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Sample records for early growth patterns

  1. Body Composition Growth Patterns in Early Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Wibaek, Rasmus; Kaestel, Pernille

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify subgroups with distinct fat and fat-free growth patterns in the first 6 months of life and describe predictors of these different patterns. METHODS: A total of 510 apparently healthy Ethiopian infants were followed from birth to 6 months of a...... in regular anthropometric assessment and could be a mechanism linking early growth with later obesity and cardiometabolic risk....

  2. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Eagderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of reared Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, were studied from hatching to 50 days post-hatching (dph. The larvae were sampled, their left sides photographed and seven morphometric characters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, snout length, caudal peduncle and predorsal length were measured. Allometric growth patterns were calculated as a power function of total length and described using the growth coefficient to find important steps in early life history. The total length of the newly hatched larvae and fry were 10.59±0.8 and 38.8±2.9 mm at 1 and 50 dph, respectively. Morphogenesis and differentiation were the highest rates during the first 11 days of early development, i.e. endogenous feeding period. There were higher growth rate of head, snout and tail regions compared with those of other organs from the hatch up to yolk sac absorption, followed by positive or almost isometric patterns, after the begin of exogenous feeding, showing priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities. This study confirmed that most of morphological changes of this species are occurred from hatching until the onset of exogenous feeding i.e. during the lecithotrophic phase.

  3. Early childhood growth patterns and school-age respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; den Dekker, Herman T; Kruithof, Claudia J; Reiss, Irwin K; Vrijheid, Martine; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-12-01

    Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s.d.s) of peak height and weight velocities (PHV and PWV, respectively), and body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity peak. Respiratory resistance and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured at 6 years of age. Wheezing patterns and asthma were prospectively assessed by annual questionnaires. We also assessed whether any association was explained by childhood weight status. Greater PHV was associated with lower respiratory resistance [Z-score (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.04, -0.01) per s.d.s increase] (n = 3382). Greater PWV and BMI at adiposity peak were associated with increased risks of early wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.11 (1.06, 1.16), 1.26 (1.11, 1.43), respectively] and persistent wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.09 (1.03, 1.16), 1.37 (1.17, 1.60), respectively] (n = 3189 and n = 3005, respectively). Childhood weight status partly explained these associations. No other associations were observed. PWV and BMI at adiposity peak are critical for lung developmental and risk of school-age wheezing. Follow-up studies at older ages are needed to elucidate whether these effects persist at later ages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The early inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrates positional effects in floral organ growth and meristem patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Powers, Stephen J; Phillips, Andy L; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter; Thomas, Stephen G

    2018-06-01

    Linear modelling approaches detected significant gradients in organ growth and patterning across early flowers of the Arabidopsis inflorescence and uncovered evidence of new roles for gibberellin in floral development. Most flowering plants, including the genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana, produce multiple flowers in sequence from a reproductive shoot apex to form a flower spike (inflorescence). The development of individual flowers on an Arabidopsis inflorescence has typically been considered as highly stereotypical and uniform, but this assumption is contradicted by the existence of mutants with phenotypes visible in early flowers only. This phenomenon is demonstrated by mutants partially impaired in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin (GA), in which floral organ growth is retarded in the first flowers to be produced but has recovered spontaneously by the 10th flower. We presently lack systematic data from multiple flowers across the Arabidopsis inflorescence to explain such changes. Using mutants of the GA 20-OXIDASE (GA20ox) GA biosynthesis gene family to manipulate endogenous GA levels, we investigated the dynamics of changing floral organ growth across the early Arabidopsis inflorescence (flowers 1-10). Modelling of floral organ lengths identified a significant, GA-independent gradient of increasing stamen length relative to the pistil in the wild-type inflorescence that was separable from other, GA-dependent effects. It was also found that the first flowers exhibited unstable organ patterning in contrast to later flowers and that this instability was prolonged by exogenous GA treatment. These findings indicate that the development of individual flowers is influenced by hitherto unknown factors acting across the inflorescence and also suggest novel functions for GA in floral patterning.

  6. Patterns of Growth in Early Childhood and Infectious Disease and Nutritional Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia. These factors contribute to fetal growth restriction and premature delivery, which put many infants on a different growth trajectory. Postnatal exposure to microbes resulting in diarrhea and febrile infectious diseases and poor quality diet further compromise growth. Determinants of growth faltering after birth vary by setting and are not independent of each other. For example, the adverse effects of diarrhea on growth may be mitigated by a high-quality diet. Global estimates suggest that 25% of stunting can be attributed to fetal growth restriction and even more in countries in South Asia with a high prevalence of low birth weight. Infectious diseases may contribute a similar amount and subclinical enteric infections can result in intestinal dysfunction with adverse effects on nutrition and growth. Dietary factors, especially consumption of complementary foods of insufficient quality, have a paramount role in growth faltering in the critical period of infancy. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Altered growth pattern, not altered growth per se, is the hallmark of early lesions preceding cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doratiotto, S; Marongiu, F; Faedda, S; Pani, P; Laconi, E

    2009-01-01

    Many human solid cancers arise from focal proliferative lesions that long precede the overt clinical appearance of the disease. The available evidence supports the notion that cancer precursor lesions are clonal in origin, and this notion forms the basis for most of the current theories on the pathogenesis of neoplastic disease. In contrast, far less attention has been devoted to the analysis of the phenotypic property that serves to define these focal lesions, i.e. their altered growth pattern. In fact, the latter is often considered a mere morphological by-product of clonal growth, with no specific relevance in the process. In the following study, evidence will be presented to support the concept that focal growth pattern is an inherent property of altered cells, independent of clonal growth; furthermore, it will be discussed how such a property, far from being merely descriptive, might indeed play a fundamental role in the sequence of events leading to the development of cancer. Within this paradigm, the earliest steps of neoplasia should be considered and analysed as defects in the mechanisms of tissue pattern formation.

  8. Contrasting shrub species respond to early summer temperatures leading to correspondence of shrub growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Stef; Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg; Myers-Smith, Isla H.

    2018-03-01

    The Arctic-alpine biome is warming rapidly, resulting in a gradual replacement of low statured species by taller woody species in many tundra ecosystems. In northwest North America, the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggests an increase in productivity of the Arctic and alpine tundra and a decrease in productivity of boreal forests. However, the responses of contrasting shrub species growing at the same sites to climate drivers remain largely unexplored. Here, we test growth, climate, and NDVI relationships of two contrasting species: the expanding tall deciduous shrub Salix pulchra and the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona from an alpine tundra site in the Pika valley in the Kluane Region, southwest Yukon Territories, Canada. We found that annual growth variability of both species at this site is strongly driven by early summer temperatures, despite their contrasting traits and habitats. Shrub growth chronologies for both species were correlated with the regional climate signal and showed spatial correspondence with interannual variation in NDVI in surrounding alpine and Arctic regions. Our results suggest that early summer warming represents a common driver of vegetation change for contrasting shrub species growing in different habitats in the same alpine environments.

  9. Examination of the Pattern of Growth of Cerebral Tissue Volumes From Hospital Discharge to Early Childhood in Very Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Anderson, Peter J; Matthews, Lillian G; Neil, Jeffrey J; Kapur, Kush; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-08-01

    Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years. Prospective cohort study of VPT infants (childhood and outcomes in VPT infants. Low brain volumes observed in VPT infants are exaggerated at 7 years. Low brain volume in infancy is associated with long-term functional outcomes, emphasizing the persisting influence of early brain development on subsequent growth and outcomes.

  10. Impact of growth patterns and early diet on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in young children from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, Camila; Kain, Juliana; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases are now a worldwide epidemic. Diet and physical activity throughout life are among its main determinants. In countries undergoing the early stages of the nutrition transition weight gain from birth to 2 years of life is related to lean mass gain, while ponderal gain after age 2 years is related to adiposity and later diabetes and CVD risk. Evidence from developing countries undergoing the more advanced stages of the nutrition transition is limited. The early growth patterns of a cohort of Chilean children born in 2002 with normal birth weight who at 4 years had a high prevalence of obesity and CVD risk factors have been assessed. Results indicate that BMI gain in early life, particularly from 6 months to 24 months, is positively associated with adiposity and CVD risk status at 4 years. These results together with existing evidence suggest that actions to prevent obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases in developing countries should start early in life, possibly after 6 months of age. This approach should consider assessing the effect of mode of feeding and the amount and type of energy fed, as well as the resulting growth patterns. The challenge for researchers addressing the nutrition transition is to define the optimal nutrition in early life, considering not only the short- and long-term health consequences but also taking into account the stage of the nutritional transition for the given population of interest. The latter will probably require redefining optimal postnatal growth based on the context of maternal size and fetal growth.

  11. Cultural variation in early feeding pattern and maternal perceptions of infant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsden, M.; Meijers, C.M.C.; Jansen, J.E.; de Kroon, M.L.A.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of healthy growth and weight may differ between cultures, which could influence feeding practises and consequently affect the development of overweight. The present study examined ethnic variation in maternal perceptions of growth and their influence on feeding practises among Turkish

  12. Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrijkotte Tanja GM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during

  13. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  14. Growth Pattern of Atherosclerotic Calcifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lene Lillemark; Ganz, Melanie; Dam, Erik

    2008-01-01

    of the calcifications are matched longitudinally using thin plate spline registration and area overlap calculations. The growth of the calcifications is measured by the distribution of the geometry statistics of the calcifications. The method was evaluated on 135 subjects with a total number of 611 calcifications. Our...

  15. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishell, D.R. Jr.; Thorneycroft, I.H.; Nagata, Y.; Murata, T.; Nakamura, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  16. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  17. GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN RELATION TO PLASMA ZINC STATUS. Dr. Salwa R. El Batrawy, Dr. Mervat Tawfik M. Tantawi. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. The amazing growth of the early church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The church grew rapidly during the first centuries. The question is: Why? Generations of scholars approached this question from different perspectives and with different methods. Historical research, analysis of early Christian texts and theological reflection were the most common methods used to shed light on the growth of the church. In this contribution five different models of growth were discussed, using the approach of A.M. Schor as a point of departure. These models of church growth were put under the headings of an apostolic mission model, values reproduction model, social reaction model, network model with an institutional model added.

  19. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  20. A synthesis of radial growth patterns preceding tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleret, Maxime; Jansen, Steven; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Desoto, Lucia; Aakala, Tuomas; Antos, Joseph A.; Beikircher, Barbara; Bigler, Christof; Bugmann, Harald; Caccianiga, Marco; Cada, Vojtech; Camarero, Jesus J.; Cherubini, Paolo; Cochard, Herve; Coyea, Marie R.; Cufar, Katarina; Das, Adrian J.; Davi, Hendrik; Delzon, Sylvain; Dorman, Michael; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Gillner, Sten; Haavik, Laurel J.; Hartmann, Henrik; Heres, Ana-Maria; Hultine, Kevin R.; Janda, Pavel; Kane, Jeffrey M.; Kharuk, Vyacheslav I.; Kitzberger, Thomas; Klein, Tamir; Kramer, Koen; Lens, Frederic; Levanic, Tom; Calderon, Juan C. Linares; Lloret, Francisco; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel; Lombardi, Fabio; Lopez Rodriguez, Rosana; Makinen, Harri; Mayr, Stefan; Meszaros, IIona; Metsaranta, Juha M.; Minunno, Francesco; Oberhuber, Walter; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Petritan, Any M.; Rohner, Brigitte; Sanguesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Sarris, Dimitrios; Smith, Jeremy M.; Stan, Amanda B.; Sterck, Frank; Stojanovic, Dejan B.; Suarez, Maria L.; Svoboda, Miroslav; Tognetti, Roberto; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Villalba, Ricardo; Vodde, Floor; Westwood, Alana R.; Wyckoff, Peter H.; Zafirov, Nikolay; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Tree mortality is a key factor influencing forest functions and dynamics, but our understanding of the mechanisms leading to mortality and the associated changes in tree growth rates are still limited. We compiled a new pan-continental tree-ring width database from sites where both dead and living trees were sampled (2970 dead and 4224 living trees from 190 sites, including 36 species), and compared early and recent growth rates between trees that died and those that survived a given mortality event. We observed a decrease in radial growth before death in ca. 84% of the mortality events. The extent and duration of these reductions were highly variable (1–100 years in 96% of events) due to the complex interactions among study species and the source(s) of mortality. Strong and long-lasting declines were found for gymnosperms, shade- and drought-tolerant species, and trees that died from competition. Angiosperms and trees that died due to biotic attacks (especially bark-beetles) typically showed relatively small and short-term growth reductions. Our analysis did not highlight any universal trade-off between early growth and tree longevity within a species, although this result may also reflect high variability in sampling design among sites. The intersite and interspecific variability in growth patterns before mortality provides valuable information on the nature of the mortality process, which is consistent with our understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to mortality. Abrupt changes in growth immediately before death can be associated with generalized hydraulic failure and/or bark-beetle attack, while long-term decrease in growth may be associated with a gradual decline in hydraulic performance coupled with depletion in carbon reserves. Our results imply that growth-based mortality algorithms may be a powerful tool for predicting gymnosperm mortality induced by chronic stress, but not necessarily so for angiosperms and in case of intense drought or

  1. Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... karroo; alice; botany; compensatory growth; condition; development; eastern cape; emergence; environmental conditions; field study; growth cycle; growth initiation; growth patterns; growth strategy; leaf growth; plant growth; savanna; shoot growth; soil depth; soil moisture; south africa; university of fort hare; water stress ...

  2. Early patterns of commercial activity in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, Philip; Youtie, Jan; Arora, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, a novel nanomaterial consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms, has attracted significant attention due to its distinctive properties, including great strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, lightness, and potential benefits for diverse applications. The commercialization of scientific discoveries such as graphene is inherently uncertain, with the lag time between the scientific development of a new technology and its adoption by corporate actors revealing the extent to which firms are able to absorb knowledge and engage in learning to implement applications based on the new technology. From this perspective, we test for the existence of three different corporate learning and activity patterns: (1) a linear process where patenting follows scientific discovery; (2) a double-boom phenomenon where corporate (patenting) activity is first concentrated in technological improvements and then followed by a period of technology productization; and (3) a concurrent model where scientific discovery in publications occurs in parallel with patenting. By analyzing corporate publication and patent activity across country and application lines, we find that, while graphene as a whole is experiencing concurrent scientific development and patenting growth, country- and application-specific trends offer some evidence of the linear and double-boom models.

  3. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... germination and early seedling growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Chromium ... chromium on seed germination and seedling growth- biomass in early ..... such critical regulatory mechanisms are likely to operate in seeds at ...

  4. Secretory pattern of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, M.B.; Vaitkus, P.; Cukerman, E.; Sirek, A.; Sirek, O.V.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to define the secretory pattern of growth hormone (GH) under basal conditions in fasted, conscious, male dogs accustomed to handling. Blood samples were withdrawn from a cephalic vein at 15-min intervals. In this way, any ultradian rhythms, if present, could be detected within the frequency range of 0.042-2 cycles/h. In addition, samples were drawn at either 1- or 2.5-min intervals for 2.5 or 5 h to determine whether frequency components greater than 2 cycles/h were present. GH was measured by radioimmunoassay and the raw data were submitted to time series analysis employing power spectral estimation by means of fast Fourier transformation techniques. Peak plasma levels were up to 12 times higher than the baseline concentration of ∼ 1 ng/ml. Spectral analysis revealed an endogenous frequency of 0.22 cycles/h, i.e., a periodicity of 4.5 h/cycle. The results indicate that under basal conditions the secretory bursts of canine GH are limited to one peak every 4.5 h

  5. Variations in growth pattern and predictablity of liveweight growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction equations results for rate of liveweight growth showed that of the four models used, the quadratic function was the best predictor of liveweight growth, as indicated by the highest and significant R2 value of 90.7 %. This was closely followed by the linear function which had a significant R2 value of 88.1 %.

  6. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viboud

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon, especially for pathogens that are not airborne. Sub-exponential growth profiles may result from heterogeneity in contact structures or risk groups, reactive behavior changes, or the early onset of interventions strategies, and consideration of “deceleration parameters” may be useful to refine existing mathematical transmission models and improve disease forecasts.

  7. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:\\ud To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood.\\ud \\ud STUDY DESIGN:\\ud Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estim...

  8. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  9. Pattern transition between periodic Liesegang pattern and crystal growth regime in reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzi, István; Ueyama, Daishin

    2009-01-01

    The pattern transition between periodic precipitation pattern formation (Liesegang phenomenon) and pure crystal growth regimes is investigated in silver nitrate and potassium dichromate system in mixed agarose-gelatin gel. Morphologically different patterns were found depending on the quality of the gel, and transition between these typical patterns can be controlled by the concentration of gelatin in mixed gel. Effect of temperature and hydrodynamic force on precipitation pattern structure was also investigated.

  10. Prognostic Utility of Histological Growth Patterns of Colorectal Lung Oligometastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Son Jae; Pak, Min Gyoung; Lee, Hyoun Wook; Ha, Seung Yeon; Roh, Mee Sook

    2018-03-01

    Patients with resectable colorectal lung oligometastasis (CLOM) demonstrate a heterogeneous oncological outcome. However, the parameters for predicting tumor aggressiveness have not yet been fully investigated in CLOM. This study was performed to determine the prognostic value of histological growth patterns in patients who underwent surgery for CLOM. The study included 92 patients who were diagnosed with CLOM among the first resection cases. CLOMs grow according to three histological patterns: aerogenous, pushing, and desmoplastic patterns. The growth patterns were evaluated on archival hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. The aerogenous pattern was found in 29.4% (n=27) of patients, the pushing pattern in 34.7% (n=32), the desmoplastic pattern in 6.5% (n=6), and a mix of two growth patterns in 29.4% (n=27). The size of the aerogenous pattern was significantly smaller than that of metastases with other patterns (p=.033). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients showing an aerogenous pattern appeared to have a poorer prognosis, which was calculated from the time of diagnosis of the CLOM (p=.044). The 5-year survival rate from the diagnosis of colorectal cancer tended to be lower in patients with an aerogenous pattern than in those who had a non-aerogenous pattern; however, the difference was marginally significant (p=.051). In the multivariate Cox analysis, the aerogenous pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% confidence interval, 1.196 to 8.145; p=.020). These results suggest that the growth patterns may play a part as a histology-based prognostic parameter for patients with CLOM.

  11. Prognostic Utility of Histological Growth Patterns of Colorectal Lung Oligometastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Jae Yeong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with resectable colorectal lung oligometastasis (CLOM demonstrate a heterogeneous oncological outcome. However, the parameters for predicting tumor aggressiveness have not yet been fully investigated in CLOM. This study was performed to determine the prognostic value of histological growth patterns in patients who underwent surgery for CLOM. Methods The study included 92 patients who were diagnosed with CLOM among the first resection cases. CLOMs grow according to three histological patterns: aerogenous, pushing, and desmoplastic patterns. The growth patterns were evaluated on archival hematoxylin and eosin–stained tissue sections. Results The aerogenous pattern was found in 29.4% (n=27 of patients, the pushing pattern in 34.7% (n=32, the desmoplastic pattern in 6.5% (n=6, and a mix of two growth patterns in 29.4% (n=27. The size of the aerogenous pattern was significantly smaller than that of metastases with other patterns (p=.033. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients showing an aerogenous pattern appeared to have a poorer prognosis, which was calculated from the time of diagnosis of the CLOM (p=.044. The 5-year survival rate from the diagnosis of colorectal cancer tended to be lower in patients with an aerogenous pattern than in those who had a non-aerogenous pattern; however, the difference was marginally significant (p=.051. In the multivariate Cox analysis, the aerogenous pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% confidence interval, 1.196 to 8.145; p=.020. Conclusions These results suggest that the growth patterns may play a part as a histology-based prognostic parameter for patients with CLOM.

  12. Genetics of early growth vigour in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid early growth vigour, 70–75 days to flowering. Figure 1. Frequency distributions of early growth vigour based on seedling length in parents (DPL15, ILL7663 and ILL6002) and F2 populations derived from two crosses (DPL15 × ILL7663; DPL15 × ILL6002) in lentil. 324. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 92, No. 2, August 2013 ...

  13. Early first trimester maternal ‘high fish and olive oil and low meat’ dietary pattern is associated with accelerated human embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parisi, Francesca; Rousian, Melek; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Cetin, Irene; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2018-01-01

    Background/objectives: Maternal dietary patterns were associated with embryonic growth and congenital anomalies. We aim to evaluate associations between early first trimester maternal dietary patterns and embryonic morphological development among pregnancies with non-malformed outcome.

  14. Effects of feed forms on growth pattern, behavioural responses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feed forms on growth pattern, behavioural responses and feacal microbial load ... load and behavioural activities (eating, drinking, physical pen interaction and ... Total organism counts varied significantly (p<0.05) with pigs on T1, T2, ...

  15. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-01-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the 133 Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness

  16. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  17. Growth pattern and structural nature of amylases produced by some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth pattern and microbial biomass formed during metabolic activities of the Bacillus species on starchy substrates was determined. The result showed that the strains B. subtilis (WBS), B. licheniformis (WBL) and B. coagulans (MBC) generally had high growth rate. B. circulans (SBC) and B. coagulans (WBC) has ...

  18. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  19. Selective growth of gallium nitride nanowires by femtosecond laser patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, D.K.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Hong, M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)], E-mail: HONG_Minghui@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Tan, L.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhou, Y. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chen, G.X. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2008-01-31

    We report on gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown using pulsed laser ablation, adopting the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. The GaN nanowires are obtained based on the principle that a catalyst is required to initiate the nanowires growth. Locations of the GaN nanowires are patterned using femtosecond laser and focused ion beam. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to characterize the nanowires. This patterning of GaN nanowires will enable selective growth of nanowires and bottom-up assembly of integrated electronic and photonic devices.

  20. Selective growth of gallium nitride nanowires by femtosecond laser patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, D.K.T.; Hong, M.H.; Tan, L.S.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, G.X.

    2008-01-01

    We report on gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown using pulsed laser ablation, adopting the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. The GaN nanowires are obtained based on the principle that a catalyst is required to initiate the nanowires growth. Locations of the GaN nanowires are patterned using femtosecond laser and focused ion beam. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to characterize the nanowires. This patterning of GaN nanowires will enable selective growth of nanowires and bottom-up assembly of integrated electronic and photonic devices

  1. Patterned solid state growth of barium titanate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugorek, Michael Stephen

    An understanding of microstructure evolution in ceramic materials, including single crystal development and abnormal/enhanced grain growth should enable more controlled final ceramic element structures. In this study, two different approaches were used to control single crystal development in a patterned array. These two methods are: (1) patterned solid state growth in BaTiO 3 ceramics, and (2) metal-mediated single crystal growth in BaTiO 3. With the patterned solid state growth technique, optical photolithography was used to pattern dopants as well as [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystal template arrays with a 1000 microm line pattern array with 1000 microm spacings. These patterns were subsequently used to control the matrix grain growth evolution and single crystal development in BaTiO3. It was shown that the growth kinetics can be controlled by a small initial grain size, atmosphere conditions, and the introduction of a dopant at selective areas/interfaces. By using a PO2 of 1x10-5 atm during high temperature heat treatment, the matrix coarsening has been limited (to roughly 2 times the initial grain size), while retaining single crystal boundary motion up to 0.5 mm during growth for dwell times up to 9 h at 1300°C. The longitudinal and lateral growth rates were optimized at 10--15 microm/h at 1300°C in a PO2 of 1x10 -5 atm for single crystal growth with limited matrix coarsening. Using these conditions, a patterned microstructure in BaTiO3 was obtained. With the metal-mediated single crystal growth technique, a novel approach for fabricating 2-2 single crystal/polymer composites with a kerf texture development were studied using both [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystals templates. By using a PO 2 of 1x10-11 atm during high temperature heat treatment, matrix coarsening was limited while enabling single crystal boundary motion up to 0.35 mm during growth between 1250°C and 1300°C with growth rates ˜ 3--4 microm/h for both single crystal orientations. By

  2. Growth Pattern of Body Dimension of Arfak Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Irma Jeanne Joice Kawulur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth pattern of body height and weight reflect the nutritional status and health condition of a population. Assessment of growth pattern and nutritional status of children and adolescence is urgently needed because during this growth period there is a transition period frominfant to adult with fast growth spurt, secondary sexual character maturation, and dramatic body proportion change. A cross-sectional study of the physical growth status was done to 514Arfak children consisted of 231 girls aged 6-19 years and 283 boys aged 6-23 years, in Manokwari, West Papua Province.The study was conducted to find out the growth pattern of the body size of Arfak children. Anthropometry measurement consists of body height (cm and body weight (kg. Growth charts of these variables showed increase with age in both sexes. Growth rate of body weight of Arfak children at juvenile phase was higher than those of other populations, such as India, Purwakarta, and Karawang, except American population.

  3. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-26

    Feb 26, 2013 ... Abstract. Introduction: The period from birth to two years of age is a "critical window" of opportunity for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioral development of children. Poor child feeding patterns combined with household food insecurity can lead to malnutrition which is a major public health ...

  4. Genetic and environmental trends of early growth traits in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from the Elsenburg Dormer sheep stud were used to estimate genetic and environmental change in early growth traits from 1943 to 1990. .... The Elsenburg stud is not only the foundation Dormer stud, ... derivative-free algorithm. Genet.

  5. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  6. Controlling growth density and patterning of single crystalline silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tung-Hao; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Fu-Ken; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the usage of well-patterned Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst for one-dimensional growth of single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) through the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The study reports the fabrication of monolayer Au NPs through the self-assembly of Au NPs on a 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified silicon substrate. Results indicate that the spin coating time of Au NPs plays a crucial role in determining the density of Au NPs on the surface of the silicon substrate and the later catalysis growth of Si NWs. The experiments in this study employed optical lithography to pattern Au NPs, treating them as a catalyst for Si NW growth. The patterned Si NW structures easily produced and controlled Si NW density. This approach may be useful for further studies on single crystalline Si NW-based nanodevices and their properties.

  7. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic

  8. Growth of large patterned arrays of neurons using plasma methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I G; Bjornstad, K A; Blakely, E A; Galvin, J E; Monteiro, O R; Sangyuenyongpipat, S

    2003-01-01

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop, among other things, methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. Success with this challenge will be important to our understanding of how the brain works, as well as to the development of novel kinds of computer architecture that may parallel the organization of the brain. We have investigated the use of metal ion implantation using a vacuum-arc ion source, and plasma deposition with a filtered vacuum-arc system, as a means of forming regions of selective neuronal attachment on surfaces. Lithographic patterns created by the treating surface with ion species that enhance or inhibit neuronal cell attachment allow subsequent proliferation and/or differentiation of the neurons to form desired patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates, and some of the experiments made use of simple masks to form patterns of ion beam or plasma deposition treated regions. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates coated with Type I Collagen, and the growth and differentiation was monitored. Particularly good selective growth was obtained using plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon films of about one hundred Angstroms thickness. Neuron proliferation and the elaboration of dendrites and axons after the addition of nerve growth factor both showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth and differentiation on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces

  9. Growth of large patterned arrays of neurons using plasma methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I G; Bjornstad, K A; Blakely, E A; Galvin, J E; Monteiro, O R; Sangyuenyongpipat, S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop, among other things, methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. Success with this challenge will be important to our understanding of how the brain works, as well as to the development of novel kinds of computer architecture that may parallel the organization of the brain. We have investigated the use of metal ion implantation using a vacuum-arc ion source, and plasma deposition with a filtered vacuum-arc system, as a means of forming regions of selective neuronal attachment on surfaces. Lithographic patterns created by the treating surface with ion species that enhance or inhibit neuronal cell attachment allow subsequent proliferation and/or differentiation of the neurons to form desired patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates, and some of the experiments made use of simple masks to form patterns of ion beam or plasma deposition treated regions. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates coated with Type I Collagen, and the growth and differentiation was monitored. Particularly good selective growth was obtained using plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon films of about one hundred Angstroms thickness. Neuron proliferation and the elaboration of dendrites and axons after the addition of nerve growth factor both showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth and differentiation on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces.

  10. Selective LPCVD growth of graphene on patterned copper and its growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Huang, B.-C.; Wang, Y.; Woo, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Copper-catalyzed graphene low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition (LPCVD) growth has been regarded as a viable solution towards its integration to CMOS technology, and the wafer-bonding method provides a reliable alternative for transferring the selective graphene grown on a patterned metal film for IC manufacturing. In this paper, selective LPCVD graphene growth using patterned copper dots has been studied. The Raman spectra of grown films have demonstrated large dependence on the growth conditions. To explain the results, the growth mechanisms based on surface adsorption and copper-vapor-assisted growth are investigated by the comparison between the blanket copper films with/without the additional copper source. The copper vapor density is found to be critical for high-quality graphene growth. In addition, the copper-vapor-assisted growth is also evidenced by the carbon deposition on the SiO2 substrate of the patterned-copper-dot sample and chamber wall during graphene growth. This growth mechanism explains the correlation between the growth condition and Raman spectrum for films on copper dots. The study on the copper-catalyzed selective graphene growth on the hard substrate paves the way for the synthesis and integration of the 2D material in VLSI.

  11. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  12. An efficient, versatile and scalable pattern growth approach to mine frequent patterns in unaligned protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kai; Kosters, Walter A; Ijzerman, Adriaan P

    2007-03-15

    Pattern discovery in protein sequences is often based on multiple sequence alignments (MSA). The procedure can be computationally intensive and often requires manual adjustment, which may be particularly difficult for a set of deviating sequences. In contrast, two algorithms, PRATT2 (http//www.ebi.ac.uk/pratt/) and TEIRESIAS (http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/) are used to directly identify frequent patterns from unaligned biological sequences without an attempt to align them. Here we propose a new algorithm with more efficiency and more functionality than both PRATT2 and TEIRESIAS, and discuss some of its applications to G protein-coupled receptors, a protein family of important drug targets. In this study, we designed and implemented six algorithms to mine three different pattern types from either one or two datasets using a pattern growth approach. We compared our approach to PRATT2 and TEIRESIAS in efficiency, completeness and the diversity of pattern types. Compared to PRATT2, our approach is faster, capable of processing large datasets and able to identify the so-called type III patterns. Our approach is comparable to TEIRESIAS in the discovery of the so-called type I patterns but has additional functionality such as mining the so-called type II and type III patterns and finding discriminating patterns between two datasets. The source code for pattern growth algorithms and their pseudo-code are available at http://www.liacs.nl/home/kosters/pg/.

  13. The seasonal growth patterns of a Tall Grassveld sward | NFG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth patterns of a Tall Grassveld sward measured with an inclined point and by clipping and weighing were determined by moisture conditions except in winter when temperature was limiting. The inclined point as a method of determining yield which might replace clipping and weighing, holds promise but is unlikely ...

  14. E2F4 is required for early eye patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, studies reveal novel functions for cell cycle proteins during development. Here, we investigated the role of E2F4 in eye development. E2F4-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe early eye patterning defects, which are evident from embryonic day 11.5 and characterized by aberrant shape of the optic cup, coloboma as well as abnormal eye pigmentation. Loss of E2F4 is associated with proximal-distal patterning defects in the optic vesicle. These defects are characterized by the expansion of optic stalk marker gene expression to the optic cup and reduced expression of ventral optic cup markers. These defects are associated with a split of Shh expression domain at the ventral midline of the forebrain and expansion of the Shh activity into the ventral optic cup. Despite these patterning defects, early neuronal differentiation and Shh expression in the retina are not affected by E2F4 deletion. Overall, the results of our studies show a novel role of E2F4 in the early eye development. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Gender differences in early-career wage growth

    OpenAIRE

    Napari, Sami

    2007-01-01

    In Finnish manufacturing, the gender wage gap more than doubles during the first ten years in the labor market. This paper studies the factors contributing to the gender gap in early-career wage growth. The analysis shows that the size of the gender gap in wage growth varies with mobility status the gap being much higher when changing employers compared to within-firm wage growth. Several explanations for the gender gap in wage growth based on human capital theory and theory of compensating w...

  16. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Lyu

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils. Hillier ex Slsvin forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees

  17. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  18. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg; Tumlinson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times

  19. Linking stem cell function and growth pattern of intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalheim, Torsten; Quaas, Marianne; Herberg, Maria; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kerner, Christiane; Loeffler, Markus; Aust, Gabriela; Galle, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) require well-defined signals from their environment in order to carry out their specific functions. Most of these signals are provided by neighboring cells that form a stem cell niche, whose shape and cellular composition self-organize. Major features of this self-organization can be studied in ISC-derived organoid culture. In this system, manipulation of essential pathways of stem cell maintenance and differentiation results in well-described growth phenotypes. We here provide an individual cell-based model of intestinal organoids that enables a mechanistic explanation of the observed growth phenotypes. In simulation studies of the 3D structure of expanding organoids, we investigate interdependences between Wnt- and Notch-signaling which control the shape of the stem cell niche and, thus, the growth pattern of the organoids. Similar to in vitro experiments, changes of pathway activities alter the cellular composition of the organoids and, thereby, affect their shape. Exogenous Wnt enforces transitions from branched into a cyst-like growth pattern; known to occur spontaneously during long term organoid expansion. Based on our simulation results, we predict that the cyst-like pattern is associated with biomechanical changes of the cells which assign them a growth advantage. The results suggest ongoing stem cell adaptation to in vitro conditions during long term expansion by stabilizing Wnt-activity. Our study exemplifies the potential of individual cell-based modeling in unraveling links between molecular stem cell regulation and 3D growth of tissues. This kind of modeling combines experimental results in the fields of stem cell biology and cell biomechanics constituting a prerequisite for a better understanding of tissue regeneration as well as developmental processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of radial and shoot growth of five tree species in a gamma-irradiated northern Wisconsin forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitkovski, J.; Buech, R.R.; Rudolph, T.D.; Bauer, E.O.

    1977-01-01

    Patterns of radial and shoot growth of Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Betula papyrifera, and Populus tremuloides were observed before (1970) and during (1972) gamma-irradiation of forest communities in the Enterprise Radiation Forest. Measurements were made during the growing season along the radiation gradient, and year days (YD) of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90 percent of total growth were obtained by interpolation. The experimental area was divided into an ''affected'' and a ''no-effect'' zone. The boundary of the affected zone coincided with radiation exposures that effectively reduced the 1972 radial growth of a given species in comparison to the preirradiation growth. In 1970 and in the no-effect zone in 1972, shoot growth of the four broadleaved species started and terminated earlier than the radial growth. In A. balsamea the radial growth started earlier and terminated later than the shoot growth. In all five species, duration of radial growth was significantly longer than that of shoot growth. Radial growth of A. rubrum, A. saccharum, and B. papyrifera started significantly earlier in 1972 than in 1970, but no difference between years was found in the early-starting A. balsamea and P. tremuloides. In contrast, shoot growth of all five species started earlier in 1970 than in 1972. It is suggested that temperature regimes during the early developmental stages were probably responsible for the difference. In the affected zone in 1972, the radiation depressed radial growth and changed its normal pattern in all five species

  1. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  2. Spatial patterns of cyanobacterial mat growth on sand ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, G.; Klepac-Ceraj, V.; Perron, J. T.; Bosak, T.

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats produce organic matter, cycle nutrients, bind pollutants and stabilize sediment in sandy marine environments. Here, we investigate the influence of bedforms and wave motion on the growth rate, composition and spatial variability of microbial mats by growing cyanobacterial mats on a rippled bed of carbonate sand in a wave tank. The tank was forced with an oscillatory flow with velocities below the threshold for sediment motion yet able to induce a porewater flow within the sediment. Different spatial patterns developed in mats depending on the initial biochemistry of the water medium. When growing in a medium rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and micronutrients, mats grew faster on ripple troughs than on ripple crests. After two months, mats covered the bed surface uniformly, and the microbial communities on the crests and in the troughs had similar compositions. Differences in bed shear stress and nutrient availability between crests and troughs were not able to explain the faster growth in the troughs. We hypothesize that this growth pattern is due to a "strainer" effect, i.e. the suspended bacteria from the inoculum were preferentially delivered to troughs by the wave-induced porewater flow. In the experiments initiated in a medium previously used up by a microbial mat and thus depleted in nutrients, mats grew preferentially on the ripple crests. This spatial pattern persisted for nearly two years, and the microbial composition on troughs and crests was different. We attribute this pattern to the upwelling of porewater in the crests, which increased the delivery of nutrients from sediment to the cyanobacteria on the bed surface. Thus, the macroscopic patterns formed by photosynthetic microbial mats on sand ripples may be used to infer whether mats are nutrient-limited and whether they are recently colonized or older than a month.

  3. Root and aerial growth in early-maturing peach trees under two crop load treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrisqueta, I.; Conejero, W.; López-Martínez, L.; Vera, J.; Ruiz Sánchez, M.C.

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of the paper were to study the pattern of root growth (measured by minirhizotrons) in relation to trunk, fruit and shoot growth and the effects of crop load on tree growth and yield in peach trees. Two crop load (commercial and low) treatments were applied in a mature early-maturing peach tree orchard growing in Mediterranean conditions. Root growth dynamics were measured using minirhizotrons during one growing season. Shoot, trunk and fruit growth were also measured. At harvest, all fruits were weighed, counted and sized. Roots grew throughout the year but at lower rates during the active fruit growth phase. Root growth was asynchronous with shoot growth, while root and trunk growth rates were highest after harvest, when the canopy was big enough to allocate the photo-assimilates to organs that would ensure the following season’s yield. Shoot and fruit growth was greater in the low crop load treatment and was accompanied by a non-significant increase in root growth. High level of fruit thinning decreased the current yield but the fruits were more marketable because of their greater size.

  4. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON EARLY GROWTH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ridwan

    ABSTRACT. Drought and high temperatures are said to have triggered increased tree mortality and could be linked to the menace of climate change. This research therefore investigated the effect of drought stress on early growth of Adansonia digitata where seedlings were exposed to different watering frequencies (Once ...

  5. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  6. Early Growth Of Some Introduced Agroforestry Species In Akure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the early growth performance of potted seedlings of Grevillea robusta, Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia lebbeck, Prosopis juliflora and Acacia mearnsii . Two types of potting containers were used - the conventional black polypot (size: 10 cm x 15 cm) and the transparent \\"pure water\\' bags (size: 14 cm x 15 ...

  7. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a

  8. Regression models for linking patterns of growth to a later outcome: infant growth and childhood overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Wills

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression models are widely used to link serial measures of anthropometric size or changes in size to a later outcome. Different parameterisations of these models enable one to target different questions about the effect of growth, however, their interpretation can be challenging. Our objective was to formulate and classify several sets of parameterisations by their underlying growth pattern contrast, and to discuss their utility using an expository example. Methods We describe and classify five sets of model parameterisations in accordance with their underlying growth pattern contrast (conditional growth; being bigger v being smaller; becoming bigger and staying bigger; growing faster v being bigger; becoming and staying bigger versus being bigger. The contrasts are estimated by including different sets of repeated measures of size and changes in size in a regression model. We illustrate these models in the setting of linking infant growth (measured on 6 occasions: birth, 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months in weight-for-height-for-age z-scores to later childhood overweight at 8y using complete cases from the Norwegian Childhood Growth study (n = 900. Results In our expository example, conditional growth during all periods, becoming bigger in any interval and staying bigger through infancy, and being bigger from birth were all associated with higher odds of later overweight. The highest odds of later overweight occurred for individuals who experienced high conditional growth or became bigger in the 3 to 6 month period and stayed bigger, and those who were bigger from birth to 24 months. Comparisons between periods and between growth patterns require large sample sizes and need to consider how to scale associations to make comparisons fair; with respect to the latter, we show one approach. Conclusion Studies interested in detrimental growth patterns may gain extra insight from reporting several sets of growth pattern

  9. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other...... and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible...

  10. Looking for age-related growth decline in natural forests: unexpected biomass patterns from tree rings and simulated mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jane R.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest biomass growth is almost universally assumed to peak early in stand development, near canopy closure, after which it will plateau or decline. The chronosequence and plot remeasurement approaches used to establish the decline pattern suffer from limitations and coarse temporal detail. We combined annual tree ring measurements and mortality models to address two questions: first, how do assumptions about tree growth and mortality influence reconstructions of biomass growth? Second, under what circumstances does biomass production follow the model that peaks early, then declines? We integrated three stochastic mortality models with a census tree-ring data set from eight temperate forest types to reconstruct stand-level biomass increments (in Minnesota, USA). We compared growth patterns among mortality models, forest types and stands. Timing of peak biomass growth varied significantly among mortality models, peaking 20–30 years earlier when mortality was random with respect to tree growth and size, than when mortality favored slow-growing individuals. Random or u-shaped mortality (highest in small or large trees) produced peak growth 25–30 % higher than the surviving tree sample alone. Growth trends for even-aged, monospecific Pinus banksiana or Acer saccharum forests were similar to the early peak and decline expectation. However, we observed continually increasing biomass growth in older, low-productivity forests of Quercus rubra, Fraxinus nigra, and Thuja occidentalis. Tree-ring reconstructions estimated annual changes in live biomass growth and identified more diverse development patterns than previous methods. These detailed, long-term patterns of biomass development are crucial for detecting recent growth responses to global change and modeling future forest dynamics.

  11. STATISTICAL GROWTH MODELING OF LONGITUDINAL DT-MRI FOR REGIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY BRAIN DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Fletcher, P Thomas; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

    2012-01-01

    A population growth model that represents the growth trajectories of individual subjects is critical to study and understand neurodevelopment. This paper presents a framework for jointly estimating and modeling individual and population growth trajectories, and determining significant regional differences in growth pattern characteristics applied to longitudinal neuroimaging data. We use non-linear mixed effect modeling where temporal change is modeled by the Gompertz function. The Gompertz function uses intuitive parameters related to delay, rate of change, and expected asymptotic value; all descriptive measures which can answer clinical questions related to growth. Our proposed framework combines nonlinear modeling of individual trajectories, population analysis, and testing for regional differences. We apply this framework to the study of early maturation in white matter regions as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Regional differences between anatomical regions of interest that are known to mature differently are analyzed and quantified. Experiments with image data from a large ongoing clinical study show that our framework provides descriptive, quantitative information on growth trajectories that can be directly interpreted by clinicians. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal analysis of growth functions to explain the trajectory of early brain maturation as it is represented in DTI.

  12. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes obtained by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, A. P.; Mansano, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition represents an assembly approach to place and orient nanotubes at a stage as early as when they are synthesized. In this work, the carbon nanotubes were obtained at room temperature by High Density Plasmas Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD) system. This CVD system uses a new concept of plasma generation, where a planar coil coupled to an RF system for plasma generation was used with an electrostatic shield for plasma densification. In this mode, high density plasmas are obtained. We also report the patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on full 4-in Si wafers, using pure methane plasmas and iron as precursor material (seed). Photolithography processes were used to pattern the regions on the silicon wafers. The carbon nanotubes were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the spectra showed very single-walled carbon nanotubes axial vibration modes around 1590 cm-1 and radial breathing modes (RBM) around 120-400 cm-1, confirming that high quality of the carbon nanotubes obtained in this work. The carbon nanotubes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy too. The results showed that is possible obtain high-aligned carbon nanotubes with patterned growth on a silicon wafer with high reproducibility and control.

  13. Population and labour force growth and patterns in ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S

    1988-01-01

    "The paper shows that the diverse labor dimensions prevailing in the ASEAN region can be attributed to changes in the structure of the society and economy in the course of recent economic development. It observes the considerable variety in the growth of the population and its effect on the labor force in the ASEAN region.... The paper details the similarity and diversity in the level and type of labor force participation rates. A common feature shared by ASEAN countries is a general pattern in the age-specific participation rate of men. In contrast, the women, aside from participating in the labor force at a much lower level than men at almost all ages, display diverse patterns of participation over the working age range. Lastly, the distribution of the labor force according to major industrial sectors in the six ASEAN countries is presented...." excerpt

  14. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns. 3. Growth pattern of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Kutty, M.K.

    Experimental studies on the growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ for three and a half months under different levels of feeding gave a growth pattern different from that of von Bertalanffy. The two distinct growth patterns...

  15. Predictive patterns of early medication adherence in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Thomas E; Robiner, William N; Thomas, William

    2014-10-27

    Patients' adherence with posttransplant immunosuppression is known to affect renal transplant outcomes. Prospectively, individual medication adherence patterns in 195 kidney transplant recipients were quantified with electronic medication monitors. Monitored drugs were mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, or azathioprine. Monitoring began at hospital discharge and continued an average of 15±8 months. Patient follow-up for clinical outcomes averaged 8±3 years. Each month's adherence percentage was calculated as the sum of daily adherence percents, divided by the number of evaluable days. During the first 3 months after transplantation, patients (n=44) with declining medication adherence, defined as dropping by 7% or higher (equal to missing 2 days) between months 1 and 2, later experienced lower mean medication adherence for months 6 to 12, 73% versus 92% respectively (Padherence, they also had more frequent (P=0.034) and earlier (P=0.065) acute rejection episodes. This was additionally associated with more frequent (P=0.017) and earlier (P=0.046) death-censored graft loss.In addition, daily medication adherence, expressed as the percentage of doses taken, decreased as the number of prescribed daily doses increased. During the first 3 months after transplantation, adherence with four doses per day averaged 84%, compared to 91% for patients on twice-daily dosing (P=0.024) and 93.5% for patients on once-daily dosing (P=0.008). Early declining medication nonadherence is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. This pattern is detectable during the first 2 months after transplantation. Early detection of nonadherence provides opportunities to target interventions toward patients at the highest risk for adverse behaviors and events.

  16. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2016-10-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible-infectious-removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  17. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms. Here, we introduce the generalized growth model to characterize the early growth profile of outbreaks and estimate the effective reproduction number, with no need for explicit assumptions about the shape of epidemic growth. We demonstrate this phenomenological approach using analytical results and simulations from mechanistic models, and provide validation against a range of empirical disease datasets. Our results suggest that subexponential growth in the early phase of an epidemic is the rule rather the exception. Mechanistic simulations show that slight modifications to the classical susceptible–infectious–removed model result in subexponential growth, and in turn a rapid decline in the reproduction number within three to five disease generations. For empirical outbreaks, the generalized-growth model consistently outperforms the exponential model for a variety of directly and indirectly transmitted diseases datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic datasets within three to five disease generations contrasts with the expectation of invariant reproduction number in epidemics obeying exponential growth. The

  18. Early growth and chronic disease: a public health overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Infant and childhood growth result from and reflect a range of influences in pre- and postnatal life. These include nutrition, burden of infection and the psycho-social environment. Nutrition in young children is dependent on individual level factors such as fetal experience, infant feeding and weaning practices, and on societal factors such as education of women and economic conditions. The relationship of early postnatal growth to adult disease may be indicative or causal, and may reveal both biological and sociological processes. Although non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, the relationships of these three conditions to infant growth differ. Poor infant growth has been associated with higher levels of NIDDM and ischaemic heart disease, but lower levels of adult obesity. Most research has been of populations living in developed countries at different stages of nutritional transition. However, differences in context are not simply limited to the stage of the nutritional transition. They also need to consider the nature of that transition and its social correlates, which may result in the clustering of aetiological influences such as increased body mass and poverty. The size of effect of the relationship of infant growth to adult disease is important not only to determine its relative aetiological importance but also for its potential for public health policy. Such policy also needs to consider the relationships of infant growth to a range of outcomes, both health and human capital, which are not the subject of this workshop.

  19. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Reed

    Full Text Available Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  20. Spatial variations of growth within domes having different patterns of principal growth directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Nakielski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate variations for two paraboloidal domes: A and B, identical when seen from the outside but differing in the internal pattern of principal growth directions, were modeled by means of the growth tensor and a natural coordinate system. In dome A periclinal trajectories in the axial plane were given by confocal parabolas (as in a tunical dome, in dome B by parabolas converging to the vertex (as in a dome without a tunica. Accordingly, two natural coordinate systems, namely paraboloidal for A and convergent parabolic for B, were used. In both cases, the rate of growth in area on the surfaces of domes was assumed to be isotropic and identical in corresponding points. It appears that distributions of growth rates within domes A and B are similar in their peripheral and central parts and different only in their distal regions. In the latter, growth rates are relatively large; the maximum relative rate of growth in volume is around the geometric focus in dome A, and on the surface around the vertex in dome B.

  1. The morphological growth patterns of colorectal liver metastases are prognostic for overall survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kåre; Rolff, Hans C; Eefsen, Rikke L

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal metastases in the liver grow according to three histological patterns: a pushing pattern, a replacement pattern, and a desmoplastic pattern. The objective of the current study was to explore the prognostic significance of these three growth patterns for survival. The study included 217....... Eventually, the growth patterns may contribute to a histology-based prognostic biomarker for patients with colorectal liver metastases.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 23 May 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.4....

  2. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cahon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes.

  3. Temperature dependence of ordered GeSi island growth on patterned Si (001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZhongZhenyang; Chen Peixuan; Jiang Zuimin; Bauer, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    Statistical information on GeSi islands grown on two-dimensionally pit-patterned Si substrates at different temperatures is presented. Three growth regimes on patterned substrates are identified: (i) kinetically limited growth at low growth temperatures, (ii) ordered island growth in an intermediate temperature range, and (iii) stochastic island growth within pits at high temperatures. A qualitative model based on growth kinetics is proposed to explain these phenomena. It can serve as a guidance to realize optimum growth conditions for ordered islands on patterned substrates

  4. Modeling of metal nanocluster growth on patterned substrates and surface pattern formation under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    This work addresses the metal nanocluster growth process on prepatterned substrates, the development of atomistic simulation method with respect to an acceleration of the atomistic transition states, and the continuum model of the ion-beam inducing semiconductor surface pattern formation mechanism. Experimentally, highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO{sub 2} surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well-separated. The first topic is the investigation of this growth process with a continuum theoretical approach to the surface gas condensation as well as an atomistic cluster growth model. The atomistic simulation model is a lattice-based kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag monomers and {approx}1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag monomers. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns. The second topic specifies the acceleration scheme utilized in the metallic cluster growth model. Concerning the atomistic movements, a classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements

  5. Modeling of metal nanocluster growth on patterned substrates and surface pattern formation under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    This work addresses the metal nanocluster growth process on prepatterned substrates, the development of atomistic simulation method with respect to an acceleration of the atomistic transition states, and the continuum model of the ion-beam inducing semiconductor surface pattern formation mechanism. Experimentally, highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO{sub 2} surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well-separated. The first topic is the investigation of this growth process with a continuum theoretical approach to the surface gas condensation as well as an atomistic cluster growth model. The atomistic simulation model is a lattice-based kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag monomers and {approx}1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag monomers. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns. The second topic specifies the acceleration scheme utilized in the metallic cluster growth model. Concerning the atomistic movements, a classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements

  6. Growth, Fabrication and Characterization of Patterned Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana

    In this work we developed a new technique for the growth of GaAs nanostrcutures and tungsten disulphide (WS2) nanodots, a two dimensional dichalcogenide (2D-TMD). We patterned a thin SiO2 film for the first time by reactive ion etching through the alumina templates and GaAs nanopillars and nanodots were grown through the holes in SiO2 film by MBE. The WS2 nanodots were synthesized by the atomic layer deposition of WS 2 via alumina template. First, WO3 nanodots were deposited through the porous template using e-beam evaporation and then WO3 vapor reacts with sulfur to obtain WS2 nanodots by chemical vapor deposition technique. We studied morphological and optical properties of patterned nanostructures using SEM, TEM photoluminescence(PL) technique, AFM and Raman microscopy. We used different As2/Ga ratio to obtain patterned nanostructures through the holes of the SiO2 film. These nanopillars were epitaxially aligned to the GaAs(111)B substrates. We achieved (111)B oriented nanopillars with typical diameters between 72 nm to 76 nm and lengths between 200 nm- 600 nm. These nanopillars have six {110} side facets. Though there were few defects, but mostly they were following the pattern in SiO 2. We obtained nanopillars with predominantly two types of tops, triangular pyramidal tops and hexagonal flat tops. We find that these nanopillars have a mixed crystal structure of zinc-blende and wurtzite structures. There is a high density of twins and stacking faults. Alternating wurtzite and zinc-blende layers within the nanopillars, however, lead to quantum confinement effect and thus a blue-shift of PL emission. WS2 nanodots precisely controlled in size have potential applications in nanoelectronics due to their unique optical and electrical properties. Most of the nanodots synthesized so far are produced using liquid exfoliation method from the bulk. Here we report the size controlled growth of uniform WS2 nanodots using self -organized alumina templates as a growth mask on

  7. Neighbor Detection Induces Organ-Specific Transcriptomes, Revealing Patterns Underlying Hypocotyl-Specific Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Markus V; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Trevisan, Martine; Petrolati, Laure Allenbach; Sénéchal, Fabien; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Maloof, Julin; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana PIFs initiate transcriptional reprogramming in both organs within 15 min, comprising regulated expression of several early auxin response genes. This suggests that hypocotyl growth is elicited by both local and distal auxin signals. We show that cotyledon-derived auxin is both necessary and sufficient to initiate hypocotyl growth, but we also provide evidence for the functional importance of the local PIF-induced response. With time, the transcriptional response diverges increasingly between organs. We identify genes whose differential expression may underlie organ-specific elongation. Finally, we uncover a growth promotion gene expression signature shared between different developmentally regulated growth processes and responses to the environment in different organs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Histopathological growth pattern, proteolysis and angiogenesis in chemonaive patients resected for multiple colorectal liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Van den Eynden, Gert G; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise growth patterns, proteolysis, and angiogenesis in colorectal liver metastases from chemonaive patients with multiple liver metastases. Twenty-four patients were included in the study, resected for a median of 2.6 metastases. The growth pattern......-type plasminogen activator receptor (P = 0.0008). Angiogenesis was most pronounced in metastases with a pushing growth pattern in comparison to those with desmoplastic (P = 0.0007) and replacement growth pattern (P = 0.021). Although a minor fraction of the patients harboured metastases with different growth...

  9. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity....... Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during...... the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems...

  10. Growth Patterns and E-Moderating Supports in Asynchronous Online Discussions in an Undergraduate Blended Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Hajar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Bakar, Kamariah Binti Abu; Hassanzadeh, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a case study of asynchronous online discussions' (AOD) growth patterns in an undergraduate blended course to address the gap in our current understanding of how threads are developed in peer-moderated AODs. Building on a taxonomy of thread pattern proposed by Chan, Hew and Cheung (2009), growth patterns of thirty-six forums…

  11. Early childhood neurodevelopment after intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Terri A; Grunau, Ruth E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Pinnamaneni, RagaMallika; Foran, Adrienne; Alderdice, Fiona A

    2015-01-01

    Children who experienced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes in early childhood. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes from 6 months to 3 years after IUGR. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and CINAHL databases were searched by using the search terms intrauterine, fetal, growth restriction, child development, neurodevelopment, early childhood, cognitive, motor, speech, language. Studies were eligible for inclusion if participants met specified criteria for growth restriction, follow-up was conducted within 6 months to 3 years, methods were adequately described, non-IUGR comparison groups were included, and full English text of the article was available. A specifically designed data extraction form was used. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using well-documented quality-appraisal guidelines. Of 731 studies reviewed, 16 were included. Poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes after IUGR were described in 11. Ten found motor, 8 cognitive, and 7 language delays. Other delays included social development, attention, and adaptive behavior. Only 8 included abnormal Doppler parameters in their definitions of IUGR. Evidence suggests that children are at risk for poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes following IUGR from 6 months to 3 years of age. The heterogeneity of primary outcomes, assessment measures, adjustment for confounding variables, and definitions of IUGR limits synthesis and interpretation. Sample sizes in most studies were small, and some examined preterm IUGR children without including term IUGR or AGA comparison groups, limiting the value of extant studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. [Hypopituitarism mode in patients with craniopharyngioma in relation to tumor growth pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, S T; Peng, J X; Pan, J; Fan, J; Zhang, S C; Liu, Y; Bao, Y; Qiu, B H; Wu, X Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To investigate the pituitary hormone changes of patients with craniopharyngioma of different growth patterns during perioperative period and follow up time. Methods: Retrospective studies were performed on 212 cases of primary craniopharyngioma patient who received total tumor excision surgery in our hospital from January 2001 to May 2012. The characteristics of pituitary hormone and associated clinical manifestation during preoperative, perioperative and postoperative periods were analyzed according to the QST surgical classification. Results: One hundred and seventy-seven (83.5%) of patients present preoperative hypopituitarism, 36 of them were panhypopituitarism. The hypopituitarism condition was exacerbated during the early stage of post-operation period. The abnormal rates of HPA and HPT during the follow up were 60.1% and 58.3% respectively and hormone replacement treatment was needed for these patients. Craniopharyngioma of different growth patterns showed diversities in the characteristics of hypopituitarism. Conclusion: QST surgical classification was closely associated with the pattern of hypopituitarism, it can help to optimize treatment and prognosis estimation, and could be important criterion for improving the clinical practice of neuroendocrine monitoring, treatment and health education of patients with craniopharyngioma.

  13. Temperature effects on early season cotton growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; Reddy, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental factor controlling growth and developmental rates of plants, yet little specific information is available regarding cotton (Gossypium hisutum L.) responses to temperature. Information covering a wide range of temperatures would be useful for predicting both developmental and growth rates in cotton. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in naturally lit, temperature- and CO 2 -controlled cabinets from soon after emergence until 56 d after emergence (DAE). The cabinets were maintained at 20/12, 25/17, 30/22, 35/27, and 40/32C day/night cycles. Plant heights, number of nodes, and leaf areas were determined weekly throughout the experiment, and dry weight measurements were obtained at three intervals. Mainstem elongation, leaf area growth, and biomass accumulation rates were very sensitive to temperature about 3 wk after emergence. Prior to that time, they were relatively insensitive to temperature. The temperature optimum for stem elongation, leaf area expansion, and biomass accumulation was 30/22 C. Developmental rates, as depicted by number of mainstem nodes produced, number of fruiting branches, and fruiting branch nodes, were not as sensitive to temperatures above 30/22 C as were growth rates. Four times as many fruiting branches were produced at 30/22 C as at 20/12 C; whereas more vegetative branches were produced at low temperatures. All flower buds abscised from plants grown at 40/32 C. Essentially, all bolls and squares were retained at 30/22 C while a 10% boll and square loss was observed at 35/27 C during the early reproductive period. Less time was required for this cultivar to produce squares at any temperature, suitable for growing cotton, than was suggested by previous experiments

  14. Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films grown on Ir(100) substrates via patterned nucleation growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Taro; Kodama, Hideyuki; Kono, Shozo; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Sawabe, Atsuhito

    2015-01-01

    The potential of patterned nucleation growth (PNG) technique to control the wafer bowing of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond films was investigated. The heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films were grown on an Ir(100) substrate via PNG technique with different patterns of nucleation regions (NRs), which were dot-arrays with 8 or 13 μm pitch aligned to < 100 > or < 110 > direction of the Ir(100) substrate. The wafer bows and the local stress distributions of the free-standing films were measured using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer. For each NR pattern, the stress evolutions within the early stage of diamond growth were also studied together with a scanning electron microscopic observation of the coalescing diamond particles. These investigations revealed that the NR pattern, in terms of pitch and direction of dot-array, strongly affects the compressive stress on the nucleation side of the diamond film and dominantly contributes to the elastic deformation of the free-standing film. This indicates that the PNG technique with an appropriate NR pattern is a promising solution to fabricate free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond films with extremely small bows. - Highlights: • Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films • Effect of patterned nucleation and growth (PNG) technique on wafer bowing reduction • Influence of nucleation region patterns of PNG on wafer bowing • Internal stress analysis of PNG films via confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy

  15. Invited Article: Plasmonic growth of patterned metamaterials with fractal geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takeyasu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale metallic three-dimensional (3D structures composed of sub-wavelength fine details, called metamaterials, have attracted optical scientists and materials scientists because of their unconventional and extraordinary optical properties that are not seen in nature. However, existing nano-fabrication technologies including two-photon fabrication, e-beam, focused ion-beam, and probe microscopy are not necessarily suitable for fabricating such large-scale 3D metallic nanostructures. In this article, we propose a different method of fabricating metamaterials, which is based on a bottom-up approach. We mimicked the generation of wood forest under the sunlight and rain in nature. In our method, a silver nano-forest is grown from the silver seeds (nanoparticles placed on the glass substrate in silver-ion solution. The metallic nano-forest is formed only in the area where ultraviolet light is illuminated. The local temperature increases at nano-seeds and tips of nano-trees and their branches due to the plasmonic heating as a result of UV light excitation of localized mode of surface plasmon polaritons. We have made experiments of growth of metallic nano-forest patterned by the light distribution. The experimental results show a beautiful nano-forest made of silver with self-similarity. Fractal dimension and spectral response of the grown structure are discussed. The structures exhibit a broad spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared, which was used for surface-enhanced Raman detection of molecules.

  16. Growth patterns for etiolated soybeans germinated under spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Piastuch, William C.

    In the GENEX (GENe EXpression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87), six surface sterilized soybean seeds ( Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to initiate the process of seed germination on-orbit and subsequently transferred them to four light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight plants ( N = 177), (2) the corresponding ground control population ( N = 183), plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions ( N = 93). No significant morphological differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. Some causes underlying this phenomenon are speculated on.

  17. Statistical fluctuation phenomenon of early growth fission chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chun; Song Lingli

    2008-01-01

    The early growth of neutron population within a supercritical system of fissile material is of a statistical nature and may depart significantly from the average time dependence neutron population. The probability of a source neutron sponsoring a persistent fission chain was considered for a supercritical system. Then the probability distribution in time of the neutron population reaching a preset level was deduced based on the probability P(n,t) of n neutron at time t. By combing the above two probabilities, the probability that at time t after the system reached critical there were no neutron in the system was derived. The P(t) of Godiva neutron excursion at supercritical, and the pre-burst probability of BARS were calculated by this model, and were found agree with the experiment result. (authors)

  18. Orientation selection process during the early stage of cubic dendrite growth: A phase-field crystal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Sai; Wang Zhijun; Guo Yaolin; Wang Jincheng; Yu Yanmei; Zhou Yaohe

    2012-01-01

    Using the phase-field crystal model, we investigate the orientation selection of the cubic dendrite growth at the atomic scale. Our simulation results reproduce how a face-centered cubic (fcc) octahedral nucleus and a body-centered cubic (bcc) truncated-rhombic dodecahedral nucleus choose the preferred growth direction and then evolve into the dendrite pattern. The interface energy anisotropy inherent in the fcc crystal structure leads to the fastest growth velocity in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. New { 1 1 1} atomic layers prefer to nucleate at positions near the tips of the fcc octahedron, which leads to the directed growth of the fcc dendrite tips in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. A similar orientation selection process is also found during the early stage of bcc dendrite growth. The orientation selection regime obtained by phase-field crystal simulation is helpful for understanding the orientation selection processes of real dendrite growth.

  19. Early Life Growth Predictors of Childhood Adiposity Trajectories and Future Risk for Obesity: Birth to Twenty Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Lombard, Zané; Norris, Shane A

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence of variations in adiposity trajectories among individuals, but the influence of early life growth patterns on these trajectories is underresearched in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between early life conditional weight gain and childhood adiposity trajectories. We previously identified distinct adiposity trajectories (four for girls and three for boys) in black South African children (boys = 877; girls = 947). The association between the trajectories and early life growth patterns, and future obesity risk was assessed by multivariate linear and multinomial logistic and logistic regressions. Conditional weight gain independent of height was computed for infancy (0-2 years) and early childhood (2-4 years). Conditional weight gain before 5 years of age was significantly associated with early onset of obesity or overweight (excess weight) BMI trajectories in both boys and girls. In girls, greater conditional weight gain in infancy was associated with increased relative risk of being in the early-onset obese to morbid obese trajectory, with relative risk ratios of 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.17-3.52) compared to belonging to a BMI trajectory in the normal range. Boys and girls in the early-onset obesity or overweight BMI trajectories were more likely to be overweight or obese in early adulthood. Excessive weight gain in infancy and early childhood, independent of linear growth, predicts childhood and adolescent BMI trajectories toward obesity. These results underscore the importance of early life factors in the development of obesity and other NCDs in later life.

  20. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  1. Early growth and development impairments in patients with ganglioside GM3 synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, A; Wang, D; Bright, A; Sency, V; Zhou, A; Xin, B

    2016-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GSD) causes a complete absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The individuals affected by this disorder manifest severe irritability, intractable seizures and profound intellectual disability. However, we have found that most newborns seem symptom-free for a period of time after birth. In order to further understand the onset of the disease, we investigated the early growth and development of patients with this condition through this study. We compared 37 affected individuals with their normal siblings and revealed that all children with GSD had relatively normal intrauterine growth and development, as their weight, length and head circumference were similar to their normal siblings at birth. However, the disease progresses quickly after birth and causes significant constitutional impairments of growth and development by 6 months of age. Neither breastfeeding nor gastrostomy tube placement made significant difference on growth and development as all groups of patients showed the similar pattern. We conclude that GSD causes significant postnatal growth and developmental impairments and the amount of gangliosides in breast milk and general nutritional intervention do not seem to alter these outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Growth patterns in early childhood and the onset of menarche before age twelve Patrones de crecimiento en la infancia precoz y ocurrencia de menarca antes de doce años de edad Padrões de crescimento na infância precoce e ocorrência de menarca antes de doze anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeovany Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between growth patterns in early childhood and the onset of menarche before age 12. METHODS: The study included 2,083 women from a birth cohort study conducted in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, starting in 1982. Anthropometric, behavioral, and pregnancy-related variables were collected through home interviews. Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's chi-square and chi-square test for linear trends. A multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression based on a hierarchical model. RESULTS: Mean age of menarche was 12.4 years old and the prevalence of menarche before age 12 was 24.3%. Higher weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores at 19.4 and 43.1 months of age were associated with linear tendencies of increased prevalence and relative risks of the onset of menarche before age 12. Girls who experienced rapid growth in weight-for-age z-score from birth to 19.4 months of age and in weight-for-age or height-for-age z-scores from 19.4 to 43.1 months of age also showed higher risk of menarche before age 12. Higher risk was seen when rapid growth in weight-for-age z-score was seen during these age intervals and the highest risk was found among those in the first tertile of Williams' curve at birth. Rapid growth in weight-for-height z-score was not associated with menarche before age 12. CONCLUSIONS: Menarche is affected by nutritional status and growth patterns during early childhood. Preventing overweight and obesity during early childhood and keeping a "normal" growth pattern seem crucial for the prevention of health conditions during adulthood.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre patrones de crecimiento en la infancia precoz y ocurrencia de menarca antes de 12 años de edad. MÉTODOS: El estudio incluyó 2.083 mujeres del estudio de cohorte de nacidos en Pelotas, 1982, Sur de Brasil. Variables antropométricas, comportamentales y relacionadas a la gestaci

  3. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  4. The growth pattern of the human intestine and its mesentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffers, Jelly H M; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mekonen, Hayelom K; Koehler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-08-22

    It remains unclear to what extent midgut rotation determines human intestinal topography and pathology. We reinvestigated the midgut during its looping and herniation phases of development, using novel 3D visualization techniques. We distinguished 3 generations of midgut loops. The topography of primary and secondary loops was constant, but that of tertiary loops not. The orientation of the primary loop changed from sagittal to transverse due to the descent of ventral structures in a body with a still helical body axis. The 1st secondary loop (duodenum, proximal jejunum) developed intraabdominally towards a left-sided position. The 2nd secondary loop (distal jejunum) assumed a left-sided position inside the hernia before returning, while the 3rd and 4th secondary loops retained near-midline positions. Intestinal return into the abdomen resembled a backward sliding movement. Only after return, the 4th secondary loop (distal ileum, cecum) rapidly "slid" into the right lower abdomen. The seemingly random position of the tertiary small-intestinal loops may have a biomechanical origin. The interpretation of "intestinal rotation" as a mechanistic rather than a descriptive concept underlies much of the confusion accompanying the physiological herniation. We argue, instead, that the concept of "en-bloc rotation" of the developing midgut is a fallacy of schematic drawings. Primary, secondary and tertiary loops arise in a hierarchical fashion. The predictable position and growth of secondary loops is pre-patterned and determines adult intestinal topography. We hypothesize based on published accounts that malrotations result from stunted development of secondary loops.

  5. Placental pathology in early intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, J H W; Nikkels, P G J; Torrance, H L; Gravesteijn, J; Post Uiterweer, E D; Derks, J B; Koenen, S V; Visser, G H A; Van Rijn, B B; Franx, A

    2014-09-01

    To identify key pathological characteristics of placentas from pregnancies complicated by early intrauterine growth restriction, and to examine their relations with maternal hypertensive disease and umbilical artery Doppler waveform abnormalities. Single-center retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow patterns resulting in a live birth intrauterine growth restriction with or without hypertensive disease and pathological characteristics were compared between these various conditions according to predefined scoring criteria. Among 164 placentas studied, we found high rates of characteristic histopathological features that were associated with intrauterine growth restriction, including infarction (>5% in 42%), chronic villitis (21%), chronic chorioamnionitis (36%), membrane necrosis (20%), elevated nucleated red blood cells (89%), increased syncytial knotting (93%), increased villous maturation (98%), fetal thrombosis (32%) and distal villous hypoplasia (35%). Chronic inflammation of fetal membranes and syncytial knotting were more common in women with concomitant hypertensive disease as compared to women with normotensive IUGR (p < 0.05). Placentas from women with umbilical artery AREDF were more likely to show increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells and distal villous hypoplasia (p < 0.05). Placentas of women with early IUGR show high rates of several histological aberrations. Further, concomitant maternal hypertension is associated with characteristic inflammatory changes and umbilical artery AREDF with signs of chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... The dicynodonts on the other hand, were characterized by an overall fast growth with periodic interruptions, variable growth rates dependent on ontogeny and indeterminate growth strategy. A comparative study encompassing several neotherapsid genera including the dicynodonts shows significant ...

  7. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  8. Clinical pattern of gynaecological / early pregnancy complaints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complaints of vaginal bleeding with or without pains, history of amenorrhea or infertility ; clinical and ultrasound impressions of early pregnancy complaints including ectopic pregnancies and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) with exclusion of uro-genital and gastrointestinal complaints/ cases. Pregnancies greater than 12 ...

  9. Clinical pattern of gynecological/early pregnancy complaints and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... complaints of vaginal bleeding, with or without pain, history of amenorrhea or infertility, clinical and ultrasound impression of early pregnancy complaints, including ectopic pregnancies and pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), with exclusion of urogenital and gastrointestinal complaints/cases. Pregnancies greater than 12 ...

  10. Contraceptive Patterns of College Students Who Experienced Early Coitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Murray L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study investigated the coital behavior, contraceptive use, and attitudes of 20-year-old male and female college students who experienced sexual intercourse early in adolescence (at 16 or younger) as contrasted to those who experienced coitus in late adolescence. Results indicate that older adolescents were more likely to use contraceptives and,…

  11. Early Warning Signals of Ecological Transitions: Methods for Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, William A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Livina, Valerie N.; Seekell, David A.; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert H.; Dakos, Vasilis

    2014-01-01

    A number of ecosystems can exhibit abrupt shifts between alternative stable states. Because of their important ecological and economic consequences, recent research has focused on devising early warning signals for anticipating such abrupt ecological transitions. In particular, theoretical studies show that changes in spatial characteristics of the system could provide early warnings of approaching transitions. However, the empirical validation of these indicators lag behind their theoretical developments. Here, we summarize a range of currently available spatial early warning signals, suggest potential null models to interpret their trends, and apply them to three simulated spatial data sets of systems undergoing an abrupt transition. In addition to providing a step-by-step methodology for applying these signals to spatial data sets, we propose a statistical toolbox that may be used to help detect approaching transitions in a wide range of spatial data. We hope that our methodology together with the computer codes will stimulate the application and testing of spatial early warning signals on real spatial data. PMID:24658137

  12. Overweight patterns throughout childhood and cardiometabolic markers in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; van Rossem, L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Postma, D. S.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    BACKGROUND: Risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease is higher in adults who were relatively thin at birth and had subsequent accelerated weight gain. This specific pattern of weight gain may relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic markers already in childhood. We prospectively assessed whether

  13. The public health challenge of early growth failure in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M F; Martorell, R

    2013-05-01

    Recent recognition of the early onset and high prevalence of wasting (30%) and stunting (20%) among infants 0-5 months in India draws attention to the need to understand the causes and develop prevention strategies. Such growth failure has dire consequences in the short (increased mortality) and long-term (loss of human capital and increased risk of chronic diseases). Food interventions before 6 months will increase morbidity/mortality through contamination in settings of poor sanitation and hygiene. Waiting to improve nutrition only after the initiation of complementary feeding at 6 months is a missed opportunity and may permanently alter life trajectory and potential. This underscores the importance of maternal nutrition. Iron and folic acid and protein energy supplementation during pregnancy are interventions that can improve maternal nutrition and birth outcomes. Maternal supplementation during lactation should be considered as a means to improve maternal and child outcomes, although the evidence needs strengthening. Support and counseling are also required to improve maternal diets and promote exclusive breastfeeding. Programs focused on improving maternal nutrition across the continuum of preconception, pregnancy and lactation are likely to have the greatest impact as mothers are central gatekeepers to the health and future of their children.

  14. Growth problems of stellar black holes in early galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, M. C.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.

    2018-06-01

    The nature of the seeds of the observed high-z super-massive black holes (SMBH) is unknown. Although different options have been proposed, involving e.g. intermediate mass direct collapse black holes, BH remnants of massive stars remain the most natural explanation. To identify the most favorable conditions (if any) for their rapid growth, we study the accretion rate of a M• = 100M⊙ BH formed in a typical z = 10 galaxy under different conditions (e.g. galaxy structure, BH initial position and velocity). We model the galaxy baryonic content and follow the BH orbit and accretion history for 300 Myr (the time span in 10 > z > 7), assuming the radiation-regulated accretion model by Park & Ricotti (2013). We find that, within the limits of our model, BH seeds cannot grow by more than 30%, suggesting that accretion on light-seed models are inadequate to explain high-z SMBH. We also compute the X-ray emission from such accreting stellar BH population in the [0.5 - 8] keV band and find it comparable to the one produced by high-mass X-ray binaries. This study suggests that early BHs, by X-ray pre-heating of the intergalactic medium at cosmic dawn, might leave a specific signature on the HI 21 cm line power spectrum potentially detectable with SKA.

  15. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  16. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An EKC-pattern in historical perspective. Carbon dioxide emissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden 1870-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindmark, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been subject to research and debate since the early 1990s. This article examines the inverted-U trajectory of Swedish CO 2 emissions during an extended time period beginning in 1870. The basis for the investigation is a structural time series approach that utilizes a stochastic trend as an indicator of technological and structural change, and GDP growth and changes in the price of fuel and cement price as independent variables. Finally, the development of technological and structural change with respect to CO 2 emissions is interpreted within the context of growth regimes. The result suggests that the period 1920-1960, with high, sustained growth rates was associated with less technological and structural changes relating to CO 2 emissions than periods with lower growth rates, such as the late 1800s and the post-1970 period. Furthermore, it is suggested that time-specific technological clusters may affect EKC patterns

  18. Growth and characterization of semi-polar (11-22) GaN on patterned (113) Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J; Yu, X; Gong, Y; Hou, Y N; Zhang, Y; Wang, T

    2015-01-01

    Patterned (113) Si substrates have been fabricated for the growth of (11-22) semi-polar GaN, which completely eliminates one of the great issues in the growth of semi-polar GaN on silicon substrates, ‘Ga melting-back’. Furthermore, unlike any other mask patterning approaches which normally lead to parallel grooves along a particular orientation, our approach is to form periodic square window patterns. As a result, crack-free semi-polar (11-22) GaN with a significant improvement in crystal quality has been achieved, in particular, basal stacking faults (BSFs) have been significantly reduced. The mechanism for the defect suppression has been investigated based on detailed transmission electron microscopy measurements. It has been found that the BSFs can be impeded effectively at an early growth stage due to the priority growth along the 〈0001〉 direction. The additional 〈1-100〉 lateral growth above the masks results in a further reduction in dislocation density. The significant reduction in BSFs has been confirmed by low temperature photoluminescence measurements. (paper)

  19. Pattern of growth of very low birth weight preterm infants, assessed using the WHO Growth Standards, is associated with neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Andrea; Dunn, Michael; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Corey, Mary; Mulvihill-Jory, Bridget; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-08-01

    Several Canadian professional organizations recently recommended that the growth of preterm infants be monitored using the World Health Organization Growth Standards (WHO-GS) after hospital discharge. The WHO-GS are a prescriptive set of growth charts that describe how term infants should grow under ideal environmental conditions. Whether preterm infants following this pattern of growth have better outcomes than infants that do not has yet to be evaluated. Our aim was to determine whether the pattern of growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during the first 2 years, assessed using the WHO-GS or the traditional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference growth charts (CDC-RGC), is associated with neurodevelopment. Pattern of weight, length, and head circumference gain of appropriate-for-gestation VLBW preterm infants (n = 289) from birth to 18-24 months corrected age was classified, using the WHO-GS and CDC-RGC, as sustained (change in Z-score ≤1 SD), decelerated (decline >1 SD), or accelerated (incline >1 SD). Development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID)-III at 18-24 months corrected age. Using the WHO-GS, children with a decelerated pattern of weight gain had lower cognitive (10 points), language (6 points), and motor (4 points) scores than infants with sustained weight gain (p growth.

  20. Characterization of Pinus pinaster seedling growth in different photo- and thermoperiods in a phytotron as a basis for early selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, A.; Kremer, A. [INRA, Laboratory of Forest Trees Genetics and Breeding, Cestas (France); Dormling, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1995-07-01

    Seedlings of Pinus pinaster families exhibiting monocyclic or polycyclic adult growth patterns, were cultivated in climate chambers during two successive growth periods separated by a period of low temperature to satisfy the chilling requirement. Six treatments combining photoperiod and temperature factors were tested. The morphology of the apex was assessed and height and biomass measured. First season seedlings grown in continuous light varied in apex morphology from the typical juvenile rosette to the adult bud usually found outdoors on 2-yr-old plants. It seems possible to distinguish monocyclic and polycyclic populations at an early stage by characters related to development and growth height. The results indicate that special environmental conditions during seedling development may be used as a tool in the search for criteria for early selection. 35 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Breast Milk Lipidome Is Associated with Early Growth Trajectory in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyon, Thomas; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Qannari, El Mostafa; Croyal, Mikaël; Soumah, Mohamed; David-Sochard, Agnès; Billard, Hélène; Legrand, Arnaud; Boscher, Cécile; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Human milk is recommended for feeding preterm infants. The current pilot study aims to determine whether breast-milk lipidome had any impact on the early growth-pattern of preterm infants fed their own mother’s milk. A prospective-monocentric-observational birth-cohort was established, enrolling 138 preterm infants, who received their own mother’s breast-milk throughout hospital stay. All infants were ranked according to the change in weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge. Then, we selected infants who experienced “slower” (n = 15, −1.54 ± 0.42 Z-score) or “faster” (n = 11, −0.48 ± 0.19 Z-score) growth; as expected, although groups did not differ regarding gestational age, birth weight Z-score was lower in the “faster-growth” group (0.56 ± 0.72 vs. −1.59 ± 0.96). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry lipidomic signatures combined with multivariate analyses made it possible to identify breast-milk lipid species that allowed clear-cut discrimination between groups. Validation of the selected biomarkers was performed using multidimensional statistical, false-discovery-rate and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) tools. Breast-milk associated with faster growth contained more medium-chain saturated fatty acid and sphingomyelin, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)-containing phosphethanolamine, and less oleic acid-containing triglyceride and DGLA-oxylipin. The ability of such biomarkers to predict early-growth was validated in presence of confounding clinical factors but remains to be ascertained in larger cohort studies. PMID:29385065

  2. Optical Characterization of Thick Growth Orientation-Patterned Gallium Arsenide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Joshua W

    2006-01-01

    .... Orientation patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) is a promising nonlinear conversion material because it has broad transparency and can be engineered for specific pump laser and output wavelengths using quasi-phase matching techniques...

  3. Patterns of Practice: Case Studies of Early Childhood Education & Family Engagement in Community Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda; Rollins, S. Kwesi; Brown, Janet; Naviasky, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This "Patterns of Practice: Case Studies of Early Childhood Education & Family Engagement in Community Schools" report updates the community school case studies through a description of ongoing developments in Cincinnati, OH; Evansville, IN; Multnomah County, OR; and Tulsa, OK and adds to that knowledge base of early learning and…

  4. Referral patterns of children with poor growth in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Buuren Stef

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To promote early diagnosis and treatment of short stature, consensus meetings were held in the mid nineteen nineties in the Netherlands and the UK. This resulted in guidelines for referral. In this study we evaluate the referral pattern of short stature in primary health care using these guidelines, comparing it with cut-off values mentioned by the WHO. Methods Three sets of referral rules were tested on the growth data of a random sample (n = 400 of all children born between 01-01-1985 and 31-12-1988, attending school doctors between 1998 and 2000 in Leiden and Alphen aan den Rijn (the Netherlands: the screening criteria mentioned in the Dutch Consensus Guideline (DCG, those of the UK Consensus Guideline (UKCG and the cut-off values mentioned in the WHO Global Database on Child growth and Malnutrition. Results Application of the DCG would lead to the referral of too many children (almost 80%. The largest part of the referrals is due to the deflection of height, followed by distance to target height and takes primarily place during the first 3 years. The deflection away from the parental height would also lead to too many referrals. In contrast, the UKCG only leads to 0.3% referrals and the WHO-criteria to approximately 10%. Conclusion The current Dutch consensus guideline leads to too many referrals, mainly due to the deflection of length during the first 3 years of life. The UKCG leads to far less referrals, but may be relatively insensitive to detect clinically relevant growth disorders like Turner syndrome. New guidelines for growth monitoring are needed, which combine a low percentage of false positive results with a good sensitivity.

  5. The effect of manganese on early growth of fluted pumpkin ( telfairia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of manganese on early growth of fluted pumpkin (telfairia occidentalis hook f) in an ultisol. ER Orhue, CNC Nwaoguala. Abstract. The trials were conducted at the experimental site of University of Benin Teaching and Research Farm to determine the influence of Mn on early growth, nutrient content and uptake by ...

  6. Fetal and infant growth patterns associated with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Manniesing, Rashindra; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Duijts, Liesbeth; Durmuş, Büşra; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-07-01

    Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 6464 children. We measured growth characteristics in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, at birth, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Body mass index, fat mass index (body fat mass/height(2)), lean mass index (body lean mass/height(2)), android/gynoid fat ratio measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and sc and preperitoneal abdominal fat measured by ultrasound at the median age of 6.0 years (90% range, 5.7-7.4). We observed that weight gain in the second and third trimesters of fetal life and in early, mid, and late infancy were independently and positively associated with childhood body mass index (P fat mass index, android/gynoid fat ratio, and abdominal fat in childhood (P Children with both fetal and infant growth acceleration had the highest childhood body mass index, fat mass index, and sc abdominal fat, whereas children with fetal growth deceleration and infant growth acceleration had the highest value for android/gynoid fat ratio and the lowest value for lean mass index (P fat. Fetal growth deceleration followed by infant growth acceleration may lead to an adverse body fat distribution in childhood.

  7. Dorsoventral patterning in hemichordates: insights into early chordate evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Lowe

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called "dorsal." On the opposite midline, the genes encoding Chordin and Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp are expressed. Thus, we find a Bmp-Chordin developmental axis preceding and underlying the anatomical dorsoventral axis of hemichordates, adding to the evidence from Drosophila and chordates that this axis may be at least as ancient as the first bilateral animals. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors and signaling ligands are expressed in the three germ layers of hemichordate embryos in distinct dorsoventral domains, such as pox neuro, pituitary homeobox, distalless, and tbx2/3 on the Bmp side and netrin, mnx, mox, and single-minded on the Chordin-Admp side. When we expose the embryo to excess Bmp protein, or when we deplete endogenous Bmp by small interfering RNA injections, these expression domains expand or contract, reflecting their activation or repression by Bmp, and the embryos develop as dorsalized or ventralized limit forms. Dorsoventral patterning is independent of anterior/posterior patterning, as in Drosophila but not chordates. Unlike both chordates and Drosophila, neural gene expression in hemichordates is not repressed by high Bmp levels, consistent with their development of a diffuse rather than centralized nervous system. We suggest that the common ancestor of hemichordates and chordates did not use its Bmp-Chordin axis to segregate epidermal and neural ectoderm but to pattern many other dorsoventral aspects of the germ layers, including neural cell fates

  8. Intraskeletal histovariability, allometric growth patterns, and their functional implications in bird-like dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prondvai, Edina; Godefroit, Pascal; Adriaens, Dominique; Hu, Dong-Yu

    2018-01-10

    With their elongated forelimbs and variable aerial skills, paravian dinosaurs, a clade also comprising modern birds, are in the hotspot of vertebrate evolutionary research. Inferences on the early evolution of flight largely rely on bone and feather morphology, while osteohistological traits are usually studied to explore life-history characteristics. By sampling and comparing multiple homologous fore- and hind limb elements, we integrate for the first time qualitative and quantitative osteohistological approaches to get insight into the intraskeletal growth dynamics and their functional implications in five paravian dinosaur taxa, Anchiornis, Aurornis, Eosinopteryx, Serikornis, and Jeholornis. Our qualitative assessment implies a considerable diversity in allometric/isometric growth patterns among these paravians. Quantitative analyses show that neither taxa nor homologous elements have characteristic histology, and that ontogenetic stage, element size and the newly introduced relative element precocity only partially explain the diaphyseal histovariability. Still, Jeholornis, the only avialan studied here, is histologically distinct from all other specimens in the multivariate visualizations raising the hypothesis that its bone tissue characteristics may be related to its superior aerial capabilities compared to the non-avialan paravians. Our results warrant further research on the osteohistological correlates of flight and developmental strategies in birds and bird-like dinosaurs.

  9. Long bone histology and growth patterns in ankylosaurs: implications for life history and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stein

    Full Text Available The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone.

  10. Formation of banded vegetation patterns resulted from interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tousheng; Zhang, Huayong; Dai, Liming; Cong, Xuebing; Ma, Shengnan

    2018-03-01

    This research investigates the formation of banded vegetation patterns on hillslopes affected by interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth. The following two perspectives in the formation of these patterns are taken into consideration: (a) increased sediment deposition from plant interception, and (b) reduced plant biomass caused by sediment accumulation. A spatial model is proposed to describe how the interactions between sediment deposition and vegetation growth promote self-organization of banded vegetation patterns. Based on theoretical and numerical analyses of the proposed spatial model, vegetation bands can result from a Turing instability mechanism. The banded vegetation patterns obtained in this research resemble patterns reported in the literature. Moreover, measured by sediment dynamics, the variation of hillslope landform can be described. The model predicts how treads on hillslopes evolve with the banded patterns. Thus, we provide a quantitative interpretation for coevolution of vegetation patterns and landforms under effects of sediment redistribution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Patterns of Manufacturing Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austin, G.; Frankema, E.H.P.; Jerven, M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews the ‘long twentieth-century’ development of ‘modern’ manufacturing in Sub-Saharan Africa from colonization to the present. It argues that classifying Africa generically as a ‘late industrializer’ is inaccurate. To understand the distinctively African pattern of manufacturing

  12. Rapid Urban Growth and Land Use Patterns in Doha, Qatar: Opportunities for Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amidst chaotic growth of Asian cities, the expansion of urban infrastructure in the Middle East's Gulf region is arguably outpacing any other region on the planet. Yet we have a limited understanding of the types of urban form or the extent to which this rapid urbanization is giving rise to sustainable patterns of growth. We ask, what is the pace and character of urban growth in one Middle East city, Doha, Qatar. By using remotely sensed imagery from 1987 to 2013, we examined the pace, quality, and characteristics of urban growth. We further use the results to create a typology of urban growth that integrates historical and spatial dimensions for describing the qualitative aspects of growth and its implications on regional landscapes. Our results suggest that Doha is creating development patterns similar to many Western cities, and that planners may need to consider whether the emerging urban form offers opportunities for more sustainable growth in the future.

  13. Pattern of head growth and nutritional status of microcephalic infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... indicator for both brain development and nutritional status from birth to ... Additionally, studies based on the latest child growth standards of the World ... Gender-specific z-scores for head circumference were obtained from the ...

  14. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. With immunohistochemistry (IHC), breast cancer is classified into four groups based on IHC profile of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression, positive (+) and/or ...

  15. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily live mass gain was, however, 174 g/day (20,5%) more for the Large White boars and feed conversion16,5% ... of protein and fat in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed ..... regulation of growth and production.

  16. Early positivity signals changes in an abstract linguistic pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Monte-Ordoño

    Full Text Available The extraction of abstract structures from speech (or from gestures in the case of sign languages has been claimed to be a fundamental mechanism for language acquisition. In the present study we registered the neural responses that are triggered when a violation of an abstract, token-independent rule is detected. We registered ERPs while presenting participants with trisyllabic CVCVCV nonsense words in an oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli followed an ABB rule (where A and B are different syllables. Importantly, to distinguish neural responses triggered by changes in surface information from responses triggered by changes in the underlying abstract structure, we used two types of deviant stimuli. Phoneme deviants differed from standards only in their phonemes. Rule deviants differed from standards in both their phonemes and their composing rule. We observed a significant positivity as early as 300 ms after the presentation of deviant stimuli that violated the abstract rule (Rule deviants. The amplitude of this neural response was correlated with participants' performance in a behavioral rule learning test. Differences in electrophysiological responses observed between learners and non-learners suggest that individual differences in an abstract rule learning task might be related to how listeners select relevant sources of information.

  17. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  18. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword

    1995-01-01

    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  19. Early work patterns for gynaecological cancer survivors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachreiner, N M; Ghebre, R G; Virnig, B A; Shanley, R

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the balance between work demands and treatment plans for >4.3 million working-age cancer survivors in the USA. To describe changes in work status for gynaecological cancer survivors during the first 6 months following diagnosis and their experience with their employers' programmes and policies. One hundred and ten gynaecological cancer survivors who were working at the time of their cancer diagnosis completed a survey. Case record reviews documented their clinical characteristics and treatment details. Ninety-five women (86%) had surgery; 81 (74%) received chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both in addition to surgery. Nine per cent of women said that they changed their treatment plan because of their jobs; in contrast, 62% of women said that they changed their work situation to accommodate their treatment plan. Overall, the most common month for women to stop working was Month 1 (41%), to decrease hours was Month 2 (32%) and to increase hours was Month 6 (8%). Twenty-eight per cent of women were aware of employer policies that assisted the return to work process; 70% of women were familiar with the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and 56% with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Only 26% completed a formal request for work accommodations. After 6 months, 56 of 83 women (67%) remained working or had returned to work. Work patterns varied for these gynaecological cancer survivors over the first 6 months following diagnosis. Opportunities exist to improve communication about work and treatment expectations between cancer survivors, occupational health professionals, employers and treating clinicians.

  20. Pattern overlap implies runaway growth in hierarchical tile systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Doty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the hierarchical tile assembly model, if there is a producible assembly that overlaps a nontrivial translation of itself consistently (i.e., the pattern of tile types in the overlap region is identical in both translations, then arbitrarily large assemblies are producible. The significance of this result is that tile systems intended to controllably produce finite structures must avoid pattern repetition in their producible assemblies that would lead to such overlap.This answers an open question of Chen and Doty (SODA 2012, who showed that so-called "partial-order" systems producing a unique finite assembly and avoiding such overlaps must require time linear in the assembly diameter. An application of our main result is that any system producing a unique finite assembly is automatically guaranteed to avoid such overlaps, simplifying the hypothesis of Chen and Doty's main theorem.

  1. Patterning of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon growth by magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fejfar, Antonín; Stuchlík, Jiří; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Honda, Shinya; Kočka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2005), 011901/1-011901/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010316; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon * magnetic field growth Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.127, year: 2005

  2. Urban Ecology: Patterns of Population Growth and Ecological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer; Steward T.A. Pickett

    2012-01-01

    Currently, over 50% of the world’s population lives in urban areas. By 2050, this estimate is expected to be 70%. This urban growth, however, is not uniformly distributed around the world. The majority of it will occur in developing nations and create megacities whose populations exceed at least 10 million people. Not all urban areas, however, are growing. Some are...

  3. Growth patterns in children with intrauterine growth retardation and their correlation to neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Harel, Shaul

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between somatic growth and neurocognitive outcome was studied in a cohort of 136 children with intrauterine growth retardation. The children were followed up from birth to 9 to 10 years of age by annual measurements of growth parameters, neurodevelopmental evaluations, and IQ. The rate of catch-up for height between 1 and 2 years of age was significantly higher than the catch-up for weight (P importance for prediction of subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation.

  4. Cellular and muscular growth patterns during sipunculan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, Alen; Wollesen, Tim; Maiorova, Anastassya S; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-05-15

    Sipuncula is a lophotrochozoan taxon with annelid affinities, albeit lacking segmentation of the adult body. Here, we present data on cell proliferation and myogenesis during development of three sipunculan species, Phascolosoma agassizii, Thysanocardia nigra, and Themiste pyroides. The first anlagen of the circular body wall muscles appear simultaneously and not subsequently as in the annelids. At the same time, the rudiments of four longitudinal retractor muscles appear. This supports the notion that four introvert retractors were part of the ancestral sipunculan bodyplan. The longitudinal muscle fibers form a pattern of densely arranged fibers around the retractor muscles, indicating that the latter evolved from modified longitudinal body wall muscles. For a short time interval, the distribution of S-phase mitotic cells shows a metameric pattern in the developing ventral nerve cord during the pelagosphera stage. This pattern disappears close to metamorphic competence. Our findings are congruent with data on sipunculan neurogenesis, as well as with recent molecular analyses that place Sipuncula within Annelida, and thus strongly support a segmental ancestry of Sipuncula. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  5. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  6. Fractal pattern growth simulation in electrodeposition and study of the shifting of center of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Yusuf H.; Khan, A.R.; Pathan, J.M.; Patil, Aruna; Behere, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    We presented simulation of fractal pattern in electrodeposition (Diffusion limited aggregation) using concept of off lattice walk. It is seen that the growth patterns are based on a parameter called 'bias'. This parameter 'bias' controls the growth of patterns similar to that of electric field in electrodeposition technique. In present study the fractal patterns are grown for different values of 'bias'. Dendritic patterns grown at lower value of 'bias' comprises open structure and show limited branching. As the bias is increased the growth tends to be dense and show more crowded branching. Box counting was implemented to calculate fractal dimension. The structural and textural complexities and are compared with the experimental observations. It was also noted that in the evolution of DLA patterns, the center of mass of the growth is shifted slightly. We tracked the position of the center of mass of simulated electro deposits under different electric field conditions. The center of mass exhibit random walk like patterns and it wanders around the origin or the starting point of the growth.

  7. Early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition, and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    , intervention studies, and studies focusing on the potential mechanisms behind associations between early nutrition and different aspects of growth. There has been a special interest in factors with potential mediating effects between early nutrition and later growth such as growth factors and growth-related......Early nutrition is an important factor regulating both early and long-term growth and body composition, and therefore has important effects on the risk of later overweight and obesity. There is a lot of activity within this research area with a wealth of publications including observational studies...... hormones, appetite-related hormones, and factors with a potential programming effect, e.g., epigenetic programming. For this short review we have included 11 papers which we found of special interest published during the period from July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016. We have chosen to focus mainly on 2 areas...

  8. Metastatic ocular melanoma to the liver exhibits infiltrative and nodular growth patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Zhang, Qing; You, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We examined liver specimens from 15 patients with uveal melanoma (UM) who had died of their disseminated disease. We found 2 distinct growth patterns of UM metastasis: infiltrative (n = 12) and nodular (n = 3). In the infiltrative pattern, individual UM cells with a CD133+ cancer stem cell-like p...

  9. Postnatal mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice: Differences revealed from bone remodeling patterns and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Molinero, Amalia; Ventura, Jacint

    2017-08-01

    Comparative information on the variation in the temporospatial patterning of mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice during early postnatal ontogeny is scarce but important to understand variation among wild rodent populations. Here, we compare mandible growth between two ontogenetic series from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, corresponding to two different groups of mice reared under the same conditions: the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J, and Mus musculus domesticus. We characterize the ontogenetic patterns of bone remodeling of the mandibles belonging to these laboratory and wild mice by analyzing bone surface, as well as examine their ontogenetic form changes and bimodular organization using geometric morphometrics. Through ontogeny, the two mouse groups display similar directions of mandible growth, according to the temporospatial distribution of bone remodeling fields. The allometric shape variation of the mandibles of these mice entails the relative enlargement of the ascending ramus. The organization of the mandible into two modules is confirmed in both groups during the last postnatal weeks. However, especially after weaning, the mandibles of wild and laboratory mice differ in the timing and localization of several remodeling fields, in addition to exhibiting different patterns of shape variation and differences in size. The stimulation of dentary bone growth derived from the harder post-weaning diet might account for some features of postnatal mandible growth common to both groups. Nonetheless, a large component of the postnatal growth of the mouse mandible appears to be driven by the inherent genetic programs, which might explain between-group differences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Voronoi Cell Patterns: theoretical model and application to submonolayer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.

    2012-02-01

    We use a simple fragmentation model to describe the statistical behavior of the Voronoi cell patterns generated by a homogeneous and isotropic set of points in 1D and in 2D. In particular, we are interested in the distribution of sizes of these Voronoi cells. Our model is completely defined by two probability distributions in 1D and again in 2D, the probability to add a new point inside an existing cell and the probability that this new point is at a particular position relative to the preexisting point inside this cell. In 1D the first distribution depends on a single parameter while the second distribution is defined through a fragmentation kernel; in 2D both distributions depend on a single parameter. The fragmentation kernel and the control parameters are closely related to the physical properties of the specific system under study. We apply our model to describe the Voronoi cell patterns of island nucleation for critical island sizes i=0,1,2,3. Experimental results for the Voronoi cells of InAs/GaAs quantum dots are also described by our model.

  11. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  12. Residual Effect of Chromium on Early Growth of Fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    some agronomic characters, nutrient content, nutrient uptake and crude protein content of fluted ... Results revealed that the plant height, stem girth, leaf area, number of leaves, dry matter yield, ..... oxygen and this will lead to slow growth and.

  13. Effect of growth parameters on spatial pattern formation of cadmium hydroxide in agar gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniandavar, N.; Gnanam, F.D.; Ramasamy, P.

    1986-01-01

    The interrelated effects of growth parameters on spatial pattern formation of cadmium hydroxide in agar gel medium have been investigated. The main parameters are concentration of electrolytes, pH of the medium, density of the gel, the concentration of parasitic electrolyte and the concentration of additives. The pattern formation is explained on the basis of electrical double layer theory coupled with diffusion. Using Shinohara's revised coagulation concept, the flocculation value is calculated. With suitable combinations of parameter values, dendritic growth and spherulitic growth of cadmium hydroxide crystals have been observed. (author)

  14. Assessing the Effects of Soil Humic and Fulvic Acids on Germination and Early Growth of Native and Introduced Grass Varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senesi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The presence of humic acid (HA) generally affects positively and at various extent the germination and early growth of all varieties examined but in some cases negative effects are measured on the early growth...

  15. Nonlinear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eSalmon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3D morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatio-temporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here – chaotic nonlinear pattern formation (NPF – which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of group intelligence exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called particle swarm optimization (PSO. This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts osteoclasts and osteocytes, seeing them operating socially in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in-silico simulation of bone modeling.What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder Juvenile Pagets Disease (JPD or Idiopathic Hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here coupling or feedback between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element.This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent consequence of the

  16. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  17. Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonho; Thompson-Flagg, Rebecca; Ekerdt, John G.; Shih, C.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Si nanowires is reported. Using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, we show that the flower consists of an Au/SiO x core-shell structure. Moreover, the growth of flower starts at the interface between the gold catalyst and the silicon nanowire, presumably by enhanced oxidation at this interface. The pattern formation can be classified as dense branching morphology (DBM). It is the first observation of DBM in a spherical geometry and at the nanoscale. The analysis of the average branching distance of this pattern shows that the pattern is most likely formed during the growth process, not the cooling process, and that the curvature of the gold droplet plays a crucial role in the frequency of branching

  18. Growth and survival of larval and early juvenile lesser sandeel in patchy prey field in the North Sea: An examination using individual-based modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Deurs, Mikael van

    2012-01-01

    -stages in the North Sea. Simulations of patchiness related starvation mortality are able to explain observed patterns of variation in sandeel growth. Reduced prey densities within patches decrease growth and survival rate of larvae and match–mismatch affect growth and survival of larvae with different hatch time due...... by modeling copepod size spectra dynamics and patchiness based on particle count transects and Continuous Plankton Recorder time series data. The study analyzes the effects of larval hatching time, presence of zooplankton patchiness and within patch abundance on growth and survival of sandeel early life...

  19. Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the common sunflower (Sanay cultivar) using spectral discrimination techniques. H Turhan, L Genc, SE Smith, YB Bostanci, OS Turkmen ...

  20. Early fetal size and growth as predictors of adverse outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Figueras, Francesc; Wøjdemann, Karen R

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fetal size and growth between the first and second trimesters and subsequent adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: A cohort was created of 7,642 singleton pregnancies cared for in three obstetric units associated with Copenhagen University. Data were...... obtained from ultrasound measurements at 11-14 weeks (crown-rump length, biparietal diameter) and 17-21 weeks (biparietal diameter). Fetal size was assessed by gestation-specific z scores, and fetal growth between the first and second trimester was calculated individually using conditional centiles....... The main outcome measures were preterm delivery, smallness for gestational age, and perinatal death. RESULTS: Slow growth of the biparietal diameter less than the 10th and less than the 2.5th conditional centiles between first and second trimesters occurred in 10.4% and 3.6% of the population, respectively...

  1. A case of functional growth hormone deficiency and early growth retardation in a child with IFT172 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela K; Kinning, Esther; Iida, Aritoshi; Wang, Zheng; Miyake, Noriko; Ikegawa, Shiro; McNeilly, Jane; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2015-04-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of rare conditions that present through a wide range of manifestations. Given the relative common occurrence of defects of the GH/IGF-I axis in children with short stature and growth retardation, the association between ciliopathies and these defects needs further attention. Our patient is a boy who was born at term and noted to have early growth retardation and weight gain within the first 18 months of life. Biochemical tests demonstrated low IGF-I but a normal peak GH on stimulation and an adequate increase in IGF-I on administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. His growth responded well to rhGH therapy. Subsequently he also developed a retinopathy of his rods and cones, metaphyseal dysplasia, and hypertension with renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated compound heterozygous mutations of IFT172, thus consistent with a ciliopathy. This is the first reported case of a child with a mutation in IFT172 who presented with growth retardation in early childhood and was initially managed as a case of functional GH deficiency that responded to rhGH therapy. This case highlights the importance of ciliary function in pituitary development and the link between early onset growth failure and ciliopathies.

  2. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  3. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byers Emily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the production of three morphophonetic variations of schwa in American English: the plural allomorph {-s} as in watches, the possessive allomorph {-s} as in Sasha’s, and word-finally as in Russia. The production of these three allomorphs were examined in Miami’s English monolingual and early Spanish-English bilingual populations. Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task. Results indicate that early bilinguals′ reduced vowels followed the same overall pattern as monolinguals, but had different acoustic properties.

  4. Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...

  5. Growth pattern and growth dependent mortality of larval and pelagic juvenile North Sea cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune; Munk, Peter

    2004-01-01

    and May 2001), and larval/juvenile growth history from each of the sampling sequences was outlined. Growth rate was estimated by fitting a Laird-Gompertz equation to lengths-at-age, and we found the mean specific growth rate in length at age 20 d was 3.2% d(-1), declining to 1.9% d(-1) at an age of 90 d....... Otolith radius and larval standard length were highly correlated, and otolith growth was used as a measure of larval somatic growth. The larvae were divided into 3 groups dependent on their hatch-date, and for each hatch group, the same period of past growth was compared between fish sampled in April...... and May. A 2-way repeated-measurement ANOVA revealed a significant higher past growth of fish sampled in May in 2 of the 3 hatch-groups, implying a higher mortality of the slow growing larvae. Additionally, otolith size at age differed significantly between the April and May sampling of the oldest larvae...

  6. A diminutive perinate European Enantiornithes reveals an asynchronous ossification pattern in early birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Fabien; Chiappe, Luis M; Sanchez, Sophie; Garwood, Russell J; Edwards, Nicholas P; Wogelius, Roy A; Sellers, William I; Manning, Phillip L; Ortega, Francisco; Serrano, Francisco J; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Cuesta, Elena; Escaso, Fernando; Sanz, Jose Luis

    2018-03-05

    Fossils of juvenile Mesozoic birds provide insight into the early evolution of avian development, however such fossils are rare. The analysis of the ossification sequence in these early-branching birds has the potential to address important questions about their comparative developmental biology and to help understand their morphological evolution and ecological differentiation. Here we report on an early juvenile enantiornithine specimen from the Early Cretaceous of Europe, which sheds new light on the osteogenesis in this most species-rich clade of Mesozoic birds. Consisting of a nearly complete skeleton, it is amongst the smallest known Mesozoic avian fossils representing post-hatching stages of development. Comparisons between this new specimen and other known early juvenile enantiornithines support a clade-wide asynchronous pattern of osteogenesis in the sternum and the vertebral column, and strongly indicate that the hatchlings of these phylogenetically basal birds varied greatly in size and tempo of skeletal maturation.

  7. Neural stem cell-encoded temporal patterning delineates an early window of malignant susceptibility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonne-Reveau, Karine; Lanet, Elodie; Dillard, Caroline; Foppolo, Sophie; Chen, Ching-Huan; Parrinello, Hugues; Rialle, Stéphanie; Sokol, Nicholas S; Maurange, Cédric

    2016-06-14

    Pediatric neural tumors are often initiated during early development and can undergo very rapid transformation. However, the molecular basis of this early malignant susceptibility remains unknown. During Drosophila development, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide asymmetrically and generate intermediate progenitors that rapidly differentiate in neurons. Upon gene inactivation, these progeny can dedifferentiate and generate malignant tumors. Here, we find that intermediate progenitors are prone to malignancy only when born during an early window of development while expressing the transcription factor Chinmo, and the mRNA-binding proteins Imp/IGF2BP and Lin-28. These genes compose an oncogenic module that is coopted upon dedifferentiation of early-born intermediate progenitors to drive unlimited tumor growth. In late larvae, temporal transcription factor progression in NSCs silences the module, thereby limiting mitotic potential and terminating the window of malignant susceptibility. Thus, this study identifies the gene regulatory network that confers malignant potential to neural tumors with early developmental origins.

  8. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...

  9. Growth patterns of an intertidal gastropod as revealed by oxygen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Hill, T. M.; Guerra, C.

    2007-12-01

    The size and morphology of mollusk shells are affected by environmental conditions. As a result, it is difficult to assess growth rate, population age structure, shell morphologies associated with ontogenetic stages, and to compare life history patterns across various environments. Oxygen isotope analysis is a useful tool for estimating minimum ages and growth rates of calcium carbonate secreting organisms. Calcite shell material from members of two northern California populations of the intertidal muricid gastropod Acanthinucella spirata was sampled for isotopic analysis. Individual shells were sampled from apex to margin, thus providing a sequential record of juvenile and adult growth. A. spirata were collected from a sheltered habitat in Tomales Bay and from an exposed reef in Bolinas. Abiotic factors, such as temperature, wave exposure, and substrate consistency, and biotic composition differ significantly between these sites, possibly resulting in local adaptations and variation in life history and growth patterns. Shell morphology of A. spirata changes with age as internal shell margin thickenings of denticle rows associated with external growth bands are irregularly accreted. It is not known when, either seasonally and/or ontogentically, these thickenings and bands form or whether inter or intra-populational variation exists. Preliminary results demonstrate the seasonal oxygen isotopic variability present at the two coastal sites, indicating 5-6 degC changes from winter to summertime temperatures; these data are consistent with local intertidal temperature records. Analysis of the seasonal patterns indicate that: 1) differences in growth rate and seasonal growth patterns at different ontogenetic stages within populations, and 2) differences in growth patterns and possibly age structure between the two A. spirata populations. These findings indicate that isotopic analyses, in addition to field observations and morphological measurements, are necessary to

  10. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.; van Vugt, J. M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester serum specimens of 23

  11. First trimester screening for intra-uterine growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, G.; Mensink, I.; Twisk, J.W.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.; van Vugt, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess first trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as screening markers for early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods: PlGF concentration was retrospectively measured in first trimester

  12. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Spatial Patterning of Newly-Inserted Material during Bacterial Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursell, Tristan

    2012-02-01

    In the life cycle of a bacterium, rudimentary microscopy demonstrates that cell growth and elongation are essential characteristics of cellular reproduction. The peptidoglycan cell wall is the main load-bearing structure that determines both cell shape and overall size. However, simple imaging of cellular growth gives no indication of the spatial patterning nor mechanism by which material is being incorporated into the pre-existing cell wall. We employ a combination of high-resolution pulse-chase fluorescence microscopy, 3D computational microscopy, and detailed mechanistic simulations to explore how spatial patterning results in uniform growth and maintenance of cell shape. We show that growth is happening in discrete bursts randomly distributed over the cell surface, with a well-defined mean size and average rate. We further use these techniques to explore the effects of division and cell wall disrupting antibiotics, like cephalexin and A22, respectively, on the patterning of cell wall growth in E. coli. Finally, we explore the spatial correlation between presence of the bacterial actin-like cytoskeletal protein, MreB, and local cell wall growth. Together these techniques form a powerful method for exploring the detailed dynamics and involvement of antibiotics and cell wall-associated proteins in bacterial cell growth.[4pt] In collaboration with Kerwyn Huang, Stanford University.

  14. Growth at the Age of 4 Years Subsequent to Early Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Bengt; Fallstrom, Sven P.

    1987-01-01

    Followup at age 4 of 55 children, previously investigated for failure to thrive (FFT) at 4-18 months of age, indicated normal growth for most children with organic causes of FFT, but persisting suboptimal growth patterns for children with nonorganic FFT, particularly for those children with higher numbers of risk factors. (Author/DB)

  15. Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.

  16. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    the importance of sub-exponential growth for forecasting purposes.Results: We applied the generalized-growth model to 20 infectious disease outbreaks representing a range of transmission routes. We uncovered epidemic profiles ranging from very slow growth (p = 0.14 for the Ebola outbreak in Bomi, Liberia (2014...... African Ebola epidemic provided a unique opportunity to explore how growth profiles vary by geography; analysis of the largest district-level outbreaks revealed substantial growth variations (mean p = 0.59, range: 0.14–0.97). The districts of Margibi in Liberia and Bombali and Bo in Sierra Leone had near......-exponential growth, while the districts of Bomi in Liberia and Kenema in Sierra Leone displayed near constant incidences.Conclusions: Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon...

  17. Gender perceptions predict sex differences in growth patterns of indigenous Guatemalan infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilowicz, Alison; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel; Pelletier, David L

    2015-11-01

    Nearly one-half of Guatemalan children experience growth faltering, more so in indigenous than in nonindigenous children. On the basis of ethnographic interviews in Totonicapán, Guatemala, which revealed differences in maternal perceptions about food needs in infant girls and boys, we predicted a cumulative sex difference in favor of girls that occurred at ∼6 mo of age and diminished markedly thereafter. We examined whether the predicted differences in age-sex patterns were observed in the village, replicated the examination nationally for indigenous children, and examined whether the pattern in nonindigenous children was different. Ethnographic interviews (n = 24) in an indigenous village were conducted. Anthropometric measurements of the village children aged 0-35 mo (n = 119) were obtained. National-level growth patterns were analyzed for indigenous (n = 969) and nonindigenous (n = 1374) children aged 0-35 mo with the use of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. Mothers reported that, compared with female infants, male infants were hungrier, were not as satisfied with breastfeeding alone, and required earlier complementary feeding. An anthropometric analysis confirmed the prediction of healthier growth in indigenous girls than in indigenous boys throughout the first year of life, which resulted in a 2.98-cm height-for-age difference (HAD) between sexes in the village and a 1.61-cm HAD (P differences diminished in the second year of life (P differences in the HAD that first favor girls and then favor boys in the indigenous growth patterns are due to feeding patterns on the basis of gendered cultural perceptions. Circumstances that result in differential sex growth patterns need to be elucidated, in particular the favorable growth in girls in the first year of life. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Two different in vitro growth patterns for erythroid precursors in 18 patients with pure erythrocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, S.; Eberlin, A.; Najean, Y.; Chedeville, A.

    1982-01-01

    Growth patterns of marrow and blood erythroid progenitors were studied in 18 cases of pure erythrocytosis using different doses of erythropoietin. 8 cases demonstrated ''spontaneous'' growth of CFU-E and blood BFU-E as observed in myeloproliferative disorders, but without an excess of circulating CFU-GM. 3 of these patients also had other symptoms of a pan-myelopathy. All these cases showed good sensitivity to 32 P myelo-suppression. 10 cases demonstrated growth patterns of erythroid progenitors similar to those observed in normal subjects, except for an excess of blood BFU-E, which suggests an abnormality of homeostatic regulation. In 5 of these cases, myelo-suppression was not effective. It is suggested that a stem cell study could differentiate patients with pure erythrocytosis due to ''autonomous'' abnormal stem cell growth from cases due to abnormal regulation factors, and that such a discrimination might be usefull for the choice of theraphy. (authors)

  19. High yield growth of patterned vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using inkjet-printed catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, James D; Stringer, Jonathan; Ghita, Oana R; Smith, Patrick J

    2013-10-09

    This study reports on the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes localized at specific sites on a growth substrate by deposition of a nanoparticle suspension using inkjet printing. Carbon nanotubes were grown with high yield as vertically aligned forests to a length of approximately 400 μm. The use of inkjet printing for catalyst fabrication considerably improves the production rate of vertically aligned patterned nanotube forests compared with conventional patterning techniques, for example, electron beam lithography or photolithography.

  20. Invasive growth patterns of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: radiological imaging and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Anna; Szymański, Marcin; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign lesion with locally aggressive nature. Knowledge of its typical growth patterns is crucial for precise preoperative staging and adequate preoperative patient counseling. This pictorial essay focuses on characteristic radiological features and paths of invasive growth of this rare tumor. Also, the impact of accurate preoperative evaluation of tumor extensions on surgical planning and results of treatment are discussed. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Early growth of tumour cells in lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poll, P.H.A.

    1981-01-01

    As the treatment of metastases is a very important problem in human and veterinary medicine (for instance osteosarcoma is notorious for its high deathrate due to this problem), proof was sought for the hypothesis that the doubling time of early metastases is shorter than that of tumor cells of an older age. This is of fundamental importance for the therapeutic problem: is a favourable effect to be expected from a limited dose of radiation on the lungs when metastases are still very small or even invisible. If the hypothesis holds true, it would be justified to treat patients, even though a small group of patients will be treated unnecessarily; clinical experience shows that some patients have not developed metastases without adjuvant treatment. The interest was directed at the very early (1-cell, 2-cell etc.) stages. Obviously these are not detectable in patients and therefore an experimental study with tumourcells in the lungs of mice was devised. The expectation is that the theoretical approach may produce an additional basis for the radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic treatment of patients, in whom the tumourload has been diminished by treatment of the primary tumour but where metastases, although frequently not detectable must be expected. (Auth.)

  2. Histological and allometric growth analysis of eye in Caspian kutum, Rutilus kutum Kamensky, 1901 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae during early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Hasanpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish larvae have several sensory systems that are functional at or soon after hatching and then are developed further during larval and juvenile stages. This study was conducted to investigate development of the eye in Rutilus kutum, based on histological and allometric growth analysis during early developmental stages up to 35 day post hatching with emphasis on retinal morphology. For this purpose, the histological sections were prepared and allometric growth pattern of the eye was calculated. The results showed that the most eye’s structures along with the retina of the newly hatched larvae, as the inner sensory (photosensitive tissue were completely differentiated. Allometric growth pattern of the eye diameter up to the inflexion point (7 dph was somewhat positive and then it became negative. The results revealed that the Caspian kutum is dependence on visual capability as visual feeder during their larval period which itself explains completion of eye structures and the high growth rate of eye before 3 dph i.e. beginning of mixed feeding.

  3. Quantifying urban growth patterns in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes and time series spatial metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Duong H; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Miura, Tomoaki; Fox, Jefferson M

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory. We analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the built-up land in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes, spatial metrics, and a gradient approach. Urbanization was most pronounced in the periods of 2001-2006 and 2006-2010 at a distance of 10 to 35 km around the urban center. Over the 17 year period urban expansion in Hanoi was dominated by infilling and edge expansion growth modes. Our findings support the diffusion-coalescence theory of urbanization. The shift of the urban growth areas over time and the dynamic nature of the spatial metrics revealed important information about our understanding of the urban growth process and cycle. Furthermore, our findings can be used to evaluate urban planning policies and aid in urbanization issues in rapidly urbanizing countries.

  4. Quantifying urban growth patterns in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes and time series spatial metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Miura, Tomoaki; Fox, Jefferson M.

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory. We analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the built-up land in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes, spatial metrics, and a gradient approach. Urbanization was most pronounced in the periods of 2001–2006 and 2006–2010 at a distance of 10 to 35 km around the urban center. Over the 17 year period urban expansion in Hanoi was dominated by infilling and edge expansion growth modes. Our findings support the diffusion-coalescence theory of urbanization. The shift of the urban growth areas over time and the dynamic nature of the spatial metrics revealed important information about our understanding of the urban growth process and cycle. Furthermore, our findings can be used to evaluate urban planning policies and aid in urbanization issues in rapidly urbanizing countries. PMID:29734346

  5. Early dyadic patterns of mother-infant interactions and outcomes of prematurity at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Borghini, Ayala; Moessinger, Adrien; Muller-Nix, Carole

    2006-07-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental and socioemotional outcomes. The quality of the early mother-infant relationship has been noted as 1 of the factors that may exacerbate or soften the potentially adverse impact of preterm birth, particularly concerning the infant's later competencies and development. The first purpose of the study was to identify at 6 months of corrected age whether there were specific dyadic mother-infant patterns of interaction in preterm as compared with term mother-infant dyads. The second purpose was to examine the potential impact of these dyadic patterns on the infant's behavioral and developmental outcomes at 18 months of corrected age. During a 12-month period (January-December 1998), all preterm infants who were compliance, difficult, and passivity). At 18 months, behavioral outcomes of the children were assessed on the basis of a semistructured interview of the mother, the Symptom Check List. The Symptom Check List explores 4 groups of behavioral symptoms: sleeping problems, eating problems, psychosomatic symptoms, and behavioral and emotional disorders. At the same age, developmental outcomes were evaluated using the Griffiths Developmental Scales. Five areas were evaluated: locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, eye-hand coordination, and performance. Among the possible dyadic patterns of interaction, 2 patterns emerge recurrently in mother-infant preterm dyads: a "cooperative pattern" with a sensitive mother and a cooperative-responsive infant (28%) and a "controlling pattern" with a controlling mother and a compulsive-compliant infant (28%). The remaining 44% form a heterogeneous group that gathers all of the other preterm dyads and is composed of 1 sensitive mother-passive infant; 10 controlling mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant; and 10 unresponsive mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant. Among the term control

  6. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  7. Perinatal programming of childhood asthma: early fetal size, growth trajectory during infancy, and childhood asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The "fetal origins hypothesis" or concept of "developmental programming" suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  8. Temperature-Driven Change in the Unstable Growth Mode on Patterned GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadayyon-Eslami, T.; Phaneuf, R. J.; Kan, H.-C.; Calhoun, L. C.

    2006-01-01

    We observe a dramatic change in the unstable growth mode during GaAs molecular beam epitaxy on patterned GaAs(001) as the temperature is lowered through approximately 540 deg. C, roughly coincident with the preroughening temperature. Observations of the As 2 flux dependence, however, rule out thermodynamic preroughening as driving the growth mode change. Similar observations rule out the change in surface reconstruction as the cause. Instead, we find evidence that the change in the unstable growth mode can be explained by a competition between the decreased adatom collection rate on small terraces and a small anisotropic barrier to adatom diffusion downward across step bunches

  9. Quantitative Folding Pattern Analysis of Early Primary Sulci in Human Fetuses with Brain Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K; Guimaraes, A; Kim, Y; Cottrill, E; Gagoski, B; Rollins, C; Ortinau, C; Yang, E; Grant, P E

    2017-07-01

    Aberrant gyral folding is a key feature in the diagnosis of many cerebral malformations. However, in fetal life, it is particularly challenging to confidently diagnose aberrant folding because of the rapid spatiotemporal changes of gyral development. Currently, there is no resource to measure how an individual fetal brain compares with normal spatiotemporal variations. In this study, we assessed the potential for automatic analysis of early sulcal patterns to detect individual fetal brains with cerebral abnormalities. Triplane MR images were aligned to create a motion-corrected volume for each individual fetal brain, and cortical plate surfaces were extracted. Sulcal basins were automatically identified on the cortical plate surface and compared with a combined set generated from 9 normal fetal brain templates. Sulcal pattern similarities to the templates were quantified by using multivariate geometric features and intersulcal relationships for 14 normal fetal brains and 5 fetal brains that were proved to be abnormal on postnatal MR imaging. Results were compared with the gyrification index. Significantly reduced sulcal pattern similarities to normal templates were found in all abnormal individual fetuses compared with normal fetuses (mean similarity [normal, abnormal], left: 0.818, 0.752; P the primary distinguishing features. The gyrification index was not significantly different between the normal and abnormal groups. Automated analysis of interrelated patterning of early primary sulci could outperform the traditional gyrification index and has the potential to quantitatively detect individual fetuses with emerging abnormal sulcal patterns. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Modeling of thin films growth processes in the early stage for atoms with covalent bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupik, V A; Margolin, V I; Su, Chu Trong

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation for obtaining thin film’s growth process at an early stage with the proposed model of atoms with isotropic and anisotropic interactions been considered. Carrying out the procedure for analyzing the problem on the basis of the program being implemented, computer simulation of thin film growth processes has been carried out on several examples. The results of computer simulation of the growth process of thin film on a given substrate and an aggregate in a vacuum condition are shown. Some characteristic distributions of the obtained structure have been carried out to evaluate the proposed adequate model and to reflect the high complexity of thin films growth process. (paper)

  11. Referral patterns of children with poor growth in primary health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, F.K.; Oostdijk, W.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Dekker, F.W.; Dommelen, P. van; Buuren, S. van; Lodder-van der Kooij, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background. To promote early diagnosis and treatment of short stature, consensus meetings were held in the mid nineteen nineties in the Netherlands and the UK. This resulted in guidelines for referral. In this study we evaluate the referral pattern of short stature in primary health care using these

  12. The association between growth factors and blood factors with early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Shamsaddin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Early childhood caries (ECC is a specific form of rampant dental caries affecting infants and young children. ECC is still a problem that threatens the health of the community and its management is important. It is believed that the majorities of children with ECC also suffer from malnutrition, anemia, low weight and altered physical growth patterns. This study was undertaken to compare blood indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin] in a population of children in Kerman, Iran, and the association between growth factors, blood parameters, and ECC. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 240 children were selected from Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman. The subjects consisted of 2 to 6-year children, who needed blood sampling for different diagnostic reasons. Data were collected through clinical oral examinations, anthropometric measures, blood indices measurement (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin and structured questionnaire in order to assess demographic characteristics, nutritional habits and the presence or absence of systemic conditions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 50.79 months. Of 240 children included in this study, 124 (52.1% were girls and the rest (47.9% were boys. Statistical test revealed that there were statically significant differences in weight as well as the height of children in experimental and control groups (P 0.050. CONCLUSION: No significant association was observed between ECC and blood indices (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin, but the mean height and weight in the caries-free group were significantly higher.

  13. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  14. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High dose progesterone effects the growth of early chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Qamar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of high dose progesterone on the development of early chick embryo. Study Design: Lab based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in Army Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Poultry Sciences, Rawalpindi from June 2010 - December 2010. Material and Methods: Forty five specific pathogen free, fertile, eggs of Fyoumi species of chick were selected at zero hour of incubation. They were incubated at 37.5oC and 75% relative humidity for 26 hrs until the embryos reached stage 8 of the development. Then on stage 8 the eggs were divided into three groups consisting of 15 eggs per group. The first group (GI) was incubated without any operation. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were injected with two and twenty times more than physiologic does of progesterone respectively. After 48 hours of incvbation, all embryos were examined for their development under light microscopy. Results: All the embryos of G1 and G2 showed normal development according to their stage of development, while 4 out of 11 embryos of G3 were under developed and their survival rate was also less. Conclusion: Exogenous progesterone at levels twenty times above its physiologic range effects the development of chick embryos. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this effect. (author)

  16. Patterns of Geographic Synchrony in Growth and Reproduction of Oaks Within California and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter D. Koenig; Johannes M.H. Knops

    1997-01-01

    We measured patterns of spatial synchrony in growth and reproduction by oaks using direct acorn surveys, published data on acorn production, and tree-ring chronologies. The two data sets involving acorn production both indicate that acorn crops are detectably synchronous over areas of at least 500 to 1,000 km not only within individual species but among species that...

  17. A Study on the Feeding and Growth Patterns of the Variegated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding and growth patterns of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L) were studied in the laboratory to ascertain the amount of food intake, food assimilated and faeces excreted by its nymph and adult stages on a mixed diet of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaves.

  18. Patterns of Manufacturing Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Colonization to the Present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austin, G.; Frankema, E.H.P.; Jerven, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the ‘long twentieth-century’ development of ‘modern’manufacturing in Sub-Saharan Africa from colonization to the present. We argue thatclassifying Africa generically as a ‘late industrializer’ is inaccurate. To understand thedistinctively African pattern of manufacturing growth,

  19. Spatio-temporal growth pattern and patronage level of airline travel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the growth pattern of airline travel agencies over a period of forty years across locations in Nigeria as well as the patronage level of agency business. The need for the study arises because of the technological marketing of airline tickets through direct online ticket sales that aims at reducing cost by ...

  20. Size- and food-dependent growth drives patterns of competitive dominance along productivity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, M.; Gårdmark, A.; van Leeuwen, A.; de Roos, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of coexistence among competing species exhibiting size- and food-dependent growth remain largely unexplored. Here we studied mechanisms behind coexistence and shifts in competitive dominance in a size-structured fish guild, representing sprat and herring stocks in the Baltic Sea, using a

  1. Growth pattern of preterm and IUGR babies in an urban slum of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to analyze the growth pattern of preterm and IUGR infants from birth up to nine months of age. A longitudinal study was conducted in an urban slum of Chetla, Kolkata, India. Study population comprised of 36 low birth weight babies, out of which 13 were preterms and rest 23 were IUGR ...

  2. Plant growth patterns in a tripartite strip relay intercrop are shaped by asymmetric aboveground competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Gou, Fang; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; Werf, van der Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2017-01-01

    Intercropping is a promising model for ecological intensification of modern agriculture. Little information is available on how species growth patterns are affected by size-asymmetric above- and belowground competitive interactions, especially in intercrops with more than two species. We studied

  3. Catch-up growth in early treated patients with growth hormone deficiency. Dutch Growth Hormone Working Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, B; Rikken, B; Wit, J M

    1995-01-01

    Catch-up growth of 26 children with growth hormone deficiency during four years of growth hormone treatment, which was started young (< 3 years), was compared with that of 16 children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet. In children with growth hormone deficiency mean (SD) height SD score increased from -4.3 (1.8) to -1.9 (1.4) and in patients with coeliac disease from -1.8 (0.9) to -0.1 (0.8). Height SD score after four years correlated positively with injection frequency and height S...

  4. An EKC-pattern in historical perspective. Carbon dioxide emissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden 1870-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Magnus [Department of Economic History, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been subject to research and debate since the early 1990s. This article examines the inverted-U trajectory of Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions during an extended time period beginning in 1870. The basis for the investigation is a structural time series approach that utilizes a stochastic trend as an indicator of technological and structural change, and GDP growth and changes in the price of fuel and cement price as independent variables. Finally, the development of technological and structural change with respect to CO{sub 2} emissions is interpreted within the context of growth regimes. The result suggests that the period 1920-1960, with high, sustained growth rates was associated with less technological and structural changes relating to CO{sub 2} emissions than periods with lower growth rates, such as the late 1800s and the post-1970 period. Furthermore, it is suggested that time-specific technological clusters may affect EKC patterns.

  5. Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2011-02-01

    As in industrial and engineering systems, there is a need to quantitatively study and analyze the many constituents of complex natural biological systems as well as agro-ecosystems via research-based mechanistic modeling. This objective is normally addressed by developing mathematically built descriptions of multilevel biological processes to provide biologists a means to integrate quantitatively experimental research findings that might lead to a better understanding of the whole systems and their interactions with surrounding environments. Aided with the power of computational capacities associated with computer technology then available, pioneering cropping systems simulations took place in the second half of the 20th century by several research groups across continents. This overview summarizes that initial pioneering effort made to simulate plant growth and photosynthesis of crop canopies, focusing on the discovery of gaps that exist in the current scientific knowledge. Examples are given for those gaps where experimental research was needed to improve the validity and application of the constructed models, so that their benefit to mankind was enhanced. Such research necessitates close collaboration among experimentalists and model builders while adopting a multidisciplinary/inter-institutional approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MRI growth patterns of plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautner, V.F.; Hartmann, M.; Kluwe, L.; Friedrich, R.E. [University Hospital Eppendorf, Section for Phakomatoses, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Fuensterer, C. [MRI Institute Hamburg-Othmarschen, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with an incidence of 1:3000. Approximately 30% of NF1 patients develop plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) which often cause severe clinical deficits. We studied the growth patterns of 256 plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and associated disfigurement and functional deficits to determine whether there are definable growth types of these tumors. Retrospectively, we evaluated MRI scans obtained during 1997 to 2003 of 256 plexiform neurofibromas from 202 patients with NF1. Clinical investigation was carried out at the same time as the MRI scans. We identified three growth patterns: superficial in 59, displacing in 76, and invasive growth in 121 tumors. The majority (52%) of invasive PNF were found in the face, head and neck area. While superficial PNF primarily caused aesthetic problems, displacing PNF led in most cases to aesthetic problems and pain, while invasive PNF led mainly to functional deficits and disfigurement. Our study demonstrates that PNF have different growth patterns that are associated with specific clinical features. Classification of PNF may open new opportunities in clinical management, especially regarding decisions and options associated with surgical intervention. (orig.)

  7. Early Obstacle Detection and Avoidance for All to All Traffic Pattern in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, Florian; Jarry, Aubin; Leone, Pierre; Moraru, Luminita; Nikoletseas, Sotiris; Rolim, Jose

    This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a constant factor of 2π + 1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

  8. An Adolescent and Early Adulthood Dietary Pattern Associated with Inflammation and the Incidence of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Willett, Walter C; Vaidya, Rita L; Michels, Karin B

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence is a highly susceptible period for mammary carcinogenesis, but few prospective studies have examined the role of adolescent diet in breast cancer risk. Reduced rank regression has previously been used to identify a dietary pattern associated with markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, IL6, and TNFα receptor 2). We investigated whether an adolescent and early adulthood inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with breast cancer among 45,204 women in the Nurses' Health Study II using reduced rank regression. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1998 about their high school diet (HS-FFQ) and a FFQ in 1991 when they were ages 27-44 years. Among women who completed the HS-FFQ, 1,477 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed during 22 years of follow-up. An adolescent and early adulthood dietary pattern characterized by inflammation was associated with an increased incidence of premenopausal but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Women in the fifth quintile of the inflammatory pattern score had multivariable adjusted HRs for premenopausal breast cancer of 1.35 for adolescent diet [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.06-1.73; P trend = 0.002] and 1.41 for early adulthood diet (95% CI, 1.11-1.78; P trend = 0.006) compared with women in the first quintile. The corresponding RRs for postmenopausal breast cancer were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.60-1.17) for adolescent and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.54-1.06) for adult intake. Overall, our findings support the notion that an adolescent and early adulthood diet characterized by high intake of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drinks, refined grains, red and processed meat, and margarine, and low intake of green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and coffee may increase the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1179-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Stimulation effect of early growth in crops by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Song, H.S.; Kim, J.K.; Lee, Y.K.; Lee, Y.B.

    1998-01-01

    Germination rate and early growth in crop such as rice,soybean,and perilla were observed after irradiation of γ-ray (Co-60) in order to determine the effects of low does radiation. The low dose radiation was able to improve the early growth in crops and their agricultural characters. Germination rate of 2Gy-irradiatied rice seeds was high and also were seeding height and fresh weight of the 0.5 Gy-irradiated. Germination rate and early growth of soybean were high in 4Gy-irradiated group. Perilla gew of so promisingly after after low dose irradiation, however there slightly increasing effects on germination rate, seeding height and fresh weight at 2Gt-, 1Gy-, and 1Gy irradiated group, respectively. (author)

  10. Early and Late Recurrent Epistaxis Admissions: Patterns of Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Warman, Meir; Tzelnick, Sharon; Haimovich, Yaara; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Halperin, Doron; Lahav, Yonatan

    2017-09-01

    Objective Epistaxis is a common complaint, yet few studies have focused on the incidence and risk factors of recurrent epistaxis. Our objective was to determine the patterns of incidence and risk factors for recurrent epistaxis admission (REA). Study Design Case series with chart review. Settings Single academic center. Subjects and Methods The medical records of patients admitted for epistaxis between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. The follow-up period was defined as 3 years following initial admission. REAs were categorized as early (30 days) and late (31 days to 3 years) following initial admission. Logistic regression was used to identify potential predictors of REAs. Results A total of 653 patients were included. Eighty-six patients (14%) had REAs: 48 (7.5%) early and 38 (6.5%) late. Nonlinear incidence curve was demonstrated for both early and late REAs. Based on logistic regression, prior nasal surgery and anemia were independent risk factors for early REAs. According to multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with late REAs. Conclusion Early and late REAs demonstrate different risk predictors. Knowledge of such risk factors may help in risk stratification for this selected group of patients. All patients at risk should be advised on possible preventive measures. Patients at risk for early REA may benefit from a more proactive approach.

  11. Patterns of Early Rejection in Renal Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that kidney retransplant patients had high rates of early acute rejection due to previous sensitization. In addition to the acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR that has received widespread attention, the early acute T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR may be another important issue in renal retransplantation. In the current single-center retrospective study, we included 33 retransplant patients and 90 first transplant patients with similar protocols of induction and maintenance therapy. Analysis focused particularly on the incidence and patterns of early acute rejection episodes, as well as one-year graft and patient survival. Excellent short-term clinical outcomes were obtained in both groups, with one-year graft and patient survival rates of 93.9%/100% in the retransplant group and 92.2%/95.6% in the first transplant group. Impressively, with our strict immunological selection and desensitization criteria, the retransplant patients had a very low incidence of early acute ABMR (6.1%, which was similar to that in the first transplant patients (4.4%. However, a much higher rate of early acute TCMR was observed in the retransplant group than in the first transplant group (30.3% versus 5.6%, P<0.001. Acute TCMR that develops early after retransplantation should be monitored in order to obtain better transplant outcomes.

  12. Anteroposterior axis patterning by early canonical Wnt signaling during hemichordate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Sébastien; Fritzenwanker, Jens H.; Uhlinger, Kevin R.; Farrelly, Ellyn; Pani, Ariel M.; Hurley, Imogen A.; Norris, Rachael P.; Osovitz, Michelle; Terasaki, Mark; Wu, Mike; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Kirschner, Marc; Gerhart, John C.

    2018-01-01

    The Wnt family of secreted proteins has been proposed to play a conserved role in early specification of the bilaterian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. This hypothesis is based predominantly on data from vertebrate embryogenesis as well as planarian regeneration and homeostasis, indicating that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling endows cells with positional information along the A/P axis. Outside of these phyla, there is strong support for a conserved role of cWnt signaling in the repression of anterior fates, but little comparative support for a conserved role in promotion of posterior fates. We further test the hypothesis by investigating the role of cWnt signaling during early patterning along the A/P axis of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. We have cloned and investigated the expression of the complete Wnt ligand and Frizzled receptor complement of S. kowalevskii during early development along with many secreted Wnt modifiers. Eleven of the 13 Wnt ligands are ectodermally expressed in overlapping domains, predominantly in the posterior, and Wnt antagonists are localized predominantly to the anterior ectoderm in a pattern reminiscent of their distribution in vertebrate embryos. Overexpression and knockdown experiments, in combination with embryological manipulations, establish the importance of cWnt signaling for repression of anterior fates and activation of mid-axial ectodermal fates during the early development of S. kowalevskii. However, surprisingly, terminal posterior fates, defined by posterior Hox genes, are unresponsive to manipulation of cWnt levels during the early establishment of the A/P axis at late blastula and early gastrula. We establish experimental support for a conserved role of Wnt signaling in the early specification of the A/P axis during deuterostome body plan diversification, and further build support for an ancestral role of this pathway in early evolution of the bilaterian A/P axis. We find strong support for a role of cWnt in

  13. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  14. Food, growth and time: Elsie Widdowson's and Robert McCance's research into prenatal and early postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2014-09-01

    Cambridge scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson are best known for their work on the British food tables and wartime food rations, but it is their research on prenatal and early postnatal growth that is today seen as a foundation of the fields studying the impact of environment upon prenatal development and, consequently, adult disease. In this essay I situate McCance's and Widdowson's 1940s human and 1950s experimental studies in the context of pre-war concerns with fetal growth and development, especially within biochemistry, physiology and agriculture; and the Second World War and post-war focus on the effects of undernutrition during pregnancy upon the fetus. I relate Widdowson's and McCance's research on the long-term effects of early undernutrition to the concern with recovery from early trauma so pertinent in post-war Europe and with sensitive (critical) periods, a concept of high importance across different fields. Finally I discuss how, following a hiatus in which fetal physiology engaged with different questions and stressed fetal autonomy, interest in the impact of environment upon prenatal growth and development revived towards the end of the twentieth century. The new field of "developmental origins of health and disease", I suggest, has provided a context in which Widdowson's and McCance's work has regained importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early parenteral nutrition and growth outcomes in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyses, Helen E; Johnson, Mark J; Leaf, Alison A; Cornelius, Victoria R

    2013-04-01

    The achievement of adequate nutritional intakes in preterm infants is challenging and may explain the poor growth often seen in this group. The use of early parenteral nutrition (PN) is one potential strategy to address this problem, although the benefits and harms are unknown. We determined whether earlier administration of PN benefits growth outcomes in preterm infants. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Eight RCTs and 13 observational studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 553 and 1796 infants). The meta-analysis was limited by disparate growth-outcome measures. An assessment of bias was difficult because of inadequate reporting. Results are given as mean differences (95% CIs). Early PN reduced the time to regain birth weight by 2.2 d (1.1, 3.2 d) for RCTs and 3.2 d (2.0, 4.4 d) in observational studies. The maximum percentage weight loss with early PN was lower by 3.1 percentage points (1.7, 4.5 percentage points) for RCTs and by 3.5 percentage points (2.6, 4.3 percentage points) for observational studies. Early PN improved weight at discharge or 36 wk postmenstrual age by 14.9 g (5.3, 24.5 g) (observational studies only), but no benefit was shown for length or head circumference. There was no evidence that early PN significantly affects risk of mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, chronic lung disease, intraventricular hemorrhage, or cholestasis. The results of this review, although subject to some limitations, show that early PN provides a benefit for some short-term growth outcomes. No evidence that early PN increases morbidity or mortality was found. Neonatal research would benefit from the development of a set of core growth outcome measures.

  16. SELDI-TOF-based serum proteomic pattern diagnostics for early detection of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

    2004-02-01

    Proteomics is more than just generating lists of proteins that increase or decrease in expression as a cause or consequence of pathology. The goal should be to characterize the information flow through the intercellular protein circuitry that communicates with the extracellular microenvironment and then ultimately to the serum/plasma macroenvironment. The nature of this information can be a cause, or a consequence, of disease and toxicity-based processes. Serum proteomic pattern diagnostics is a new type of proteomic platform in which patterns of proteomic signatures from high dimensional mass spectrometry data are used as a diagnostic classifier. This approach has recently shown tremendous promise in the detection of early-stage cancers. The biomarkers found by SELDI-TOF-based pattern recognition analysis are mostly low molecular weight fragments produced at the specific tumor microenvironment.

  17. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  18. Gene expression patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) in human placenta from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentpéteri, Imre; Rab, Attila; Kornya, László; Kovács, Péter; Joó, József Gábor

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe changes in gene expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in human placenta obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction using placenta from normal pregnancies as control. We compared gene expression of VEGF-A in placental samples from Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies versus placenta obtained from normal pregnancies. Among potential confounders, important clinical informations were also analyzed. In the IUGR group, the VEGF-A gene was overexpressed compared to the normal pregnancy group (Ln 2(α)β-actin: 1.32; Ln 2(α)GADPH: 1.56). There was no correlation between the degree of growth restriction and VEGF-A gene expression (Ln 2(α)(0-5)percentile: 0.58; Ln 2(α)(5-10)percentile: 0.64). Within the IUGR group, there was a trend toward a positive correlation between placental VEGF-A gene activity and gestational age at delivery (Ln 2(α) 37 weeks: 1.35). Our findings suggest that the increase in placental expression of the VEGF-A gene and the resultant stimulation of angiogenesis are a response to hypoxic environment developing in the placental tissue in IUGR. Thus, it appears to be a secondary event rather than a primary factor in the development of IUGR There is a trend toward a positive correlation between gestational age and placental VEGF-A gene activity.

  19. Organ involvement in Argentinian systemic sclerosis patients with "late" pattern as compared to patients with "early/active" pattern by nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Claverie, Lucila; Knobel, Elizabeth; Takashima, Lorena; Techera, Lorena; Oliver, Marina; Gonzalez, Paula; Romanini, Félix E; Fonseca, María L; Mamani, Marta N

    2013-06-01

    Changes in nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic sclerosis patients could be related to the disease severity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with "late" scleroderma (SD) pattern have more organ involvement than patients with "early/active" SD pattern. Forty-six Argentinian patients (44 women and 2 men), with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, were distributed in two groups based on the presence of late and early/active patterns. Organ involvement was assessed as follows: pulmonary function by chest radiography, high-resolution chest tomography (HRCT), lung volume tests, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO); esophageal involvement by manometry; and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by Doppler echocardiography and six-minute walk test. Honeycombing of the lungs evaluated by HRCT was more frequently present in patients with late pattern compared with early/active patients (p = 0.01). We also found statistically significant differences in lung volume tests (p = 0.03) and DLCO (p = 0.02) between the two SD pattern groups. Esophageal manometry showed a significantly higher frequency of motility disorders in the group with late pattern (p = 0.0024). In this study, patients with late pattern had higher frequency of pulmonary and esophageal involvement compared with patients with early/active pattern.

  20. Landscape Patterns of Exurban Growth in the USA from 1980 to 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Theobald

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, citizens, policy makers, and natural resource managers alike have become concerned about urban sprawl, both locally and nationally. Most assessments of sprawl, or undesired growth patterns, have focused on quantifying land-use changes in urban and metropolitan areas. It is critical for ecologists to examine and improve understanding of land-use changes beyond the urban fringe - also called exurban sprawl - because of the extensive and widespread changes that are occurring, and which often are located adjacent to or nearby "protected" lands. The primary goal of this paper is to describe the development of a nationwide, fine-grained database of historical, current, and forecasted housing density, which enables these changes to be quantified as a foundation for inference of possible ecological effects. Forecasted patterns were generated by the Spatially Explicit Regional Growth Model, which relates historical growth patterns with accessibility to urban and protected lands. Secondary goals are to report briefly on the status and trend of exurban land-use changes across the U.S., and to introduce a landscape sprawl metric that captures patterns of land-use change. In 2000, there were 125 729 km2 in urban and suburban (

  1. Structural properties of templated Ge quantum dot arrays: impact of growth and pre-pattern parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempeler, J; Danylyuk, S; Brose, S; Loosen, P; Juschkin, L

    2018-07-06

    In this study we analyze the impact of process and growth parameters on the structural properties of germanium (Ge) quantum dot (QD) arrays. The arrays were deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy on pre-patterned silicon (Si) substrates. Periodic arrays of pits with diameters between 120 and 20 nm and pitches ranging from 200 nm down to 40 nm were etched into the substrate prior to growth. The structural perfection of the two-dimensional QD arrays was evaluated based on SEM images. The impact of two processing steps on the directed self-assembly of Ge QD arrays is investigated. First, a thin Si buffer layer grown on a pre-patterned substrate reshapes the pre-pattern pits and determines the nucleation and initial shape of the QDs. Subsequently, the deposition parameters of the Ge define the overall shape and uniformity of the QDs. In particular, the growth temperature and the deposition rate are relevant and need to be optimized according to the design of the pre-pattern. Applying this knowledge, we are able to fabricate regular arrays of pyramid shaped QDs with dot densities up to 7.2 × 10 10 cm -2 .

  2. Effects of early afterdepolarizations on excitation patterns in an accurate model of the human ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Gunnar; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Vandersickel, Nele

    2017-01-01

    Early Afterdepolarizations, EADs, are defined as the reversal of the action potential before completion of the repolarization phase, which can result in ectopic beats. However, the series of mechanisms of EADs leading to these ectopic beats and related cardiac arrhythmias are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of this single cell behavior on the whole heart level. For this study we used a modified version of the Ten Tusscher-Panfilov model of human ventricular cells (TP06) which we implemented in a 3D ventricle model including realistic fiber orientations. To increase the likelihood of EAD formation at the single cell level, we reduced the repolarization reserve (RR) by reducing the rapid delayed rectifier Potassium current and raising the L-type Calcium current. Varying these parameters defined a 2D parametric space where different excitation patterns could be classified. Depending on the initial conditions, by either exciting the ventricles with a spiral formation or burst pacing protocol, we found multiple different spatio-temporal excitation patterns. The spiral formation protocol resulted in the categorization of a stable spiral (S), a meandering spiral (MS), a spiral break-up regime (SB), spiral fibrillation type B (B), spiral fibrillation type A (A) and an oscillatory excitation type (O). The last three patterns are a 3D generalization of previously found patterns in 2D. First, the spiral fibrillation type B showed waves determined by a chaotic bi-excitable regime, i.e. mediated by both Sodium and Calcium waves at the same time and in same tissue settings. In the parameter region governed by the B pattern, single cells were able to repolarize completely and different (spiral) waves chaotically burst into each other without finishing a 360 degree rotation. Second, spiral fibrillation type A patterns consisted of multiple small rotating spirals. Single cells failed to repolarize to the resting membrane potential hence

  3. Growth is required for perception of water availability to pattern root branches in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E; Dinneny, José R

    2018-01-23

    Water availability is a potent regulator of plant development and induces root branching through a process termed hydropatterning. Hydropatterning enables roots to position lateral branches toward regions of high water availability, such as wet soil or agar media, while preventing their emergence where water is less available, such as in air. The mechanism by which roots perceive the spatial distribution of water during hydropatterning is unknown. Using primary roots of Zea mays (maize) we reveal that developmental competence for hydropatterning is limited to the growth zone of the root tip. Past work has shown that growth generates gradients in water potential across an organ when asymmetries exist in the distribution of available water. Using mathematical modeling, we predict that substantial growth-sustained water potential gradients are also generated in the hydropatterning competent zone and that such biophysical cues inform the patterning of lateral roots. Using diverse chemical and environmental treatments we experimentally demonstrate that growth is necessary for normal hydropatterning of lateral roots. Transcriptomic characterization of the local response of tissues to a moist surface or air revealed extensive regulation of signaling and physiological pathways, some of which we show are growth-dependent. Our work supports a "sense-by-growth" mechanism governing hydropatterning, by which water availability cues are rendered interpretable through growth-sustained water movement. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Growth and Pattern of Women’s Studies in Malaysia as Reflected by Generated Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zainab, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    The study uses research-based resources listed in two published bibliographies on “Women in development in Malaysia” produced between the pre 1970 years and 2004 to describe the growth and pattern of women’s studies in Malaysia. A total 4037 resources formed the basis of the study. Bibliometric measure are used to indicate the annual growth of literature over the periods, the preferred publication channels used by the authors, the subject areas of research interests, the active authors and th...

  5. Germanium growth on electron beam lithography patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subhendu Sinha; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Sarkar, Arijit; Dhar, Achintya; Rudra, Arun; Khatri, Ravinder K.; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    It is important to investigate the growth dynamics of Ge adatoms under different surface stress regimes of the patterned dielectric to control the selective growth of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on silicon. In the present work, we have studied the growth of Ge by molecular beam epitaxy on nanometer scale patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrates generated using electron beam lithography. The pitch of the patterns has been varied to investigate its effect on the growth of Ge in comparison to un-patterned Si3N4. For the patterned Si3N4 film, Ge did not desorbed completely from the Si3N4 film and hence no site selective growth pattern is observed. Instead, depending upon the pitch, Ge growth has occurred in different growth modes around the openings in the Si3N4. For the un-patterned substrate, the morphology exhibits the occurrence of uniform 3D clustering of Ge adatoms on Si3N4 film. This variation in the growth modes of Ge is attributed to the variation of residual stress in the Si3N4 film for different pitch of holes, which has been confirmed theoretically through Comsol Multiphysics simulation. The variation in stress for different pitches resulted in modulation of surface energy of the Si3N4 film leading to the different growth modes of Ge.

  6. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O 2 , 6 h; postnatal day 7 , P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight ( P controls and was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of mouse GH ( P controls. In addition, rhGH treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Prediction of rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns and seizures on continuous EEG with early epileptiform discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, J; Herta, J; Draschtak, S; Pötzl, G; Pirker, S; Fürbass, F; Hartmann, M; Kluge, T; Baumgartner, C

    2015-08-01

    Continuous EEG (cEEG) is necessary to document nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), as well as rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' (RPPIIU) including periodic discharges, rhythmic delta activity, and spike-and-wave complexes in neurological intensive care patients. However, cEEG is associated with significant recording and analysis efforts. Therefore, predictors from short-term routine EEG with a reasonably high yield are urgently needed in order to select patients for evaluation with cEEG. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of early epileptiform discharges (i.e., within the first 30 min of EEG recording) on the following: (1) incidence of ictal EEG patterns and RPPIIU on subsequent cEEG, (2) occurrence of acute convulsive seizures during the ICU stay, and (3) functional outcome after 6 months of follow-up. We conducted a separate analysis of the first 30 min and the remaining segments of prospective cEEG recordings according to the ACNS Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology as well as NCS criteria and review of clinical data of 32 neurological critical care patients. In 17 patients with epileptiform discharges within the first 30 min of EEG (group 1), electrographic seizures were observed in 23.5% (n = 4), rhythmic or periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' in 64.7% (n = 11), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 11.8% (n = 2). In 15 patients with no epileptiform discharges in the first 30 min of EEG (group 2), no electrographic seizures were recorded on subsequent cEEG, RPPIIU were seen in 26.7% (n = 4), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 73.3% (n = 11). The incidence of EEG patterns on cEEG was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.008). Patients with early epileptiform discharges developed acute seizures more frequently than patients without early epileptiform discharges (p = 0.009). Finally, functional

  8. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  9. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlon Ronald A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdhex4/5 huntingtin deficient embryos. Results In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0–7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE are specified. Conclusion Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in

  10. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh) impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Juliana M; Calzonetti, Teresa; Hilditch-Maguire, Paige; Duyao, Mabel P; Conlon, Ronald A; MacDonald, Marcy E

    2005-08-18

    Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdh(ex4/5) huntingtin deficient embryos. In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0-7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury) and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) are specified. Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in Huntington's disease.

  11. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  12. Early development and growth of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybnikár, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Mareš, J.; Cileček, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2011), s. 217-225 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : early ontogeny * specific growth rate * length-weight relationship * factor of weight condition Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.mendelu.cz/dok_server/slozka.pl?id=51329;download=82072

  13. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass

  14. Early Childhood Memory and Attention as Predictors of Academic Growth Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipek, Deborah; Valentino, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to assess how well measures of short-term and working memory and attention in early childhood predicted longitudinal growth trajectories in mathematics and reading comprehension. Analyses also examined whether changes in memory and attention were more…

  15. The Groove of Growth: How Early Gains in Math Ability Influence Adolescent Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…

  16. Effect of drought stress on early growth of Adansonia digitata (L.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought and high temperatures are said to have triggered increased tree mortality and could be linked to the menace of climate change. This research therefore investigated the effect of drought stress on early growth of Adansonia digitata where seedlings were exposed to different watering frequencies (Once daily, after 3, ...

  17. Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination, early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and some physiological characteristics were evaluated for four cauliflower species in seven treatments of salinity including 0 (control), 34, 68, 102, 136, 170 and 204 mM NaCl in a three replicated randomized completely block design (RCBD). This result shows ...

  18. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  19. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  20. Divergence in Patterns of Leaf Growth Polarity Is Associated with the Expression Divergence of miR396.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Mainak; Nath, Utpal

    2015-10-01

    Lateral appendages often show allometric growth with a specific growth polarity along the proximo-distal axis. Studies on leaf growth in model plants have identified a basipetal growth direction with the highest growth rate at the proximal end and progressively lower rates toward the distal end. Although the molecular mechanisms governing such a growth pattern have been studied recently, variation in leaf growth polarity and, therefore, its evolutionary origin remain unknown. By surveying 75 eudicot species, here we report that leaf growth polarity is divergent. Leaf growth in the proximo-distal axis is polar, with more growth arising from either the proximal or the distal end; dispersed with no apparent polarity; or bidirectional, with more growth contributed by the central region and less growth at either end. We further demonstrate that the expression gradient of the miR396-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR module strongly correlates with the polarity of leaf growth. Altering the endogenous pattern of miR396 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana leaves only partially modified the spatial pattern of cell expansion, suggesting that the diverse growth polarities might have evolved via concerted changes in multiple gene regulatory networks. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend trend > 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  2. Growth specificity of vertical ZnO nanorods on patterned seeded substrates through integrated chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Maniam, S.M. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sundaramurthy, J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Arokiaraj, J. [3M R and D Center (Singapore); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Rajarathnam, D. [CERAR, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA-5095 (Australia); Srinivasan, M.P. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Jian, L.K. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple integrated chemical process was adopted for specific ZnO nanorod growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size and orientation of nanorods are well controlled by optimum reaction time and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different site-selective ZnO nanorod growths are demonstrated. - Abstract: A simple and cost effective method has been employed for the random growth and oriented ZnO nanorod arrays over as-prepared and patterned seeded glass substrates by low temperature two step growth process and growth specificity by direct laser writing (DLW) process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction analysis confirm the growth of vertical ZnO nanorods with perfect (0 0 2) orientation along c-axis which is in conjunction with optimizing the parameters at different reaction times and temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the formation of vertical ZnO nanorods with diameter and length of {approx}120 nm and {approx}400 nm respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies show a narrow emission at {approx}385 nm and a broad visible emission from 450 to 600 nm. Further, site-selective ZnO nanorod growth is demonstrated for its high degree of control over size, orientation, uniformity, and periodicity on a positive photoresist ZnO seed layer by simple geometrical (line, circle and ring) patterns of 10 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m dimensions. The demonstrated control over size, orientation and periodicity of ZnO nanorods process opens up an opportunity to develop multifunctional properties which promises their potential applications in sensor, piezoelectric, and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Patterns in professional growth of science teachers involved in a team-based PD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    and learning and subsequent discussion of this material. Repeated interviews were analyzed using an adapted version of the interconnected model of teachers’ professional growth. The results show various ways of experimenting with new approaches to be important for three of the teachers while a novice teacher...... the participants refer to. Conclusion is that there are professional growth patterns, especially a pattern involving experimenting, which have a forward-pointing potential to be used to inform school based PD. The results implicate that the same PD project can frame experimenting into practice in various tempi...... and with differentiated facilitation aligned to the individual teacher’s current needs and that external support of science resource teachers can be an integrated part of school based PD....

  4. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  5. Investigation of the growth patterns of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas using volumetric assessments on serial MRI investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Pieterse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA often cause mass effect on the optic chiasm necessitating transsphenoidal surgery to prevent blindness.However, surgery is complicated and there is a high tumour recurrence rate. Currently, very little is known about the natural (and residual post-surgical growth patterns of these NFMA. Conflicting data describe decreased growth to exponential growth over various time periods.Due to lack of information on growth dynamics of these NFMA, suitable follow-up imaging protocols have not been described to date. Objective: To determine if NFMA grow or stay quiescent over a time period using serial MRI investigations and a stereo logical method to determine tumour volume. In addition, to evaluate if NFMA adhere to a certain growth pattern or grow at random. Method: Thirteen patients with NFMA had serial MRI investigations over a 73-month period at the Universitas Academic Hospital. Six of the selected patients had undergone previous surgery, while seven patients had received no medical or surgical intervention. By using astereological method, tumour volumes were calculated and plotted over time to demonstrate growth curves. The data were then fitted to tumour growth models already described in literature in order to obtain the best fit by calculating the r2 value. Results: Positive tumour growth was demonstrated in all cases. Tumour growth patterns of nine patients best fitted the exponential growth curve while the growth patterns of three patients best fitted the logistic growth curve. The remaining patient demonstrated a linear growth pattern. Conclusion: A specific growth model best described tumour growth observed in non-surgical and surgical cases. If follow-up imaging confirms positive growth, future growth can be predicted by extrapolation. This information can then be used to determine the relevant follow-up-imaging interval in each individual patient.

  6. Growth, employment patterns and inequality in Asia a case study of India

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar, C. P; Ghosh, Jayati

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that economic inequalities in India have been driven by employment patterns and changes in labour markets, which in turn have been affected by macroeconomic policies and processes as well as forms of social discrimination and exclusion. While many Asian economies have shown indications of rising inequality in recent decades, the Indian experience is particularly remarkable in the way inequalities have intertwined with the economic growth process. Structural change (or the re...

  7. Simplified procedure for patterned growth of nanocrystalline diamond micro-structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Ledinský, Martin; Hruška, Karel; Potměšil, Jiří; Vaněček, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 518, č. 1 (2009), s. 343-347 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * Raman spectroscopy * nanocrystalline diamond * selective diamond growth * seed layer * patterning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.727, year: 2009

  8. Pattern of growth and 14C-assimilates distributions in relation to photosynthesis in radish plants treated with growth substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of radish plants, with very thin hypocotyl and with a normal storage organ, the rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and dark respiration did not differ. Therefore, the conclusion may be advanced, that translocation to the swollen hypocotyl is not determinated by the photosynthetic productivity, but rather the by storage capacity. To check it this is connected with an unbalanced hormonal content, plants were treated with lanoline paste, with IAA, GA3, zeatin and all three in mixture or with injections of GA3-water solution into the swollen hypocotyl. In young radish plants, with high rate of growth of aerial parts, treatment with the above mentioned substances stimulated 14CO2-assimilation and increased retention of assimilates in 14C-donors, probably owing to retardation of their senescence. It increased the competition for photosynthates between shoot and storage organ. In older plants, in the stage of accumulation of nutrients in the swollen hypocotyl, IAA +GA3+zeatin did not affect 14CO2-assimilation, but in plants treated with growth regulators separately, assimilation decreased; IAA and GA3 stimulated transport and accumulation of labelled substances in the swollen hypocotyl. On the basis of experimental data the conclusion may be advanced that responsiveness of the particular organs and processes to growth regulators depends on the stage of plant development. Phytohormone did not changed quantitatively the pattern of 14C-assimilates distribution. They stimulated processes with preference for particular stages of development.

  9. Unravelling variation in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns among pigs using an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Iris J M M; de Boer, Imke J M; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Bokkers, Eddie A M

    2018-07-01

    Domesticated pigs, Sus scrofa, vary considerably in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns. This variation originates partly from genetic variation that affects physiological factors and partly from behavioural strategies (avoid or approach) in competitive food resource situations. Currently, it is unknown how variation in physiological factors and in behavioural strategies among animals contributes to variation in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns in animals. The aim of this study was to unravel causation of variation in these patterns among pigs. We used an agent-based model to explore the effects of physiological factors and behavioural strategies in pigs on variation in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns. Model results show that variation in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns are caused partly by chance, such as time effects and coincidence of conflicts. Furthermore, results show that seemingly contradictory empirical findings in literature can be explained by variation in pig characteristics (i.e. growth potential, positive feedback, dominance, and coping style). Growth potential mainly affected feeding and growth patterns, whereas positive feedback, dominance and coping style affected feeding patterns, social interaction patterns, as well as growth patterns. Variation in behavioural strategies among pigs can reduce aggression at group level, but also make some pigs more susceptible to social constraints inhibiting them from feeding when they want to, especially low-ranking pigs and pigs with a passive coping style. Variation in feeding patterns, such as feeding rate or meal frequency, can indicate social constraints. Feeding patterns, however, can say something different about social constraints at group versus individual level. A combination of feeding patterns, such as a decreased feed intake, an increased feeding rate, and an increased meal frequency might, therefore, be needed to measure social constraints

  10. Disentangling the climate-driven bimodal growth pattern in coastal and continental Mediterranean pine stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Arturo; Camarero, J Julio; Ribas, Montse; Gazol, Antonio; Gutierrez, E; Carrer, Marco

    2018-02-15

    Mediterranean climate promotes two distinct growth peaks separated by summer quiescence in trees. This bimodal pattern has been associated to favourable growing conditions during spring and autumn when mild temperatures and soil-water availability enhance cambial activity. Climatic models predict progressive warming and drying for the Mediterranean Basin, which could shorten or shift the spring and autumn growing seasons. We explored this idea by comparing two sites with different Mediterranean climate types (continental/dry and coastal/wet) and studied how climate drives the bimodal growth pattern in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). Specifically we investigated the intra-annual changes in wood anatomy and the corresponding formation of density fluctuations (IADF). Trees on both sites were analyzed by dendrometer monitoring and by developing chronologies of wood anatomical traits. Radial-increment dynamics followed a similar bimodal pattern in both sites but coastal trees showed higher increments during the spring and autumn growth peaks, especially in autumn. The summer rest of cambium activity occurs almost one month earlier in the coastal than in the inland site. Lumen area and cell-wall thickness were significantly smaller in the continental site, while the increment rate of cell-wall thickness during an IADF event was much higher in the coastal pines. The accumulated soil moisture deficit was the main climatic constraint of tracheid enlargement in continental pines. Intra-annual density fluctuations were more frequent in the coastal trees where wood anatomy features recover to average values after such events, meanwhile inland trees presented a much lower recovery rate. Growth bimodality and the formation of density fluctuations were linked, but mild climate of the coastal site allows a longer growing season, which explains why trees in this area showed higher and more variable growth rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pattern of relative growth in cockle Anadara antiquata in Ihamahu coastal waters, Central Maluku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahainenia, L.; Tuhumury, S. F.; Uneputty, P. A.; Tuhumury, N. C.

    2018-03-01

    Anadara antiquata is economically important species for fisheries and belong to phylum mollusc which also found in Maluku. However, the density of population begins to decrease recently due to high exploitation by people. The objective of the present study was to analyze relative growth pattern of A. antiquata including size distribution and growth pattern based on shell dimensions. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Ihamahu coastal waters. Data were collected by using purposive random sampling. All the individuals of A. antiquata found were measured the length, width and height by using a vernier caliper to the nearest 0.01mm. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20 and Microsoft Excel software. The results indicated that the A. antiquata mostly found in seagrass bed with a muddy substrate. The size distribution of shell dimensions was different during sampling. Overall, the length ranged from 15.87 mm to 57.5 mm, the width from 15.50 mm to 48.60 mm and the height was from 9.36 mm to 35.9 mm. The population of A. antiquata consisted of juvenile and mature size. The mature size (> 30 mm) was more dominant in the population. The A. antiquata showed allometric relative growth pattern based on shell dimensions.

  12. The relationship between early growth and survival of hatchling saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Brien

    Full Text Available Hatchling fitness in crocodilians is affected by "runtism" or failure to thrive syndrome (FTT in captivity. In this study, 300 hatchling C. porosus, artificially incubated at 32°C for most of their embryonic development, were raised in semi-controlled conditions, with growth criteria derived for the early detection of FTT (within 24 days. Body mass, four days after hatching (BM4d, was correlated with egg size and was highly clutch specific, while snout-vent length (SVL4d was much more variable within and between clutches. For the majority of hatchlings growth trajectories within the first 24 days continued to 90 days and could be used to predict FTT affliction up to 300 days, highlighting the importance of early growth. Growth and survival of hatchling C. porosus in captivity was not influenced by initial size (BM4d, with a slight tendency for smaller hatchlings to grow faster in the immediate post-hatching period. Strong clutch effects (12 clutches on affliction with FTT were apparent, but could not be explained by measured clutch variables or other factors. Among individuals not afflicted by FTT (N = 245, mean growth was highly clutch specific, and the variation could be explained by an interaction between clutch and season. FTT affliction was 2.5 times higher among clutches (N = 7 that hatched later in the year when mean minimum air temperatures were lower, compared with those clutches (N = 5 that hatched early in the year. The results of this study highlight the importance of early growth in hatchling C. porosus, which has implications for the captive management of this species.

  13. Flooding tolerance in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) at early vegetative and reproductive growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic flooding at any growth stage greatly affects growth and yield of crops. In order to develop flooding tolerant cotton cultivar and to identify the most sensitive growth stage to periodic flooding, a field experiment was conducted in which 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were subjected to two week flooding at seedling/early vegetative, flower and boll formation growth stages. Pre- and post-flooding soil analysis was also carried out. Nitrate-N was greatly reduced due to flooding applied at all growth stages, whereas NH4-N increased significantly. Similarly, Fe and Mn were also increased to many folds in flooded soils. Under hypoxic conditions, depletion of nitrates and toxic effects of accumulated NH4, Fe and Mn caused severe damages to cotton plants and even death of plants. Of the three growth stages, early vegetative growth stage is most sensitive to two week flooding. Flooding imposed at the flowering and boll formation growth stages caused a substantial amount of yield penalty. On the basis of survival percentage, the 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were categorized into tolerant (61%), moderately tolerant (31=60%) and sensitive (31%) to short term flooding. At the seedling or early vegetative growth stage, genotypes DPL-SR-2 followed by 124-F and MNH-427 were most tolerant to flooding, while AET-5, N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were ranked as sensitive to flooding stress. At the flowering stage, the genotype NIAB-92 followed by S-14 and MNH-427 were highly tolerant to flooding. At the boll formation stage, genotypes DPL-70010-N followed by GH-11-9-75 and B-2918-2 were highly tolerant waterlogging. More than 50% of the genotypes maintained the degree of flooding tolerance at three growth stages. However, on the basis of survival percentage at three growth stages, genotypes MNH-564, FH-114, MNH-786 and CIM-573 were included in the tolerant group and the genotypes N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were included in the sensitive group. These

  14. Constitutional growth delay pattern of growth in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: longitudinal follow up and final height of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Serap; Ozdemir, Nihal; Güran, Tülay; Akalın, Figen; Akçay, Teoman; Ayabakan, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Bereket, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) who were admitted to our pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and followed longitudinally until attainment of final height. Both patients followed a growth pattern consistent with constitutional delay of puberty with normal and near normal final height. Case 2 also had partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency and severe short stature (height SDS -3.4 SDS), but showed spontaneous catch-up and ended up with a final height of -2 SDS. These cases suggest that short stature in children with VCFS is due to a pattern of growth similar to that observed in constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

  15. Breast cancer early detection via tracking of skin back-scattered secondary speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Aviya; Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer has become a major cause of death among women. The lifetime risk of a woman developing this disease has been established as one in eight. The most useful way to reduce breast cancer death is to treat the disease as early as possible. The existing methods of early diagnostics of breast cancer are mainly based on screening mammography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) periodically conducted at medical facilities. In this paper the authors proposing a new approach for simple breast cancer detection. It is based on skin stimulation by sound waves, illuminating it by laser beam and tracking the reflected secondary speckle patterns. As first approach, plastic balls of different sizes were placed under the skin of chicken breast and detected by the proposed method.

  16. Complementary Gli activity mediates early patterning of the mouse visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Marosh; Wallace, Valerie A

    2006-03-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system, including the eye. This pathway is mediated by the Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) that differentially activate and repress the expression of specific downstream target genes. In this study, we investigated the roles of the three vertebrate Glis in mediating midline Shh signaling in early ocular development. We examined the ocular phenotypes of Shh and Gli combination mutant mouse embryos and monitored proximodistal and dorsoventral patterning by the expression of specific eye development regulatory genes using in situ hybridization. We show that midline Shh signaling relieves the repressor activity of Gli3 adjacent to the midline and then promotes eye pattern formation through the nonredundant activities of all three Gli proteins. Gli3, in particular, is required to specify the dorsal optic stalk and to define the boundary between the optic stalk and the optic cup.

  17. Does Violence in Adolescence Differentially Predict Offending Patterns in Early Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Stephanie M; Piquero, Alex R

    2018-05-01

    Previous research is mixed on whether the commission of a violent offense in adolescence is predictive of criminal career characteristics. In the current study, we addressed the following: (a) What factors predict the commission of serious violence in mid-adolescence? and (b) Does involvement in serious violence in mid-adolescence lead to more chronic and/or more heterogeneous patterns of offending in early adulthood? Data were obtained from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Prior arrests, violence exposure, and gang involvement distinguished adolescents who engaged in violence at baseline. A violent offense at baseline was not predictive of a higher frequency of rearrests but was associated with membership in the low offending trajectory. In conclusion, violent offending in adolescence might be a poor predictor of chronic and heterogeneous patterns of offending throughout the life course.

  18. Aqueous chemical growth and patterning of ZnO nanopillars on different substrate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreye, M.; Postels, B.; Wehmann, H.H.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Fuhrmann, D.; Hangleiter, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Technical University of Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstrasse 2, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Aqueous chemical growth (ACG) is a low-temperature approach that is only weakly influenced by the substrate and allows for the growth of ZnO nanopillars on various substrates. ACG is an efficient way to generate wafer-scale and densely packed arrays of ZnO nanopillars even on polymer materials. Photoluminescence (PL) characterisation clearly shows a comparatively strong band-edge luminescence even at room temperature that is accompanied with a rather weak visible luminescence in the yellow/orange spectral range. We introduce a rather simple postgrowth lithographic technique. Patterning of ZnO nanopillars even on layered conducting and flexible substrate materials using ACG as a low-temperature growth technique is demonstrated. The economical potential for future applications and devices using ZnO nanopillar arrays is discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. [Pattern of growth and metabolism of thermotolerant microorganisms on media containing carbohydrates and hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnikov, E I; Isakova, D M; Eliseeva, G S; Loiko, Z I

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to examine the growth and metabolism of thermotolerant yeast Candida tropicalis K-41 and bacteria Micrococcus freudenreichii that do not have a single temperature point but instead have an optimal temperature plateau at which the growth rate and biosynthetic activity remain unaltered or change insignificantly. Upon transition from the carbohydrate to the hydrocarbon pattern of nutrition these microorganisms show significant changes in metabolic processes: optimal concentration of biotin in the medium decreases significantly; the synthesis of riboflavin, nicotinic and pantothenic acids increases in yeast; the synthesis of nicotinic acid, biotin and vitamin B12 increases in bacteria. During microbial cultivation on hydrocarbons the content of cell lipids grows; yeast accumulate actively phospholipids and free fatty acids; bacteria build up intensively waxes and phospholipids. With the near-maximal growth rate the total synthesis of lipids decreases on carbohydrates and increases drastically on hydrocarbons, primarily at the expense of the above fractions.

  20. A Comparative Study of Growth Patterns in Crested Langurs and Vervet Monkeys

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    Debra R. Bolter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical growth patterns of crested langurs and vervet monkeys are investigated for several unilinear dimensions. Long bone lengths, trunk height, foot length, epiphyseal fusion of the long bones and the pelvis, and cranial capacity are compared through six dental growth stages in male Trachypithecus cristatus (crested langurs and Cercopithecus aethiops (vervet monkeys. Results show that the body elements of crested langurs mature differently than those of vervets. In some dimensions, langurs and vervets grow comparably, in others vervets attain adult values in advance of crested langurs, and in one feature the langurs are accelerated. Several factors may explain this difference, including phylogeny, diet, ecology, and locomotion. This study proposes that locomotor requirements affect differences in somatic growth between the species.

  1. Treatment of hyperdivergent growth pattern and anterior open bite with posterior metallic bite planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Domenico; Lo Russo, Lucio; Nichelini, Jeffrey; Mastrovincenzo, Mario; Barbato, Ersilia; Laurenziello, Michele; Montaruli, Graziano; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the authors analyze the effect of the "Swallowing Occlusal Contact Intercept Appliance" (SOCIA) in treatment of children with hyperdivergent Class II malocclusion. This functional appliance has no intra-oral anchorage, but induces a continuous periodontal, muscular, and articular stimulation. Twenty-six patients with hyperdivergent growth and class II malocclusion were selected and treated with SOCIA appliance. Cephalometric analysis was performed before treatment (T1) and immediately after the treatment (T2). After 24 months treatment authors observed a modification of maxillary growth with a reduction of the divergence with an increase of the posterior facial height, a modification of condylar inclination and forward position of the a hyoid. No modifications was observed about the ANB angle. After treatment the open bite was resolved with a reduction of the inclination of the upper incisors. SOCIA is a reliable functional appliance in growing age patients with a hyperdivergent pattern growth, anterior open bite and class II molar malocclusion.

  2. Stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of bicoid and hunchback molecules in the early Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Okabe-Oho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise patterning of morphogen molecules and their accurate reading out are of key importance in embryonic development. Recent experiments have visualized distributions of proteins in developing embryos and shown that the gradient of concentration of Bicoid morphogen in Drosophila embryos is established rapidly after fertilization and remains stable through syncytial mitoses. This stable Bicoid gradient is read out in a precise way to distribute Hunchback with small fluctuations in each embryo and in a reproducible way, with small embryo-to-embryo fluctuation. The mechanisms of such stable, precise, and reproducible patterning through noisy cellular processes, however, still remain mysterious. To address these issues, here we develop the one- and three-dimensional stochastic models of the early Drosophila embryo. The simulated results show that the fluctuation in expression of the hunchback gene is dominated by the random arrival of Bicoid at the hunchback enhancer. Slow diffusion of Hunchback protein, however, averages out this intense fluctuation, leading to the precise patterning of distribution of Hunchback without loss of sharpness of the boundary of its distribution. The coordinated rates of diffusion and transport of input Bicoid and output Hunchback play decisive roles in suppressing fluctuations arising from the dynamical structure change in embryos and those arising from the random diffusion of molecules, and give rise to the stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of Bicoid and Hunchback distributions.

  3. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

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    Diane I Schroeder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs and highly methylated domains (HMDs with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  4. Detection and Growth Pattern of Arcuate Fasciculus from Newborn to Adult

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    Molly Wilkinson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractional anisotropy (FA threshold is commonly used to perform diffusion MRI tractography. However, FA threshold may be one aspect of tractography that needs additional scrutiny in accurately assessing pathways in immature, developing brains, as well as in adult brains. Using high-angular resolution diffusion MRI (HARDI tractography without an FA threshold, we identified the arcuate fasciculus (AF of 83 healthy subjects ranging in age from 40 gestational weeks (GW (newborns to 28-year-old adults. The AF was identified in both hemispheres in all subjects with high inter-rater reliability. The detected AF included regions with very low FA values. The entire AF was segmented into anterior, posterior, and long tracts. Growth and laterality patterns were investigated using tract count (number of detected streamlines, total volume of imaging voxels (touched by the detected streamlines, mean length, mean FA, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC. Comparison of subjects under 3 years old, to those that were older, revealed the three AF tracts that took different developmental courses. As expected, the anterior and long tracts showed lower ADC values in subjects over 3 years old, while the posterior tract showed higher ADC in that same age range. The posterior tract did not show age-related effect in terms of FA, tract count, length, and volume. These results suggest that the posterior AF tract shows a matured state, indexed by most of the used measurements in early postnatal developmental ages, and ADC is a measurement that can detect further maturation of the posterior tract. Interestingly, in all tracts, hemispheric asymmetries were found in raw (leftright tract count, as well as in raw volume (left

  5. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L. root growth under waterlogging stress

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    ali ganjali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of root growth of chickpea genotypes; including Rupali (Desi and Flip 97-530 (Kabuli were evaluated under waterlogging stress in a Glasshouse experiment at CSIRO, Perth, WA. during 2005. Root growth boxes (0.1×0.24×1.0 m with one wall of glass were used as experimental units. Data were analyzed based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Waterlogging was induced when the first root reached 50cm. The water level was maintained on the soil surface for 12 days. After that, waterlogging was finished by draining the root growth boxes. In soil profile, root growth rate were calculated based on recorded information on transparent films during growing season. There was positive and strong linear correlation between the root traits that were measured in soil (direct measurment and transparent films (indirect measurment. Decay and death of roots caused a severe decrease on root growth rate during waterlogging, but root growth rate was sharply increased at the end of recovery period on 0-40 cm layer of soil surface. In both genotypes, spatial and temporal patterns of the root growth were different. Root growth rate was highest on distinc time for each layer of soil profile. In both genotypes, RLD decreased with increasing soil depth. Results showed that more distribution of root system on upper soil layers (0-40 cm is a strategy for chickpea plants, and so, soil management is very important on this layer. In stress and non stress environments, Flip 97-530 showed better root characteristics than the Rupali during growing season, so this genotype is probably more tolerate to water logging stress.

  7. Irreversibility of a bad start: early exposure to osmotic stress limits growth and adaptive developmental plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Shiun; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Kam, Yeong-Choy

    2012-05-01

    Harsh environments experienced early in development have immediate effects and potentially long-lasting consequences throughout ontogeny. We examined how salinity fluctuations affected survival, growth and development of Fejervarya limnocharis tadpoles. Specifically, we tested whether initial salinity effects on growth and rates of development were reversible and whether they affected the tadpoles' ability to adaptively accelerate development in response to deteriorating conditions later in development. Tadpoles were initially assigned to either low or high salinity, and then some were switched between salinity levels upon reaching either Gosner stage 30 (early switch) or 38 (late switch). All tadpoles initially experiencing low salinity survived whereas those initially experiencing high salinity had poor survival, even if switched to low salinity. Growth and developmental rates of tadpoles initially assigned to high salinity did not increase after osmotic stress release. Initial low salinity conditions allowed tadpoles to attain a fast pace of development even if exposed to high salinity afterwards. Tadpoles experiencing high salinity only late in development metamorphosed faster and at a smaller size, indicating an adaptive acceleration of development to avoid osmotic stress. Nonetheless, early exposure to high salinity precluded adaptive acceleration of development, always causing delayed metamorphosis relative to those in initially low salinity. Our results thus show that stressful environments experienced early in development can critically impact life history traits, having long-lasting or irreversible effects, and restricting their ability to produce adaptive plastic responses.

  8. Conceptual basis for prescriptive growth standards from conception to early childhood: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uauy, R; Casanello, P; Krause, B; Kuzanovic, J P; Corvalan, C

    2013-09-01

    maternal uterine environment from the time before conception, through embryonic development until fetal growth is complete. The remaining challenge is how 'early' will we be able to act, now that we can better monitor fetal growth. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  9. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

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    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  10. Ezh2 Controls an Early Hematopoietic Program and Growth and Survival Signaling in Early T Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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    Etienne Danis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL is an aggressive subtype of ALL distinguished by stem-cell-associated and myeloid transcriptional programs. Inactivating alterations of Polycomb repressive complex 2 components are frequent in human ETP-ALL, but their functional role is largely undefined. We have studied the involvement of Ezh2 in a murine model of NRASQ61K-driven leukemia that recapitulates phenotypic and transcriptional features of ETP-ALL. Homozygous inactivation of Ezh2 cooperated with oncogenic NRASQ61K to accelerate leukemia onset. Inactivation of Ezh2 accentuated expression of genes highly expressed in human ETP-ALL and in normal murine early thymic progenitors. Moreover, we found that Ezh2 contributes to the silencing of stem-cell- and early-progenitor-cell-associated genes. Loss of Ezh2 also resulted in increased activation of STAT3 by tyrosine 705 phosphorylation. Our data mechanistically link Ezh2 inactivation to stem-cell-associated transcriptional programs and increased growth/survival signaling, features that convey an adverse prognosis in patients.

  11. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

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    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  12. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

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    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  13. Dynamics of growth zone patterning in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Tzach; Vreede, Barbara M I; Weiss, Aryeh; Hester, Susan D; Williams, Terri A; Nagy, Lisa M; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-15

    We describe the dynamic process of abdominal segment generation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus We present detailed morphological measurements of the growing germband throughout segmentation. Our data are complemented by cell division profiles and expression patterns of key genes, including invected and even-skipped as markers for different stages of segment formation. We describe morphological and mechanistic changes in the growth zone and in nascent segments during the generation of individual segments and throughout segmentation, and examine the relative contribution of newly formed versus existing tissue to segment formation. Although abdominal segment addition is primarily generated through the rearrangement of a pool of undifferentiated cells, there is nonetheless proliferation in the posterior. By correlating proliferation with gene expression in the growth zone, we propose a model for growth zone dynamics during segmentation in which the growth zone is functionally subdivided into two distinct regions: a posterior region devoted to a slow rate of growth among undifferentiated cells, and an anterior region in which segmental differentiation is initiated and proliferation inhibited. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Vegetation growth patterns on six rock-covered UMTRA Project disposal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This study assessed vegetation growth patterns, the potential impacts of vegetation growth on disposal cell cover integrity, and possible measures that could be taken to monitor and/or control plant growth, where necessary, on six Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project rock-covered disposal cells. A large-scale invasion of volunteer plants was observed on the Shiprock and Burrell disposal cells. Plant growth at the South Clive, Green River, and Tuba City disposal cells was sparse except for the south rock apron and south slope of the Tuba City disposal cell, where windblown sand had filled up part of the rock cover and plant growth was observed. The rock-covered topslope of the Collins Ranch disposal cell was intentionally covered with topsoil and vegetated. Plant roots growing on the disposal cells are changing the characteristics of the cover by drying out the radon barrier, encouraging the establishment of soil-building processes in the bedding and radon barrier layers, creating channels in the radon barrier, and facilitating ecological succession, which could lead to the establishment of additional deep-rooted plants on the disposal cells. If left unchecked, plant roots would reach the tailings at the Burrell and Collins Ranch disposal cells within a few years, likely resulting in the transport of contaminants out of the cells

  15. Does the association between early life growth and later obesity differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Sarah B; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Messer, Lynne C; Tandy, Thomas; Boone-Heinonen, Janne

    2017-09-01

    Rapid growth during infancy predicts higher risk of obesity later in childhood. The association between patterns of early life growth and later obesity may differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status (SES), but prior evidence syntheses do not consider vulnerable subpopulations. We systemically reviewed published studies that explored patterns of early life growth (0-24 months of age) as predictors of later obesity (>24 months) that were either conducted in racial/ethnic minority or low-SES study populations or assessed effect modification of this association by race/ethnicity or SES. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and SocINDEX. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Faster growth during the first 2 years of life was consistently associated with later obesity irrespective of definition and timing of exposure and outcome measures. Associations were strongest in populations composed of greater proportions of racial/ethnic minority and/or low-SES children. For example, ORs ranged from 1.17 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.24) in a heterogeneous population to 9.24 (95% CI: 3.73, 22.9) in an entirely low-SES nonwhite population. The impact of rapid growth in infancy on later obesity may differ by social stratification factors such as race/ethnicity and family income. More robust and inclusive studies examining these associations are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Children′s growth pattern and mothers′ education and socio-economic status in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Suliman Ibrahim Alhaidari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An important indication of a child′s well-being is evidence of having a normal growth pattern. A child′s growth pattern is influenced by multiple factors, genetic and/or environmental. From an environmental point of view, the socio-economic status of the mother plays an important role in a child′s growth during the early stages of childhood. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the association between mothers′ educational and socio-economic status on their children′s growth in Riyadh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight hospitals in Riyadh. The target population was children aged between 1 month and 7 years and their mothers visiting the vaccination clinics. The mother′s data were collected using a structured interview, and the child′s weight and height were measured and plotted on growth charts. Results: A total of 744 mothers and children were screened (392 males, 352 females. The proportion of children with weight and height under the 25 th percentile was 40% and 29%, respectively. In terms of education, the height of a higher proportion of children (33% was under the 25 th percentile if the mother had a high school education compared with 25% when the mother had a college education (P = 0.02. Private sector-employed mothers had a lower proportion of children (26% with weight below the 25 th percentile compared to mothers who were government-employed or unemployed (both 41%. Mothers living in an apartment had a significantly lower proportion of children (24% with height under the 25 th percentile compared to mothers living in a house (33% (P = 0.04. In addition, mothers living in a rented residence had a significantly lower proportion (40% of children with weight under the 25 th percentile than mothers living in owned ones (42% (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Underweight and short stature among children are associated with less educated and unemployed mothers and with mothers who live in a house. The

  17. Growth Patterns of HIV Infected Indian Children in Response to ART: A Clinic Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchure, Ritu S; Kulkarni, Vinay V; Darak, Trupti S; Mhaskar, Rahul; Miladinovic, Branko; Emmanuel, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    To describe catch-up growth after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (CLHIV), attending a private clinic in India. This is a retrospective analysis of data of CLHIV attending Prayas clinic, Pune, India. Height and weight z scores (HAZ, WAZ) were calculated using WHO growth charts. Catch-up growth post-ART was assessed using a mixed method model in cases where baseline and at least one subsequent follow-up HAZ/WAZ were available. STATA 12 was used for statistical analysis. During 1998 to 2011, 466 children were enrolled (201 girls and 265 boys; median age = 7 y). A total of 302 children were ever started on ART; of which 73 and 76 children were included for analysis for catch up growth in WAZ and HAZ respectively. Median WAZ and HAZ increased from -2.14 to -1.34 (p = 0.007) and -2.42 to -1.94 (p = 0.34), respectively, 3 y post ART. Multivariable analysis using mixed model (adjusted for gender, guardianship, baseline age, baseline WAZ/HAZ, baseline and time varying WHO clinical stage) showed gains in WAZ (coef = 0.2, 95 % CI: -0.06 to 0.46) and HAZ (coef = 0.49, 95 % CI: 0.21 to 0.77) with time on ART. Lower baseline WAZ/HAZ and older age were associated with impaired catch-up growth. Children staying in institutions and with baseline advanced clinical stage showed higher gain in WAZ. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was high at ART initiation. Sustained catch-up growth was seen with ART. The study highlights the benefit of early ART in achieving normal growth in CLHIV.

  18. Catch-Up Growth Occurs after Diarrhea in Early Childhood123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephanie A.; Black, Robert E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Sack, R. Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6–12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12–18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18–24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of

  19. Size- and food-dependent growth drives patterns of competitive dominance along productivity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Magnus; Gårdmark, Anna; Van Leeuwen, Anieke; de Roos, André M

    2012-04-01

    Patterns of coexistence among competing species exhibiting size- and food-dependent growth remain largely unexplored. Here we studied mechanisms behind coexistence and shifts in competitive dominance in a size-structured fish guild, representing sprat and herring stocks in the Baltic Sea, using a physiologically structured model of competing populations. The influence of degree of resource overlap and the possibility of undergoing ontogenetic diet shifts were studied as functions of zooplankton and zoobenthos productivity. By imposing different size-dependent mortalities, we could study the outcome of competition under contrasting environmental regimes representing poor and favorable growth conditions. We found that the identity of the dominant species shifted between low and high productivity. Adding a herring-exclusive benthos resource only provided a competitive advantage over sprat when size-dependent mortality was high enough to allow for rapid growth in the zooplankton niche. Hence, the importance of a bottom-up effect of varying productivity was dependent on a strong top-down effect. Although herring could depress shared resources to lower levels than could sprat and also could access an exclusive resource, the smaller size at maturation of sprat allowed it to coexist with herring and, in some cases, exclude it. Our model system, characterized by interactions among size cohorts, allowed for consumer coexistence even at full resource overlap at intermediate productivities when size-dependent mortality was low. Observed shifts in community patterns were crucially dependent on the explicit consideration of size- and food-dependent growth. Accordingly, we argue that accounting for food-dependent growth and size-dependent interactions is necessary to better predict changes in community structure and dynamics following changes in major ecosystem drivers such as resource productivity and mortality, which are fundamental for our ability to manage exploitation of

  20. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pPermanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly contribute to the dynamic development of the gut microbiome in preterm infants.

  1. Differences in early speech patterns between Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Young Eun; Park, Jongkyu; Suh, Mee Kyung; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Jumin; Jeong, Yuri; Kim, Hee-Tae; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-08-01

    In Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P), patterns of early speech impairment and their distinguishing features from Parkinson's disease (PD) require further exploration. Here, we compared speech data among patients with early-stage MSA-P, PD, and healthy subjects using quantitative acoustic and perceptual analyses. Variables were analyzed for men and women in view of gender-specific features of speech. Acoustic analysis revealed that male patients with MSA-P exhibited more profound speech abnormalities than those with PD, regarding increased voice pitch, prolonged pause time, and reduced speech rate. This might be due to widespread pathology of MSA-P in nigrostriatal or extra-striatal structures related to speech production. Although several perceptual measures were mildly impaired in MSA-P and PD patients, none of these parameters showed a significant difference between patient groups. Detailed speech analysis using acoustic measures may help distinguish between MSA-P and PD early in the disease process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Film growth kinetics and electric field patterning during electrospray deposition of block copolymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Kristof; Hu, Hanqiong; Choo, Youngwoo; Loewenberg, Michael; Osuji, Chinedum

    The delivery of sub-micron droplets of dilute polymer solutions to a heated substrate by electrospray deposition (ESD) enables precisely controlled and continuous growth of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. Here we explore patterned deposition of BCP films by spatially varying the electric field at the substrate using an underlying charged grid, as well as film growth kinetics. Numerical analysis was performed to examine pattern fidelity by considering the trajectories of charged droplets during flight through imposed periodic field variations in the vicinity of the substrate. Our work uncovered an unexpected modality for improving the resolution of the patterning process via stronger field focusing through the use of a second oppositely charged grid beneath a primary focusing array, with an increase in highly localized droplet deposition on the intersecting nodes of the grid. Substrate coverage kinetics are considered for homopolymer deposition in the context of simple kinetic models incorporating temperature and molecular weight dependence of diffusivity. By contrast, film coverage kinetics for block copolymer depositions are additionally convoluted with preferential wetting and thickness-periodicity commensurability effects. NSF GRFP.

  3. Exact quantification of the complexity of spacewise pattern growth in cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Joana G; Gallas, Jason A C; Brison, Owen J

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the two possible ways of simulating complex systems with cellular automata: by using the familiar timewise updating or by using the complementary spacewise updating. Both updating algorithms operate on identical sets of initial conditions defining the state of the automaton. While timewise growth generally probes just vanishingly small sets of initial conditions producing statistical samples of the asymptotic attractors, spacewise growth operates with much restricted sets which allow one to simulate them all, exhaustively. Our main result is the derivation of an exact analytical formula to quantify precisely one of the two sources of algorithmic complexity of spacewise detection of the complete set of attractors for elementary 1D cellular automata with generic non-periodic architectures of any arbitrary size. The formula gives the total number of initial conditions that need to be investigated to locate rigorously all possible patterns for any given rule. As simple applications, we illustrate how this knowledge may be used (i) to uncover missing patterns in previous classifications in the literature and (ii) to obtain surprisingly novel patterns that are totally unreachable with the time-honored technique of artificially imposing spatially periodic boundary conditions.

  4. Describing Growth Pattern of Bali Cows Using Non-linear Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz A.W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the best fit non-linear regression model to describe the growth pattern of Bali cows. Estimates of asymptotic mature weight, rate of maturing and constant of integration were derived from Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models which were fitted to cross-sectional data of body weight taken from 74 Bali cows raised in MARDI Research Station Muadzam Shah Pahang. Coefficient of determination (R2 and residual mean squares (MSE were used to determine the best fit model in describing the growth pattern of Bali cows. Von Bertalanffy model was the best model among the four growth functions evaluated to determine the mature weight of Bali cattle as shown by the highest R2 and lowest MSE values (0.973 and 601.9, respectively, followed by Gompertz (0.972 and 621.2, respectively, Logistic (0.971 and 648.4, respectively and Brody (0.932 and 660.5, respectively models. The correlation between rate of maturing and mature weight was found to be negative in the range of -0.170 to -0.929 for all models, indicating that animals of heavier mature weight had lower rate of maturing. The use of non-linear model could summarize the weight-age relationship into several biologically interpreted parameters compared to the entire lifespan weight-age data points that are difficult and time consuming to interpret.

  5. Toxicoproteomics: serum proteomic pattern diagnostics for early detection of drug induced cardiac toxicities and cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Rajapaske, Vinodh; Herman, Eugene H; Arekani, Ali M; Ross, Sally; Johann, Donald; Knapton, Alan; Zhang, J; Hitt, Ben A; Conrads, Thomas P; Veenstra, Timothy D; Liotta, Lance A; Sistare, Frank D

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics is more than just generating lists of proteins that increase or decrease in expression as a cause or consequence of pathology. The goal should be to characterize the information flow through the intercellular protein circuitry which communicates with the extracellular microenvironment and then ultimately to the serum/plasma macroenvironment. The nature of this information can be a cause, or a consequence, of disease and toxicity based processes as cascades of reinforcing information percolate through the system and become reflected in changing proteomic information content of the circulation. Serum Proteomic Pattern Diagnostics is a new type of proteomic platform in which patterns of proteomic signatures from high dimensional mass spectrometry data are used as a diagnostic classifier. While this approach has shown tremendous promise in early detection of cancers, detection of drug-induced toxicity may also be possible with this same technology. Analysis of serum from rat models of anthracycline and anthracenedione induced cardiotoxicity indicate the potential clinical utility of diagnostic proteomic patterns where low molecular weight peptides and protein fragments may have higher accuracy than traditional biomarkers of cardiotoxicity such as troponins. These fragments may one day be harvested by circulating nanoparticles designed to absorb, enrich and amplify the diagnostic biomarker repertoire generated even at the critical initial stages of toxicity.

  6. Spatially nonrandom tree mortality and ingrowth maintain equilibrium pattern in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Furniss, Tucker J; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; Bible, Kenneth J; Chen, Jiquan; Franklin, Jerry F

    2014-08-01

    Mortality processes in old-growth forests are generally assumed to be driven by gap-scale disturbance, with only a limited role ascribed to density-dependent mortality, but these assumptions are rarely tested with data sets incorporating repeated measurements. Using a 12-ha spatially explicit plot censused 13 years apart in an approximately 500-year-old Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest, we demonstrate significant density-dependent mortality and spatially aggregated tree recruitment. However, the combined effect of these strongly nonrandom demographic processes was to maintain tree patterns in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Density-dependent mortality was most pronounced for the dominant late-successional species, Tsuga heterophylla. The long-lived, early-seral Pseudotsuga menziesii experienced an annual stem mortality rate of 0.84% and no new recruitment. Late-seral species Tsuga and Abies amabilis had nearly balanced demographic rates of ingrowth and mortality. The 2.34% mortality rate for Taxus brevifolia was higher than expected, notably less than ingrowth, and strongly affected by proximity to Tsuga. Large-diameter Tsuga structured both the regenerating conspecific and heterospecific cohorts with recruitment of Tsuga and Abies unlikely in neighborhoods crowded with large-diameter competitors (P old-growth forests.

  7. Early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni

    2018-01-01

    and body composition as outcome measures in countries where obesity and related diseases in later life is a large public health problem. For this short review, we have included 10 publications on the topic of early nutrition and its effect on growth, body composition, and later obesity. We think these 10......Adequate nutrition in the first 2 years of life is essential for both short- and long-term health. Malnutrition in the early years of life increases the risk of later chronic diseases. There is a wealth of studies available within this area of research, and this chapter specifically looks at growth...... included publications, published during the period of July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017, are of special interest and all present findings can shape future research on this topic. We have chosen to focus on 3 key areas in this review; (i) human milk composition, including studies on breast milk minerals...

  8. Early wide spacing in red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.): effects on stem form and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard T. Bormann

    1985-01-01

    A thinning trial was established in 1962 in a 7-year-old red alder stand in northwestern Washington. Spacings were 8 x 8 ft (dense), 12 x 12 it (intermediate), and 16 x 16 ft (open). The effect of early thinning on growth and stem form was measured in 1982, 20 years after spacing treatment. There was negligible tree lean and sweep in open and intermediate stands except...

  9. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  10. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  11. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Menheere, Paul P C A; Evers, Johannes L H; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Peeters, Louis L; Coumans, Audrey B; Dumoulin, John C M

    2013-08-01

    When does a difference in human intrauterine growth of singletons conceived after IVF and embryo culture in two different culture media appear? Differences in fetal development after culture of embryos in one of two IVF media were apparent as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal fetal growth patterns are a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adult life. Previously, we have shown that the medium used for culturing embryos during the first few days after fertilization significantly affects the birthweight of the resulting human singletons. The exact onset of this growth difference was unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, all 294 singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer in the period July 2003 to December 2006 were included. These embryos originated from IVF treatments that were part of a previously described clinical trial. Embryos were allocated to culture in either Vitrolife or Cook commercially available sequential culture media. We analysed ultrasound examinations at 8 (n = 290), 12 (n = 83) and 20 weeks' (n = 206) gestation and used first-trimester serum markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-hCG]. Differences between study groups were tested by the Student's t-test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, and linear multivariable regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders (for example, parity, gestational age at the time of ultrasound and fetal gender). A total of 294 singleton pregnancies (Vitrolife group nVL = 168, Cook group: nC = 126) from 294 couples were included. At 8 weeks' gestation, there was no difference between crown-rump length-based and ovum retrieval-based gestational age (ΔGA) (nVL = 163, nC = 122, adjusted mean difference, -0.04 days, P = 0.84). A total of 83 women underwent first-trimester screening at 12 weeks' gestation (nVL = 45, nC = 38). ΔGA, nuchal translucency (multiples of median, MoM) and PAPP-A (MoM) did not differ between the study

  12. Pathways of early fatherhood, marriage, and employment: a latent class growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariotis, Jacinda K; Pleck, Joseph H; Astone, Nan M; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2011-05-01

    In the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), young fathers include heterogeneous subgroups with varying early life pathways in terms of fatherhood timing, the timing of first marriage, and holding full-time employment. Using latent class growth analysis with 10 observations between ages 18 and 37, we derived five latent classes with median ages of first fatherhood below the cohort median (26.4), constituting distinct early fatherhood pathways representing 32.4% of NLSY men: (A) Young Married Fathers, (B) Teen Married Fathers, (C) Young Underemployed Married Fathers, (D) Young Underemployed Single Fathers, and (E) Young Later-Marrying Fathers. A sixth latent class of men who become fathers around the cohort median, following full-time employment and marriage (On-Time On-Sequence Fathers), is the comparison group. With sociodemographic background controlled, all early fatherhood pathways show disadvantage in at least some later-life circumstances (earnings, educational attainment, marital status, and incarceration). The extent of disadvantage is greater when early fatherhood occurs at relatively younger ages (before age 20), occurs outside marriage, or occurs outside full-time employment. The relative disadvantage associated with early fatherhood, unlike early motherhood, increases over the life course.

  13. Effects of Different Biochar Application Patterns on Rice Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yue-man

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has positive effect on carbon sequestration and soil improvement, consequently biochar application has been attracted more and more attention in recent years. However, so far, few investigations about the effects of biochar application patterns on crop growth, which may have a direct impact on biochar's application and comprehensive environmental effects have been reported. Herein, soil column study was conducted using four biochars, i.e., wheat straw(WBC and wood sawdust(SBC that pyrolyzed at 500℃ and 700℃, respectively, to study the effects of two different biochar application patterns on rice growth. These two typical biochar application patterns were:generally mixed application(mixed treatment and surface application(surface treatment. The results showed that:(1In comparison with CK, all biochar application treatments promoted the growth of rice in terms of plant height and SPAD(Soil Plant Analysis Development value. Plant height of surface treatment was higher than that of mixed treatments at the heading, filling and maturation stages. SPAD and NDVI(Normalized Different Vegetation Index value of surface treatments were slightly lower than mixed treatment.(2Biochar significantly increased rice seeding setting rate by 4.88%~8.39%, moreover, surface treatments were observed higher rice seeding setting rate than mixed treatments. However, no significant difference was observed in the number of effective panicles, grains per spike and 1 000-grain weight between surface and mixed treatment. (3Application of biochar promoted rice yield, and surface treatments were more likely to increase rice yield compared with the conventional mixed treatments. (4All biochar treatments increased rice harvest index by 2.58%~10.56%, and no significant difference was found between surface and mixed treatment.(5All applications of biochar promoted nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium partial productivity, which was 9.81%~36.25% higher than that of CK.

  14. Living bacteria rheology: Population growth, aggregation patterns, and collective behavior under different shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, P.; Almeida, P. L.; Portela, R.; Sobral, R. G.; Grilo, I. R.; Cidade, T.; Leal, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology—in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus—strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9—were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.

  15. Functional patterns obtained by nanoimprinting lithography and subsequent growth of polymer brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genua, A; AlduncIn, J A; Pomposo, J A; Grande, H; Kehagias, N; Reboud, V; Sotomayor, C; Mondragon, I; Mecerreyes, D

    2007-01-01

    In this work the growth of polymer brushes was combined with nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in order to obtain new functional nanopatterns. First, a functional thermoplastic methacrylic copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-bromoisobutyryl-oxy-ethyl methacrylate) was synthesized. This copolymer was successfully patterned by NIL using a silicon stamp at 160 deg. C and 60 bar. Next, hydrophilic polymer brushes based on poly(3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) and hydrophobic polymer brushes based on a poly(fluorinated methacrylate) were grown on the imprinted surfaces. The surface properties of the patterned polymer were accordingly modified and, as a consequence, the water contact angle was modified from 80.3 deg. to 32.5 deg. in the case of the hydrophilic brushes and to 118.1 deg. in the case of the hydrophobic brushes. As an application we demonstrated the use of hydrophobic polymer brushes in order to modify the surface of polymeric stamps for NIL with self-demoulding properties

  16. Simultaneous inference of selection and population growth from patterns of variation in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, Scott H.; Hernandez, Ryan; Fledel-Alon, Adi

    2005-01-01

    Natural selection and demographic forces can have similar effects on patterns of DNA polymorphism. Therefore, to infer selection from samples of DNA sequences, one must simultaneously account for demographic effects. Here we take a model-based approach to this problem by developing predictions fo......-specific methods, and (iii) strong evidence for very recent population growth....... for patterns of polymorphism in the presence of both population size change and natural selection. If data are available from different functional classes of variation, and a priori information suggests that mutations in one of those classes are selectively neutral, then the putatively neutral class can...... this method to a large polymorphism data set from 301 human genes and find (i) widespread negative selection acting on standing nonsynonymous variation, (ii) that the fitness effects of nonsynonymous mutations are well predicted by several measures of amino acid exchangeability, especially site...

  17. growth pattern and the industrial development of the lagos region, nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Dare Ajayi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature, growth and spatial pattern of industries within the Lagos Region. Industrial activities in this region grew progressively over the year from mere brickwork, palm oil mills, printing press, soap factory, and metal container factory to capital intensive manufacturing. Indeed, the number of industrial establishments increased from 122 in 1962 to 637 in 1993. Lagos developed into Nigeria's leading industrial center; especially following the expansion in its service and administrative sectors. Whereas, chemicals and pharmaceutical; and basic metal, iron and steel and fabricated metal products industry groups dominate in industrial scene, wood and wood products (including furniture; and non-metallic mineral products are rare. The spatial pattern shows that industrial establishments vary amongst the industrial estates/areas, and also among the industry groups. Ikeja/Ogballsheri industrial estate/area dominates the industrial scene.

  18. Investigating Patterns of Automation and Growth Performance among Low Level Users of Manufacturing Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Kromann, Lene

    instrument with a new, innovative way of characterizing and measuring automation levels in the production process. The survey data is merged with elaborate Danish register data on economic performance, market, and worker characteristics. The data is available from 2000 to 2010 across a broad range......-movers; companies that develop their level of automation further and companies that remain on the 2005 level up until 2010. We compare the presence of drivers and enablers in the 5-year period leading up to 2005 and investigate patterns in growth performance on a range of economic indicators between the two groups....... However, the cross sectional nature of most studies prohibits analysis of direction; is growth and economic performance the driver of manufacturing technology investment or vice versa. Longitudinal data is required to study this. The present study analyses panel data obtained using a retrospective survey...

  19. Relative growth pattern and hard tissue of vertebral centra by microradiography of bluefin tuna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, H.

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the growth feature and the structure of hard tissue, we studied the vertebral centrum of three species, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus, bigeye tuna T. obesus and skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis (BL: 44.2, 39.5 and 40.0cm respectively). We examined the ratio of cetrum length to diameter in each vertebral centrum and obtained the value of 0.9-1.3 in most centra among three species. This indicates that the examined species belong to the equivalent type of the relative growth pattern of vertebral centra. The hard tissue was observed by microradiography, with the longitudinal and cross sections (about 100 μm) cut through the center of notochordal pore. The major centra of the vertebral column were composed of characteristic simple structure like a cross, when seen in the microradiographs of cross sections. Microradiographs indicated that the bone has complicated canals with minute spaces like the bone cavities

  20. Volume Changes After Stereotactic LINAC Radiotherapy in Vestibular Schwannoma: Control Rate and Growth Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberg, Rick van de; Dohmen, Amy J.C.; Bondt, Bert J. de; Nelemans, Patty J.; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Stokroos, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the control rate of vestibular schwannomas (VS) after treatment with linear accelerator (LINAC)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or radiotherapy (SRT) by using a validated volumetric measuring tool. Volume-based studies on prognosis after LINAC-based SRS or SRT for VS are reported scarcely. In addition, growth patterns and risk factors predicting treatment failure were analyzed. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, 37 VS patients treated with LINAC based SRS or SRT were analyzed. Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed with volume measurements on contrast enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Absence of intervention after radiotherapy was defined as “no additional intervention group, ” absence of radiological growth was defined as “radiological control group. ” Significant growth was defined as a volume change of 19.7% or more, as calculated in a previous study. Results: The cumulative 4-year probability of no additional intervention was 96.4% ± 0.03; the 4-year radiological control probability was 85.4% ± 0.1). The median follow-up was 40 months. Overall, shrinkage was seen in 65%, stable VS in 22%, and growth in 13%. In 54% of all patients, transient swelling was observed. No prognostic factors were found regarding VS growth. Previous treatment and SRS were associated with transient swelling significantly. Conclusions: Good control rates are reported for LINAC based SRS or SRT in VS, in which the lower rate of radiological growth control is attributed to the use of the more sensitive volume measurements. Transient swelling after radiosurgery is a common phenomenon and should not be mistaken for treatment failure. Previous treatment and SRS were significantly associated with transient swelling.

  1. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  2. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  3. Growth pattern of colorectal liver metastasis as a marker of recurrence risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, R L; Vermeulen, P B; Christensen, I J

    2015-01-01

    from patient and pathology records. Histological GP were evaluated and related to recurrence free and OS. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis were used. The 5-year OS was 41.8% (95% CI 33.8-49.8%). Growth pattern evaluation of the largest liver metastasis was possible in 224...... free survival (RFS) than patients resected for non-desmoplastic liver metastases (p=0.05). When patients were stratified according to neo-adjuvant treatment in the multivariate Cox regression model, hazard ratios for RFS compared to desmoplastic were: pushing (HR=1.37, 95% CI 0.93-2.02, p=0...

  4. ANGUSTIFOLIA mediates one of the multiple SCRAMBLED signaling pathways regulating cell growth pattern in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Song, Sang-Kee; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John

    2015-09-25

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, SCRAMBLED (SCM), is required for multiple developmental processes including root epidermal cell fate determination, silique dehiscence, inflorescence growth, ovule morphogenesis, and tissue morphology. Previous work suggested that SCM regulates these multiple pathways using distinct mechanisms via interactions with specific downstream factors. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is known to regulate cell and tissue morphogenesis by influencing cortical microtubule arrangement, and recently, the AN protein was reported to interact with the SCM protein. Therefore, we examined whether AN might be responsible for mediating some of the SCM-dependent phenotypes. We discovered that both scm and an mutant lines cause an abnormal spiral or twisting growth of roots, but only the scm mutant affected root epidermal patterning. The siliques of the an and scm mutants also exhibited spiral growth, as previously reported, but only the scm mutant altered silique dehiscence. Interestingly, we discovered that the spiral growth of roots and siliques of the scm mutant is rescued by a truncated SCM protein that lacks its kinase domain, and that a juxtamembrane domain of SCM was sufficient for AN binding in the yeast two-hybrid analysis. These results suggest that the AN protein is one of the critical downstream factors of SCM pathways specifically responsible for mediating its effects on cell/tissue morphogenesis through cortical microtubule arrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of Patterned Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes by PECVD Using Different Growth Techniques: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangele, Aparna; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Pandey, Ashok Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Immense development has been taken place not only to increase the bulk production, repeatability and yield of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in last 25 years but preference is also given to acknowledge the basic concepts of nucleation and growth methods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VAC-NTs) are forest of CNTs accommodated perpendicular on a substrate. Their exceptional chemical and physical properties along with sequential arrangement and dense structure make them suitable in various fields. The effect of different type of selected substrate, carbon precursor, catalyst and their physical and chemical status, reaction conditions and many other key parameters have been thoroughly studied and analysed. The aim of this paper is to specify the trend and summarize the effect of key parameters instead of only presenting all the experiments reported till date. The identified trends will be compared with the recent observations on the growth of different types of patterned VACNTs. In this review article, we have presented a comprehensive analysis of different techniques to precisely determine the role of different parameters responsible for the growth of patterned vertical aligned carbon nanotubes. We have covered various techniques proposed in the span of more than two decades to fabricate the different structures and configurations of carbon nanotubes on different types of substrates. Apart from a detailed discussion of each technique along with their specific process and implementation, we have also provided a critical analysis of the associated constraints, benefits and shortcomings. To sum it all for easy reference for researchers, we have tabulated all the techniques based on certain main key factors. This review article comprises of an exhaustive discussion and a handy reference for researchers who are new in the field of synthesis of CNTs or who wants to get abreast with the techniques of determining the growth of VACNTs arrays.

  6. Growth patterns and cerebro-placental hemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebius, M J; Clur, S A B; Vink, A S; Pajkrt, E; Kalteren, W S; Kooi, E M W; Bos, A F; du Marchie Sarvaas, G J; Bilardo, C M

    2018-05-28

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has been associated with a reduced fetal head circumference (HC). The underlying pathophysiological background remains undetermined. We aimed to define trends in fetal growth and cerebro-placental Doppler flow, and to investigate the association between head growth and cerebro-placental flow in fetuses with CHD. Fetuses with CHD and serial measurements of HC, abdominal circumference (AC), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UA-PI), and cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) were included. CHD was categorized into 3 groups based on expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation: normal, mild to moderately reduced, and severely reduced. Trends over time in Z-scores were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. 181 fetuses fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation in CHD was classified as normal in 44, mild to moderately reduced in 84 and severely reduced in 53 cases. HC z-scores showed a tendency to decrease until 23 weeks, then to increase until 33 weeks, followed by a decrease again in the late third trimester. AC increased progressively with advancing gestation. MCA-PI and UA-PI showed significant trends throughout pregnancy, but CPR did not. There were no associations between expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation and fetal growth. Average trends in MCA-PI were significantly different in the three subgroups (P=0.010), whereas average trends in UA-PI and CPR were similar (P=0.530 and P=0.285). Furthermore, there was no significant association between MCA-PI and HC (P=0.284). Fetal biometry and Doppler flow patterns are within normal ranges in fetuses with CHD, but show trends over time. Fetal head growth is not associated with the cerebral blood flow pattern or placental function and HC is not influenced by the cerebral arterial oxygen saturation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright

  7. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  8. The effects of early time laser drive on hydrodynamic instability growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Suter, L. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Masse, L. P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15

    Defects on inertial confinement fusion capsule surfaces can seed hydrodynamic instability growth and adversely affect capsule performance. The dynamics of shocks launched during the early period of x-ray driven National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions determine whether perturbations will grow inward or outward at peak implosion velocity and final compression. In particular, the strength of the first shock, launched at the beginning of the laser pulse, plays an important role in determining Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) oscillations on the ablation front. These surface oscillations can couple to the capsule interior through subsequent shocks before experiencing Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. We compare radiation hydrodynamic simulations of NIF implosions to analytic theories of the ablative RM and RT instabilities to illustrate how early time laser strength can alter peak velocity growth. We develop a model that couples the RM and RT implosion phases and captures key features of full simulations. We also show how three key parameters can control the modal demarcation between outward and inward growth.

  9. The need for data science in epidemic modelling. Comment on: "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Leon; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    In their review, Chowell et al. consider the ability of mathematical models to predict early epidemic growth [1]. In particular, they question the central prediction of classical differential equation models that the number of cases grows exponentially during the early stages of an epidemic. Using examples including HIV and Ebola, they argue that classical models fail to capture key qualitative features of early growth and describe a selection of models that do capture non-exponential epidemic growth. An implication of this failure is that predictions may be inaccurate and unusable, highlighting the need for care when embarking upon modelling using classical methodology. There remains a lack of understanding of the mechanisms driving many observed epidemic patterns; we argue that data science should form a fundamental component of epidemic modelling, providing a rigorous methodology for data-driven approaches, rather than trying to enforce established frameworks. The need for refinement of classical models provides a strong argument for the use of data science, to identify qualitative characteristics and pinpoint the mechanisms responsible for the observed epidemic patterns.

  10. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I during the early postnatal period in intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Naho; Shoji, Hiromichi; Suganuma, Hiroki; Ohkawa, Natsuki; Kantake, Masato; Murano, Yayoi; Sakuraya, Koji; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is essential for perinatal growth and development; low serum IGF-I has been observed during intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We investigated the effects of recombinant human (rh) IGF-I in IUGR rats during the early postnatal period. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation in pregnant rats. IUGR pups were divided into two groups injected daily with rhIGF-I (2 mg/kg; IUGR/IGF-I, n = 16) or saline (IUGR/physiologic saline solution (PSS), n = 16) from postnatal day (PND) 7 to 13. Maternal sham-operated pups injected with saline were used as controls (control, n = 16). Serum IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 3 and 5 were measured on PND25. The expression of Igf-i, IGF-I receptor (Igf-ir), Igfbp3, and 5 mRNA in the liver and brain was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction on PND25. Immunohistochemical staining of the liver for IGF expression was performed. Mean bodyweight on PND3 and PND25 in the IUGR pups (IUGR/IGF-I and IUGR/PSS) was significantly lower than that of the control pups. Serum IGF-I and hepatic Igf-ir mRNA in the IUGR pups were significantly lower than those in the control pups. In the IUGR/IGF-I group, hepatic Igfbp3 mRNA and liver immunohistochemical staining were increased. In the IUGR/PSS and control pups, there were no significant differences between these two groups in serum IGFBP3 and IGFBP5, hepatic Igf-i and Igfbp-5 mRNA, or brain Igf mRNA. No benefits on body and brain weight gain but an effective increase in hepatic IGFBP-3 was observed after treatment with 2 mg/kg rhIGF-I during the early postnatal period. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  12. Patterns of Sensitivity to Parenting and Peer Environments: Early Temperament and Adolescent Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L

    2018-03-14

    Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  14. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

    2013-03-01

    Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison

  15. Striatal Dopamine Depletion Patterns and Early Non-Motor Burden in Parkinsons Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Chung

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that Parkinson patients with more non-motor symptoms have a different pattern of striatal dopamine depletion, particularly in areas other than the sensorimotor striatum, compared to those with fewer non-motor symptoms.We conducted a prospective survey of the degree of non-motor symptoms (using the Korean version of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale; K-NMSS in 151 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease who had undergone a dopamine transporter PET scan as an initial diagnostic procedure. We classified the patients into two groups; high non-motor patients (HNM-PD; K-NMSS score ≥ 41 and low non-motor patients (LNM-PD.Patients in the HNM-PD group (n = 71 were older, had longer symptom duration, exhibited more severe motor deficits, and had been prescribed higher levodopa-equivalent doses at follow-up than those in the LNM-PD group. However, dopamine transporter binding to the striatal sub-regions and inter-sub-regional binding ratios were comparable between the two groups. A general linear model showed that the HNM-PD group had significantly more severe motor deficits than the LNM-PD group after controlling for age, gender, symptom duration, and dopamine transporter binding to the sensorimotor striatum.This study demonstrated that the pattern of striatal dopamine depletion does not contribute to early non-motor burden in Parkinson's disease. Our results suggest that LNM-PD patients may have a more benign course of motor symptom progression than HNM-PD patients.

  16. Early Holocene humidity patterns in the Iberian Peninsula reconstructed from lake, pollen and speleothem records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, Mario; Aranbarri, Josu; Moreno, Ana; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.

    2018-02-01

    Comparison of selected, well-dated, lacustrine, speleothem and terrestrial pollen records spanning the Holocene onset and the Early Holocene (ca. 11.7-8 cal kyrs BP) in the Iberian Peninsula shows large hydrological fluctuations and landscape changes with a complex regional pattern in timing and intensity. Marine pollen records from Alboran, the Mediterranean and off shore Atlantic sites show a step-wise increase in moisture and forest during this transition. However, available continental records point to two main patterns of spatial and temporal hydrological variability: i) Atlantic-influenced sites located at the northwestern areas (Enol, Sanabria, Lucenza, PRD-4), characterized by a gradual increase in humidity from the end of the Younger Dryas to the Mid Holocene, similarly to most North Atlantic records; and ii) continental and Mediterranean-influenced sites (Laguna Grande, Villarquemado, Fuentillejo, Padul, Estanya, Banyoles, Salines), with prolonged arid conditions of variable temporal extension after the Younger Dryas, followed by an abrupt increase in moisture at 10-9 cal kyrs BP. Different local climate conditions influenced by topography or the variable sensitivity (gradual versus threshold values) of the proxies analyzed in each case are evaluated. Vegetation composition (conifers versus mesothermophilous taxa) and resilience would explain a subdued response of vegetation in central continental areas while in Mediterranean sites, insufficient summer moisture availability could not maintain high lake levels and promote mesophyte forest, in contrast to Atlantic-influenced areas. Comparison with available climate models, Greenland ice cores, North Atlantic marine sequences and continental records from Central and Northern Europe and the whole Mediterranean region underlines the distinctive character of the hydrological changes occurred in inner Iberia throughout the Early Holocene. The persistent arid conditions might be explained by the intensification

  17. HIV evolution in early infection: selection pressures, patterns of insertion and deletion, and the impact of apobec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaschen, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniels, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV -I env coding sequences in 81 very early B SUbtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n=78) or two closely related viruses (n=3). In these cases the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 envand identified a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either (i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or (ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was both embedded in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp4l. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions and provide evidence that the length

  18. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; He, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xue-Ling; Lu, Jin-Hua; Li, Sheng-Hui; Wen, Xing-Xuan; Chan, Fan-Fan; Chen, Nian-Nian; Qiu, Lan; Mai, Wei-Bi; Zhang, Rui-Fang; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-04-28

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" (n 1026, 14.8%), "Dairy" (n 1020, 14.7%), "Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts" (n 799, 11.5%), "Meats" (n 1066, 15.3%), "Vegetables" (n 1383, 19.9%), and "Varied" (n 1224, 17.6%). The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the "Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts" and "Varied" groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" group. Compared with women in the "Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups" group, those in the "Varied" group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08). These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby.

  19. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shan Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. The following six dietary patterns were identified: “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” (n 1026, 14.8%, “Dairy” (n 1020, 14.7%, “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” (n 799, 11.5%, “Meats” (n 1066, 15.3%, “Vegetables” (n 1383, 19.9%, and “Varied” (n 1224, 17.6%. The mean neonatal birth weight Z scores of women in the above patterns were 0.02, 0.07, 0.20, 0.01, 0.06, and 0.14, respectively. Women in the “Fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts” and “Varied” groups had significantly heavier infants compared with those in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group. Compared with women in the “Cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups” group, those in the “Varied” group had marginally significantly lower odds of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA infant after adjustment for other confounders (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.04, p = 0.08. These findings suggest that compared to a traditional Cantonese diet high in cereals, eggs, and Cantonese soups, a diet high in fruits, nuts, and Cantonese desserts might be associated with a higher birth weight, while a varied diet might be associated with a greater birth weight and also a decreased risk of having a SGA baby.

  20. Impact of Early Versus Late Diuretic Exposure on Metabolic Bone Disease and Growth in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Lucas E; O'Mara, Keliana L

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay. A total of 147 patients were included. Early initiation (n = 90) and late initiation (n = 57) arms were balanced with respect to birth weight and gestational age. There was no difference in incidence of MBD in the early group (76%) versus the late group (65%; p = 0.164). Stratification by cumulative dose showed incidence of 85% in patients receiving ≥8 mg/kg of furosemide, compared with 68% and 64% of those in the <4 mg/kg and 4 to 7.9 mg/kg strata, respectively (p = 0.06). The early group experienced greater reductions in length-for-age growth during diuretic therapy (-70% versus -40%; p = 0.009). Electrolyte abnormalities were more prevalent in the early group. Although there was no difference in duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced in the late group (75 versus 89 days; p = 0.003). Timing of diuretic initiation did not affect incidence of MBD. Increased cumulative furosemide exposure may be associated with higher incidence. Patients first exposed to diuretics within 2 weeks of life are at higher risk for electrolyte abnormalities and reduced growth velocity.

  1. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  2. Effects of Salinity on Seed Germination and Early Growth of Moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidombo, S.D; KOech, E.K

    2007-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Iam is a very important species because of it's multiple uses. The tree grows in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Central America and South America. In Kenya, it grows in drier regions of Baringo, Kibwezi, Mandera and the coastal strip. These regions are known to have substantially high level of soluble salts. The study aims at finding the effect of salinity on germination and early seedling growth of M. oleifera seedlings. This was tested in Moi University department of forestry laboratory by varying the concentration of Nacl moles (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09) in germination medium. The petri dishes with germination media were placed in the incubator at 30 degrees Celsius each containing 25 seeds of each treatment replicated four times. The effect of seedling growth and development was tested in the greenhouse. This was done by varying the concentration of Nacl moles (0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45) in the forest soil used in the experiment. After germination one seedling per treatment was randomly selected and then carefully dug. The root length, shoot height, total dry matter, stem dry matter and leaves dry matter were measured. This was repeated at intervals of one week for seven weeks. The data obtained from the experiments were analysed using ANOVA based on generalized linear modelling procedures. The tests indicated that M. oleifera seed germination and early seedling growth was significantly (p<0.05) affected by salinity. The seedlings also demonstrated development of swellings in the root region and the development of multiple stems for salt concentrations of 0.05 moles and above. These observations show that M. oleifera is affected by salinity in both seed germination and early seedling growth

  3. AlGaInAs narrow stripe selective growth on substrates patterned with different mask designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W; Pan, J Q; Yang, H; Hou, L P; Zhou, F; Zhao, L J; Zhu, H L; Wang, W

    2006-01-01

    We have performed a narrow stripe selective growth of oxide-free AlGaInAs waveguides on InP substrates patterned with pairs of SiO 2 mask stripes under optimized growth conditions. The mask stripe width varied from 0 to 40 μm, while the window region width between a pair of mask stripes was fixed at 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 μm. Flat and smooth AlGaInAs waveguides covered by specific InP layers are successfully grown on substrates patterned with different mask designs. The thickness enhancement ratio and the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the AlGaInAs narrow stripe waveguides are strongly dependent on the mask stripe width and the window region width. In particular, a large PL wavelength shift of 79 nm and a PL FWHM of less than 64 meV are obtained simultaneously with a small mask stripe width varying from 0 to 40 μm when the window region width is 1.5 μm. We present some possible interpretations of the experimental observations in considering both the migration effect from a masked region and the lateral vapour diffusion effect

  4. Growth and demographic patterns of marriages of foreign population in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Cortina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic growth of international immigration in Spain during the last decade has considerably increased the number of marriages with at least one foreign national. Between 1989 and 2004, the proportion of these marriages increased from 4% to12%, totalling 25.618 unions in 2004. However, marriage patterns of foreign nationals have attracted little attention among researcher spartly because of the small number of cases that were available until recently. Within this context, this paper examines the growth and demographic patterns of marriages of foreign populationin Spain, compared to those of only Spanish nationals, taking into account the age at marriage, type of union (religious or civil,first and later order of marriages, and degree of endogamy. We use microdata from the Spanish vital statistics on marriages (Movimiento Natural de la Población between 1989 and 2004. Results show that marriages of foreign population in Spain, particularly those that involve one Spanish partner, present some distinct characteristics, in particular associated with gender, in contrast to those marriages that only involve Spanish nationals.

  5. Early embryonic chromosome instability results in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Mkrtchyan

    Full Text Available The discovery of copy number variations (CNV in the human genome opened new perspectives on the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the aetiology of common diseases. Here, a single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human tissues led us to uncover the phenomenon of mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. The CNV mosaic ratios were different between the 10 individuals studied. However, they were stable in the T lymphocytes, immortalized B lymphoblastoid cells, and skin fibroblasts analyzed in each individual. Because these cell types have a common origin in the connective tissues, we suggest that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and occur only once, after which the stable mosaic ratio is maintained throughout the differentiated tissues. This concept is further supported by a unique study of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year difference from two subjects. We provide the first evidence of somatic mosaicism for CNV, with stable variation ratios in different cell types of one individual leading to the hypothesis of early embryonic chromosome instability resulting in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues. This concept has the potential to open new perspectives in personalized genetic diagnostics and can explain genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to better understand the aetiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic mutations.

  6. Practice patterns and long-term survival for early-stage rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Sanoff, Hanna K; Penn, Dolly C; Meyers, Michael O; Tepper, Joel E

    2013-12-01

    Standard of care treatment for most stage I rectal cancers is total mesorectal excision (TME). Given the morbidity associated with TME, local excision (LE) for early-stage rectal cancer has been explored. This study examines practice patterns and overall survival (OS) for early-stage rectal cancer. All patients in the National Cancer Data Base diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1998 to 2010 were initially included. Use of LE versus proctectomy and use of adjuvant radiation therapy were compared over time. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare OS based on treatment. LE was used to treat 46.5% of patients with T1 and 16.8% with T2 tumors. Use of LE increased steadily over time (P OS than those treated with proctectomy alone or multimodality therapy. Guideline-concordant adoption of LE for treatment of low-risk stage I rectal cancer is increasing. However, use of LE is also increasing for higher-risk rectal cancers that do not meet guideline criteria for LE. Treatment with LE alone is associated with poorer long-term OS. Additional studies are warranted to understand the factors driving increased use of LE.

  7. Global patterns and clines in the growth of common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, L; Copp, G H

    2017-07-01

    This review provides a meta-analytical assessment of the global patterns and clines in the growth of Cyprinus carpio as measured by length-at-age (L t ) or von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) parameters, mass-length relationship (W-L t ) and condition factor, based on literature data. In total, 284 studies were retrieved spanning 91 years of research and carried out on 381 waterbodies-locations in 50 countries in all five continents. Although native C. carpio achieved larger (asymptotic) size relative to its non-native counterpart, the latter grew faster during the first 7 years of life. Lentic populations (especially in natural lakes) also achieved larger sizes relative to lotic ones and the same was true for populations in cold and temperate v. arid climates. Unlike previous studies (on much more restricted datasets), only weak latitudinal clines in instantaneous growth rate, L t at age 3 and mortality were observed globally and this was probably due to the presence of counter-gradient growth variation at all representative age classes (i.e. 1-10 years). Slightly negative allometry was revealed by the W-L t and the related form factor tended to distinguish the more elongated and torpedo-shaped body typical of the wild form from the deeper body of feral-domesticated C. carpio. Existing population dynamics models for C. carpio will benefit from the comprehensive range of waterbody type × climate class-specific VBGF parameters provided in the present study; whereas, more studies are needed on the species' growth in tropical regions and to unravel the possibility of confounding effects on age estimation due to both historical and methodological reasons. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Macintosh

    Full Text Available Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD. Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the

  9. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  10. Serotonin has early, cilia-independent roles in Xenopus left-right patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Vandenberg

    2013-01-01

    Consistent left-right (LR patterning of the heart and viscera is a crucial part of normal embryogenesis. Because errors of laterality form a common class of birth defects, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms and stage at which LR asymmetry is initiated. Frog embryos are a system uniquely suited to analysis of the mechanisms involved in orientation of the LR axis because of the many genetic and pharmacological tools available for use and the fate-map and accessibility of early blastomeres. Two major models exist for the origin of LR asymmetry and both implicate pre-nervous serotonergic signaling. In the first, the charged serotonin molecule is instructive for LR patterning; it is redistributed asymmetrically along the LR axis and signals intracellularly on the right side at cleavage stages. A second model suggests that serotonin is a permissive factor required to specify the dorsal region of the embryo containing chiral cilia that generate asymmetric fluid flow during neurulation, a much later process. We performed theory-neutral experiments designed to distinguish between these models. The results uniformly support a role for serotonin in the cleavage-stage embryo, long before the appearance of cilia, in ventral right blastomeres that do not contribute to the ciliated organ.

  11. Pattern recognition applied to infrared images for early alerts in fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Cord, Aurélien

    2014-09-01

    Fog conditions are the cause of severe car accidents in western countries because of the poor induced visibility. Its forecast and intensity are still very difficult to predict by weather services. Infrared cameras allow to detect and to identify objects in fog while visibility is too low for eye detection. Over the past years, the implementation of cost effective infrared cameras on some vehicles has enabled such detection. On the other hand pattern recognition algorithms based on Canny filters and Hough transformation are a common tool applied to images. Based on these facts, a joint research program between IFSTTAR and Cerema has been developed to study the benefit of infrared images obtained in a fog tunnel during its natural dissipation. Pattern recognition algorithms have been applied, specifically on road signs which shape is usually associated to a specific meaning (circular for a speed limit, triangle for an alert, …). It has been shown that road signs were detected early enough in images, with respect to images in the visible spectrum, to trigger useful alerts for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  12. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  13. Evaluation of early systolic flow pattern in left ventricle by tagging cine MRI in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakura, Kazuyoshi; Anno, Naoko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    The tagging method is a new technique, which permits to apply discretionary lines (tags) on MR images. To evaluate intra left ventricular (LV) flow pattern, we performed ECG-gated gradient field echo cine MRI using tagging method in five normal male volunteers, aged 22-42 years. The horizontal long axis view of LV was imaged by multiphasic field echo pulse sequence. The three parallel tags (basal, middle and apical portion) were established on the horizontal long axis view of LV just after the triggered QRS waves. And the initial two images (70 ms and 120 ms after the triggered QRS waves) were analyzed. On the two tags (middle and apical portion) of these three tags, we measured the distance of displacement of the tags on three points (the near site of IVS, middle portion and the near site of free wall) respectively. At 70 ms after the trigger point, the only tagged blood at the near site of free wall flowed toward the apex. At 120 ms after the trigger point, all the tagged blood flowed toward the outflow tract of LV. And the maximum blood flow velocity was observed at the near site of IVS on middle portion of LV (166.0 mm/s). These results coincided with earlier studies by Doppler echocardiography. But we could not observe intra LV blood flow patterns throughout one cardiac cycle in this pulse sequence, because the tags had flowed out from LV and had become unclear due to spin relaxation and mixing. We concluded that the tagging method was useful to evaluate intra left ventricular blood flow patterns in early systolic phase. (author)

  14. Study of molecular-beam epitaxy growth on patterned GaAs (311)A substrates with different mesa height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Q.; Nötzel, R.; Schönherr, H.-P.; Ploog, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the evolution of the growth front during molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (3 1 1)A substrates stripe patterned along the [ ] direction as a function of the mesa height. During growth (1 0 0) and (2 1 1)A facets are formed and expand at the corners near the two opposite lying ( )A and (1 1

  15. Fetal and infant growth patterns associated with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gishti, O.; Gaillard, R.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Heppe, D.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Durmus, B.u.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. Objective: We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. Design, Settings and participants:We

  16. Has growth mixture modeling improved our understanding of how early change predicts psychotherapy outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Early change in psychotherapy predicts outcome. Seven studies have used growth mixture modeling [GMM; Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class-latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sawyers (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291-322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] to identify patient classes based on early change but have yielded conflicting results. Here, we review the earlier studies and apply GMM to a new data set. In a university-based training clinic, 251 patients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire-45 [Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., Umphress, V., Lunnen, K., Okiishi, J., Burlingame, G., … Reisinger, C. W. (1996). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2). Wilmington, DE: American Professional Credentialing Services] at each psychotherapy session. We used GMM to identify class structure based on change in the first six sessions and examined trajectories as predictors of outcome. The sample was best described as a single class. There was no evidence of autoregressive trends in the data. We achieved better fit to the data by permitting latent variables some degree of kurtosis, rather than to assume multivariate normality. Treatment outcome was predicted by the amount of early improvement, regardless of initial level of distress. The presence of sudden early gains or losses did not further improve outcome prediction. Early improvement is an easily computed, powerful predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The use of GMM to investigate the relationship between change and outcome is technically complex and computationally intensive. To date, it has not been particularly informative.

  17. Engineering the growth pattern and cell morphology for enhanced PHB production by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    E. coli JM109∆envC∆nlpD deleted with genes envC and nlpD responsible for degrading peptidoglycan (PG) led to long filamentous cell shapes. When cell fission ring location genes minC and minD of Escherichia coli were deleted, E. coli JM109∆minCD changed the cell growth pattern from binary division to multiple fissions. Bacterial morphology can be further engineered by overexpressing sulA gene resulting in inhibition on FtsZ, thus generating very long cellular filaments. By overexpressing sulA in E. coli JM109∆envC∆nlpD and E. coli JM109∆minCD harboring poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis operon phbCAB encoded in plasmid pBHR68, respectively, both engineered cells became long filaments and accumulated more PHB compared with the wild-type. Under same shake flask growth conditions, E. coli JM109∆minCD (pBHR68) overexpressing sulA grown in multiple fission pattern accumulated approximately 70 % PHB in 9 g/L cell dry mass (CDM), which was significantly higher than E. coli JM109∆envC∆nlpD and the wild type, that produced 7.6 g/L and 8 g/L CDM containing 64 % and 51 % PHB, respectively. Results demonstrated that a combination of the new division pattern with elongated shape of E. coli improved PHB production. This provided a new vision on the enhanced production of inclusion bodies.

  18. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Goktas

    Full Text Available The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for 3 consecutive early embryonic stages in the chick embryo. In conjunction with the in vivo growth and hemodynamics data, in vitro reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was performed to track changes in transcript expression relevant to histogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic arterial wall. Our non-invasive extended OCT imaging technique for the microstructural data showed continuous vessel growth. OCT data coupled with the PIV technique revealed significant but intermitted increases in wall shear stress (WSS between first and second assigned stages and a noticeable decrease afterwards. Growth rate, however, did not vary significantly throughout the embryonic period. Among all the genes studied, only the MMP-2 and CASP-3 expression levels remained unchanged during the time course. Concurrent relationships were obtained among the transcriptional modulation of the genes, vascular growth and hemodynamics-related changes. Further studies are indicated to determine cause and effect relationships and reversibility between mechanical and molecular regulation of vasculogenesis.

  19. Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    Nano-science and nano-technology are rapidly developing scientific and technological areas that deal with physical, chemical and biological processes that occur on nano-meter scale – one millionth of a millimeter. Self-organization and pattern formation play crucial role on nano-scales and promise new, effective routes to control various nano-scales processes. This book contains lecture notes written by the lecturers of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems" that took place in St Etienne de Tinee, France, in the fall 2004. They give examples of self-organization phenomena on micro- and nano-scale as well as examples of the interplay between phenomena on nano- and macro-scales leading to complex behavior in various physical, chemical and biological systems. They discuss such fascinating nano-scale self-organization phenomena as self-assembly of quantum dots in thin solid films, pattern formation in liquid crystals caused by light, self-organi...

  20. The global pattern of urbanization and economic growth: evidence from the last three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process.

  1. Multidisciplinary characterization of the long-bone cortex growth patterns through sheep's ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra-Moo, Oscar; Nacarino-Meneses, Carmen; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Enciso, Silvia; García Gil, Orosia; Llorente Rodríguez, Laura; Rodríguez Barbero, Miguel Ángel; de Aza, Antonio H; González Martín, Armando

    2015-07-01

    Bone researches have studied extant and extinct taxa extensively trying to disclose a complete view of the complex structural and chemical transformations that model and remodel the macro and microstructure of bone during growth. However, to approach bone growth variations is not an easy task, and many aspects related with histological transformations during ontogeny remain unresolved. In the present study, we conduct a holistic approach using different techniques (polarized microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction) to examine the histomorphological and histochemical variations in the cortical bone of sheep specimens from intrauterine to adult stages, using environmentally controlled specimens from the same species. Our results suggest that during sheep bone development, the most important morphological (shape and size) and chemical transformations in the cortical bone occur during the first weeks of life; synchronized but dissimilar variations are established in the forelimb and hind limb cortical bone; and the patterns of bone tissue maturation in both extremities are differentiated in the adult stage. All of these results indicate that standardized histological models are useful not only for evaluating many aspects of normal bone growth but also to understand other important influences on the bones, such as pathologies that remain unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The global pattern of urbanization and economic growth: evidence from the last three decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Chen

    Full Text Available The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process.

  3. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Parental care mitigates carry-over effects of poor early conditions on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Poor developmental conditions can have long-lasting negative effects on offspring phenotypes, but impacts often differ among species. Contrasting responses may reflect disparities in experimental protocols among single-species studies or inherent differences among species in their sensitivity to early conditions and/or ability to mitigate negative impacts. We used a common experimental protocol to assess and compare the role of parental care in mitigating effects of poor early conditions on offspring among 4 sympatric bird species in the wild. We experimentally induced low incubation temperatures and examined effects on embryonic developmental rates, hatching success, nestling growth rates, and parental responses. We examined the generality of these effects across 4 species that differ in their phylogenetic history, breeding ecology, and life histories. We found that cooling led to delayed hatching in all species, but carry-over effects on offspring differed among species. Parents of some but not all species increased their offspring provisioning rates in response to experimental cooling with critical benefits for offspring growth rates. Our study shows for the first time that species exhibit clear differences in the degree to which they are affected by poor early conditions. Observed differences among species demonstrate that parental care is a critical mechanism for mitigating potential negative effects on offspring and suggest that parental responses may be constrained to varying degrees by ecology and life histories.

  5. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  6. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  7. Size, growth, and size‐selective mortality of subyearling Chinook Salmon during early marine residence in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Madilyn M.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Chamberlin, Joshua W.; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2018-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, survival can be heavily influenced by size‐selective mortality during juvenile life stages. Understanding how and when size‐selective mortality operates on a population can reveal underlying growth dynamics and size‐selective ecological processes affecting the population and thus can be used to guide conservation efforts. For subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Puget Sound, previous research reported a strong positive relationship between marine survival and body mass during midsummer in epipelagic habitats within Puget Sound, suggesting that early marine growth drives survival. However, a fine‐scale analysis of size‐selective mortality is needed to identify specific critical growth periods and habitats. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe occupancy patterns across estuarine delta, nearshore marine, and offshore epipelagic habitats in Puget Sound; (2) describe changes in FL and weight observed across habitats and time; (3) evaluate evidence for size‐selective mortality; and (4) illustrate how marine survival of the stocks studied may be affected by variation in July weight. In 2014 and 2015, we sampled FLs, weights, and scales from seven hatchery‐origin and two natural‐origin stocks of subyearling Chinook Salmon captured every 2 weeks during out‐migration and rearing in estuary, nearshore, and offshore habitats within Puget Sound. Natural‐origin stocks had more protracted habitat occupancy patterns than hatchery‐origin stocks and were smaller than hatchery‐origin stocks in both years. Regardless of origin, subyearlings were longer and heavier and grew faster in offshore habitats compared to estuary and nearshore habitats. For all stocks, we found little evidence of size‐selective mortality among habitats in Puget Sound. These patterns were consistent in both years. Finally, the weights of subyearlings sampled during July in the offshore habitat predicted Puget Sound‐wide marine

  8. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2017-01-01

    increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams’ additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we cannot confirm that temperature is the primary reason for kit mortality, under the conditions of plenty straw access for maternal nest......We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams...... building. Instead, prenatal and/or parturient litter size is the primary factor influencing early kit vitality. The results indicate that the focus should be on litter size and dam welfare around the times of gestation and birth to increase early kit survival in farmed mink....

  9. Constitutional Growth Delay Pattern of Growth in Velo−Cardio−Facial Syndrome: Longitudinal follow up and final height of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Nihal; Güran, Tülay; Akalın, Figen; Akçay, Teoman; Ayabakan, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Bereket, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with velo−cardio−facial syndrome (VCFS) who were admitted to our pediatric endocrinology clinic because of short stature and followed longitudinally until attainment of final height. Both patients followed a growth pattern consistent with constitutional delay of puberty with normal and near normal final height. Case 2 also had partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency and severe short stature (height SDS −3.4 SDS), but showed spontaneous catch−up and ended up with a final height of −2 SDS. These cases suggest that short stature in children with VCFS is due to a pattern of growth similar to that observed in constitutional delay of growth and puberty. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318064

  10. Establishment and Early Growth of Willow at Different Levels of Weed Competition and Nitrogen Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Lundkvist, Anneli; Forkman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of weed competition and nitrogen fertilization on the early growth performance of willow, cuttings of the clone Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) were planted in buckets together with model weeds (spring barley or white mustard) sown 15, 26, and 30 days after willow...... gave higher willow biomass production in willow with weeds sown after 26 or 30 days. Type of model weed had no effect on willow performance. Weed biomass and maximum shoot height were higher in weeds planted without willows compared to the willow-weed mixtures. A high nitrogen level gave more weed...... biomass when planted without willows and in the willow-weed mixture with weeds sown after 15 days. We conclude that for the given high density of willow, competition from weeds emerging soon after willow planting had strong effect on early production. Furthermore, if there is a risk of weed infestation...

  11. Growth patterns of survivors of retinoblastoma treated with ophthalmic artery chemosurgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruti S Akella

    Full Text Available Although studies from pediatric cancers (largely acute lymphoblastic leukemia have shown that patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy may experience decreased growth velocity during the treatment phase, no such data exist for retinoblastoma patients treated with systemic chemotherapy or ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC. The purpose of this study is to report growth patterns of our retinoblastoma (Rb population who were treated with OAC in a retrospective, single center (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center review of 341 patients treated between 2006 and 2016. Children who only received OAC were classified as naive; those who were treated initially with systemic chemotherapy and subsequently presented to our center for OAC were termed secondary; and a small group of patients who received single-agent systemic chemotherapy prior to OAC were labeled bridge. For all patients, height and weight were recorded at monthly intervals during OAC (short-term and then annually during a follow-up period (long-term up to 3 years after treatment. Excluded from this study were children who received external radiation therapy and those with genetic syndromes, which are independently associated with growth derangements. During OAC, there was no significant difference in growth velocity between the naïve and secondary groups. In either group, number of treatments also did not affect growth rate. Three years after the end of OAC, naïve patients were in the 68th percentile by height (95% CI 61.30, 74.63 compared to secondary patients in the 61st percentile (95% CI 51.1, 71.47. Both groups were in the same weight percentiles during the first two years of follow-up but at the three-year follow-up period, naïve patients were in the 63rd percentile (95% CI 57.4, 69.4 and secondary patients were in the 60th percentile (95% CI 50.4, 69.7. OAC for retinoblastoma does not appear to impact short-term growth velocity, weight gain during the treatment period or after

  12. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  13. Management of Very Early-onset Fetal Growth Restriction: Results from 92 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellen, Friederike; Beckmann, Annika; Banz-Jansen, Constanze; Weichert, Jan; Rody, Achim; Bohlmann, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate management of early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to define outcome according to obstetric setting. During an 11-year period (2000-2011), data of patients presenting with IUGR and preterm delivery of less than 30 weeks of gestation at a tertiary perinatal center were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 92 pregnancies were investigated. Delivery was indicated for fetal reasons in 38 out of 92 patients. Sixteen children of our cohort died within one year post partum, out of which eight had suffered from severe early-onset IUGR causing iatrogenic preterm delivery. Concerning the fetal outcome, gestational age at delivery and antenatal exposure to corticosteroids were found to be crucial. In some cases, respiratory distress syndrome prophylaxis and a "wait and see" approach to management in favor of a prolongation of the pregnancy might be favorable. Randomized prospective trials in early-onset IUGR with threatened preterm deliveries are needed in order to define guidelines for an individually tailored management of early-onset preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae......, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young...... vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth...

  15. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. STRIDER (Sildenafil TheRapy in dismal prognosis early onset fetal growth restriction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pels, A; Kenny, L C; Alfirevic, Z

    2017-01-01

    randomised placebo-controlled trials have been launched. Women with a singleton pregnancy between 18 and 30 weeks with severe fetal growth restriction of likely placental origin, and where the likelihood of perinatal death/severe morbidity is estimated to be significant are included. Participants......BACKGROUND: Severe, early-onset fetal growth restriction due to placental insufficiency is associated with a high risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity with long-lasting sequelae. Placental insufficiency is the result of abnormal formation and function of the placenta with inadequate...... Restriction (STRIDER) collaboration is to evaluate the effectiveness of sildenafil versus placebo in achieving healthy perinatal survival through the conduct of randomised clinical trials and systematic review including individual patient data meta-analysis. METHODS: Five national/bi-national multicentre...

  17. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on early growth of soybean (Glycine mac (L). Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Yulidar

    2015-01-01

    Increase my in domestic soybean production is one of the government's program to reduce dependence on imported soybeans and soybean efforts to achieve self-sufficiency in 2015. An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of gamma ray irradiation of of 60 Cobalt on early growth of soybean seed. Variety Denna 2 varieties have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 400 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Ps Jumat PAIR-BATAN. Plant growth from each doses is proved to be varied. From germination viability on the third day, the highest percentage of seedling with leaves is on 100 Gy dose (73.75%), and 7, 14 and 21 day the lowest is on dose 400 Gy. (author)

  18. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  19. Early Acceleration of Mathematics Students and its Effect on Growth in Self-esteem: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2002-11-01

    The Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) database was employed to examine the educational practice of early acceleration of students of mathematics on the development of their self-esteem across the entire secondary grade levels. Students were classified into three different academic categories (gifted, honors, and regular). Results indicated that, in terms of the development of their self-esteem, gifted students benefited from early acceleration, honors students neither benefited nor were harmed by early acceleration, and regular students were harmed by early acceleration. Early acceleration in mathematics promoted significant growth in self-esteem among gifted male students and among gifted, honors, and regular minority students. When students were accelerated, schools showed similar average growth in self-esteem among gifted students and regular students and a large effect of general support for mathematics on the average growth in self-esteem among honors students.

  20. What Determines the Growth Ambition of Dutch Early-Stage Entrepreneurs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Verheul; Linda van Mil

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the ambition to grow among Dutch early-stage entrepreneurs (nascents and young business owners). We use Adult Population Survey data of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the Netherlands. Merging cross-sectional data of the years 2002 to 2007, we arrive at a sample of 409 nascents and 336 young business owners. Growth ambition is measured by asking the respondent which statement fits him or her best: (1) I want my company to be as large a...

  1. Early maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories: a longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative US birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Surkan, Pamela J; Ettinger, Anna K; Hock, Rebecca S; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Strobino, Donna M; Minkovitz, Cynthia S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal depressive symptoms are negatively associated with early child growth in developing countries; however, few studies have examined this relation in developed countries or used a longitudinal design with data past the second year of the child’s life. We investigated if and when early maternal depressive symptoms affect average growth in young children up to age 6 in a nationally representative sample of US children. Methods: Using data from 6,550 singleton births from the E...

  2. 215 mandible fractures in 120 children: demographics, treatment, outcomes, and early growth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren M; Bykowski, Michael R; Cray, James J; Naran, Sanjay; Rottgers, S Alex; Shakir, Sameer; Vecchione, Lisa; Schuster, Lindsay; Losee, Joseph E

    2013-06-01

    Optimal management of pediatric mandible fractures demands that the practitioner balance reduction and fixation with preservation of growth potential and function. The ideal synthesis of these goals has not yet been defined. The authors catalogue their experience with pediatric mandible fractures at a major pediatric teaching hospital with reference to demographics, injury type, treatment, and outcomes to inform future management of these injuries. Demographics, management, and outcomes of pediatric mandible fractures presenting over 10 years at a pediatric trauma center were assessed. Cephalometric analysis was conducted. Relationships among demographics, fracture type, management, outcomes, and growth were explored. Two hundred fifteen mandible fractures in 120 patients younger than 18 years were analyzed (average follow-up, 19.5 months). The condylar head and neck were fractured most frequently. Operative management was significantly more likely for children older than 12 years (pfractures were significantly associated with a higher rate of adverse outcomes (pmandibular function by patient or surgeon. No significant growth differences existed on cephalometric analysis between our cohort and age- and sex-matched controls (p>0.05). This study reports the demographics, treatment, and early follow-up of a sizable cohort of pediatric mandible fractures. Management principles for these injuries are outlined. Although definitive recommendations must be withheld until longer follow-up is available, the data presented here show that the treatment protocols used at the authors' center have yielded largely uncompromised mandibular function and growth thus far.

  3. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  4. Orchestrated structure evolution: accelerating direct-write nanomanufacturing by combining top-down patterning with bottom-up growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitayaporn, Sathana; Baneyx, Francois; Schwartz, Daniel T [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1750 (United States); Hoo, Ji Hao; Boehringer, Karl F, E-mail: dts@uw.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1750 (United States)

    2010-05-14

    Direct-write nanomanufacturing with scanning beams and probes is flexible and can produce high quality products, but it is normally slow and expensive to raster point-by-point over a pattern. We demonstrate the use of an accelerated direct-write nanomanufacturing method called 'orchestrated structure evolution' (OSE), where a direct-write tool patterns a small number of growth 'seeds' that subsequently grow into the final thin film pattern. Through control of seed size and spacing, it is possible to vary the ratio of 'top-down' to 'bottom-up' character of the patterning processes, ranging from conventional top-down raster patterning to nearly pure bottom-up space-filling via seed growth. Electron beam lithography (EBL) and copper electrodeposition were used to demonstrate trade-offs between process time and product quality over nano- to microlength scales. OSE can reduce process times for high-cost EBL patterning by orders of magnitude, at the expense of longer (but inexpensive) copper electrodeposition processing times. We quantify the degradation of pattern quality that accompanies fast OSE patterning by measuring deviations from the desired patterned area and perimeter. We also show that the density of OSE-induced grain boundaries depends upon the seed separation and size. As the seed size is reduced, the uniformity of an OSE film becomes more dependent on details of seed nucleation processes than normally seen for conventionally patterned films.

  5. Comparison of Swirl Sign and Black Hole Sign in Predicting Early Hematoma Growth in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xin; Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Wei, Xiao; Hu, Xi; Wang, Xing-Chen; Zhu, Dan; Li, Rui; Cao, Du; Xie, Peng

    2018-01-29

    BACKGROUND Early hematoma growth is associated with poor outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The swirl sign (SS) and the black hole sign (BHS) are imaging markers in ICH patients. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of these 2 signs for early hematoma growth. MATERIAL AND METHODS ICH patients were screened for the appearance of the 2 signs within 6 h after onset of symptoms. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth were assessed. The accuracy of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis. RESULTS A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. BHS was found in 30 (15%) patients, and SS was found in 70 (35%) patients. Of the 71 patients with early hematoma growth, BHS was found on initial computed tomography scans in 24 (33.8%) and SS in 33 (46.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of BHS for predicting early hematoma growth were 33.8%, 95.3%, 80.0%, and 72.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of SS were 46.5%, 71.3%, 47.0%, and 71.0%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.646 for BHS and 0.589 for SS (P=0.08). Multivariate logistic regression showed that presence of BHS is an independent predictor of early hematoma growth. CONCLUSIONS The Black hole sign seems to be good predictor for hematoma growth. The presence of swirl sign on admission CT does not independently predict hematoma growth in patients with ICH.

  6. Early growth of Mexican-American children: lagging in preliteracy skills but not social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Fuller, Bruce; Chu, Lynna; Kim, Anthony; Franke, Todd; Bridges, Margaret; Kuo, Alice

    2013-11-01

    Latino toddlers fall behind White peers at 24 months of age in oral language and interactive skills with their mothers in English or Spanish. But Latino children enter kindergarten with social skills that rival White peers, despite social-class disparities. We ask whether cognitive trajectories widen during the 24-48 month period, how these patterns differ for Latinos, especially Mexican-Americans, and whether similar gaps in social-emotional growth appear. We analyzed growth patterns for a nationally representative birth sample (n = 4,690) drawn in 2001, estimating levels of change in development from 24 to 48 months of age, focusing on Latino subgroups. The mean gap in cognitive processing for Mexican-American children, already wide at 24-months of age relative to Whites (three-fourths of a standard deviation), remained constant at 48 months. But differences in social-emotional status were statistically insignificant at both 24 and 48 months. Mexican-American mothers were observed to be equally warm and supportive relative to White peers during interaction tasks. Yet the former group engaged less frequently in cognitive facilitation, oral language, and preliteracy activities in the home. Growth in both cognitive and social domains was considerably lower in larger families, placing children raised in poor or Spanish-speaking homes within a large household at greater risk of delays. Pediatricians and practitioners must carefully gauge the social-emotional well-being of Latino children, in developmental surveillance activities. Growth in cognitive and social domains unfolds independently for children of Mexican heritage, even when raised in economically poor families.

  7. Correlation between RNA Degradation Patterns of Rat's Brain and Early PMI at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Li, Z H; Tuo, Y; Liu, L; Li, K; Bian, J; Ma, J L; Chen, L

    2016-06-01

    To explore the correlation between early postmortem interval (PMI) and eight RNA markers of rat's brain at different temperatures. Total 222 SD rats were randomly divided into control group (PMI=0 h) and four experimental groups. And the rats in the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and respectively kept at 5 ℃, 15 ℃, 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ in a controlled environment chamber. The RNA was extracted from brain tissues, which was taken at 9 time points from 1 h to 24 h postmortem. The expression levels of eight markers, β-actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, respectively. Proper internal reference was selected by geNorm software. Regression analysis of normalized RNA markers was performed by SPSS software. Mathematical model for PMI estimation was established using R software. Another 6 SD rats with known PMI were used to verify the mathematical model. 5S rRNA, miR-9 and miR-125b were suitable as internal reference markers for their stable expression. Both β-actin and GAPDH had well time-dependent degradation patterns and degraded continually with prolongation of PMI in 24 h postmortem. The mathematical model of the variation of ΔCt values with PMI and temperature was set up by R software and the model could be used for PMI estimation. The average error rates of model validation using β-actin and GAPDH were 14.1% and 22.2%, respectively. The expression levels of β-actin and GAPDH are well correlated with PMI and environmental temperature. The mathematical model established in present study can provide references for estimating early PMI under various temperature conditions. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  8. Induction of Metamorphosis Causes Differences in Sex-Specific Allocation Patterns in Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) that Have Different Growth Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Pamela M; Beachy, Christopher K

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that salamanders growing at different rates would have allocation patterns that differ among male and female metamorphic and larval salamanders. We raised individual axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum , on four food regimes: constant high growth (throughout the experiment), constant low growth (restricted throughout the experiment), high growth switched to low growth (ad libitum switched after 140 d to restricted), and low growth switched to high growth (restricted switched after 140 d to ad libitum). Because axolotls are obligate paedomorphs, we exposed half of the salamanders to thyroid hormone to induce metamorphosis. We assayed growth and dissected and weighed gonads and fat bodies. Salamanders that were switched from restricted to ad libitum food regime delayed metamorphosis. In all treatment groups, females had larger gonads than males and males had larger fat bodies than females. The association between storage and reproduction differed between larvae and metamorphs and depended on sex.

  9. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomela, Johanna; Valta, Maija; Seppänen, Jani; Tarkkonen, Kati; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Härkönen, Pirkko

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood. We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig) and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice. VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p < 0.05) and inhibited metastasis to iliac and sacral lymph nodes. In addition, tumor volumes were smaller in the VEGFR3-Ig-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Transfection of PC-3 cells with the VEGF-C gene led to a high level of 29/31 kD VEGF-C expression in PC-3 cells. The size of orthotopic and subcutaneous PC-3/VEGF-C tumors was significantly greater than that of PC-3/mock tumors (both p < 0.001). Interestingly, while most orthotopic PC-3 and PC-3/mock tumors grown for 4 weeks metastasized to prostate-draining lymph nodes, orthotopic PC-3/VEGF-C tumors primarily metastasized to the lungs. PC-3/VEGF-C tumors showed highly angiogenic morphology with an increased density of blood capillaries compared with PC-3/mock tumors (p < 0.001). The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites

  10. Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia of the palate showing an angiocentric/angiodestructive growth pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ferreira Brasileiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE is a benign, self-limiting lesion of the oral mucosa with unknown pathogenesis. A 65-year-old male patient presented with an ulcerative palate lesion, which on microscopic examination exhibited an exuberant polymorphic lymphoid proliferation, numerous eosinophils, and extensive vascular destruction. The atypical lymphoid cells infiltrating the medium-sized vessels showed positivity for CD3, CD30, and granzyme B, implicating an activated cytotoxic T-cell phenotype. The lesion diagnosed as TUGSE achieved complete resolution within 3 months. This unusual presentation has expanded the spectrum of oral CD30+ T-cell atypical infiltrates and must be distinguished from lymphomas showing angiocentric/angiodestructive growth pattern.

  11. Laterally Stitched Heterostructures of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide: Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth on Lithographically Patterned Area

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2016-10-31

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have shown great promise in electronics and optoelectronics due to their unique electrical and optical properties. Heterostructured TMDC layers such as the laterally stitched TMDCs offer the advantages of better electronic contact and easier band offset tuning. Here, we demonstrate a photoresist-free focused ion beam (FIB) method to pattern as-grown TMDC monolayers by chemical vapor deposition, where the exposed edges from FIB etching serve as the seeds for growing a second TMDC material to form desired lateral heterostructures with arbitrary layouts. The proposed lithographic and growth processes offer better controllability for fabrication of the TMDC heterostrucuture, which enables the construction of devices based on heterostructural monolayers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  12. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  13. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on Si substrates without predeposition of metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, J.

    2005-07-01

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be readily synthesized on quartz or silicon-oxide-coated Si substrates using a chemical vapor deposition method, but it is difficult to grow them on pure Si substrates without predeposition of metal catalysts. We report that aligned CNTs were grown by pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine at 1000°C on the templates created on Si substrates with simple mechanical scratching. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray energy spectroscopy analysis revealed that the trenches and patterns created on the surface of Si substrates were preferred nucleation sites for nanotube growth due to a high surface energy, metastable surface structure, and possible capillarity effect. A two-step pyrolysis process maintained Fe as an active catalyst.

  14. Density and white shrimp growth pattern (penaeus merguiensis) in kampung nipah waters of perbaungan north sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Silaen, Sri; Budi Mulya, Miswar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the density and pattern of growth of white shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis)of the village Nipah waters. The data collection was conducted by sampling using nets and fishing gear “Langge” (a tool) to determine the density of the three observation stations. The result showed that the distribution of white shrimp in the waters of the estuary and surrounding degraded over the past ten years. The highest density at station II is 0.56 and 5/m2 and at least at the third station as much as 0.42 and 6/m2 The correlation between the density of shrimp with depth as well as the fraction of the base substrate showed that only the depth of the waters who has any significant correlation with the density of shrimp, although the closeness of the relationship is small.

  15. A MapReduce-Based Parallel Frequent Pattern Growth Algorithm for Spatiotemporal Association Analysis of Mobile Trajectory Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent pattern mining is an effective approach for spatiotemporal association analysis of mobile trajectory big data in data-driven intelligent transportation systems. While existing parallel algorithms have been successfully applied to frequent pattern mining of large-scale trajectory data, two major challenges are how to overcome the inherent defects of Hadoop to cope with taxi trajectory big data including massive small files and how to discover the implicitly spatiotemporal frequent patterns with MapReduce. To conquer these challenges, this paper presents a MapReduce-based Parallel Frequent Pattern growth (MR-PFP algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of taxi operating using large-scale taxi trajectories with massive small file processing strategies on a Hadoop platform. More specifically, we first implement three methods, that is, Hadoop Archives (HAR, CombineFileInputFormat (CFIF, and Sequence Files (SF, to overcome the existing defects of Hadoop and then propose two strategies based on their performance evaluations. Next, we incorporate SF into Frequent Pattern growth (FP-growth algorithm and then implement the optimized FP-growth algorithm on a MapReduce framework. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of taxi operating in both spatial and temporal dimensions by MR-PFP in parallel. The results demonstrate that MR-PFP is superior to existing Parallel FP-growth (PFP algorithm in efficiency and scalability.

  16. Growth Patterns of the Neurocentral Synchondrosis (NCS) in Immature Cadaveric Vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Laurel; Schwend, Richard; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Dumas, Megan; Schmidt, John

    2018-03-01

    Gross anatomic study of osteological specimens. To evaluate the age of closure for the neurocentral synchondrosis (NCS) in all 3 regions of the spine in children aged 1 to 18 years old. The ossification of the human vertebra begins from a vertebral body ossification center and a pair of neural ossification centers located within the centrum called the NCS. These bipolar cartilaginous centers of growth contribute to the growth of the vertebral body, spinal canal, and posterior elements of the spine. The closure of the synchondroses is dependent upon location of the vertebra and previous studies range from 2 to 16 years of age. Although animal and cadaveric studies have been performed regarding NCS growth and early instrumentation's effect on its development, the effects of NCS growth disturbances are still not completely understood. The vertebrae of 32 children (1 to 18 y old) from the Hamann-Todd Osteological collection were analyzed (no 2 or 9 y old specimens available). Vertebrae studied ranged from C1 to L5. A total of 768 vertebral specimens were photographed on a background grid to allow for measurement calibration. Measurements of the right and left NCS, pedicle width at the NCS, and spinal canal area were taken using Scandium image-analysis software (Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions, Germany). The percentage of the growth plate still open was found by dividing the NCS by the pedicle width and multiplying by 100. Data were analyzed with JMP 11 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The NCS was 100% open in all 3 regions of the spine in the 1- to 3-year age group. The cervical NCS closed first with completion around 5 years of age. The lumbar NCS was nearly fully closed by age 11. Only the thoracic region remained open through age 17 years. The left and right NCS closed simultaneously as there was no statistical difference between them. In all regions of the spine, the NCS appeared to close sooner in males than in females. Spinal canal area increased with age

  17. Activity of toluene-degrading Pseudomonas putida in the early growth phase of a biofilm for waste gas treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.R.; Møller, S.; Molin, S.

    1997-01-01

    A biological trickling filter for treatment of toluene-containing waste gas was studied. The overall kinetics of the biofilm growth was followed in the early growth phase. A rapid initial colonization took place during the first three days. The biofilm thickness increased exponentially, whereas...

  18. Simulating Spatial Growth Patterns in Developing Countries: A Case of Shama in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, J. N.; Nyarko, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and agent-based modelling (ABM) can be an efficient tool to improve spatial planning practices. This paper utilizes GIS and ABM approaches to simulate spatial growth patterns of settlement structures in Shama. A preliminary household survey on residential location decision-making choice served as the behavioural rule for household agents in the model. Physical environment properties of the model were extracted from a 2005 image implemented in NetLogo. The resulting growth pattern model was compared with empirical growth patterns to ascertain the model's accuracy. The paper establishes that the development of unplanned structures and its evolving structural pattern are a function of land price, proximity to economic centres, household economic status and location decision-making patterns. The application of the proposed model underlines its potential for integration into urban planning policies and practices, and for understanding residential decision-making processes in emerging cities in developing countries. Key Words: GIS; Agent-based modelling; Growth patterns; NetLogo; Location decision making; Computational Intelligence.

  19. Voluntary resistance running wheel activity pattern and skeletal muscle growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Elliott, Bradley; Guillemin, Bernard; Smith, Heather K

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the pattern of voluntary activity of young rats in response to resistance loading on running wheels and to determine the effects of the activity on the growth of six limb skeletal muscles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were housed individually with a resistance running wheel (R-RUN, n = 7) or a conventional free-spinning running wheel (F-RUN, n = 6) or without a wheel, as non-running control animals (CON, n = 6). The torque required to move the wheel in the R-RUN group was progressively increased, and the activity (velocity, distance and duration of each bout) of the two running wheel groups was recorded continuously for 45 days. The R-RUN group performed many more, shorter and faster bouts of running than the F-RUN group, yet the mean daily distance was not different between the F-RUN (1.3 +/- 0.2 km) and R-RUN group (1.4 +/- 0.6 km). Only the R-RUN resulted in a significantly (P RUN and R-RUN led to a significantly greater wet mass relative to increase in body mass and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the soleus muscle compared with CON. We conclude that the pattern of voluntary activity on a resistance running wheel differs from that on a free-spinning running wheel and provides a suitable model to induce physiological muscle hypertrophy in rats.

  20. Landscape analysis of urban growth patterns in Seremban, Malaysia, using spatio-temporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburas, Maher M.; Abdullah, Sabrina H.; Ramli, Mohammad F.; As'shari, Zulfa H.

    2016-06-01

    Urban growth is one of the major issues that have played a significant role in destroying the ecosystem in recent years. Landscape analysis is an important technique widely used to evaluate urban growth patterns. In this study, four land-use maps from 1984, 1990, 2000, and 2010 have been used to analyze an urban landscape. The values of a built-up area were initially computed using a geographic information system environment based on the spatial gradient approach. Mathematical matrices were then used to determine the amount of change in urban patches in each direction. Results of the number of patches, landscape shape index, aggregation index, and total edges confirmed that the urban patches in Seremban, Malaysia, have become more dispersed from 2000 to 2010. The urban patches have also become more continuous, especially in the north-western part of Seremban as a result of the urban development in the Nilai District. These results indicate the necessity to create new policies in the city to protect the sustainability of the land use of Seremban.

  1. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Slavchev

    Full Text Available Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses - PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality.

  2. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE DURING THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize, evaluate and measure the maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate and to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be identified from the dimensional changes produced along the first six years of life, maxillary impressions were made in two groups of study, by means of standard trays and silicone impression materials. The maxillary casts resulted had been 3D scanned at Multinr, in Sf. Gheorghe. The study was carried on a number of 34 patients with cleft palate, 16 boys and 18 girls, with ages between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in “St. Mary” University Children Hospital of Iaşi, as well as on 60 normal children. Bivariate Student’s t test established statistically significant negative differences between the mean values of the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary alveolar arch, positive non significant differences for the length and positive differences for the depth of the dehiscent palate in the experimental group, comparatively with normal children. Cleft palate patients have narrowed and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and flattened palate. At least therapeutically, the cleft palate group, operated at different ages, from 2 to 4 years, could not react like other groups of study from important European Cleft Centers and benefit from a good residual growth.

  3. Tuning up mind's pattern to nature's own idea: Eddington's early twenties case for variational derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, Ivahn

    This paper sets out to show how Eddington's early twenties case for variational derivatives significantly bears witness to a steady and consistent shift in focus from a resolute striving for objectivity towards "selective subjectivism" and structuralism. While framing his so-called "Hamiltonian derivatives" along the lines of previously available variational methods allowing to derive gravitational field equations from an action principle, Eddington assigned them a theoretical function of his own devising in The Mathematical Theory of Relativity (1923). I make clear that two stages should be marked out in Eddington's train of thought if the meaning of such variational derivatives is to be adequately assessed. As far as they were originally intended to embody the mind's collusion with nature by linking atomicity of matter with atomicity of action, variational derivatives were at first assigned a dual role requiring of them not only to express mind's craving for permanence but also to tune up mind's privileged pattern to "Nature's own idea". Whereas at a later stage, as affine field theory would provide a framework for world-building, such "Hamiltonian differentiation" would grow out of tune through gauge-invariance and, by disregarding how mathematical theory might precisely come into contact with actual world, would be turned into a mere heuristic device for structural knowledge.

  4. Evolutionary patterns in the sequence and structure of transfer RNA: early origins of archaea and viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Jie Sun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are ancient molecules that are central to translation. Since they probably carry evolutionary signatures that were left behind when the living world diversified, we reconstructed phylogenies directly from the sequence and structure of tRNA using well-established phylogenetic methods. The trees placed tRNAs with long variable arms charging Sec, Tyr, Ser, and Leu consistently at the base of the rooted phylogenies, but failed to reveal groupings that would indicate clear evolutionary links to organismal origin or molecular functions. In order to uncover evolutionary patterns in the trees, we forced tRNAs into monophyletic groups using constraint analyses to generate timelines of organismal diversification and test competing evolutionary hypotheses. Remarkably, organismal timelines showed Archaea was the most ancestral superkingdom, followed by viruses, then superkingdoms Eukarya and Bacteria, in that order, supporting conclusions from recent phylogenomic studies of protein architecture. Strikingly, constraint analyses showed that the origin of viruses was not only ancient, but was linked to Archaea. Our findings have important implications. They support the notion that the archaeal lineage was very ancient, resulted in the first organismal divide, and predated diversification of tRNA function and specificity. Results are also consistent with the concept that viruses contributed to the development of the DNA replication machinery during the early diversification of the living world.

  5. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  6. The effect of butterfly-scale inspired patterning on leading-edge vortex growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jacob Aaron

    Leading edge vortices (LEVs) are important for generating thrust and lift in flapping flight, and the surface patterning (scales) on butterfly wings is hypothesized to play a role in the vortex formation of the LEV. To simplify this complex flow problem, an experiment was designed to focus on the alteration of 2-D vortex development with a variation in surface patterning. Specifically, the secondary vorticity generated by the LEV interacting at the patterned surface was studied, as well as the subsequent effect on the LEV's growth rate and peak circulation. For this experiment, rapid-prototyped grooves based on the scale geometry of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) were created using additive manufacturing and were attached to a flat plate with a chordwise orientation, thus increasing plate surface area. The vortex generated by the grooved plate was then compared to a smooth plate case in an experiment where the plate translated vertically through a 2 x 3 x 5 cubic foot tow tank. The plate was impulsively started in quiescent water and flow fields at Rec = 1416, 2833, and 5667 are examined using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The maximum vortex formation number is 2.8 and is based on the flat plate travel length and chord length. Flow fields from each case show the generation of a secondary vortex whose interaction with the shear layer and LEV caused different behaviors depending upon the surface type. The vortex development process varied for each Reynolds number and it was found that for the lowest Reynolds number case a significant difference does not exist between surface types, however, for the other two cases the grooves affected the secondary vortex's behavior and the LEV's ability to grow at a rate similar to the smooth plate case.

  7. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Assessing the effect of phosphorus application on early growth of maize at Sunderbazar, Lamjung, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient element for maize production. A pot experiment was conducted during May-June, 2015 to assess the effects of different rates of P on early growth of maize plant at Sundarbazar, Lamjung. Two maize varieties (Rato Makai and Poshilo Makai-1 were subjected to four P levels (0 kg ha-1, 13 kg ha-1, 18 kg ha-1, and 23 kg ha-1 in randomized complete block design with four replications. The effects of different P level on root elongation, root biomass, plant height, root shoot biomass ratio and total dry matter were investigated at 45 days after sowing. For all parameters, the maximum value was obtained when soil was added with 18 kg P ha-1 & the minimum value under the control of 0 kg P ha-1. Maize varieties differed significantly in terms of all the parameters under study, and Poshilo Makai-1 performed better than Rato Makai at all P levels. So, from this result, it can be concluded that Poshilo Makai-1 appeared to be P efficient over Rato Makai at early growth stage. However, it would be necessary to look at the response of crop up to maturity and at wider range of P to have the better insight of their relative performance.

  9. Urban growth patterns in major Southeast Asian cities: Toward exposure mapping and vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapaka, Pradeep; Kamarajugedda, Shankar A.; Lo, Edmond Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Southeast Asia (SEA) is undergoing rapid urbanization, with urban population percentage increasing from 32% in 1990 to 48% in 2015. It is projected that by the year 2040, urban regions in SEA account for 60% of its total population. The region is home to 600 million people, with many densely populated cities, including megacities such as Jakarta, Bangkok, and Manila. The region has more than 20,000 islands, and many cities lie on coastal low-lands and floodplains. These geographical characteristics together with the increasing population, infrastructure growth, and changing climate makes the region highly vulnerable to natural hazards. This study assessed urban growth dynamics in major (defined as population exceeding 1 million) SEA cities using remotely sensed night-time lights (NTL) data. A recently proposed brightness gradient approach was applied on 21 years (1992-2012) of NTL annual composites to derive core-urban (CU) and peri-urban (PU) regions within each city. The study also assessed the sensitivity of above extracted urban categories to different NTL thresholds. The temporal trends in CU and PU regions were quantified, and compared with trends in socio-economic indicators. The spatial expansion of CU and PU regions were found to depend on geographical constraints and socio-economic factors. Quantification of urban growth spatial-temporal patterns, as conducted here contributes towards the understanding of exposure and vulnerability of people and infrastructures to natural hazards, as well as the evolving trends for assessment under projected urbanization conditions. This will underpin better risk assessment efforts for present and future planning.

  10. [Early total care pattern for intertrochanteric fracture of femur in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jie; Kang, Xin-yong; Xu, Hong-wei; Li, Yong-fu; Zahng, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Zhen-nian

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate clinical results of early total care (ETC) treatment for elderly patients with intertrochanteric femur fractures. Clinical data of 106 elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture treated from January 2012 and February 2015 were retrospectively studied. According to whether receiving the early total care mode, the patients were divided into 2 groups, 34 cases were diagnosed and treated with early total care pattern (ETC group), including 14 males and 20 females with an average age of (74.88 ± 4.38) years old ranging from 70 to 86. According to Evans types, 4 cases were type I, 5 cases were type II, 13 cases were type III, 11 cases were type IV, 1 case was type V. Seventy-two patients were treated with conventional trauma method (conventional group), including 35 males and 37 females with an average age of (74.46 ± 3.63) years old ranging from 70 to 85. According to Evans type, 8 cases were type I ,13 cases were type II, 25 cases were type III, 25 cases were type IV, and 1 case was type V. All fractures were treated with proximal femoral nails anti-rotation (PFNA). Operative time, hospital stays, leaving bed time, complications, cases of death at 1 year after operation, postoperative Harris score at 12 months were observed and compared. All patients were followed up, the time of ETC group ranged from 9 to 18 months with an average of 13.29 ± 1.51, and the time in conventional group ranged from 12 to 16 months with an average 12.93 ± 1.15, while there was no significant difference between two groups in time of following-up (t = 1.368, P = 0.174). There was no significant meaning in cases of death between ETC group (2 cases) and conventional group (8 cases). Three cases occurred complications in ETC group, and 20 cases in conventional group,there was obvious meaning between two groups (χ² = 0.739, P = 0.318). Operative time,hospital stays,leaving bed time in ETC group respectively was (2.03 ± 0.67) d, (15.41 ± 2.87) d and (3.62 ± 0.74) d

  11. Regulation of radiation-induced apoptosis by early growth response-1 gene in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with activation of certain immediate-early genes that function as transcription factors. These include members of jun or fos and early growth response (EGR) gene families. In particular, the functional role of EGR-1 in radiation-induced signaling is pivotal since the promoter of EGR-1 contains radiation-inducible CArG DNA sequences. The Egr-1 gene belongs to a family of Egr genes that includes EGR-2, EGR-3, EGR-4, EGR-α and the tumor suppressor, Wilms' tumor gene product, WT1. The Egr-1 gene product, EGR-1, is a nuclear protein that contains three zinc fingers of the C 2 H 2 subtype. The EGR-1 GC-rich consensus target sequence, 5'-GCGT/GGGGCG-3' or 5'-TCCT/ACCTCCTCC-3', has been identified in the promoter regions of transcription factors, growth factors, receptors, cell cycle regulators and pro-apoptotic genes. The gene targets mediated by Egr-1 in response to ionizing radiation include TNF-α , p53, Rb and Bax, all these are effectors of apoptosis. Based on these targets, Egr-1 is a pivotal gene that initiates early signal transduction events in response to ionizing radiation leading to either growth arrest or cell death in tumor cells. There are two potential application of Egr-1 gene in therapy of cancer. First, the Egr-1 promoter contains information for appropriate spatial and temporal expression in-vivo that can be regulated by ionizing radiation to control transcription of genes that have pro-apoptotic and suicidal function. Secondly, EGR-1 protein can eliminate 'induced-radiation resistance' by inhibiting the functions of radiation-induced pro-survival genes (NFκB activity and bcl-2 expression) and activate pro-apoptotic genes (such as bax) to confer a significant radio-sensitizing effect. Together, the reported findings from my laboratory demonstrate clearly that EGR-1 is an early central gene that confers radiation sensitivity and its pro-apoptotic functions are synergized by abrogation of induced radiation

  12. Co-immobilization of semaphorin3A and nerve growth factor to guide and pattern axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Aleesha M; Jarmusik, Natalie A; Leipzig, Nic D

    2015-12-01

    Immobilization of axon guidance cues offers a powerful tissue regenerative strategy to control the presentation and spatial location of these biomolecules. We use our previously developed immobilization strategy to specifically tether recombinant biotinylated nerve growth factor (bNGF) and biotinylated semaphorin3A (bSema3A) to chitosan films as an outgrowth and guidance platform. DRG neurite length and number for a range of single cues of immobilized bNGF or bSema3A were examined to determine a concentration response. Next single and dual cues of bNGF and bSema3A were immobilized and DRG guidance was assessed in response to a step concentration change from zero. Overall, immobilized groups caused axon extension, retraction and turning depending on the ratio of bNGF and bSema3A immobilized in the encountered region. This response indicated the exquisite sensitivity of DRG axons to both attractive and repulsive tethered cues. bSema3A concentrations of 0.10 and 0.49 ng/mm(2), when co-immobilized with bNGF (at 0.86 and 0.43 ng/mm(2) respectively), caused axons to turn away from the co-immobilized region. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that at these bSema3A concentrations, axons inside the co-immobilized region display microtubule degradation and breakdown of actin filaments. At the lowest bSema3A concentration (0.01 ng/mm(2)) co-immobilized with a higher bNGF concentration (2.16 ng/mm(2)), neurite lengths are shorter in the immobilized area, but bNGF dominates the guidance mechanism as neurites are directed toward the immobilized region. Future applications can pattern these cues in various geometries and gradients in order to better modulate axon guidance in terms of polarity, extension and branching. Nervous system formation and regeneration requires key molecules for guiding the growth cone and nervous system patterning. In vivo these molecules work in conjunction with one another to modulate axon guidance, and often they are tethered to limit spatial

  13. The Use of Poetry in a Spiral-Patterned Methodology for Research about Love in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Research about love in early childhood education and care is rare. Love is difficult topic to research and write about in scholarly contexts. In order to properly explore love in professional contexts, practitioner narratives on the topic were sought through individual, unstructured interviews. A spiral-patterned methodological approach was…

  14. Serotonin signaling is a very early step in patterning of the left-right axis in chick and frog embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukumoto, T; Kema, IP; Levin, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Consistent left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fascinating problem in developmental and evolutionary biology. Conservation of early LR patterning steps among vertebrates as well as involvement of nonprotein small-molecule messengers are very poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key

  15. Estimating Common Growth Patterns in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Diverse Genetic Stocks and a Large Spatial Extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale A L Goertler

    Full Text Available Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha from the Columbia River estuary over a two-year period (2010-2012. We used dynamic factor analysis to determine whether there were common patterns in growth rates within juveniles based on their natal region, capture location habitat type, and whether they were wild or of hatchery origin. We identified up to five large-scale trends in juvenile growth rates depending on month and year of capture. We also found that hatchery fish had a narrower range of trend loadings for some capture groups, suggesting that hatchery fish do not express the same breadth of growth variability as wild fish. However, we were unable to resolve a relationship between specific growth patterns and habitat transitions. Our study exemplifies how a relatively new statistical analysis can be applied to dating or aging techniques to summarize individual variation, and characterize aspects of life history diversity.

  16. Utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections from 2000 to 2011 in the medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hansen, Hans; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Falco, Frank J E

    2013-01-01

      The high prevalence of persistent low back pain and growing number of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities employed to manage chronic low back pain and the subsequent impact on society and the economy continue to hold sway over health care policy. Among the multiple causes responsible for chronic low back pain, the contributions of the sacroiliac joint have been a subject of debate albeit a paucity of research. At present, there are no definitive conservative, interventional or surgical management options for managing sacroiliac joint pain. It has been shown that the increases were highest for facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks with an increase of 310% per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. There has not been a systematic assessment of the utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections. Analysis of the growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections in Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. To evaluate the utilization and growth patterns of sacroiliac joint injections. This assessment was performed utilizing Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary (PSPS) Master data from 2000 to 2011. The findings of this assessment in Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011 showed a 331% increase per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries with an annual increase of 14.2%, compared to an increase in the Medicare population of 23% or annual increase of 1.9%. The number of procedures increased from 49,554 in 2000 to 252,654 in 2011, or a rate of 125 to 539 per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries. Among the various specialists performing sacroiliac joint injections, physicians specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation have shown the most increase, followed by neurology with 1,568% and 698%, even though many physicians from both specialties have been enrolling in interventional pain management and pain management. Even though the numbers were small for nonphysician providers including

  17. Maternal endothelial damage as a disorder shared by early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Dołegowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Marczuk, Natalia; Loj, Beata; Torbè, Andrzej

    2017-10-26

    Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are separate disease entities that have frequently been reported as sharing the same pathogenesis. In both of them, angiogenesis disorders and generalized endothelial damage with an accompanying inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we attempted to prove that both these processes demonstrate the same profile in early PE, late PE and IUGR patients, while the only difference is in the degree of exacerbation of the lesions. In 167 patients divided into four groups, three of those with early PE, late PE and IUGR and one control group, fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), high sensitive c-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibronectin were determined. The behavior of these parameters in each of the groups was studied, and correlations between them were sought for. Higher concentrations of sFlt-1, hsCRP and fibronectin and a lower concentration of PlGF were found in the study groups compared to the control group. Significant correlations were observed between the factors concerned. The higher values of disordered angiogenesis markers, endothelial damage markers and inflammatory markers both in the PE and the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) groups suggest the existence of shared disorders in the development of these pathologies. The correlations between disordered angiogenesis markers and endothelial damage markers argue in favor of a mutual relationship between these two processes in the development of pathologies evolving as secondary to placental ischemia. The results obtained confirm that the lesion profiles are the same in both PE and IUGR patients, which can be utilized in developing common diagnostic criteria.

  18. Early Environmental Enrichment Enhances Abnormal Brain Connectivity in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Brito, Verónica; Pla, Laura; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Batallé, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Crispi, Fatima; Udina, Esther; Figueras, Francesc; Ginés, Silvia; Gratacós, Eduard

    2017-10-12

    The structural correspondence of neurodevelopmental impairments related to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that persists later in life remains elusive. Moreover, early postnatal stimulation strategies have been proposed to mitigate these effects. Long-term brain connectivity abnormalities in an IUGR rabbit model and the effects of early postnatal environmental enrichment (EE) were explored. IUGR was surgically induced in one horn, whereas the contralateral one produced the controls. Postnatally, a subgroup of IUGR animals was housed in an enriched environment. Functional assessment was performed at the neonatal and long-term periods. At the long-term period, structural brain connectivity was evaluated by means of diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and by histological assessment focused on the hippocampus. IUGR animals displayed poorer functional results and presented altered whole-brain networks and decreased median fractional anisotropy in the hippocampus. Reduced density of dendritic spines and perineuronal nets from hippocampal neurons were also observed. Of note, IUGR animals exposed to enriched environment presented an improvement in terms of both function and structure. IUGR is associated with altered brain connectivity at the global and cellular level. A strategy based on early EE has the potential to restore the neurodevelopmental consequences of IUGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Early changes in plasma glucagon and growth hormone response to oral glucose in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F; Moghetti, P; Castello, R; Negri, C; Bonora, E; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying deterioration of glucose tolerance associated with hyperthyroidism are not completely understood. Increases in glucagon and growth hormone (GH) secretion have been previously found in hyperthyroid subjects, and could play a crucial role in this phenomenon. However, studies have not yet established the time sequence of changes in plasma glucose on the one hand and glucagon and GH on the other. To assess the early effects of thyroid hormone excess on glucose tolerance and plasma concentrations of the main glucoregulatory hormones, 12 nondiabetic euthyroid subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after triiodothyronine ([T3] 120 micrograms/d) was administered for 10 days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and GH were determined at fasting and after the glucose load. T3 administration caused a marked increase in serum T3 (8.8 +/- 0.6 v 2.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/L), with clinical and biochemical signs of thyrotoxicosis. During the treatment, plasma glucose significantly increased both at fasting and after the glucose load (basal, 5.3 +/- 0.1 v 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, P hormone excess rapidly impairs glucose tolerance. Altered secretion of GH is an early event in thyrotoxicosis accompanying the onset of hyperglycemia, whereas plasma glucagon is appropriately suppressed by the increased plasma glucose levels. Thus, GH but not glucagon may contribute to the early hyperglycemic effect of thyrotoxicosis.

  20. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko Nagy

    Full Text Available Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC, using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 ("T/I" mice. Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 ("T/I-het" dams that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and

  1. Association of malignancy with rapid growth in early lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin were studied to determine (a) the relationship of malignancy to dose, (b) the types of lesions and circumstances leading to overt malignancy, and (c) the growth rates of lesions progressing to malignancy versus those of lesions remaining benign. High doses of radiation were shown to be associated with the production of epidermal cancers, the maximum yield being obtained at 6,400 rads. Conversely, a peak yield of noncancerous lesions was obtained at 1,600 rads. This association between malignancy and high dose was consistent for cancers evolving from warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers. Although the proportion of warts among the induced lesions was much higher than that of the cysts or chronic ulcers (76, 14, and 10%, respectively), the likelihood of warts becoming cancerous was substantially lower (14, 23, and 21%). The combined data for all doses showed that the latency period of the epidermal cancers was significantly (P = 0.015) shorter than that of the benign tumors. Rapid growth rates were observed for warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers progressing to overt cancer, and these did not overlap at any point on the growth scale with rates for benign tumors. This finding suggested that the potential for malignant development had been established early in the carcinogenic process, very likely at induction

  2. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or

  3. Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gnanakaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of immune evasion. To accomplish this, we compared thousands of sequences derived by single genome amplification from several hundred individuals that were sampled either early in infection or were chronically infected. Samples were divided at the outset into hypothesis-forming and validation sets, and we used phylogenetically corrected statistical strategies to identify signatures, systematically scanning all of Env. Signatures included single amino acids, glycosylation motifs, and multi-site patterns based on functional or structural groupings of amino acids. We identified signatures near the CCR5 co-receptor-binding region, near the CD4 binding site, and in the signal peptide and cytoplasmic domain, which may influence Env expression and processing. Two signatures patterns associated with transmission were particularly interesting. The first was the most statistically robust signature, located in position 12 in the signal peptide. The second was the loss of an N-linked glycosylation site at positions 413-415; the presence of this site has been recently found to be associated with escape from potent and broad neutralizing antibodies, consistent with enabling a common pathway for immune escape during chronic infection. Its recurrent loss in early infection suggests it may impact fitness at the time of transmission or during early viral expansion. The signature patterns we identified implicate Env expression levels in selection at viral transmission or in early expansion, and suggest that immune evasion patterns that recur in many individuals during chronic infection when antibodies are present can be selected against when the infection is being established prior to the adaptive immune response.

  4. COMPENSATORY GROWTH AND FAT PARAMETERS ON BROILER FASTED IN EARLY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed withholding in the very early life ofbird on its compensatory growth capacity and fat parameters. A total of 60 mixed-sexes of one day oldRoss chicks were used in the experiment conducted with completely randomized design of 2 differentfeeding times after hatching, i.e.: T1: given access to feed and water ad libitum immediately afterhatching until 35d of age; and T2: withheld from feed (fasted but not from water for 48h after hatchingand then fed ad libitum until d35. The birds were weighed at the start of experiment and weeklythereafter, and DWG was then calculated. Feed intakes and FCR were also recorded weekly. At d36,abdominal fat was taken out from 2 birds per pen and was weighed. Breast meat (skinless from thesame birds was also sampled for total FA analysis. Final BW (d35 and total feed consumption of earlyfastedbirds were 1935.17±43.90 kg and 2745.55±47.48 kg and those of unfasted birds were2019.00±50.85 kg and 2910.84±128.10 kg, respectively. FCR of early-fasted and unfasted birds at d35were 1.42±0.03 and 1.45±0.07. The magnitude difference of DWG between early-fasted and unfastedbirds was 27% at d7, whereas at d35 the difference was only 4.5%. Abdominal fat percentage to live BWof early-fasted birds was 1.65±0.09% (male and 1.60±0.10% (female and that of unfasted birds was2.00±0.19% (male and 1.89±0.38% (female. Total FA contained in meat of early-fasted and unfastedbirds were 0.82±0.10 and 0.85±0.10 g/100gDM. Overall, BW and feed consumption of early-fastedbirds were significantly lower (P<0.05 than unfasted birds. DWG, FCR, abdominal fat and total FAcontained in meat were not significantly different (P>0.05 between early-fasted and unfasted birds. Inconclusion, holding birds without feed following hatch (under practical conditions may limit thecompensatory growth capacity of birds in the later age. Fasting applied in the very early life of broilerleads to

  5. Tracking of eating patterns and overweight - a follow-up study of Norwegian schoolchildren from middle childhood to early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Martin V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe eating patterns in early adolescence and to determine associations between eating patterns and overweight from middle childhood (4th grade, 9 to 10 years old to early adolescence (7th grade, 12 to 13 years old. Methods Children were recruited from primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Dietary data were obtained by parental report using a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were objectively measured, and overweight was defined using international standard cut-off points. Complete data were obtained for 924 4th grade and 691 7th children, and 427 children provided complete data at both time points. Principal component analysis was applied to identify eating patterns. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for being overweight. Results The same four distinct eating patterns were identified at both time points. Correlation coefficients for the factor scores of corresponding eating patterns at baseline and follow up ranged from 0.44 to 0.60. In the follow-up sample, 345 children (80% were still of normal weight, while 41 (10% remained overweight. Children with high "dieting" pattern scores and low "varied Norwegian" pattern scores in the 7th grade had an increased risk of being overweight. Children with stable or increased "varied Norwegian" pattern scores had a lower risk of remaining overweight over time than children with decreased scores for this pattern; adjusted OR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8. This pattern included foods and meals close to current dietary guidelines, including vegetables, fruit and unrefined cereal products. We did not observe an increased risk of overweight in children with high "unhealthy" eating pattern scores, termed "snacking" or "junk/convenient" in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Slight to moderate stability of eating patterns was observed. Children

  6. Early pattern recognition in severe perinatal asphyxia: a prospective MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baenziger, O. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Martin, E. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Steinlin, M. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Good, M. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Largo, R. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Burger, R. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Fanconi, S. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Duc, G. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Buchli, R. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Rumpel, H. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland)); Boltshauser, E. (Children' s Hospital, Univ. Zurich (Switzerland))

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of MRI examinations in 88 neonates and infants with perinatal asphyxia, we defined 6 different patterns on T2-weighted images: pattern A-scattered hyperintensity of both hemispheres of the telencephalon with blurred border zones between cortex and white matter, indicating diffuse brain injury; pattern B-parasagittal hyperintensity extending into the corona radiata, corresponding to the watershed zones; pattern C-hyper- and hypointense lesions in thalamus and basal ganglia, which relate to haemorrhagic necrosis of iron deposition in these areas; pattern D-periventricular hyperintensity, mainly along the lateral ventricles, i.e. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), originating from the matrix zone; pattern E-small multifocal lesions varying from hyper- to hypointense, interpreted as necrosis and haemorrhage; pattern F-periventricular centrifugal hypointense stripes in the centrum semiovale and deep white matter of the frontal and occipital lobes. Contrast was effectively inverted on T1-weighted images. Patterns A, B and C were found in 17%, 25% and 37% of patients, and patterns D, E and F in 19%, 17% and 35%, respectively. In 49 patients a combination of patterns was observed, but 30% of the initial images were normal. At follow-up, persistent abnormalities were seen in all children with patterns A and D, but in only 52% of those with pattern C. Myelination was retarded most often in patients with diffuse brain injury and PVL (patterns A and D). (orig.)

  7. Different effects of continuous and intermittent patterns of growth hormone administration on lipoprotein levels in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Lemming, Lone; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    1998-01-01

    with acromegaly. Studies in rats have demonstrated differential effects of constant and intermittent GH patterns on levels of certain lipoproteins. The aim of the present studies was to describe the impact of intermittent and continuous patterns of GH delivery to GHD patients on serum levels of Lp(a) and other...

  8. Non-Eosinophilic Nasal Polyps Shows Increased Epithelial Proliferation and Localized Disease Pattern in the Early Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available Non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs show less inflammatory changes and are less commonly associated with lower airway inflammatory disorders such as asthma, compared with eosinophilic NPs. However, the development of non-eosinophilic NPs which is a predominant subtype in Asian population still remains unclear.A total of 81 patients (45 with non-eosinophilic NPs and 36 with eosinophilic NPs were enrolled. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT, endoscopic, and histological findings were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for total IgE levels and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23p19, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and periostin. Immunostaining assessment of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker was performed.We found that epithelial in-growing patterns such as pseudocysts were more frequently observed in histological and endoscopic evaluations of non-eosinophilic NPs, which was linked to increase epithelial staining of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Eosinophilic NPs were characterized by high infiltration of inflammatory cells, compared with non-eosinophilic NPs. To investigate the developmental course of each subtype, CT was analyzed according to CT scores and subtypes. Non-eosinophilic NPs showed more localized pattern and maxillary sinus involvement, but lesser olfactory involvement in early stage whereas eosinophilic NPs were characterized by diffuse ethmoidal and olfactory involvement. In addition, high ethmoidal/maxillary (E/M CT scores, indicating ethmoidal dominant involvement, were one of surrogate markers for eosinophilic NP. E/M CT scores was positively correlated with levels of TH2 inflammatory markers, including IL-4, IL-5, periostin mRNA expression and total IgE levels in NPs, whereas levels of the TH1 cytokine, IFN- γ were inversely correlated. Moreover, if the combinatorial algorithm meet the three

  9. Recovery vs. Restructuring: Establishing Ecologic Patterns in Early and Middle Triassic Paleocommunities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiser, M.; Dineen, A.; Sheehan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Published data has been interpreted as indicating that marine ecological devastation following the end-Permian mass extinction was protracted and may have lasted 5 million years into the Middle Triassic (Anisian). However, a review of previous literature shows that understanding of biotic recovery is typically based on only a few components of the ecosystem, such as on taxonomic diversity, a single genus/phylum, or facies. Typically, paleocommunities are considered fully recovered when dominance and diversity are regained and normal ecosystem functioning has resumed. However, in addition to the biodiversity crash at the end of the Permian, taxonomic and ecologic structure also changed,with the extinction marking the faunal shift from brachiopod-rich Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna (EF) to the mollusc-rich Modern EF. This suggests that the extreme reorganizational nature of the Triassic does not adhere to the standard definition of recovery, which is a return to previous conditions. Thus, we propose the term 'restructuring' to describe this interval, as Early and Middle Triassic communities might not exhibit the typical characteristics of a 'normal' Permian one. To more fully characterize Triassic ecologic restructuring, paleoecologists should take into account functional diversity and redundancy. We quantified functional richness and regularity in four different paleocommunities from classic Permian and Triassic sections. Functional richness was low in paleocommunities after the end-Permian mass extinction, but increased to high levels by the Middle Triassic. In contrast, functional regularity was low in the Middle Permian, but high in all the Triassic paleocommunities. The change from low to high functional regularity/redundancy at the P/T boundary may be a factor of the highly stressful Triassic environmental conditions (i.e. anoxia, hypercapnia), as high regularity in a community can boost survival in harsh environments. Parameters such as these will more

  10. Early developed section of the jaw as an index of prenatal growth conditions in adult roe deer Capreolus capreolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen

    2006-01-01

    -maturing bones are poor predictors of resource limitations during early development, as later benign conditions may lead to compensatory growth. We analysed the temporal growth dynamics of different sections of the lower jaw of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and found that the medioanterior section of the lower......Increasing evidence suggests that conditions in early life have important consequences for ultimate body size and fitness. Skeletal parts are often used as retrospective indices of body size and growth constraints because of their resistance to seasonal variation in resource availability. Yet, slow...... post partum and, as such, potentially leaves a fingerprint of prenatal growth conditions that is evident even in adult individuals. This supports earlier findings in ungulates of a shift in skeletal growth spurts after weaning, and suggests that the choice of skeletal index for population and cohort...

  11. DAILY STEM GROWTH PATTERN IN IRRIGATED APPLE ORCHARDS FROM ARGES COUNTY IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chitu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of climate change manifested in the last 30 years in Romania (1982-2011, average data for 29 localities and characterized by a significant increase in maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the summer months and increased rainfall deficit, fruit trees farm efficiency is becoming increasingly dependent on strict control of water management through irrigation systems. Thus, the maximum air temperatures experienced average growth trend per decade of 0.88°C, 0.82°C and 0.70°C in June, July and August, respectively, and minimum of 0.61°C, 0.67°C and 0.75°C, in the same months. In this context, ensuring continuous easily accessible soil water content to the root system of the trees, in correlation with plant consumption, has become the most widely used measure to mitigate the negative effects of rising temperatures and rainfall deficits. One of the most accurate methods of water stress early diagnosis and monitoring in a very short step of the fruit trees growth processes is the measurement of trunk diameter variations (SDV with electronic dendrometers. To highlight the advantages of applying the method to irrigated apple (Malus domestica Borkh. plantations from the southern Romania, we have organized two experiences with Redix and Braeburn cvs. grafted on M9 in 2009-2012 period. For measurements were used DEX 100 (Dynamax dendrometers and GP1 dataloggers (Delta-T Devices. It was found that all SDV-derived indices (maximum daily shrinkage (MDS, daily recovery (DR and daily growth (DG of the trees trunk between two successive days may be used for early diagnosis of water and temperature stress. DG was significantly negatively influenced by MDS in both cultivars and in all months of the year, except in September. The Redix cv. DG was inhibited only by the MDS values greater than 0.36 mm. DG is a much less sensitive indicator of water and heat trees stress than MDS. Emergence of water stress was highlighted by two indicators: soil

  12. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  13. Variability of Shelf Growth Patterns along the Iberian Mediterranean Margin: Sediment Supply and Tectonic Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Durán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinoform depositional features along the Iberian Mediterranean margin are investigated in this study, with the aim of establishing the causes of their varied shapes and other characteristics. We have analyzed the broad-scale margin physiography and seismic stratigraphic patterns based on high-resolution bathymetric data and previously interpreted seismic data. In addition, we have evaluated regional supply conditions and the uplift-subsidence regime of the different shelf sectors. The upper Quaternary record is strongly dominated by shelf-margin regressive wedges affected by the prevailing 100 ka cyclicity. However, the margins exhibit considerable lateral variability, as the result of the balance between the amount of sediment supply and the uplift-subsidence relationship. Three major shelf sectors with distinct morpho-sedimentary features have been defined. The relatively narrow northern shelves (Roses, La Planassa and Barcelona are supplied by discrete river outlets that collectively constitute a linear source and are mainly affected by tectonic tilting. The wide middle shelves (Ebro Shelf, the Gulf of Valencia, and the Northern Arc receive the sediment supply from the large Ebro River and other medium rivers. Although the tectonic regime changes laterally (strong subsidence in the north and uplift in the south, shelf growth is maintained by lateral advection of sediments. The southern shelves (the Southern Arc and the northern Alboran Shelf are very abrupt and narrow because of the uplifting Betic Cordillera, and the torrential fluvial regimes that determine a very efficient sediment by-pass toward the deep basin. Submarine canyons deeply incised in the continental margin constitute a key physiographic feature that may enhance the transport of sediment to the deep sea or individualize shelf sectors with specific sedimentation patterns, as occurs in the Catalan margin.

  14. Impact of fertilizing pattern on the biodiversity of a weed community and wheat growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds.

  15. Age, growth, and recruitment patterns of juvenile ladyfish (Elops sp from the east coast of Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Levesque

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ladyfish (Elops sp are a common and economically valuable coastal nearshore species found along coastal beaches, bays, and estuaries of the southeastern United States, and subtropical and tropical regions worldwide. Previously, ladyfish were a substantial bycatch in Florida’s commercial fisheries, but changes in regulations significantly reduced commercial landings. Today, ladyfish are still taken in commercial fisheries in Florida, but many are also taken by recreational anglers. Life-history information and research interest in ladyfish is almost non-existent, especially information on age and growth. Thus, the overarching purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of ladyfish age and growth characteristics. The specific objectives were to describe, for the first time, age, growth, and recruitment patterns of juvenile ladyfish from the east coast of Florida (USA. In the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, annual monthly length-frequency distributions were confounded because a few small individuals recruited throughout the year; monthly length-frequency data generally demonstrated a cyclical pattern. The smallest were collected in September and the largest in May. Post-hoc analysis showed no significant difference in length between August and May, or among the other months. In Volusia County (VC, annual monthly length-frequency distribution demonstrated growth generally occurred from late-winter and spring to summer. The smallest ladyfish were collected in February and the largest in August. On average, the absolute growth rate in the IRL was 36.3 mm in 60 days or 0.605 mm day−1. Cohort-specific daily growth rates, elevations, and coincidentals were similar among sampling years. Cohort-specific growth rates ranged from 1.807 in 1993 to 1.811 mm day−1 in 1994. Overall, growth was best (i.e., goodness of fit described by exponential regression. On average, the absolute growth rate in VC was 28 mm in 150 days or 0.1866 mm day−1. Cohort

  16. Early Imperial Tableware in Roman Asia Minor: a perspective on the diachronic patterns and morphological developments

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    Rinse Willet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the study of tablewares has a long history in the Roman East, research has been hindered by the relatively few, and only very recent, interdisciplinary research projects that study and publish their tableware in depth. But in the last decades, advanced provenancing techniques, combined with efforts to study tableware en masse have been employed, resulting in a better understanding of tableware in the east. Distribution patterns for the major wares found in the East during the Late Hellenistic and Early Imperial period (e.g. Eastern Sigillata A, B, C, D; Italian terra sigillata were successfully mapped by Philip Bes by compiling published data into a single database of the ICRATES (Inventory of Crafts and Trade in the Roman East project (Bes and Poblome 2008. Yet many questions remain on the relationship between production and consumption of these wares and on the role more local products played, both of which are not helped by the relative paucity of well-studied closed archaeological contexts. This article addresses some of these issues through study of the tableware data for Asia Minor. As a first step, the data from Sagalassos, a city located in Pisidia (south-west Asia Minor are discussed. The incorporation of Asia Minor into the Roman Republic and later Empire was accompanied by civic turmoil and increased Roman intervention. Sagalassos, for example, started to produce tableware at a time when Roman colonies were being founded in the region of Pisidia. At the same time, the period of the first century BCE to second century CE saw increased urbanisation in the region, while concurrently the 'Greek' culture seems to have continued. At Sagalassos, substantial production facilities for tableware (Sagalassos Red Slip Ware or SRSW are archaeologically attested and the excavations have yielded a vast amount of ceramics. As a production site, with few numbers of SRSW being attested elsewhere at present, the next logical step is to compare

  17. Impact of childhood asthma on growth trajectories in early adolescence: Findings from the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movin, Maria; Garden, Frances L; Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Svensdotter, Frida; Andersson, David; Kruse, Andreas; Cowell, Chris T; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the associations between childhood asthma and growth in early adolescence by accounting for the heterogeneity of growth during puberty has been largely unexplored. The objective was to identify sex-specific classes of growth trajectories during early adolescence, using a method which takes the heterogeneity of growth into account and to evaluate the association between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories in adolescence. Our longitudinal study included participants with a family history of asthma born during 1997-1999 in Sydney, Australia. Hence, all participants were at high risk for asthma. Asthma status was ascertained at 8 years of age using data from questionnaires and lung function tests. Growth trajectories between 11 and 14 years of age were classified using a latent basis growth mixture model. Multinomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between asthma and the categorized classes of growth trajectories. In total, 316 participants (51.6% boys), representing 51.3% of the entire cohort, were included. Sex-specific classes of growth trajectories were defined. Among boys, asthma was not associated with the classes of growth trajectories. Girls with asthma were more likely than girls without asthma to belong to a class with later growth (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.84). Excluding participants using inhaled corticosteroids or adjusting for confounders did not significantly change the results for either sex. We identified sex-specific heterogeneous classes of growth using growth mixture modelling. Associations between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories were found for girls only. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Early weaning of calves after different dietary regimens affects later rumen development, growth, and carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondreddy Eswar Reddy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of different diets for early-weaned (EW calves on rumen development, and how this affects fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi of adult Korean Hanwoo beef cattle. Methods Three EW groups were established (each n = 12 in which two- week-old Hanwoo calves were fed for ten weeks with milk replacer+concentrate (T1, milk replacer+concentrate+ roughage (T2, or milk replacer+concentrate+30% starch (T3; a control group (n = 12 was weaned as normal. At six months, 5 calves of each group were slaughtered and their organs were assessed and rumen papillae growth rates were measured. The remaining calves (n = 7 in each group were raised to 20 months for further analysis. Results Twenty-month-old EW calves had a higher body weight (BW, backfat thickness (BF, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA and intramuscular fat (IMF than the control (p<0.05. Organ growth, rumen histology, and gene expression patterns in the 6-month-old calves were positively related to the development of marbling in the loin, as assessed by ultrasound analysis (p<0.05. In the group fed the starch-enriched diet (T3, higher BW, BF, LMA, and IMF were present. The IMF beef quality score of 20-month-old cattle was 1+ for the T2 and T3 diets and 1 for the T1 diet (p<0.05. Conclusion Papillae development was significantly greater in calves fed on high-concentrate diets and this may have resulted in the improved beef quality in the EW dietary groups compared to the control.

  19. An association of adult personality with prenatal and early postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent studies have noted differences in social acquiescence and interpersonal relations among adults born preterm or with very low birth weight compared to full term adults. In addition, birth weight has been observed to be negatively correlated with lie-scale scores in two ...... influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development. Keywords: Eysenck personality questionnaire, Lie-scale, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Birth weight, Birth length, Birth head-circumference...... individuals participated in a follow-up at 20–34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed...

  20. [Growth patterns of appropriate for gestational age infants of gestational diabetic mothers during the first year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Zhang, Y; Mo, Y X; Chen, Z; Sun, Y H; Ding, Z B

    2016-08-02

    To explore the growth pattern of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants of mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The objects of this study were offspring of women who delivered in our hospital from January to December 2011. The GDM group included 70 AGA infants (36 male cases and 34 female cases) of mother with GDM. The control group included 154 AGA infants (66 male cases and 88 female cases) of women with normal glucose tolerance. The data of demographic characteristics of mothers of two groups were collected. Body weight and length of infants in two groups were measured at 3, 6 and 12 months age respectively. Body mass index (BMI), weight and height gain during infancy (0-3 months, 3-6 months and 6-12 months) of infants in two groups were also calculated. Body weight, length and BMI of male AGA infants in GDM group were less than that of control group at 3 months and 6 months age, but more than that of control group at 12 months age, however, there were no significant differences between two group(P>0.05). The weight and height gain during infancy (0-3 months, 3-6 months) of male AGA infants in GDM group were lower than that of control group, but the difference was statistically significant only at 3-6 months[(1.1±0.4) vs (1.4±0.4) kg, P=0.040; (4.9±2.3) vs (6.3±1.2) cm, P=0.026]. The weight and height gain during infancy (6-12 months) of male AGA infants of gestational diabetic mothers were higher than that of control group, but the difference was not statistically significant[(2.1±0.5) vs (1.8±0.5) kg, P=0.361; (8.4±1.3) vs (7.8±1.4) cm, P=0.464]. Male infants of gestational diabetic mothers grew slowly during their infancy of 0-6 months, and then their growth became increasingly fast, which suggested that the influence of intrauterine hyperglycemia environment of GDM mothers on fetal growth might continue after birth.

  1. Regional patterns of increasing Swiss needle cast impacts on Douglas-fir growth with warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Henry; Beedlow, Peter A; Waschmann, Ronald S; Tingey, David T; Cline, Steven; Bollman, Michael; Wickham, Charlotte; Carlile, Cailie

    2017-12-01

    The fungal pathogen, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii , causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) occurs wherever Douglas-fir is found but disease damage is believed to be limited in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) to the Coast Range of Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al., Plant Disease , 2000, 84 , 773; Rosso & Hansen, Phytopathology , 2003, 93 , 790; Shaw, et al., Journal of Forestry , 2011, 109 , 109). However, knowledge remains limited on the history and spatial distribution of SNC impacts in the PNW. We reconstructed the history of SNC impacts on mature Douglas-fir trees based on tree-ring width chronologies from western Oregon. Our findings show that SNC impacts on growth occur wherever Douglas-fir is found and is not limited to the coastal fog zone. The spatiotemporal patterns of growth impact from SNC disease were synchronous across the region, displayed periodicities of 12-40 years, and strongly correlated with winter and summer temperatures and summer precipitation. The primary climatic factor limiting pathogen dynamics varied spatially by location, topography, and elevation. SNC impacts were least severe in the first half of the 20th century when climatic conditions during the warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (1924-1945) were less conducive to pathogen development. At low- to mid-elevations, SNC impacts were most severe in 1984-1986 following several decades of warmer winters and cooler, wetter summers including a high summer precipitation anomaly in 1983. At high elevations on the west slope of the Cascade Range, SNC impacts peaked several years later and were the greatest in the 1990s, a period of warmer winter temperatures. Climate change is predicted to result in warmer winters and will likely continue to increase SNC severity at higher elevations, north along the coast from northern Oregon to British Columbia, and inland where low winter temperatures currently limit growth of the pathogen. Our findings indicate that SNC may become a significant

  2. Early dietary treated patients with phenylketonuria can achieve normal growth and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Júlio C; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Almeida, Manuela F; Ramos, Elisabete; Guimarães, João T; Borges, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    In the past, overtreatment may have resulted in growth impairment in patients with phenylketonuria. The paper aims to investigate height and body composition in early treated patients with phenylketonuria who were diagnosed between 1981 and 2008. A cross-sectional study of 89 patients with phenylketonuria and 78 controls aged (mean ± SD, in years) 14.4 ± 6.6 and 15.9 ± 7.1, respectively, was undertaken, including anthropometric and body composition evaluation using bioelectrical impedance. Median Phe concentrations in the last year before study enrollment were used as a measure of metabolic control. Natural protein and amino acid mixture intakes were recorded in patients. No statistically significant differences were found on height z-scores between patients and controls aged less than 19 years (p=0.301), although all patients with classical phenylketonuria revealed negative height z-scores, resulting in a mean ± SD of -0.65 ± 0.41. Among participants aged 19 years or more, median (p25-p75) of height was significantly higher in controls [168.0 cm (159.2-174.8)] than in patients [160.5 cm (151.9-167.5)] (p=0.017). No significant differences were found between patients and controls regarding fat mass, fat free mass, muscular mass, body cell mass index and phase angle. Our results suggest that early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria born after 1992 can achieve normal growth and body composition, although the negative height z-score in patients with classical phenylketonuria strengthens the continuous need to optimize the quality of their protein intake. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  4. Eggs in Early Complementary Feeding and Child Growth: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Stewart, Christine P; Gallegos Riofrío, Carlos Andres; Malo, Carla; Reinhart, Gregory; Palacios, Ana; Karp, Celia; Chapnick, Melissa; Cox, Katherine; Waters, William F

    2017-07-01

    Eggs are a good source of nutrients for growth and development. We hypothesized that introducing eggs early during complementary feeding would improve child nutrition. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Cotopaxi Province, Ecuador, from March to December 2015. Children ages 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to treatment (1 egg per day for 6 months [ n = 83]) and control (no intervention [ n = 80]) groups. Both arms received social marketing messages to encourage participation in the Lulun Project ( lulun meaning "egg" in Kichwa). All households were visited once per week to monitor morbidity symptoms, distribute eggs, and monitor egg intakes (for egg group only). Baseline and end point outcome measures included anthropometry, dietary intake frequencies, and morbidity symptoms. Mothers or other caregivers reported no allergic reactions to the eggs. Generalized linear regression modeling showed the egg intervention increased length-for-age z score by 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.88) and weight-for-age z score by 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45-0.77). Log-binomial models with robust Poisson indicated a reduced prevalence of stunting by 47% (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77) and underweight by 74% (PR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10-0.70). Children in the treatment group had higher dietary intakes of eggs (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.28-1.92) and reduced intake of sugar-sweetened foods (PR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97) compared with control. The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly improved growth in young children. Generally accessible to vulnerable groups, eggs have the potential to contribute to global targets to reduce stunting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Municipal property acquisition patterns in a shrinking city: Evidence for the persistence of an urban growth paradigm in Buffalo, NY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mark Silverman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine municipal property acquisition patterns in shrinking cities. We use data from the City of Buffalo’s municipal property auction records to analyze the spatial distribution of properties offered for sale in its annual tax foreclosure auction. In addition to these data, we examine demolition and building permit records. Our analysis suggests that cities like Buffalo follow strategies based on an urban growth paradigm when responding to abandonment. This paradigm operates under the assumption that growth is a constant and urban development is only limited by fiscal constraints, underdeveloped systems of urban governance, environmental degradation, and resistance by anti-growth coalitions. We recommend that planners in shrinking cities de-emphasize growth-based planning and focus on rightsizing strategies. These strategies are based on the assumption that growth is not a constant. Consequently, urban revitalization is concentrated in a smaller urban footprint.

  6. Belowground Competition Directs Spatial Patterns of Seedling Growth in Boreal Pine Forests in Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petter Axelsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground competition is often argued to be the main process determining patterns of natural forest regeneration. However, the theory of multiple resource limitation suggests that seedling performance also depends on belowground competition and, thus, that their relative influence is of fundamental importance. Two approaches were used to address the relative importance of above- and below-ground competition on regeneration in a nutrient-poor pine (Pinus sylvestris boreal forest. Firstly, seedling establishment beneath trees stem-girdled 12 years ago show that a substantial proportion of the seedlings were established within two years after girdling, which corresponds to a time when nutrient uptake by tree roots was severely reduced without disrupting water transport to the tree canopy, which consequently was maintained. The establishment during these two years also corresponds to abundances high enough for normal stand replacement. Secondly, surveys of regeneration within forest gaps showed that surrounding forests depressed seedlings, so that satisfactory growth occurred only more than 5 m from forest edges and that higher solar radiation in south facing edges was not enough to mediate these effects. We conclude that disruption of belowground competitive interactions mediates regeneration and, thus, that belowground competition has a strong limiting influence on seedling establishment in these forests.

  7. Do economic globalization and industry growth destabilize careers? An analysis of career complexity and career patterns over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemann, T.; Fasang, A.E.; Grunow, D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the impact of economic globalization and industry growth on the complexity of early work careers in Germany. We conceptualize complexity as the absolute number of employer changes, the regularity in the order of job changes, and the variability of the durations spent in different

  8. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Delayed phenotypic expression of growth hormone transgenesis during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darek T R Moreau

    Full Text Available Should growth hormone (GH transgenic Atlantic salmon escape, there may be the potential for ecological and genetic impacts on wild populations. This study compared the developmental rate and respiratory metabolism of GH transgenic and non-transgenic full sibling Atlantic salmon during early ontogeny; a life history period of intense selection that may provide critical insight into the fitness consequences of escaped transgenics. Transgenesis did not affect the routine oxygen consumption of eyed embryos, newly hatched larvae or first-feeding juveniles. Moreover, the timing of early life history events was similar, with transgenic fish hatching less than one day earlier, on average, than their non-transgenic siblings. As the start of exogenous feeding neared, however, transgenic fish were somewhat developmentally behind, having more unused yolk and being slightly smaller than their non-transgenic siblings. Although such differences were found between transgenic and non-transgenic siblings, family differences were more important in explaining phenotypic variation. These findings suggest that biologically significant differences in fitness-related traits between GH transgenic and non-transgenic Atlantic salmon were less than family differences during the earliest life stages. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the ecological risk assessment of genetically modified animals.

  10. Growth trajectories of alcohol information processing and associations with escalation of drinking in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Read, Jennifer P; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F

    2014-09-01

    This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking.

  11. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  12. Black hole growth in the early Universe is self-regulated and largely hidden from view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-06-15

    The formation of the first massive objects in the infant Universe remains impossible to observe directly and yet it sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of galaxies. Although some black holes with masses more than 10(9) times that of the Sun have been detected in luminous quasars less than one billion years after the Big Bang, these individual extreme objects have limited utility in constraining the channels of formation of the earliest black holes; this is because the initial conditions of black hole seed properties are quickly erased during the growth process. Here we report a measurement of the amount of black hole growth in galaxies at redshift z = 6-8 (0.95-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang), based on optimally stacked, archival X-ray observations. Our results imply that black holes grow in tandem with their host galaxies throughout cosmic history, starting from the earliest times. We find that most copiously accreting black holes at these epochs are buried in significant amounts of gas and dust that absorb most radiation except for the highest-energy X-rays. This suggests that black holes grew significantly more during these early bursts than was previously thought, but because of the obscuration of their ultraviolet emission they did not contribute to the re-ionization of the Universe.

  13. Follicle and oocyte growth in early postnatal calves: cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhawi, A.J.; Kaňka, J.; Motlík, J.

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of oocyte and follicle growth was studied in 1- and 3-d-old calf ovaries using cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical approaches. Attention was only paid to unilaminar ovarian follicles that were classified into 3 categories: unilaminar flattened (UF), unilaminar flatto-cuboidal (UFC) and unilaminar cuboidal (UC) ovarian follicles when the oocyte was surrounded by 1 layer of flattened, a mixture of flattened and cuboidal and entirely cuboidal follicle cells, respectively. Our findings suggested that oocytes within each of these follicle categories were in different developmental stages. Furthermore, electron microscopic observations revealed that early after birth, oocyte nuclei characteristic of diplotene configuration (aggregation of the nuclear chromatin into moderately electron-dense small patches and fibrillo-granular texture of the nucleolus) were encountered in 41% of the UF follicles. The rest of the UF as well as all of the UFC and UC follicles were found to contain dictyate oocytes in which the chromatin was highly decondensed and the nucleolus differentiated into fibrillar, fibrillo-granular and granular components. The present results also indicated that the complete transition of the surrounding follicle cells from flattened to cuboidal shape and the morphological changes of the oocyte endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were 2 complementary events essential for initiation of oocyte growth

  14. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  15. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  16. Effects of spacing on early growth rate and carbon sequestration in Pinus brut ia Ten. plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkan, N.; Aydin, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of initial spacing on early growth and carbon sequestration rates in Turkish red pine plantations up to 12 years old, established with improved seeds and deep soil cultivation. Area of study: The study was conducted on experimental sites established in two locations within the Turkish red pine natural distribution areas, namely Du acı and Nebiler close to Antalya city. Material and methods: Data were collected from the experimental sites established as a Nelder design (fan-shaped), with 72 rays and 18 arcs (circles), and trees were planted (almost square) at distances ranging from 1.15 to 4.77 m. Soil type of both sites is loamy, with soil clay content varying between 70-87% in Duacı and 51-70% in Nebiler. Soils are deep being more than one m in both sites, but rockier in Nebiler, providing better soil drainage in this site. Main results: The results showed that mean total height was greater at closer spacing than those of wider spacing until age eight. Growth retardation at wider spacing in early years may be related to water loss due to evaporation in hot summer days and weed suppression. Following the age eight, competition among trees appears to be the major factor reducing the growth and carbon fixation. Diameter at breast height and individual tree volume increased, while stand volume, mean annual volume increment and annual carbon storage per hectare considerably decreased for wider spacing. Our results suggest that in order to obtain higher yield and more carbon fixation, short rotation plantations should initially be established in closer spacing, followed by thinning in subsequent years as required by silvicultural concerns. In this context, spacing 3.0 × 1.0 m or 3.0 × 1.5 m (3.0 and 4.5 m2 growing area per tree, respectively) seems to be more plausible, providing farm machinery for maintenance and harvesting. We also found that mean annual volume increment per unit area can be

  17. Benthic foraminiferal and isotopic patterns during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (Aktulagay section, Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Arne; Tesseur, Steven; Stassen, Peter; D'haenens, Simon; Steurbaut, Etienne; King, Christopher; Claeys, Philippe; Speijer, Robert P.

    2015-04-01

    The early Eocene is characterized by long-term global warming culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). During this time interval, the Peri-Tethys was connected to the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans by north-south and east-west trending seaways. The Aktulagay section in Kazakhstan provides an expanded record of the middle Ypresian (NP11-13, ~54-50 Ma; King et al., 2013), including the EECO. The marl sequence features a series of sapropel beds, observed throughout the Peri-Tethys, indicative of basin-wide episodic hypoxic events. In order to unravel paleoenvironmental changes, we carried out quantitative faunal studies and stable isotopic (C, O) investigations on excellently preserved foraminiferal assemblages. The period from 54 to 52.5 Ma (NP11 to lower NP12; Alashen Formation) is characterized by a diverse assemblage of deep outer neritic (~200-250 m) benthic foraminifera, with common Pulsiphonina prima and Paralabamina lunata. The initially (54 Ma) well-ventilated oligo- to mesotrophic seafloor conditions gradually changed to more eutrophic and oxygen-limited. These conditions were more permanent in the sapropel-bearing unit at 52.5-52 Ma (middle NP12; Aktulagay B1 unit). This observation is based on the dominance of Anomalinoides acutus and Bulimina aksuatica and the lower diversity. Also the upward migration of endobenthic species, as suggested by rising δ13Cendobenthic, supports this interpretation. These low-oxygen conditions might have been caused by a transgression, flooding lowlands. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages dominated by Epistominella minuta at ~52-50 Ma (top NP12-NP13; Aktulagay B2 unit) suggest an oligotrophic environment, with transient pulses of phytodetritus. Dinoflagellate blooms and Acarinina isotope values at ~50.5 Ma indicate lower salinity (lower δ18O) and higher productivity (higher δ13C), possibly due to riverine input. Large river plumes, episodically reaching the area, in a monsoonal climate context, might explain this

  18. Breast conservation treatment of early stage breast cancer: patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H; Ortega, Bettys; Doldan, Raquel; Zubizarreta, Eduardo

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: This study retrospectively assesses the patterns of failure in conservatively treated early stage breast cancer patients by correlating various clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors with local, axillary, and distant relapse. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1990, 796 patients (817 breasts) received breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy. Local recurrences were counted as events even if they occurred simultaneously or after the appearance of axillary or distant metastases. Results: The 10-year actuarial relative disease-free survival (DFS) rate for T1N0, T2N0, and T1-2N1 was 82%, 71%, and 54%, respectively. Stage N0 patients had a significant DFS advantage over N1 patients (p = 0.02). The 15-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for T1 and T2 tumors was 82% and 87%, respectively (p = nonsignificant). Univariate analysis identified three significant risk factors for local relapse: (a) 48 breasts with tumors showing an extensive intraductal component had a crude local recurrence rate of 23% compared to 8% for 769 breasts without intraductal component (p 0.0016); (b) the actuarial 10-year local recurrence-free rate for patients under age 40 years was 64% compared to 88% for patients over 40 years (p < 0.0001); (c) the 10-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for 416 postmenopausal women without adjuvant tamoxifen was 83% compared to 97% for 107 postmenopausal women with tamoxifen (p = 0.0479). Salvage therapy for operable local recurrent patients resulted in a 8-year actuarial DFS rate of 47%, significantly lower than that obtained with primary treatment. The incidence of axillary relapse as the first sign of recurrence was 2%, and could be correlated with the lack of axillary dissection (p < 0.0000005) and primary tumor size (p = 0.03). Radiotherapy to the axilla did not influence axillary relapse. Actuarial 5-year DFS rate after treatment of isolated axillary recurrence was 27%. Axillary failure was a marker for

  19. Breast conservation treatment of early stage breast cancer: patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H.; Ortega, Bettys; Doldan, Raquel; Zubizarreta, Eduardo

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This study retrospectively assesses the patterns of failure in conservatively treated early stage breast cancer patients by correlating various clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors with local, axillary, and distant relapse. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1990, 796 patients (817 breasts) received breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy. Local recurrences were counted as events even if they occurred simultaneously or after the appearance of axillary or distant metastases. Results: The 10-year actuarial relative disease-free survival (DFS) rate for T1N0, T2N0, and T1-2N1 was 82%, 71%, and 54%, respectively. Stage N0 patients had a significant DFS advantage over N1 patients (p = 0.02). The 15-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for T1 and T2 tumors was 82% and 87%, respectively (p = nonsignificant). Univariate analysis identified three significant risk factors for local relapse: (a) 48 breasts with tumors showing an extensive intraductal component had a crude local recurrence rate of 23% compared to 8% for 769 breasts without intraductal component (p 0.0016); (b) the actuarial 10-year local recurrence-free rate for patients under age 40 years was 64% compared to 88% for patients over 40 years (p < 0.0001); (c) the 10-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for 416 postmenopausal women without adjuvant tamoxifen was 83% compared to 97% for 107 postmenopausal women with tamoxifen (p = 0.0479). Salvage therapy for operable local recurrent patients resulted in a 8-year actuarial DFS rate of 47%, significantly lower than that obtained with primary treatment. The incidence of axillary relapse as the first sign of recurrence was 2%, and could be correlated with the lack of axillary dissection (p < 0.0000005) and primary tumor size (p = 0.03). Radiotherapy to the axilla did not influence axillary relapse. Actuarial 5-year DFS rate after treatment of isolated axillary recurrence was 27%. Axillary failure was a marker for

  20. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  1. Gestational dietary patterns are not associated with blood pressure changes during pregnancy and early postpartum in a Brazilian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-02-01

    To identify gestational dietary patterns and evaluate the association between these patterns and the blood pressure (BP) rate of change during pregnancy and the postpartum. Prospective cohort study composed of 191 healthy pregnant women. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were obtained at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th, 30th-36th gestational weeks, and with 30-45 days postpartum. A food frequency questionnaire administered at the 30th-36th gestational week was used to measure dietary intake during pregnancy. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the dietary patterns. A longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression model was used to evaluate the association between the dietary patterns and BP (adjusted for time elapsed after conception and the women's age, education, parity, body mass index and total energy intake). Three gestational dietary patterns were identified: healthy, common-Brazilian and processed. SBP/DBP mean values (SD) were 110.1 (9.0)/66.9 (7.5), 108.7 (9.0)/64.9 (6.7), 111.3 (9.2)/67.0 (6.9) and 115.0 (10.7)/73.7 (8.6) mmHg at the first, second and third gestational trimesters and postpartum, respectively. Women with higher/lower adherence to the processed pattern presented SBP of 117.9 and 113.0 mmHg (P = 0.037), respectively, during postpartum. No association was found between any of the three dietary patterns and SBP in the multiple longitudinal linear regression models, whereas 1 SD increase in the common-Brazilian pattern was associated with a small change of DBP (β = 0.0006; 95% CI 4.66e-06, 0.001; P = 0.048). The three dietary patterns identified revealed no association with changes of SBP and DBP levels during pregnancy and at early postpartum in this sample of healthy Brazilian women.

  2. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  3. Hybridization between Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout alters the expression of muscle growth-related genes and their relationships with growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hauser, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L) and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor) in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout). Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  4. Patterns of Social Support in the Middle Childhood to Early Adolescent Transition: Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Mary J.; Levitt, Jerome; Bustos, Gaston L.; Crooks, Noel A.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Milevsky, Avidan

    2005-01-01

    Children's social networks often include close family members, extended family members, and friends, but little is known about interindividual differences in the patterning of support from these sources. In this study, we used person-oriented analyses to differentiate patterns of support for children undergoing the transition to adolescence.…

  5. Analysis of serial coronary artery flow patterns early after primary angioplasty: new insights into the dynamics of the microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Dawod; Rofe, Guy; Sharif-Rasslan, Amal; Goldhammer, Ehud; Makhoul, Nabeel; Shefer, Arie; Hassan, Amin; Rauchfleisch, Shmuel; Rosenschein, Uri

    2008-06-01

    The temporal behavior of the coronary microcirculation in acute myocardial infarction may affect outcome. Diastolic deceleration time and early systolic flow reversal derived from coronary artery blood flow velocity patterns reflect microcirculatory function. To assess left anterior descending coronary artery flow velocity patterns using Doppler transthoracic echocardiography after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, in patients with anterior AMI. Patterns of flow velocity patterns of the LAD were obtained using transthoracic echocardiography-Doppler in 31 consecutive patients who presented with anterior AMI. Measurements were done at 6 hours, 36-48 hours, and 5 days after successful PPCI. Measurements of DDT and pressure half times (Pt%), as well as observation for ESFR were performed. In the first 2 days following PPCI, the average DDT (600 +/- 340 msec) was shorter than on day 5 (807 +/- 332 msec) (P 600 msec) and vice versa. On day 5 most DDTs became longer. Pt1/2 at 6 hours was not different than at day 2 (174 +/- 96 vs. 193 +/- 99 msec, P = NS) and became longer on day 5 (235 +/- 98 msec, P = 0.012). Bidirectional patterns were also observed in the ESFR in 6 patients (19%) at baseline, in 4 (13%) at 36 hours, and in 2 (6.5%) on day 5 after PPCI. Flow velocity patterns of the LAD after PPCI in AMI are dynamic and reflect unpredictable changes in microcirculation.

  6. Comparative Study of Mandibular Morphology in Patients with Hypodivergent and Hyperdivergent Growth Patterns: A Cephalometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Sidde Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Materials and methods: As sample of 60 subjects in the age group of 12 to 18 years were selected, out of them 20 subjects were average growing patients, 20 subjects were hypodivergent patterns and 20 subjects were hyperdivergent patterns. Bjork′s signs of mandibular rotation were used to differentiate between them. Mandibular morphological differences were exhibited by the hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. Results and conclusion: According to the results, condylar head is inclined more backwardly in hyperdivergent patterns and more forwardly in hypodivergent pattern. Inferior border of mandible has a notched appearance in hyperdivergent and is almost flat in hypodivergent patterns. Anterior lower facial height is increased in hyperdivergent and decreased in hypodivergent patterns. Interincisal and intermolar angles are more mesially inclined in hyperdivergent than hypodivergent patterns. Symphysis is more forwardly inclined in case of hypodivergent and backwardly inclined in hyperdivergent patterns.

  7. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bertrand, J.; Denny, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny C, Mortensen E, the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012......;119:1180-1190. Objective To conduct a combined analysis of the estimated effects of maternal average weekly alcohol consumption, and any binge drinking, in early to mid pregnancy on general intelligence, attention, and executive function in 5-year-old children. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing...... in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. At age 5 years, the children were tested for general intelligence, attention...

  8. Correlation between Doppler flow patterns in growth-restricted fetuses and neonatal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, J. C.; Boelen, M. R.; Schmitz, D. M.; Casarella, L.; van der Laan, M. E.; Bos, A. F.; Bilardo, C. M.

    Objectives To investigate whether prenatal Doppler parameters in growth-restricted fetuses are correlated with neonatal circulatory changes. Methods In 43 cases of suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR), serial Doppler measurements of umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  9. Divergent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation patterns between smokers and non-smokers with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Chih-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Gee-Chen

    2015-12-01

    Smoking status is an important determinant of the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer patients. However, it is unclear whether smoking status could also influence the spectrum of EