households were visited once per week to monitor morbidity symptoms, distribute eggs, and monitor egg intakes (for egg group only). Baseline and end point outcome measures included anthropometry, dietary intake frequencies, and morbidity symptoms. Mothers or other caregivers reported no allergic reactions to the eggs. Generalized linear regression modeling showed the egg intervention increased length-for-age z score by 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.88) and weight-for-age z score by 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45-0.77). Log-binomial models with robust Poisson indicated a reduced prevalence of stunting by 47% (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77) and underweight by 74% (PR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10-0.70). Children in the treatment group had higher dietary intakes of eggs (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.28-1.92) and reduced intake of sugar-sweetened foods (PR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97) compared with control. The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly improved growth in young children. Generally accessible to vulnerable groups, eggs have the potential to contribute to global targets to reduce stunting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. The Use of β-blockers in Patients with Ventricular Ectopic Heartbeat in the Early and Distant Postinfarction Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kulayets

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to increase the effectiveness of patients after Q-, QS- myocardial infarction rehabilitation, based on the study of clinical, instrumental and biochemical changes in cases of cardiac arrhythmias, and development on this basis of new approaches to treatment. Materials and Methods. The clinical, instrumental and biochemical examinations were carried out for 70 patients who had Q-, QS-myocardial infarction (MI with a ventricular ectopic heartbeat on the regenerative period since the acute coronary syndrome development in 1, 3, and 6 months. The features of the ventricular ectopic heartbeat course in patients with myocardial infarction against the backdrop of sotalol and carvedilol use and influence of applied treatment on the clinical and pathogenetical features of patients’ functional recovery in early and distant (prolonged postinfarction period were analyzed. Results. Analyzing the dynamics of coronary artery disease clinical manifestations in patients with ventricular arrhythmia (VA with myocardial infarction against the backdrop of sotalol and carvedilol treatment it has been noted a marked decrease in anginal chest pain manifestation, feeling of palpitations, disruption of the heart, shortness of breath, feeling of breath shortness, etc. in all groups of patients. The positive effect of therapy had been increasing since the 3 week during the 3-month long treatment. Results of heart rate Holter monitoring have shown a marked antiarrhythmic effect of metoprolol, carvedilol and sotalol. In particular, in all groups of patients the frequency of VA reduced by half, the percentage of high grade VA decreased namely pair and group arrhythmia, ventricular bigeminy. Assessment of hemodynamic parameters in the process of patients with ST treatment has represented the marked trend and a further significant increase in ejection fraction and other contractile dysfunction forms correction. This positive trend was the most relevant in the application

  12. Early growth of Mexican-American children: lagging in preliteracy skills but not social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Fuller, Bruce; Chu, Lynna; Kim, Anthony; Franke, Todd; Bridges, Margaret; Kuo, Alice

    2013-11-01

    Latino toddlers fall behind White peers at 24 months of age in oral language and interactive skills with their mothers in English or Spanish. But Latino children enter kindergarten with social skills that rival White peers, despite social-class disparities. We ask whether cognitive trajectories widen during the 24-48 month period, how these patterns differ for Latinos, especially Mexican-Americans, and whether similar gaps in social-emotional growth appear. We analyzed growth patterns for a nationally representative birth sample (n = 4,690) drawn in 2001, estimating levels of change in development from 24 to 48 months of age, focusing on Latino subgroups. The mean gap in cognitive processing for Mexican-American children, already wide at 24-months of age relative to Whites (three-fourths of a standard deviation), remained constant at 48 months. But differences in social-emotional status were statistically insignificant at both 24 and 48 months. Mexican-American mothers were observed to be equally warm and supportive relative to White peers during interaction tasks. Yet the former group engaged less frequently in cognitive facilitation, oral language, and preliteracy activities in the home. Growth in both cognitive and social domains was considerably lower in larger families, placing children raised in poor or Spanish-speaking homes within a large household at greater risk of delays. Pediatricians and practitioners must carefully gauge the social-emotional well-being of Latino children, in developmental surveillance activities. Growth in cognitive and social domains unfolds independently for children of Mexican heritage, even when raised in economically poor families.

  13. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Parraguez

    Full Text Available Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  14. The transitional period redefined as the early Lambayeque period : a study of elite female burials at San José de Moro

    OpenAIRE

    Wittholt Leigh, Corissa

    2015-01-01

    It is a common idea that men in Pre‐Colombian Peru held the socio‐political power.  Recently, many female elite burials from the Moche, Transitional and Lambayeque Periods are changing this idea.  At least in these cultures, there appears to be a continuity of burials of high status women (possibly priestesses) and the matter in which they were treated and interred. Based on this evidence, in this thesis, I explain that based on the recent available archaeological data, that I ...

  15. Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Pyo, Han-Jong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-12-28

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity.

  16. Human management and landscape changes at Palaikastro (Eastern Crete) from the Late Neolithic to the Early Minoan period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Riera-Mora, S.; Orengo, H. A.; Livarda, A.; Knappett, C.

    2018-03-01

    On the east Mediterranean island of Crete, a hierarchical society centred on large palatial complexes emerges during the Bronze Age. The economic basis for this significant social change has long been debated, particularly concerning the role of olive cultivation in the island's agricultural system. With the aim of studying vegetation changes and human management to understand the landscape history from Late Neolithic to Bronze Age, two palaeoenvironmental records have been studied at Kouremenos marsh, near the site of Palaikastro (Eastern Crete). Pollen, NPP and charcoal particles analyses evidenced seven phases of landscape change, resulting from different agricultural and pastoral practices and the use of fire probably to manage vegetation. Moreover, the Kouremenos records show the importance of the olive tree in the area. They reflect a clear trend for its increasing use and exploitation from 3600 cal yr BC (Final Neolithic) to the Early Minoan period, that is coeval with an opening of the landscape. The increase of Olea pollen was due to the expansion of the tree and its management using pruning and mechanical cleaning. The onset of olive expansion at c. 3600 cal yr BC places Crete among the first locales in the eastern Mediterranean in the management of this tree. Between c. 2780 and 2525 cal yr BC the landscape was largely occupied by olive and grasslands, coinciding with an increase in grazing practices. The high Olea pollen percentages (40-45%) suggest an intensive and large-scale exploitation of the olive tree. The results suggest that a complex and organized landscape with complementary land uses and activities was already in place since the Final Neolithic. The notable expansion of olive trees suggests the relevance of olive exploitation in the socio-economic development of Minoan towns of eastern Crete. Other crops, such as cereals and vine, and activities such as grazing have also played an important role in the configuration of the past landscape.

  17. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BLOOD AT PATIENTS WITH BOWEL OBSTRUCTION OF TUMORAL GENESIS IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Maslyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Microcirculation plays an important role in early postoperative period in colorectal cancer patients. At the same time the question connected with studying of rheological properties of blood as one of microcirculation indicators in literature it studied insufficiently.Materials and methods. We studied rheological properties of blood in 30 patients operated for bowel obstruction caused by right colon cancer. 17 (56,7 % patients were male, 13 (43,3 % – female. Average age was 57 ± 3 years. Time from the moment of manifestation of the first clinical signs before admission to a hospital and the beginnings of carrying out medical and diagnostic actions was 12 ± 0,5 h. The stage of a disease was T3N0–1M0. The group of comparison consisted of 20 healthy volunteers of the same age. Changes of a rheology of blood were measured by means of the accounting of viscosity of blood, change of an index of deformation and aggregation of erythrocytes. Studying of viscosity of blood was carried out by means of the rotational viscometer at shift speeds: 200; 100; 150; 50 and 20 MPas. Measures were conducted at the time of receipt, on the first, third, fifth, seventh and tenth postoperative day.Results. In patients with bowel impassability at the time of receipt the increase in indicators of viscosity of blood is noted at all speeds of the shift, analyzed indicators increase by the third postoperative day, decrease on the seventh and are partially restored for the tenth postoperative days. Complications developed in 16,6 % of cases, in all cases – pneumonia. By comparison of the obtained laboratory data to a clinical picture it is established that complications developed on 3–5th postoperative days.

  18. Early rehabilitation after surgery program versus conventional care during perioperative period in patients undergoing laparoscopic assisted total gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Ranjan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of early rehabilitation after surgery program (ERAS in patients undergoing laparoscopic assisted total gastrectomy. Materials And Methods: This is a study where 47 patients who are undergoing lap assisted total gastrectomy are selected. Twenty-two (n = 22 patients received enhanced recovery programme (ERAS management and rest twenty-five (n = 25 conventional management during the perioperative period. The length of postoperative hospital stay, time to passage of first flatus, intraoperative and postoperative complications, readmission rate and 30 day mortality is compared. Serum levels of C-reactive protein pre-operatively and also on post-op day 1 and 3 are compared. Results: Postoperative hospital stay is shorter in ERAS group (78 ± 26 h when compared to conventional group (140 ± 28 h. ERAS group passed flatus earlier than conventional group (37 ± 9 h vs. 74 ± 16 h. There is no significant difference in complications between the two groups. Serum levels of CRP are significantly low in ERAS group in comparison to conventional group. [d1 (52.40 ± 10.43 g/L vs. (73.07 ± 19.32 g/L, d3 (126.10 ± 18.62 g/L vs. (160.72 ± 26.18 g/L]. Conclusion: ERAS in lap-assisted total gastrectomy is safe, feasible and efficient and it can ameliorate post-operative stress and accelerate postoperative rehabilitation in patients with gastric cancer. Short term follow up results are encouraging but we need long term studies to know its long term benefits.

  19. Growth trajectories of alcohol information processing and associations with escalation of drinking in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Read, Jennifer P; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F

    2014-09-01

    This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking.

  20. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  1. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-06-15

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. Although some black holes with masses more than 10(9) times that of the Sun have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes; this is because the initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Here we report a measurement of the amount of black hole growth in galaxies at redshift z = 6-8 (0.95-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang), based on optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations. Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their host galaxies throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest-energy X-rays. This suggests that black holes grew significantly more during these early bursts than was previously thought, but because of the obscuration of their ultraviolet emission they did not contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe.

  2. Follicle and oocyte growth in early postnatal calves: cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhawi, A.J.; Kaňka, J.; Motlík, J.

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of oocyte and follicle growth was studied in 1- and 3-d-old calf ovaries using cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical approaches. Attention was only paid to unilaminar ovarian follicles that were classified into 3 categories: unilaminar flattened (UF), unilaminar flatto-cuboidal (UFC) and unilaminar cuboidal (UC) ovarian follicles when the oocyte was surrounded by 1 layer of flattened, a mixture of flattened and cuboidal and entirely cuboidal follicle cells, respectively. Our findings suggested that oocytes within each of these follicle categories were in different developmental stages. Furthermore, electron microscopic observations revealed that early after birth, oocyte nuclei characteristic of diplotene configuration (aggregation of the nuclear chromatin into moderately electron-dense small patches and fibrillo-granular texture of the nucleolus) were encountered in 41% of the UF follicles. The rest of the UF as well as all of the UFC and UC follicles were found to contain dictyate oocytes in which the chromatin was highly decondensed and the nucleolus differentiated into fibrillar, fibrillo-granular and granular components. The present results also indicated that the complete transition of the surrounding follicle cells from flattened to cuboidal shape and the morphological changes of the oocyte endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were 2 complementary events essential for initiation of oocyte growth

  3. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  4. Effects of spacing on early growth rate and carbon sequestration in Pinus brut ia Ten. plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, N.; Aydin, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of initial spacing on early growth and carbon sequestration rates in Turkish red pine plantations up to 12 years old, established with improved seeds and deep soil cultivation. Area of study: The study was conducted on experimental sites established in two locations within the Turkish red pine natural distribution areas, namely Du acı and Nebiler close to Antalya city. Material and methods: Data were collected from the experimental sites established as a Nelder design (fan-shaped), with 72 rays and 18 arcs (circles), and trees were planted (almost square) at distances ranging from 1.15 to 4.77 m. Soil type of both sites is loamy, with soil clay content varying between 70-87% in Duacı and 51-70% in Nebiler. Soils are deep being more than one m in both sites, but rockier in Nebiler, providing better soil drainage in this site. Main results: The results showed that mean total height was greater at closer spacing than those of wider spacing until age eight. Growth retardation at wider spacing in early years may be related to water loss due to evaporation in hot summer days and weed suppression. Following the age eight, competition among trees appears to be the major factor reducing the growth and carbon fixation. Diameter at breast height and individual tree volume increased, while stand volume, mean annual volume increment and annual carbon storage per hectare considerably decreased for wider spacing. Our results suggest that in order to obtain higher yield and more carbon fixation, short rotation plantations should initially be established in closer spacing, followed by thinning in subsequent years as required by silvicultural concerns. In this context, spacing 3.0 × 1.0 m or 3.0 × 1.5 m (3.0 and 4.5 m2 growing area per tree, respectively) seems to be more plausible, providing farm machinery for maintenance and harvesting. We also found that mean annual volume increment per unit area can be

  5. Early Life Growth Predictors of Childhood Adiposity Trajectories and Future Risk for Obesity: Birth to Twenty Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Lombard, Zané; Norris, Shane A

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence of variations in adiposity trajectories among individuals, but the influence of early life growth patterns on these trajectories is underresearched in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between early life conditional weight gain and childhood adiposity trajectories. We previously identified distinct adiposity trajectories (four for girls and three for boys) in black South African children (boys = 877; girls = 947). The association between the trajectories and early life growth patterns, and future obesity risk was assessed by multivariate linear and multinomial logistic and logistic regressions. Conditional weight gain independent of height was computed for infancy (0-2 years) and early childhood (2-4 years). Conditional weight gain before 5 years of age was significantly associated with early onset of obesity or overweight (excess weight) BMI trajectories in both boys and girls. In girls, greater conditional weight gain in infancy was associated with increased relative risk of being in the early-onset obese to morbid obese trajectory, with relative risk ratios of 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.17-3.52) compared to belonging to a BMI trajectory in the normal range. Boys and girls in the early-onset obesity or overweight BMI trajectories were more likely to be overweight or obese in early adulthood. Excessive weight gain in infancy and early childhood, independent of linear growth, predicts childhood and adolescent BMI trajectories toward obesity. These results underscore the importance of early life factors in the development of obesity and other NCDs in later life.

  6. Orientation selection process during the early stage of cubic dendrite growth: A phase-field crystal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Sai; Wang Zhijun; Guo Yaolin; Wang Jincheng; Yu Yanmei; Zhou Yaohe

    2012-01-01

    Using the phase-field crystal model, we investigate the orientation selection of the cubic dendrite growth at the atomic scale. Our simulation results reproduce how a face-centered cubic (fcc) octahedral nucleus and a body-centered cubic (bcc) truncated-rhombic dodecahedral nucleus choose the preferred growth direction and then evolve into the dendrite pattern. The interface energy anisotropy inherent in the fcc crystal structure leads to the fastest growth velocity in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. New { 1 1 1} atomic layers prefer to nucleate at positions near the tips of the fcc octahedron, which leads to the directed growth of the fcc dendrite tips in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. A similar orientation selection process is also found during the early stage of bcc dendrite growth. The orientation selection regime obtained by phase-field crystal simulation is helpful for understanding the orientation selection processes of real dendrite growth.

  7. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ), and calcium chloride (CaCl 2 )-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl -  L -1 ) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl 2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl -  L -1 . CaCl 2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl -  L -1 (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl 2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg 2+ cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl 2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  9. The effect of a period of intensive exercise on the isoform test to detect growth hormone doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Giraud, S; Alsayrafi, M; Bourdon, P C; Schumacher, Y O; Saugy, M; Robinson, N

    2013-08-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of several days of intense exercise on growth hormone (hGH) testing using the World Anti-Doping Agencies hGH isoform differential immunoassays. Additionally the effects of circadian variation and exercise type on the isoform ratios were also investigated. 15 male athletes performed a simulated nine day cycling stage race. Blood samples were collected twice daily over a period of 15 days (stage race+three days before and after). hGH isoforms were analysed by the official WADA immunoassays (CMZ Assay GmbH). All measured isoform ratios were far below the WADA decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Changes in the isoform ratios could not be clearly connected to circadian variation, exercise duration or intensity. The present study demonstrates that the hGH isoform ratios are not significantly affected by exercise or circadian variation. We demonstrated that heavy, long term exercise does not interfere with the decision limits for an adverse analytical finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic changes of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot different organs at different growth periods by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Du, Leyue; Tao, Jinhua; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jinao

    2017-08-01

    Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been clinically used to treat chronic kidney disease, oral ulcers, burns, and dysmenorrhea in China for many centuries. The major pharmacologically-active components of A. manihot are flavonoids. In this study, a rapid and highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS analysis method was established and successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of five major flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and myricetin) in different parts of A. manihot harvested at ten growth periods. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, good separation for five target components was obtained on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column within 18min. The total contents of the five investigated flavonoids in A. manihot roots, stems, leaves and flowers ranged from 2.86 to 123.7μg/g, 46.39 to 141.0μg/g, 929.4 to 3096μg/g, and 10,150 to 19,390μg/g, respectively, indicating that the total flavonoids in the four parts could be mainly arranged in a decreasing order as flower>leaf>stem>root. The peak of total flavonoids in flowers and leaves appeared at G8 and G9, respectively. These results will be helpful for the determination of the suitable harvest time of A. manihot and the improvement of the utility value of the disused parts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High Doses of Caffeine during the Peripubertal Period in the Rat Impair the Growth and Function of the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal caffeine exposure adversely affects the development of the reproductive organs of male rat offspring. Thus, it is conceivable that peripubertal caffeine exposure would also influence physiologic gonadal changes and function during this critical period for sexual maturation. This study investigated the impact of high doses of caffeine on the testes of prepubertal male rats. A total of 45 immature male rats were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and 2 groups fed 120 and 180 mg/kg/day of caffeine, respectively, via the stomach for 4 weeks. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, accompanied by proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. The caffeine-fed animals had smaller and lighter testes than those of the control that were accompanied by negative influences on the histologic parameters of the testes. In addition, stimulated-testosterone ex vivo production was reduced in Leydig cells retrieved from the caffeine-fed animals. Our results demonstrate that peripubertal caffeine consumption can interfere with the maturation and function of the testis, possibly by interrupting endogenous testosterone secretion and reducing the sensitivity of Leydig cells to gonadotrophic stimulation. In addition, we confirmed that pubertal administration of caffeine reduced testis growth and altered testis histomorphology.

  12. Preliminary morphological and morphometric study of rat cerebellum following sodium arsenite exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Pushpa; Mohari, Nivedita; Mehra, Raj D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period were studied in rat brains with emphasis on the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. The RBG period in rats extends from postnatal day 4 (PND 4) to postnatal day 10 (PND 10) and is reported to be highly vulnerable to environmental insults. Mother reared Wistar rat pups were administered intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of sodium arsenite (aqueous solution) in doses of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) to groups II, III and IV (n = 6 animals/group) from PND 4 to 10 (sub acute). Control animals (group I) received distilled water by the same route. On PND 11, the animals were perfusion fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB) with pH 7.4. The cerebellum obtained from these animals was post-fixed and processed for paraffin embedding. Besides studying the morphological characteristics of Purkinje cells in cresyl violet (CV) stained paraffin sections (10 μm), morphometric analysis of Purkinje cells was carried out using Image Analysis System (Image Proplus software version 4.5) attached to Nikon Microphot-FX microscope. The results showed that on PND 11, the Purkinje cells were arranged in multiple layers extending from Purkinje cell layer (PL) to outer part of granule cell layer (GL) in experimental animals (contrary to monolayer arrangement within PL in control animals). Also, delayed maturation (well defined apical cytoplasmic cones and intense basal basophilia) was evident in Purkinje cells of experimental animals on PND 11. The mean Purkinje cell nuclear area was significantly increased in the arsenic treated animals compared to the control animals. The observations of the present study (faulty migration, delayed maturation and alteration in nuclear area measurements of Purkinje cells subsequent to arsenic exposure) thus provided the morphological evidence of structural alterations subsequent to arsenite induced developmental neurotoxicity which could be presumed to be

  13. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... forms a large perivitelline space, reaching an egg diameter of 1.45 ± 0.12 mm at 3.0 to 3.5 h post fertilization. Embryonic development from fertilization to larval hatch lasted ~46–48 h at 20 °C with the larvae emerging in a relatively undeveloped stage with a protuberant yolk sac. During the period......-sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...

  14. Beef heifer growth and reproductive performance following two levels of pasture allowance during the fall grazing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, B L; Griggs, T C; Rayburn, E B; Krause, K M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare heifer growth and reproductive performance following 2 levels of stockpiled fall forage allowance of orchardgrass (30.5%) and tall fescue (14.1%). Spring-born heifers (n = 203 and BW = 246 ± 28.9 kg) of primarily Angus background were allocated to 2 grazing treatments during the fall period (November 12 to December 17 in yr 1, November 7 to January 4 in yr 2, and November 7 to January 14 in yr 3) each replicated 3 times per year for 3 yr. Treatments consisted of daily pasture DM allowance of 3.5% of BW (LO) or daily pasture DM allowance of 7.0% of BW (HI) under strip-grazing management. Throughout the winter feeding period, mixed grass-legume haylage and soybean hulls were fed. Heifers were grazed as 1 group under continuous stocking after the winter period. Heifers in the LO group gained less than heifers in the HI group during the fall grazing period (0.12 vs. 0.40 kg/d; P < 0.0001). For each 1 10 g increase in NDF/kg fall pasture (DM basis), fall ADG decreased 0.14 kg (P = 0.01). During winter feeding, ADG was 0.30 and 0.39 kg/d for LO vs. HI heifers, respectively (P = 0.0008). During the spring grazing period (April 16 to May 24 in yr 1, April 22 to May 26 in yr 2, and April 5 to May 16 in yr 3), LO heifers had numerically greater ADG than HI heifers (1.38 vs. 1.30 kg/d; P = 0.64). Hip height (122.7 vs. 121.4 cm; P = 0.0055), BCS (5.8 vs. 5.6; P = 0.0057), and BW (356 vs. 335 kg; P < 0.0001) at the end of spring grazing was greater for HI than LO heifers. Heifers in the LO group compensated with greater summer ADG than heifers in the HI group (0.74 vs. 0.66 kg/d; P = 0.03). Total ADG from treatment initiation (November) through pregnancy diagnosis (August) was greater for HI than LO heifers (0.61 vs. 0.55 kg/d; P < 0.001) as was BW at pregnancy diagnosis (415 vs. 402 kg; P = 0.0055). Percentage of heifers reaching puberty by the time of AI was 34% for both groups (P = 0.93). Percentage of heifers becoming pregnant to

  15. Impact bombardmnet and its role in proto-continental growth on the early Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieve, R.A.F.

    1980-01-01

    There is evidence that during 4.6-3.9 Ga the Earth experienced a period of intense bombardment similar to that recorded on the Moon. From cratering mechanics and by comparison with more recent terrestrial impact structures the effects of large impact structures, D >= 100 km, have been modelled for an early terrestrial proto-crust with an assumed thickness of 15 km. The direct effects were analogous to those on the Moon: the formation of multi-ring basins with a topography of approximately 3 km, the uplift of deep-seated material to the surface, the fracturing of the crustal column and the generation of surface impact lithologies. However, unlike the Moon, the highly active nature of the Earth resulted in more long-lived indirect effects: impact-induced volcanism due to distortion of the geothermal gradient by uplift and the addition of post-shock heat, intra-basin sedimentation by volcaniclastics and reworked impact lithologies and ultimately subsidence of the basin due to loading by volcanic and sedimentary products. Very large basins, D > 1000 km, excavated the local lithosphere and produced the equivalent of mantle plumes below the impact sites. These conclusions are incorporated into a model of early crustal evolution of the Earth in which the net effect of large impact events was to localize and accelerate endogenic activity. (Auth.)

  16. Climatic changes during the early Medieval and recent periods inferred from δ13C and δ18O of Siberian larch trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, O. V.; Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf

    2010-12-01

    We report unique isotope datasets for δ13C and δ18O of wood and cellulose of larch trees (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) from Northeastern Yakutia [70°N-148°E] for the early Medieval (AD 900-1000) and recent (AD 1880-2004) periods. During the recent period June, July, and August air temperatures were positively correlated with δ13C and δ18O of wood and cellulose, while July precipitation was negatively correlated. The positive correlation with one of the warmest months (July) in Northeastern Yakutia could indicate high photosynthetic capacity, because warm and dry conditions cause stomatal closure and lower the isotopic fractionation, leading to less negative δ13C values. Because during July, the soil water is still frozen at a soil depth of 20-30 cm, the water accessibility for trees is limited, which can lead to drought situations. An increase in water availability allows for a higher stomatal conductance, resulting in lower δ13C values, leading to a negative relationship with summer precipitation. Furthermore, the vapor pressure deficit of July and August was significantly correlated with δ13C of wood and cellulose, indicating decreased stomatal conductance, an expression of moderate drought. This leads to reduced 13CO2 discrimination and less negative δ13C values. The simultaneous increase of δ18O also indicates a reduction in stomatal conductance under rather dry conditions or drought. Comparative analyses between mean isotope values for the AD 900-1000 and AD 1880-2004 periods indicate similar ranges of climatic conditions, with the exception of the period AD 1950-2004, which is characterized by increased summer drought. Whilst isotopic ratios in cellulose are reliably related to climatic variables, those in whole wood showed even stronger relationships during some periods. Strong positive correlations between δ18O of cellulose and Greenland ice-core data were detected for the beginning of the Medieval period (r=0.86; pdata, and gain a wider insight into

  17. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years) and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years), and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child's family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline) after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  18. Assessing non-linear variation of temperature and precipitation for different growth periods of maize and their impacts on phenology in the Midwest of Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enliang; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Alu, Si; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun; Ha, Si

    2018-05-01

    In the past two decades, the regional climate in China has undergone significant change, resulting in crop yield reduction and complete failure. The goal of this study is to detect the variation of temperature and precipitation for different growth periods of maize and assess their impact on phenology. The daily meteorological data in the Midwest of Jilin Province during 1960-2014 were used in the study. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition method was adopted to analyze the non-linear trend and fluctuation in temperature and precipitation, and the sensitivity of the length of the maize growth period to temperature and precipitation was analyzed by the wavelet cross-transformation method. The results show that the trends of temperature and precipitation change are non-linear for different growth periods of maize, and the average temperature in the sowing-jointing stage was different from that in the other growth stages, showing a slight decrease trend, while the variation amplitude of maximum temperature is smaller than that of the minimum temperature. This indicates that the temperature difference between day and night shows a gradually decreasing trend. Precipitation in the growth period also showed a decreasing non-linear trend, while the inter-annual variability with period of quasi-3-year and quasi-6-year dominated the variation of temperature and precipitation. The whole growth period was shortened by 10.7 days, and the sowing date was advanced by approximately 11 days. We also found that there was a significant resonance period among temperature, precipitation, and phenology. Overall, a negative correlation between phenology and temperature is evident, while a positive correlation with precipitation is exhibited. The results illustrate that the climate suitability for maize has reduced over the past decades.

  19. Improvement of the nutritional value and growth of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis by different enrichment period with Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutia Budi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachionus plicatilis is a widely used as natural feed in hatchery. Characteristics of rotifers as biocapsule can improve the quality of rotifers in a practical way. Bacillus sp. is capable of improving the nutrition rotifers to produce vitamins, food detoxication or through enzymatic activity such as protease, lipase, and amylase. This research aimed at observing the influence of the enrichment length of Bacillus sp. on the quality of nutrition and growth of rotifers. The research container was a polyearbonate vessel of one ton volume which contained Nannochloropsis sp. with the density of 105 cell/mL, it was then scattered with rotifer with the density of 1,000 ind./mL. The types of bacteria used were Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheformis with the density of 2x1010 cfu/g. The experiments tried with different enrichment length were A = 0 hour, B = 5 hours, C = 10 hours and D = 10 hours with triplicate. As the comparing data, rotifer culture experiment was carried out with Nannochlorophsis sp.as the control. The number of containers were 24 which consists of 12 for threatment and 12 pieces as control. Variables measured were proximate to each treatment and the growth of rotifers. The result of the research revealed the enrichment length of rotifers with Bacillus sp. has significantly (P Key words: rotifers, Bacillus, enrichment period, proximate   ABSTRAK Brachionus plicatilis merupakan pakan alami yang banyak digunakan dalam pembenihan. Karakteristik rotifer sebagai biokapsul secara praktis dapat meningkatkan kualitas rotifer. Bacillus sp. mampu memperbaiki nutrisi rotifer dengan memproduksi vitamin, detoksikasi pangan maupun melalui aktivitas enzimatis seperti protease, lipase, dan amilase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pengkayaan Bacillus sp. terhadap kualitas nutrisi dan pertumbuhan rotifer. Wadah penelitian menggunakan bak fiber volume 1 ton yang berisikan Nannochloropsis sp. dengan kepadatan 105 cell

  20. Reappraisal of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) measurement in the detection of isolated and combined growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Cesar L; Lacerda, Claudio Silva de; Lacerda Filho, Luiz de; Carvalho, Julienne A R de; Boguszewski, Margaret C S

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of serum IGF-1 in the detection of isolated (IGHD) or combined growth hormone deficiency (CGHD) at the transition phase. Forty nine patients with GHD during childhood [16 with IGHD (10 men) and 33 with CGHD (24 men); age 23.2 ± 3.5 yrs.] were submitted to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) with a GH peak IGF-1 measurements were evaluated in the basal sample of the ITT. Transition patients were reclassified as GH-sufficient (SGH; n = 12), IGHD (n = 7), or CGHD (n = 30). Five (31%) patients with IGHD and 32 (97%) with CGHD at childhood persisted with GHD at retesting. One patient with IGHD was reclassified as CGHD, whereas 3 patients with CGHD were reclassified as IGHD. Mean GH peak was 0.2 ± 0.3 µg/L in the CGHD, 1.3 ± 1.5 µg/L in the IGHD, and 18.1 ± 13.1 µg/L in the SGH group. Serum IGF-1 level was significantly higher in the SGH (272 ± 107 ng/mL) compared to IGHD (100.2 ± 110) and CGHD (48.7 ± 32.8) (p IGF-1 level, resulting in 97.3% sensitivity and 91.6% specificity in the detection of GHD at the transition period; the cutoff value of 110 ng/mL showed 94.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Mean IGF-1 values did not differ in IGHD or CGHD associated with one, two, three, or four additional pituitary deficiencies. IGF-1 measurement is accurate to replace ITT as initial diagnostic test for IGHD and CGHD detection at the transition phase.

  1. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000550; Bannink, A.; Geurts, I. A L; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Gort, G.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate

  3. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  4. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  5. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Schonewille, J. T.; Bannink, A.

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (k aVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the

  6. Re-translocation of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marentes, E; Shelp, B J [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Guelph, ON (Canada); Vanderpool, R A [USDA, Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, ND (United States); [Spiers, G.A. Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Land Resource Science, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if boron (B) re-translocation depends on plant-B status and external-B supply. The stable {sup 10}B isotope was supplied to the root system of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to provide a quantitative picture of B distribution during early reproductive development. Regardless of the B regime (i.e. continuous supply with luxury, sufficient or deficient B; transfer at influorescence emergence from either a luxury- or sufficient-B supply to a deficient one) and whether {sup 10}B was acquired before or during influorescence development, a significant proportion of the B recovered in broccoli florest and lupin fruit was {sup 10}B enriched. B acquired during inflorescence development was an important source of B for reproductive structures, but the relative importance of B acquired before and after inflorescence emergence appeared to be species dependent. The occurrence of B re-translocation was not dependent upon the induction of B deficiency. The concentrations of B in phloem exsudates (0.38 to 0.03 mM) were 4- to 23-fold those in xylem sap, and more similar to the concentrations in the reproductive structures (0.86 to 0.07 mM) than those in source leaves (2.4 to 0.19 mM). The decreasing acropetal gradient of tissue-B concentrations with luxury-B supply declined dramatically or was reversed in plants grown with sufficient or deficient B. The data are consistent with B being a phloem-mobile element, and suggest that newly acquired B is particularly important during the early reproductive growth of plants. (au) 36 refs.

  7. Re-translocation of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marentes, E.; Shelp, B.J.; Vanderpool, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if boron (B) re-translocation depends on plant-B status and external-B supply. The stable 10 B isotope was supplied to the root system of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to provide a quantitative picture of B distribution during early reproductive development. Regardless of the B regime (i.e. continuous supply with luxury, sufficient or deficient B; transfer at influorescence emergence from either a luxury- or sufficient-B supply to a deficient one) and whether 10 B was acquired before or during influorescence development, a significant proportion of the B recovered in broccoli florest and lupin fruit was 10 B enriched. B acquired during inflorescence development was an important source of B for reproductive structures, but the relative importance of B acquired before and after inflorescence emergence appeared to be species dependent. The occurrence of B re-translocation was not dependent upon the induction of B deficiency. The concentrations of B in phloem exsudates (0.38 to 0.03 mM) were 4- to 23-fold those in xylem sap, and more similar to the concentrations in the reproductive structures (0.86 to 0.07 mM) than those in source leaves (2.4 to 0.19 mM). The decreasing acropetal gradient of tissue-B concentrations with luxury-B supply declined dramatically or was reversed in plants grown with sufficient or deficient B. The data are consistent with B being a phloem-mobile element, and suggest that newly acquired B is particularly important during the early reproductive growth of plants. (au) 36 refs

  8. The association between growth factors and blood factors with early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Shamsaddin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Early childhood caries (ECC is a specific form of rampant dental caries affecting infants and young children. ECC is still a problem that threatens the health of the community and its management is important. It is believed that the majorities of children with ECC also suffer from malnutrition, anemia, low weight and altered physical growth patterns. This study was undertaken to compare blood indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin] in a population of children in Kerman, Iran, and the association between growth factors, blood parameters, and ECC. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 240 children were selected from Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman. The subjects consisted of 2 to 6-year children, who needed blood sampling for different diagnostic reasons. Data were collected through clinical oral examinations, anthropometric measures, blood indices measurement (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin and structured questionnaire in order to assess demographic characteristics, nutritional habits and the presence or absence of systemic conditions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 50.79 months. Of 240 children included in this study, 124 (52.1% were girls and the rest (47.9% were boys. Statistical test revealed that there were statically significant differences in weight as well as the height of children in experimental and control groups (P 0.050. CONCLUSION: No significant association was observed between ECC and blood indices (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin, but the mean height and weight in the caries-free group were significantly higher.

  9. FAST MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: GROWTH OF COLLISIONLESS PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TURBULENT MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)

    2015-07-20

    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.

  10. The influence of ionizing radiation of high intensity on the functional status of monkey brain. Clinical picture of early postirradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeza, V.I.; Turlakov, Yu.S.

    1990-01-01

    In experiments with Macaca fascicularis a study was made of early manifestations of the central nervous system (CNS) disturbances caused by exposure to 24 MeV electrons (45 Gy). The results obtained permit us to distinguish two main ways (stereotypes) by which a clinical picture of early postirradiation period develops: comatose and noncomatose. A general clinical characteristic of each stereotype and stages of their development are presented. The postirradiation disturbances of nervous and psychis activity of monkeys are considered within the framework of the concept concerning acute reactions of exogenous type. It is suggested that the course of the early postirradiation period is conditioned by the involvement of some phylogenically determined, universal systemic mechanisms of the CNS response to external harmful effects

  11. 75 FR 76733 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Platinum Solutions, Inc. 20110099 G Gammon Gold Inc. G Capital Gold Corporation. G Capital Gold Corporation..., L.P. G New Mountain Partners II, L.P. G MailSouth, Inc. Transaction Granted Early Termination 09-NOV...

  12. Early functional and morphological brain disturbances in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starčević, Mirta; Predojević, Maja; Butorac, Dražan; Tumbri, Jasna; Konjevoda, Paško; Kadić, Aida Salihagić

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the brain disturbances develop in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) before blood flow redistribution towards the fetal brain (detected by Doppler measurements in the middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery). Further, to evaluate predictive values of Doppler arterial indices and umbilical cord blood gases and pH for early functional and/or morphological brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR. This cohort study included 60 singleton term pregnancies with placental insufficiency caused late-onset IUGR (IUGR occurring after 34 gestational weeks). Umbilical artery resistance index (URI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (CRI), and cerebroumbilical (C/U) ratio (CRI/URI) were monitored once weekly. Umbilical blood cord samples (arterial and venous) were collected for the analysis of pO2, pCO2 and pH. Morphological neurological outcome was evaluated by cranial ultrasound (cUS), whereas functional neurological outcome by Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT). 50 fetuses had C/U ratio>1, and 10 had C/U ratio≤1; among these 10 fetuses, 9 had abnormal neonatal cUS findings and all 10 had non-optimal ATNAT. However, the total number of abnormal neurological findings was much higher. 32 neonates had abnormal cUS (53.37%), and 42 (70.00%) had non-optimal ATNAT. Furthermore, Doppler indices had higher predictive validity for early brain disturbances than umbilical cord blood gases and pH. C/U ratio had the highest predictive validity with threshold for adverse neurological outcome at value 1.13 (ROC analysis), i.e., 1.18 (party machine learning algorithm). Adverse neurological outcome at average values of C/U ratios>1 confirmed that early functional and/or structural brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR develop even before activation of fetal cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, i.e., before Doppler signs of blood flow redistribution between the fetal brain and the placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  13. Production of Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease VvpE begins during the early growth phase: usefulness of gelatin-zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kang, Sang-Mee; Jeon, Ho-Jong; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that expression of the vvpE gene begins during the early growth phase albeit at low levels. However, we found that the traditional protease assay method that is used to measure caseinolytic activity in culture supernatants is not suitable for the measurement of extracellular VvpE that is produced at low levels during the early growth phase. By using gelatin-zymography in place of the protease assay, we could specifically detect only VvpE of several proteases produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Moreover, we could sensitively measure VvpE produced at low levels during the early growth phase, which was consistent with transcription of the vvpE gene. The extracellular production of VvpE was reduced or delayed by mutation of the pilD gene which encodes for the type IV leader peptidase/N-methyltransferase associated with the type II general secretion system; the delayed production of VvpE was recovered by in trans complementation of the wild-type pilD gene. These results indicate that VvpE begins to be produced during the early growth phase via the PilD-mediated type II general secretion system, and that the use of gelatin-zymography is recommended as a simple method for the sensitive and specific detection of VvpE production.

  14. Artificially regenerating longleaf pine on wet sites: preliminary analysis of effects of site preparation treatments on early survival and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Our study, conducted over two years on poorly drained, sandy sites in Onslow County, NC, compared the effects of eight common site preparation treatments on early survival and growth of planted longleaf pine seedlings. Through two growing seasons, we found survival to be similar across all treatments (p = 0.8806), but root collar diameter was greatest with combinations...

  15. Impact of Witnessing Violence on Growth Curves for Problem Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies used latent growth-curve analysis to examine the relation between witnessing violence and changes in problem behaviors (drug use, aggression, and delinquency) and attitudes during early adolescence. In Study 1, six waves of data covering 6th to 8th grades were collected from 731 students in urban schools serving mostly African-American…

  16. Influence of establishment timing and planting stock on early rotational growth of loblolly pine plantations in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Blazier; E. L. Taylor; A. G. Holley

    2010-01-01

    Planting container seedlings, which have relatively fully formed root systems encased in a soil-filled plug, may improve loblolly pine plantation productivity by increasing early survival and growth relative to that of conventionally planted bareroot seedlings. Planting seedlings in fall may also confer productivity increases to loblolly pine plantations by giving...

  17. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2

  18. Conventional and Piecewise Growth Modeling Techniques: Applications and Implications for Investigating Head Start Children's Early Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…

  19. Malnutrition and mental development: Is there a sensitive period? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine the possibility that there is an early sensitive period for the effects of malnutrition on cognitive development, three groups of children (N = 197) were recruited from a birth cohort with known growth characteristics in south-west Ethiopia (N = 1563). All had initial weights;: 2500 g. Early growth falterers dropped in ...

  20. Developmental programming of somatic growth, behavior and endocannabinoid metabolism by variation of early postnatal nutrition in a cross-fostering mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Felix; Ackermann, Merle; Michalik, Michael; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Racz, Ildiko; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Dötsch, Jörg; Zimmer, Andreas; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient deprivation during early development has been associated with the predisposition to metabolic disorders in adulthood. Considering its interaction with metabolism, appetite and behavior, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system represents a promising target of developmental programming. By cross-fostering and variation of litter size, early postnatal nutrition of CB6F1-hybrid mice was controlled during the lactation period (3, 6, or 10 pups/mother). After weaning and redistribution at P21, all pups received standard chow ad libitum. Gene expression analyses (liver, visceral fat, hypothalamus) were performed at P50, eCB concentrations were determined in liver and visceral fat. Locomotor activity and social behavior were analyzed by means of computer-assisted videotracking. Body growth was permanently altered, with differences for length, weight, body mass index and fat mass persisting beyond P100 (all 3>6>10,p6>10 (DAGLα p6>10 (FAAH pOpen-field social behavior testing revealed significant group differences, with formerly underfed mice turning out to be the most sociable animals (p<0.01). Locomotor activity did not differ. Our data indicate a developmental plasticity of somatic growth, behavior and parameters of the eCB system, with long-lasting impact of early postnatal nutrition. Developmental programming of the eCB system in metabolically active tissues, as shown here for liver and fat, may play a role in the formation of the adult cardiometabolic risk profile following perinatal malnutrition in humans.

  1. Size, growth, and size‐selective mortality of subyearling Chinook Salmon during early marine residence in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Madilyn M.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Chamberlin, Joshua W.; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2018-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, survival can be heavily influenced by size‐selective mortality during juvenile life stages. Understanding how and when size‐selective mortality operates on a population can reveal underlying growth dynamics and size‐selective ecological processes affecting the population and thus can be used to guide conservation efforts. For subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Puget Sound, previous research reported a strong positive relationship between marine survival and body mass during midsummer in epipelagic habitats within Puget Sound, suggesting that early marine growth drives survival. However, a fine‐scale analysis of size‐selective mortality is needed to identify specific critical growth periods and habitats. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe occupancy patterns across estuarine delta, nearshore marine, and offshore epipelagic habitats in Puget Sound; (2) describe changes in FL and weight observed across habitats and time; (3) evaluate evidence for size‐selective mortality; and (4) illustrate how marine survival of the stocks studied may be affected by variation in July weight. In 2014 and 2015, we sampled FLs, weights, and scales from seven hatchery‐origin and two natural‐origin stocks of subyearling Chinook Salmon captured every 2 weeks during out‐migration and rearing in estuary, nearshore, and offshore habitats within Puget Sound. Natural‐origin stocks had more protracted habitat occupancy patterns than hatchery‐origin stocks and were smaller than hatchery‐origin stocks in both years. Regardless of origin, subyearlings were longer and heavier and grew faster in offshore habitats compared to estuary and nearshore habitats. For all stocks, we found little evidence of size‐selective mortality among habitats in Puget Sound. These patterns were consistent in both years. Finally, the weights of subyearlings sampled during July in the offshore habitat predicted Puget Sound‐wide marine

  2. Synchronous high-resolution phenotyping of leaf and root growth in Nicotiana tabacum over 24-h periods with GROWMAP-plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruts Tom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root growth is highly responsive to temporal changes in the environment. On the contrary, diel (24 h leaf expansion in dicot plants is governed by endogenous control and therefore its temporal pattern does not strictly follow diel changes in the environment. Nevertheless, root and shoot are connected with each other through resource partitioning and changing environments for one organ could affect growth of the other organ, and hence overall plant growth. Results We developed a new technique, GROWMAP-plant, to monitor growth processes synchronously in leaf and root of the same plant with a high resolution over the diel period. This allowed us to quantify treatment effects on the growth rates of the treated and non-treated organ and the possible interaction between them. We subjected the root system of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings to three different conditions: constant darkness at 22°C (control, constant darkness at 10°C (root cooling, and 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C (root illumination. In all treatments the shoot was kept under the same 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C. Root growth rates were found to be constant when the root-zone environment was kept constant, although the root cooling treatment significantly reduced root growth. Root velocity was decreased after light-on and light-off events of the root illumination treatment, resulting in diel root growth rhythmicity. Despite these changes in root growth, leaf growth was not affected substantially by the root-zone treatments, persistently showing up to three times higher nocturnal growth than diurnal growth. Conclusion GROWMAP-plant allows detailed synchronous growth phenotyping of leaf and root in the same plant. Root growth was very responsive to the root cooling and root illumination, while these treatments altered neither relative growth rate nor diel growth pattern in the seedling leaf. Our results that were obtained simultaneously in growing

  3. HTLV-1 Tax upregulates early growth response protein 1 through nuclear factor-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingsong; Niu, Zhiguo; Han, Jingxian; Liu, Xihong; Lv, Zhuangwei; Li, Huanhuan; Yuan, Lixiang; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Shuming; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xinxiang

    2017-08-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in susceptible individuals. The HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax induces persistent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. Here, we showed that both Tax expression and HTLV-1 infection promoted EGR1 overexpression. Loss of the NF-κB binding site in the EGR1 promotor or inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced Tax-induced EGR1 upregulation. Tax mutants unable to activate NF-κB induced only slight EGR1 upregulation as compared with wild-type Tax, confirming NF-κB pathway involvement in EGR1 regulation. Tax also directly interacted with the EGR1 protein and increased endogenous EGR1 stability. Elevated EGR1 in turn promoted p65 nuclear translocation and increased NF-κB activation. These results demonstrate a positive feedback loop between EGR1 expression and NF-κB activation in HTLV-1-infected and Tax-expressing cells. Both NF-κB activation and Tax-induced EGR1 stability upregulated EGR1, which in turn enhanced constitutive NF-κB activation and facilitated ATL progression in HTLV-1-infected cells. These findings suggest EGR1 may be an effective anti-ATL therapeutic target.

  4. Bovine serum prolactin, growth hormone, and triiodothyronine levels during late pregnancy and early lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johke, Tetsu; Hodate, Kouichi

    1977-01-01

    Changes of serum prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in Holstein dairy cows during late pregnancy and early lactation were determined by radioimmunoassays. The cows calved in September. Mean serum PRL ranged 9.9 ng/ml to 12.4 ng/ml during the 3rd to 7th day prepartum. It increased to a peak value of 87.3 ng/ml on the day of parturition from 57.5 ng/ml on the day before calving, and decreased to 13.9 ng/ml within 3 days postpartum. During the 2nd to 30th day prepartum, serum GH varied between 2.4 and 4.0 ng/ml and increased to 8.0 ng/ml on the day of calving. During a week postpartum, serum GH ranged from 5.2 to 8.2 ng/ml. Mean serum GH during a week postpartum was higher than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). Mean serum T3 level during 5 days prepartum varied 104.2 to 108.8 ng/dl and decreased to 93 ng/dl on the day of calving. During 5 days postpartum, mean T3 level varied 73.0 to 83.8 ng/dl. Contrary to GH, mean serum T3 level during 5 day postpartum was significantly lower than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). (auth.)

  5. Genetic evidence for the association between the early growth response 3 (EGR3 gene and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, two genome scan meta-analysis studies have found strong evidence for the association of loci on chromosome 8p with schizophrenia. The early growth response 3 (EGR3 gene located in chromosome 8p21.3 was also found to be involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. However, subsequent studies failed to replicate this finding. To investigate the genetic role of EGR3 in Chinese patients, we genotyped four SNPs (average interval ∼2.3 kb in the chromosome region of EGR3 in 470 Chinese schizophrenia patients and 480 healthy control subjects. The SNP rs35201266 (located in intron 1 of EGR3 showed significant differences between cases and controls in both genotype frequency distribution (P = 0.016 and allele frequency distribution (P = 0.009. Analysis of the haplotype rs35201266-rs3750192 provided significant evidence for association with schizophrenia (P = 0.0012; a significant difference was found for the common haplotype AG (P = 0.0005. Furthermore, significant associations were also found in several other two-, and three-SNP tests of haplotype analyses. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant association between rs35201266 and schizophrenia (P = 0.0001. In summary, our study supports the association of EGR3 with schizophrenia in our Han Chinese sample, and further functional exploration of the EGR3 gene will contribute to the molecular basis for the complex network underlying schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  6. Increased Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Sensory Neurons of Early Diabetic Rats Is Corrected by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lucia Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, characterized by early hyperalgesia and increased nerve growth factor (NGF, evolves in late irreversible neuropathic symptoms with reduced NGF support to sensory neurons. Electroacupuncture (EA modulates NGF in the peripheral nervous system, being effective for the treatment of DPN symptoms. We hypothesize that NGF plays an important pathogenic role in DPN development, while EA could be useful in the therapy of DPN by modulating NGF expression/activity. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. One week after STZ, EA was started and continued for three weeks. NGF system and hyperalgesia-related mediators were analyzed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG and in their spinal cord and skin innervation territories. Our results show that four weeks long diabetes increased NGF and NGF receptors and deregulated intracellular signaling mediators of DRG neurons hypersensitization; EA in diabetic rats decreased NGF and NGF receptors, normalized c-Jun N-terminal and p38 kinases activation, decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel, and possibly activated the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB. In conclusion, NGF signaling deregulation might play an important role in the development of DPN. EA represents a supportive tool to control DPN development by modulating NGF signaling in diabetes-targeted neurons.

  7. pH modulates the binding of early growth response protein 1 transcription factor to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; Schuchardt, Brett J; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; McDonald, Caleb B; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-08-01

    The transcription factor early growth response protein (EGR)1 orchestrates a plethora of signaling cascades involved in cellular homeostasis, and its downregulation has been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we show that the binding of EGR1 to DNA is tightly regulated by solution pH. Importantly, the binding affinity undergoes an enhancement of more than an order of magnitude with an increase in pH from 5 to 8, implying that the deprotonation of an ionizable residue accounts for such behavior. This ionizable residue is identified as His382 by virtue of the fact that its replacement by nonionizable residues abolishes the pH dependence of the binding of EGR1 to DNA. Notably, His382 inserts into the major groove of DNA, and stabilizes the EGR1-DNA interaction via both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals contacts. Remarkably, His382 is mainly conserved across other members of the EGR family, implying that histidine protonation-deprotonation may serve as a molecular switch for modulating the protein-DNA interactions that are central to this family of transcription factors. Collectively, our findings reveal an unexpected but a key step in the molecular recognition of the EGR family of transcription factors, and suggest that they may act as sensors of pH within the intracellular environment. © 2013 FEBS.

  8. Effect of Different Growth Stages and Dew Period Length on Disease Development of Alternaria alternata as a Biological Control Agent for Convolvulus arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Zeidali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Field bindweed is an important perinial weed of agricultural crops word-wide. There are plant pathogen fungus which could cause necrotic spots on the leaves and stems of convolvulus arvensis under natural coditions. In order to evaluate the effects of weed growth stage and length of dew period on disease development causes by Aletrnaria alternata and Fusarium sp. two expriments were performed in the greenhouse based on a completely randomized design in factorial arrangement with four replications during 2006-2007. Spore concentration for both experiments was 107 spores per ml of distilled water. In the first experiment, treatments were different growth stages of field bindweed (cotyledon, 4-leaf, 6-leaf, 9-11-leaf stages. Results showed that disease development in the fungus of A. alternata was higher than Fusarium sp. The most susceptable growth stage of field bindweed plants to A. alternata was 2-4-leave stage. The second expriment was performed in order to study the effect of dew period length (6, 12, 24 and 48 hour dew periods on disease development at 4-leaf growth stage of field bindweed. The maximum disease development and minimum weed dry weight were observed with application of the fungus of A. alternata at dew periods of 24 and 48 hour, however, plant damage was also observed with a length of 6 hours dew period.

  9. Early response to sibutramine in patients not meeting current label criteria: preliminary analysis of SCOUT lead-in period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, Ian; Coutinho, Walmir; Finer, Nick

    2010-01-01

    pulse rate increases; median 1.5 bpm (nonconformers) vs. 3.0 bpm (conformers). There was a low incidence of serious adverse events (conformers: 1.0%; nonconformers: 2.8%) and ~93% of patients in both groups completed the 6-week period. The SCOUT lead-in period evaluating weight management...

  10. Constant and changing photoperiods in the laying period for broiler breeders allowed [corrected] normal or accelerated growth during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P D; Gous, R M

    2006-02-01

    Broiler breeder pullets were grown on 8-h photoperiods to 2.23 or 2.42 kg of BW at 20 wk, and then transferred abruptly to 11- or 16-h photoperiods. Subsequently, some of the 11-h photoperiod birds were given 15-min increases in day length weekly or a 1-h increase every 4 wk to reach 16 h of light at 54 wk. The birds transferred abruptly to a 16-h photoperiod at 20 wk matured 4 d earlier than 11-h photoperiod birds, required 500 g less feed to reach 50% lay, but, because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak, produced 5 fewer eggs to 60 wk. However, the number of settable eggs was similar for the 2 groups because the 11-h photoperiod birds laid more eggs on the floor, resulting in more cracked and dirty eggs. The 11-h photoperiod birds converted feed into egg more efficiently, and were 100 g heavier at end of lay. Increasing the photoperiod in 15-min or 1-h increments from 11 to 16 h during the laying cycle depressed egg production. Mean egg weight and mortality were similar for all lighting groups. The heavier BW birds at 20 wk reached maturity 1 d earlier, but used 1 kg more feed to reach maturity, laid 5 fewer total eggs (because of a 3% lower rate of lay after peak), produced 7 more unsettable eggs (because more eggs were laid on the floor), and converted feed into egg less efficiently than did the lighter BW birds. Mean egg weight, BW at 57 wk, and mortality were similar for both groups. There was no significant light x growth interaction for any performance parameter. It is concluded that there is no benefit to egg production from extending the photoperiod to 16 h when broiler breeders are kept in light-proofed housing, especially if they have access to illuminated nest boxes.

  11. Crop growth in early spring and radiation use efficiency in alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akmal, M.; Farid, U.; Asim, M.; Farhatullah, A.; Raziuddin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, KP Agricultural University Peshawar. Fifteen alfalfa lines (M. sativa L.) were compared for crop growth rate (CGR), biomass yield and radiation use efficiency (RUE). The previous year experiment was defoliated on March, 13 2006 at ground levels about 5 cm height. Fertilizer to the crop was applied every year in first week of March to yield 30, 60, and 30 kg ha/sup -1/ N, P, and K, respectively after defoliation. Periodic samples were harvested from one meter row length at two locations and oven dried at 70 degree C for about 36 h. Before samples, periodic leaf area index (LAI) was recorded with LI-2000 (LI-COR, USA) and subsequently light measurements were made using data logger (LI-1400, LI-COR, USA) and light sensors LI-190 and LI-191 (LI-COR, USA). The CGR showed variation in shapes and asymptotes for the different alfalfa lines which resulted differences in both fresh and dry matters yield at final sampling harvest. Alfalfa line Gramma-2 was the highest in dry matter yield (110 g m-2) followed by Flewish-pop (107 g m-2). Alfalfa line Pumha with 74 g m-2 was the lowest in dry matter yield. Differences were observed in LAI (p<0.05). High dry matter yield of alfalfa line Gramma-2 was due to higher LAI which was associated to highest leaf fraction (38%). Differences in RUE were also observed among the lines. Flewish-pop was the highest in RUE (0.20 g DM MJ-2 PAR absorbed), followed by Gramma-2 (0.18 g DM MJ-2 PAR absorbed). Mean CGR and RUE of the different lines showed association with dry matter yield of which the lateral one showed a strong association compared with the earlier one. We conclude that higher RUE than CGR is important for the line/variety to get quality fodder production. (author)

  12. Skeletal muscle protease activities in the early growth and development of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila A; Kantserova, Nadezda P; Kaivarainen, Elena I; Krupnova, Marina Yu; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    Growth-related dynamics of intracellular protease activities in four year classes of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. 1758) parr and smolts inhabiting salmon rivers of northwestern Russia (the White Sea basin) were studied. Cathepsin B, cathepsin D, proteasome, and calpain activities in the skeletal muscles of salmon were assessed to investigate their relative contribution to the total protein degradation as well as to young fish growth process. It was confirmed that calpain activity dominates in salmon muscles while proteasome plays a minor role, in contrast to terrestrial vertebrates. Calpain and proteasome activities were maximal at the early post-larval stage (in parrs 0+) and declined with age (parrs 1+ through 2+) dropping to the lowest level in salmon smolts. Annual growth increments and proteolytic activities of calpains and proteasome in the muscles of salmon juveniles changed with age in an orchestrated manner, while lysosomal cathepsin activities increased with age. Comparing protease activities and growth increments in salmon parr and smolts we suggested that the partial suppression of the protein degradation could be a mechanism stimulating efficient growth in smoltifying salmon. Growth and smoltification-related dynamics of protease activities was quite similar in salmon populations from studied spawning rivers, such as Varzuga and Indera; however, some habitat-related differences were observed. Growth increments and protease activities varied in salmon parr 0+ (but not on later ages) inhabiting either main rivers or small tributaries apparently due to habitat difference on the resources for fish growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two new hoards and several solitary finds of metal items of the Bronze Age - Early Hallstatt periods in the territory of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Ţerna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article publishes two new hoards and several solitary finds of bronze items from the Prut-Dniester interfluve. These finds can be dated the late Bronze Age and Early Hallstatt periods and relate to the Sabatinovka and Noua cultures, as well as to different early Hallstatt groups. Of special interest is the hoard from Brăneşti containing some types of items which until now were not known on the territories to the west from the Dniester. Also, remarkable is the structure of these two hoards, which may indicate a votive character of their deposition.

  14. Human Disturbance during Early Life Impairs Nestling Growth in Birds Inhabiting a Nature Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Carolina; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Bulaic, Mateja; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Nature recreation conflicts with conservation, but its impacts on wildlife are not fully understood. Where recreation is not regulated, visitors to natural areas may gather in large numbers on weekends and holidays. This may increase variance in fitness in wild populations, if individuals whose critical life cycle stages coincide with periods of high human disturbance are at a disadvantage. We studied nestling development of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in a natural area where recreation activities intensify during weekends and other public holidays at picnic and leisure facilities, but not in the surrounding woods. In nests located near recreation facilities, blue tit nestlings that hatched during holidays developed slowly, and fledged with low body mass and poor body condition. However, nestlings that hatched outside of holidays and weekends in these nest boxes developed normally, eventually attaining similar phenotypes as those hatching in the surrounding woods. Within-brood variance in body mass was also higher in broods that began growing during holidays in disturbed areas. Our results show that early disturbance events may have negative consequences for wild birds if they overlap with critical stages of development, unveiling otherwise cryptic impacts of human activities. These new findings may help managers better regulate nature recreation.

  15. Human Disturbance during Early Life Impairs Nestling Growth in Birds Inhabiting a Nature Recreation Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Remacha

    Full Text Available Nature recreation conflicts with conservation, but its impacts on wildlife are not fully understood. Where recreation is not regulated, visitors to natural areas may gather in large numbers on weekends and holidays. This may increase variance in fitness in wild populations, if individuals whose critical life cycle stages coincide with periods of high human disturbance are at a disadvantage. We studied nestling development of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus in a natural area where recreation activities intensify during weekends and other public holidays at picnic and leisure facilities, but not in the surrounding woods. In nests located near recreation facilities, blue tit nestlings that hatched during holidays developed slowly, and fledged with low body mass and poor body condition. However, nestlings that hatched outside of holidays and weekends in these nest boxes developed normally, eventually attaining similar phenotypes as those hatching in the surrounding woods. Within-brood variance in body mass was also higher in broods that began growing during holidays in disturbed areas. Our results show that early disturbance events may have negative consequences for wild birds if they overlap with critical stages of development, unveiling otherwise cryptic impacts of human activities. These new findings may help managers better regulate nature recreation.

  16. Caregivers' perspectives on the pre-diagnostic period in early onset dementia: a long and winding road

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, D.; de Vugt, M.E.; Bakker, C.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recognizing and diagnosing early onset dementia (EOD) can be complex and often takes longer than for late onset dementia. The objectives of this study are to investigate the barriers to diagnosis and to develop a typology of the diagnosis pathway for EOD caregivers. Methods:

  17. Toward an adverse outcome pathway for impaired growth: Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs growth in early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolser, Derek G; Dreier, David A; Li, Erchao; Kroll, Kevin J; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2018-07-01

    Chemical contaminants present in the environment can affect mitochondrial bioenergetics in aquatic organisms and can have substantial effects on individual fitness. As early life stages of fish are particularly vulnerable to environmental contaminants, they are ideal models for examining the relationship between impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics (ATP-dependent respiration, basal oxidative respiration) and apical endpoints such as growth. Here, early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), an ecologically relevant North American species, were used to investigate the relationship between mitochondrial bioenergetics and growth following perturbation with model mitochondrial toxicants 2,4-dinitrophenol and octylamine. Fathead minnows were exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and octylamine at 3 concentrations for 24 h and endpoints related to mitochondrial bioenergetics were measured with the Agilent Seahorse XFe24 Bioanalyzer. In order to link changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics to growth, fathead minnows were exposed to the same chemical contaminants for 7-14 days and growth was measured by measuring total length on a weekly basis. There was a significant correlation between decrease in average length at 14 days and basal respiration (r = 0.997, p = 0.050, n = 3), as well as maximal respiration (r = 0.998, p-value = 0.043, n = 3) for embryos exposed to 2,4 dinitrophenol. For octylamine, ATP production was highly correlated with average length at 7 days (p-value = 0.1) and spare respiratory capacity and average length at 14 days were highly correlated (p-value = 0.1). These data improve understanding of how mitochondrial toxicants impair growth in fish larvae and may be useful for developing an adverse outcome pathway for growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth hormone (GH) treatment reverses early atherosclerotic changes in GH-deficient adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, M; Verhovec, R; Zizek, B; Prezelj, J; Poredos, P; Clayton, R N

    1999-02-01

    Hypopituitary patients have increased mortality from vascular disease, and in these patients, early markers of atherosclerosis [increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and reduced distensibility] are more prevalent. As GH replacement can reverse some risk factors of atherosclerosis, the present study examined the effect of GH treatment on morphological and functional changes in the carotid and brachial arteries of GH-deficient (GHD) adults. Eleven GHD hypopituitary men (24-49 yr old) were treated with recombinant human GH (0.018 U/kg BW x day) for 18 months. IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the carotid bifurcation (CB), and flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) of the brachial artery were measured by B mode ultrasound before and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of treatment, and values were compared with those in 12 age-matched control men. Serum concentrations of lipids, lipoprotein(a), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were also measured. In GHD men before treatment the IMTs of the CCA [mean(SD), 0.67(0.05) mm] and CB [0.75(0.04) mm] were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those in control men [0.52(0.07) and 0.65(0.07) mm, respectively]. GH treatment normalized the IMT of the CCA by 6 months [0.53(0.04) mm] and that of the CB by 3 months [0.68(0.05) mm]. The IMT of the carotid artery (CCA and CB) was negatively correlated with serum IGF-I (r = -0.53; P < 0.0001). There was a significant improvement in flow-mediated EDD of the brachial artery at 3 months, which was sustained at 6 and 18 months of GH treatment (P < 0.05). GH treatment increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 3 and 6 months, but did not reduce total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol and was without effect on lipoprotein(a). There was no correlation between plasma lipids and changes in IMT or EDD of the arteries examined. In conclusion, GH treatment of hypopituitary GHD men reverses early morphological and

  19. Altered growth pattern, not altered growth per se, is the hallmark of early lesions preceding cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doratiotto, S; Marongiu, F; Faedda, S; Pani, P; Laconi, E

    2009-01-01

    Many human solid cancers arise from focal proliferative lesions that long precede the overt clinical appearance of the disease. The available evidence supports the notion that cancer precursor lesions are clonal in origin, and this notion forms the basis for most of the current theories on the pathogenesis of neoplastic disease. In contrast, far less attention has been devoted to the analysis of the phenotypic property that serves to define these focal lesions, i.e. their altered growth pattern. In fact, the latter is often considered a mere morphological by-product of clonal growth, with no specific relevance in the process. In the following study, evidence will be presented to support the concept that focal growth pattern is an inherent property of altered cells, independent of clonal growth; furthermore, it will be discussed how such a property, far from being merely descriptive, might indeed play a fundamental role in the sequence of events leading to the development of cancer. Within this paradigm, the earliest steps of neoplasia should be considered and analysed as defects in the mechanisms of tissue pattern formation.

  20. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T M; Malmkvist, J

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Kits were weighed on days 1 and 7, dead kits were collected daily from birth until day 7 after birth, and nest climate was measured continuously from days 1 to 6. We tested the influences of the following daily temperature (T) and humidity (H) parameters on the number of live-born kit deaths and kit growth: T mean, T min, T max, T var (fluctuation) and H mean. The nest microclimate experienced by the kits was buffered against the ambient climate, with higher temperatures and reduced climate fluctuation. Most (77.0%) live-born kit deaths in the 1st week occurred on days 0 and 1. Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit (P<0.001) and increased kit growth (P=0.003). Litter size affected kit vitality; larger total litter size at birth was associated with greater risks of kit death (P<0.001) and reduced growth (P<0.001). The number of living kits in litters had the opposite effect, as kits in large liveborn litters had a reduced risk of death (P<0.001) and those with large mean litter size on days 1 to 7 had increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams' additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we

  1. Influence of the interface on growth rates in AlN/GaN short period superlattices via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Korakakis, D.

    2011-11-01

    AlN/GaN short period superlattices are well suited for a number of applications including, but not limited to, digital alloys, intersubband devices, and emitters. In this work, AlN/GaN superlattices with periodicities ranging from 10 to 20 Å have been grown via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to investigate the influence of the interface on the binary alloy growth rates. The GaN growth rate at the interface was observed to decrease with increasing GaN thickness while the AlN growth rate remained constant. This has been attributed to a decrease in the decomposition rate of GaN at the hetero-interface as seen in other III-V hetero-structures.

  2. Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding.

  3. Microbial Communities: Tracing Growth Processes from Antarctic Lakes to Early Earth to Other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Life in the Universe is dominated by microbes: they are numerically the most abundant cells in our bodies and in Earth's biosphere, and they are the only life that might be present elsewhere in our solar system. Life beyond our solar system could include macroscopic organisms, but everything we understand about the origin of life suggests it must start with microbes. Thus, understanding microbial ecosystems, in the absence of macroscopic organisms, is critical to understanding early life on Earth and life elsewhere in the Universe - if it exists. But what are the general principles of microbial ecology in the absence of predation? What happens when each cell is a chemical factory that can swap among metabolic processes in response to environmental and emergent cues? Geobiologists and astrobiologists are addressing these questions in diverse ways using both Earth's modern biosphere and its fossil record. Modern microbial communities in shallow, ice-covered lakes, Antarctica (Fig.), provide a model for high productivity microbial ecosystems with no to low predation. In these lakes, photosynthetic communities create macroscopic pinnacles and domes, sometime lithified into stromatolites. They provide an ecological, geochemical and morphological model for Precambrian microbial communities in low sedimentation, low current environments. Insights from these communities include new growth processes for ancient mats, especially some that grew prior to the oxidation of Earth's atmosphere. The diversity of biosignatures created in these communities also provides context for models of life under ice elsewhere in our solar system such as paleolakes on Mars and on icy moons. Results from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team document formerly habitable fluvial and lacustrine environments. Lacustrine environments, in particular, are favorable for preserving biosignatures, and continued investigations by MSL will provide a deeper understanding of the duration of habitable

  4. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelp, B J; Kitheka, A M; Cauwenberghe, O.R. Van [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Guelph, ON (Canada); Vanderpool, R A [Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research service, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Spiers, G A [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Land Resource Science, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that newly-acquired boron (B) undergoes rapid xylem-to-phloem transfer in plants with restricted mobility. Analysis of the element accumulation and water usage by shoots of intact broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants provided with a non-deficient supply of B, revealed that the concentration of various mineral elements (K, P, Mg, Ca, B, Fe, Zn, Mo, Cu, Mn) in xylem sap of intact plants ranged from 0.3 {mu}M to 3.5 mM, with B being present at 2.9-3.5 {mu}M. For each element assayed, the concentration was higher in phloem exudate (1.6 {mu}M to 91 mM) than in xylem sap; B was present at about 0.4 mM. Intact broccoli and lupin plants or detached transpiring broccoli shoots were supplied simultaneously with enriched {sup 10}B, strontium (a xylem marker) and rubidium (a xylem/phloem marker) during early reproductive growth. The contents of these three compounds were determined in foliage and florets or fruits as a function of time (i.e. up to 12 h and 4 days for broccoli and lupin plants, respectively), and the content in florets or fruits was expressed as a percent of the total recovered. In general, the percent recovery of both {sup 10}B and rubidium in florets or fruits was similar and markedly greater than that for strontium, even at the earliest harvest times (within 2 h for broccoli and 1 day for lupin). The data indicate that in plants with restricted B mobility, B is supplied to sink tissues in the phloem, and the extent of B xylem-to-phloem transfer is closely determined by current uptake. (au) 35 refs.

  5. Xylem-to-phloem transfer of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelp, B.J.; Kitheka, A.M.; Cauwenberghe, O.R. Van; Vanderpool, R.A.; Spiers, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that newly-acquired boron (B) undergoes rapid xylem-to-phloem transfer in plants with restricted mobility. Analysis of the element accumulation and water usage by shoots of intact broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants provided with a non-deficient supply of B, revealed that the concentration of various mineral elements (K, P, Mg, Ca, B, Fe, Zn, Mo, Cu, Mn) in xylem sap of intact plants ranged from 0.3 μM to 3.5 mM, with B being present at 2.9-3.5 μM. For each element assayed, the concentration was higher in phloem exudate (1.6 μM to 91 mM) than in xylem sap; B was present at about 0.4 mM. Intact broccoli and lupin plants or detached transpiring broccoli shoots were supplied simultaneously with enriched 10 B, strontium (a xylem marker) and rubidium (a xylem/phloem marker) during early reproductive growth. The contents of these three compounds were determined in foliage and florets or fruits as a function of time (i.e. up to 12 h and 4 days for broccoli and lupin plants, respectively), and the content in florets or fruits was expressed as a percent of the total recovered. In general, the percent recovery of both 10 B and rubidium in florets or fruits was similar and markedly greater than that for strontium, even at the earliest harvest times (within 2 h for broccoli and 1 day for lupin). The data indicate that in plants with restricted B mobility, B is supplied to sink tissues in the phloem, and the extent of B xylem-to-phloem transfer is closely determined by current uptake. (au)

  6. Impact of growth patterns and early diet on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in young children from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, Camila; Kain, Juliana; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases are now a worldwide epidemic. Diet and physical activity throughout life are among its main determinants. In countries undergoing the early stages of the nutrition transition weight gain from birth to 2 years of life is related to lean mass gain, while ponderal gain after age 2 years is related to adiposity and later diabetes and CVD risk. Evidence from developing countries undergoing the more advanced stages of the nutrition transition is limited. The early growth patterns of a cohort of Chilean children born in 2002 with normal birth weight who at 4 years had a high prevalence of obesity and CVD risk factors have been assessed. Results indicate that BMI gain in early life, particularly from 6 months to 24 months, is positively associated with adiposity and CVD risk status at 4 years. These results together with existing evidence suggest that actions to prevent obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases in developing countries should start early in life, possibly after 6 months of age. This approach should consider assessing the effect of mode of feeding and the amount and type of energy fed, as well as the resulting growth patterns. The challenge for researchers addressing the nutrition transition is to define the optimal nutrition in early life, considering not only the short- and long-term health consequences but also taking into account the stage of the nutritional transition for the given population of interest. The latter will probably require redefining optimal postnatal growth based on the context of maternal size and fetal growth.

  7. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    the importance of sub-exponential growth for forecasting purposes.Results: We applied the generalized-growth model to 20 infectious disease outbreaks representing a range of transmission routes. We uncovered epidemic profiles ranging from very slow growth (p = 0.14 for the Ebola outbreak in Bomi, Liberia (2014...... African Ebola epidemic provided a unique opportunity to explore how growth profiles vary by geography; analysis of the largest district-level outbreaks revealed substantial growth variations (mean p = 0.59, range: 0.14–0.97). The districts of Margibi in Liberia and Bombali and Bo in Sierra Leone had near......-exponential growth, while the districts of Bomi in Liberia and Kenema in Sierra Leone displayed near constant incidences.Conclusions: Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon...

  8. Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... The results showed that plant growth decreased proportionally with increasing ... Therefore, agriculturalists can assess growth rate changes caused by salinity using remote .... pH of all solutions was adjusted to 6. De-ionized ...

  9. Differential muscular myosin heavy chain expression of the pectoral and pelvic girdles during early growth in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbrech, Aude; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Guérin, Nathalie; Groscolas, René; Gilbert, Caroline; Martrette, Jean-Marc

    2011-06-01

    Continuous growth, associated with a steady parental food supply, is a general pattern in offspring development. So that young chicks can acquire their locomotor independence, this period is usually marked by a fast maturation of muscles, during which different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are expressed. However, parental food provisioning may fluctuate seasonally, and offspring therefore face a challenge to ensure the necessary maturation of their tissues when energy is limited. To address this trade-off we investigated muscle maturation in both the pectoral and pelvic girdles of king penguin chicks. This species has an exceptionally long rearing period (1 year), which is prolonged when parental food provisioning is drastically reduced during the sub-Antarctic winter. Approximately 1 month post hatching, chicks acquire a functional pedestrian locomotion, which uses pelvic muscles, whereas swimming, which uses the pectoral muscles, only occurs 1 year later. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the MyHC content of the leg muscles reaches a mature state before those of the pectoral muscles. We found that leg muscle MyHC composition changed with the progressive acquisition of pedestrian locomotion, whereas pectoral muscle fibres reached their mature MyHC profile as early as hatching. Contrary to our predictions, the acquisition of the adult profile in pectoral muscles could be related to an early maturation of the contractile muscular proteins, presumably associated with early thermoregulatory capacities of chicks, necessary for survival in their cold environment. This differential maturation appears to reconcile both the locomotor and environmental constraints of king penguin chicks during growth.

  10. Early subtropical forest growth is driven by community mean trait values and functional diversity rather than the abiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Li, Ying; Härdtle, Werner; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Schmidt, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas; Seidler, Gunnar; von Oheimb, Goddert; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-09-01

    While functional diversity (FD) has been shown to be positively related to a number of ecosystem functions including biomass production, it may have a much less pronounced effect than that of environmental factors or species-specific properties. Leaf and wood traits can be considered particularly relevant to tree growth, as they reflect a trade-off between resources invested into growth and persistence. Our study focussed on the degree to which early forest growth was driven by FD, the environment (11 variables characterizing abiotic habitat conditions), and community-weighted mean (CWM) values of species traits in the context of a large-scale tree diversity experiment (BEF-China). Growth rates of trees with respect to crown diameter were aggregated across 231 plots (hosting between one and 23 tree species) and related to environmental variables, FD, and CWM, the latter two of which were based on 41 plant functional traits. The effects of each of the three predictor groups were analyzed separately by mixed model optimization and jointly by variance partitioning. Numerous single traits predicted plot-level tree growth, both in the models based on CWMs and FD, but none of the environmental variables was able to predict tree growth. In the best models, environment and FD explained only 4 and 31% of variation in crown growth rates, respectively, while CWM trait values explained 42%. In total, the best models accounted for 51% of crown growth. The marginal role of the selected environmental variables was unexpected, given the high topographic heterogeneity and large size of the experiment, as was the significant impact of FD, demonstrating that positive diversity effects already occur during the early stages in tree plantations.

  11. V346 Centauri: early-type eclipsing binary with apsidal motion and abrupt change of orbital period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Nemravová, J.; Prsa, A.; Frémat, Y.; Zejda, M.; Liška, J.; Juryšek, Jakub; Hoňková, K.; Mašek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 591, Jul (2016), 1-9, č. článku A129. E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15014; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : early-type stars * binaries * close stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  12. Human diet in the early medieval period: Tooth wear, mastication, enamel thickness and its relationship to social stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrová, A.; Dupej, J.; Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Poláček, Lumír; Velemínská, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, S64 (2017), s. 226 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /86./. 19.04.2017-22.04.2017, New Orleans] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * human diet * anthropology * tooth wear * Central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARUB-Q) OBOR OECD: Archaeology; Archaeology (ARUB-Q) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.23210/pdf

  13. The Role Of The Integrated, Thematic Project To Learning Progress Of The Child In The Early Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Cornelia Stoian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed to present you the results of an empirical research in order to identify the positive aspects of the integrated, thematic project in learning progress of children in preschool. Using the observation method, we analyzed children's results regarding the objectives in the respect to the objectives in the grid. Children's progress in learning represents the confirmation and affirmation of the role of this integrated, thematic project in supporting the early learning child.

  14. Diet and human mobility from the lapita to the early historic period on Uripiv island, Northeast Malakula, Vanuatu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kinaston

    Full Text Available Vanuatu was first settled ca. 3000 years ago by populations associated with the Lapita culture. Models of diet, subsistence practices, and human interaction for the Lapita and subsequent occupation periods have been developed mainly using the available archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. We test these models using stable (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur and radiogenic (strontium isotopes to assess the diet and childhood residency of past communities that lived on the small (<1 km2 island of Uripiv, located off the northeast coast of Malakula, Vanuatu. The burials are from the initial Lapita occupation of the island (ca. 2800-2600 BP, the subsequent later Lapita (LL, ca. 2600-2500 BP and post-Lapita (PL, ca. 2500-2000 BP occupations, in addition to a late prehistoric/historic (LPH, ca. 300-150 BP occupation period. The human stable isotope results indicate a progressively more terrestrial diet over time, which supports the archaeological model of an intensification of horticultural and arboricultural systems as local resources were depleted, populations grew, and cultural situations changed. Pig diets were similar and included marine foods during the Lapita and PL periods but were highly terrestrial during the LPH period. This dietary pattern indicates that there was little variation in animal husbandry methods during the first 800 years of prehistory; however, there was a subsequent change as animal diets became more controlled in the LPH period. After comparison with the local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr baseline, all of the Lapita and LPH individuals appeared to be 'local', but three of the PL individuals were identified as "non-local." We suggest that these "non-locals" moved to the island after infancy or childhood from one of the larger islands, supporting the model of a high level of regional interaction during the post-Lapita period.

  15. Transformation by Oncogenic Ras Expands the Early Genomic Response to Transforming Growth Factor β in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Allen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of evidence implicates TGFβ as a tumor promoter in epithelial cells that have become resistant to its tumor suppressor activity. To better understand early, genome-wide TGFβ responses in cells resistant to growth inhibition by TGFβ, we used microarray analysis in a well-defined cell culture system of sensitive and resistant intestinal epithelial cells. TGFβ-regulated gene expression in TGFβ-growth-sensitive, nontransformed rat intestinal epithelial cells (RIE-1 was compared to expression in TGFβ-growth-resistant RIE cells stably transformed by oncogenic Ras(12V. Treatment of RIE-1 cells with 2 ng/ml TGFβ1 for 1 hour increased the expression of eight gene sequences by 2.6-fold or more, whereas eight were down regulated 2.6-fold. In RIE-Ras(12V cells, 42 gene sequences were upregulated and only 3 were down-regulated. Comparison of RIE and RIE-Ras(12V identified 37 gene sequences as unique, Ras-dependent genomic targets of TGFβ1. TGFβ-regulation of connective tissue growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, two genes up-regulated in RIE-Ras cells and previously implicated in tumor promotion, was independently confirmed and further characterized by Northern analysis. Our data indicate that overexpression of oncogenic Ras in intestinal epithelial cells confers a significantly expanded repertoire of robust, early transcriptional responses to TGFβ via signaling pathways yet to be fully elucidated but including the canonical Raf-1/MAPK/Erk pathway. Loss of sensitivity to growth inhibition by TGFβ does not abrogate TGFβ signaling and actually expands the early transcriptional response to TGFβ1. Expression of some of these genes may confer to Ras-transformed cells characteristics favorable for tumor promotion.

  16. Performance of Jatropha curcas L. in Semi-arid Zone: Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Early Field Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif AHAMAD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on basic agronomic properties of Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha cultivation on the marginal lands in the semi-arids. Evaluation of agronomic performance of identified elite strains of J. curcas in marginal lands would be of paramount importance for addressing gap areas in their agronomic properties and subsequently for harnessing their optimum economic potentials. The present study undertook the task of analysing the growth performance of a high oil bearing elite strain of J. curcas–DARL-2 in degraded land in semi-arid zone of Deccan Plateau, India. While undertaking the assessment of growth performance of elite strain DARL-2, two other native (wild strains (namely AHN-1 and AHN-2 of J. curcas were also considered so that a comparative evaluation could be carried out. The role of gypsum was also investigated on J. curcas in the nursery stage as well its carry over effects on growth performance of transplanted trees in the field. Two types of substrates, gypsum-treated soil (GS and untreated soil (SL were used for growing seedlings of all the three jatropha strains. Seedlings (120-days-old of DARL-2 exhibited greater plant height, collar diameter and number of branches but root length was greater in the local strains. In the second year of field transplantation, DARL-2 strain exhibited significantly (p<0.05 greater plant height and number of branches/plant. No carry over effects of gypsum treatment were observed in field transplanted plants as none of the growth parameters significantly varied among the substrate types.

  17. Some remarks on the transitional phase between Early Roman and Late Roman Periods in the region north of the Middle Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejral, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 43-101 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early and Late Roman Period * transitional phase * Marcomanic Wars and their aftermath * ethnical and social backround of the B2/C1 phase Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://prehled-vyzkumu.arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/export/sitesavcr/arub-prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-cisel-a-clanku/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV56_2_Studie2_Tejral.pdf

  18. Increased growth in environmental technology - More capital in early stages; Oekad tillvaext inom miljoeteknik - Mer kapital i tidiga skeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubelius, Andreas; Axelsson, Helene; Fjaellstroem, Mikael; Agnvall, Dag; Olsson, Erik

    2011-07-01

    Swedish environmental technology companies has great growth potential. The transition to a renewable and energy-efficient energy systems and greater attention to the ecosystem, creates a growing international demand for products and services. The Energy Agency has received a government commission to develop proposals that contribute to stronger collaboration and increased communication between those involved in environmental engineering with the aim of increasing environmental technology companies access to capital in the early commercial stages, with particular focus on small and medium-sized players. The Energy Agency submits proposals for action that will lead to increased growth of Swedish environmental technology companies

  19. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuningen, M. van; Heiligers, P.J.M.; Velden, L.F.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    Background: The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies

  20. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Planting Date on Reducing Growth Period of Spring Safflower Cultivars in Tabriz Cold and Semi-arid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pasban Eslam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower is a plant adaptable to areas with limited rainfall during winter and spring and dry air at flowering, seed filling and maturity stages, and tolerant to water deficit. The positive correlation coefficient observed between safflower seed yield with precipitation and low air temperature during seed germination to flowering and flowering to seed maturity. Furthermore, precipitation and low temperature during flowering to seed maturity significantly increased seed oil percentage. Therefore, it seems that, by adjusting the planting time can be adapted phenological stages of plant with appropriate weather conditions. The aims of this research were study the possibility reducing the growth period of safflower spring varieties with maintaining performance through delay in planting time, evaluate seed and oil yields at different planting times, and identify the best varieties for cold and semi-arid areas. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted at the East Azarbaijan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (46°2¢E, 37°58¢N, 1347 m a.s.l. during 2014-2015 growing season. According to Koppen climatic classification system, the area climate is semi-arid and cold. This study was carried out as factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were four planting dates (30 March, 9, 19 and 29 April and three safflower spring cultivars (Sina, Soffeh and Goldasht. Plant spacing between rows was 24 cm and final plant density was 70 plant per m2. Each plot consisted of 6 rows in 5 meters. Plants were harvested on the 11th and 14th of August in the first and second years of experiment, respectively. At the harvest time, in order to control boarder effects, plants from the sides of each plot were removed. Measured traits were plant height, capitulum diameter, seed yield, capitula number per plant, seed number per capitulum and 1000-seed weight. Ten plants in each plot

  2. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  3. Delimitation of the embryonic thermosensitive period for sex determination using an embryo growth model reveals a potential bias for sex ratio prediction in turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girondot, Marc; Monsinjon, Jonathan; Guillon, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-01

    The sexual phenotype of the gonad is dependent on incubation temperature in many turtles, all crocodilians, and some lepidosaurians. At hatching, identification of sexual phenotype is impossible without sacrificing the neonates. For this reason, a general method to infer sexual phenotype from incubation temperatures is needed. Temperature influences sex determination during a specific period of the embryonic development, starting when the gonad begins to form. At constant incubation temperatures, this thermosensitive period for sex determination (TSP) is located at the middle third of incubation duration (MTID). When temperature fluctuates, the position of the thermosensitive period for sex determination can be shifted from the MTID because embryo growth is affected by temperature. A method is proposed to locate the thermosensitive period for sex determination based on modelling the embryo growth, allowing its precise identification from a natural regime of temperatures. Results from natural nests and simulations show that the approximation of the thermosensitive period for sex determination to the middle third of incubation duration may create a quasi-systematic bias to lower temperatures when computing the average incubation temperature during this period and thus a male-bias for sex ratio estimate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What difference can fathers make? Early paternal absence compromises Peruvian children's growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Kirk; Crookston, Benjamin; Madanat, Hala; West, Joshua; Penny, Mary; Cueto, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that fathers' absence from home has a negative short- and long-term impact on children's health, psychosocial development, cognition and educational experience. We assessed the impact of father presence during infancy and childhood on children's height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 5 years old. We conducted secondary data analysis from a 15-year cohort study (Young Lives) focusing on one of four Young Lives countries (Peru, n = 1821). When compared with children who saw their fathers on a daily or weekly basis during infancy and childhood, children who did not see their fathers regularly at either period had significantly lower HAZ scores (-0.23, P = 0.0094) after adjusting for maternal age, wealth and other contextual factors. Results also suggest that children who saw their fathers during childhood (but not infancy) had better HAZ scores than children who saw their fathers in infancy and childhood (0.23 z-score, P = 0.0388). Findings from analyses of resilient children (those who did not see their fathers at either round but whose HAZ > -2) show that a child's chances of not being stunted in spite of paternal absence at 1 and 5 years old were considerably greater if he or she lived in an urban area [odds ratio (OR) = 9.3], was from the wealthiest quintile (OR = 8.7) and lived in a food secure environment (OR = 3.8). Interventions designed to reduce malnutrition must be based on a fuller understanding of how paternal absence puts children at risk of growth failure. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The effect of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains on silage quality and nutritive value of grass harvested at four growth stages and ensiled for two periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan De Boever

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   The effect of adding an inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, L. plantarum and L. casei to wilted perennial ryegrass, harvested at four growth stages and ensiled for either 60 or 150 d on silage fermentation quality, chemical composition, rumen degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF and organic matter (OM and in vitro OM digestibility (OMd was studied. Compared to the control silage, more sugars were fermented to lactic and acetic acid with the inoculant, resulting in a lower pH, less dry matter losses and protein degradation and a better aerobic stability. The effects of the additive on fermentation quality were more pronounced after 150 than after 60 d of ensiling, because the quality of the control silage was worse after long ensiling period. The treatment lowered NDF content of grass harvested at the first two growth stages by degrading cell walls to complex sugars, but had no effect on NDF degradability of the silage. The inoculant had no effect on rumen OM degradability nor on OMd after the short ensiling period, but increased the rumen OM degradability for the first two growth stages and OMd for all growth stages after long ensiling period.

  6. Circadian rhythm in Period1 expression within the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus during early ontogenesis and its modulation by photoperiod

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laurinová, Kristýna; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Sládek, Martin; Bendová, Zdena; Illnerová, Helena; Sumová, Alena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. S1 (2005), s. 554-555 ISSN 1474-3833. [FEBS Congress /30./ and IUBMB Conference /9./. 02.07.2005-07.07.2005, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/0350; GA ČR(CZ) GP309/02/D093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : circadian rhythm s * Period1 * suprachiasmatic nucleus * development Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  8. Cardiorespiratory control and cytokine profile in response to heat stress, hypoxia, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during early neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Fiona B; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Wilson, Richard J A; Hasan, Shabih U

    2016-02-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is one of the most common causes of postneonatal infant mortality in the developed world. An insufficient cardiorespiratory response to multiple environmental stressors (such as prone sleeping positioning, overwrapping, and infection), during a critical period of development in a vulnerable infant, may result in SIDS. However, the effect of multiple risk factors on cardiorespiratory responses has rarely been tested experimentally. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the independent and possible interactive effects of infection, hyperthermia, and hypoxia on cardiorespiratory control in rats during the neonatal period. We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration will negatively impact cardiorespiratory responses to increased ambient temperature and hypoxia in neonatal rats. Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat pups were studied at postnatal day 6-8. Rats were examined at an ambient temperature of 33°C or 38°C. Within each group, rats were allocated to control, saline, or LPS (200 μg/kg) treatments. Cardiorespiratory and thermal responses were recorded and analyzed before, during, and after a hypoxic exposure (10% O2). Serum samples were taken at the end of each experiment to measure cytokine concentrations. LPS significantly increased cytokine concentrations (such as TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, and IL-10) compared to control. Our results do not support a three-way interaction between experimental factors on cardiorespiratory control. However, independently, heat stress decreased minute ventilation during normoxia and increased the hypoxic ventilatory response. Furthermore, LPS decreased hypoxia-induced tachycardia. Herein, we provide an extensive serum cytokine profile under various experimental conditions and new evidence that neonatal cardiorespiratory responses are adversely affected by dual interactions of environmental stress factors. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  9. Some effects of radiation therapy during early childhood on facial growth and tooth development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.P.; Nortje, C.J.; Lucchesi, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Case histories of the dental examinations of 2 children who were treated by radiation therapy for retinoblastomas in early childhood are discussed. The evidence presented here seems to indicate that in both patients early irradiation of the orbits and, as a result thereof, the jaws, could be partly responsible for the underdevelopment of this region

  10. Growth Trajectories of Early Aggression, Overactivity, and Inattention: Relations to Second-Grade Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Wagmiller, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations…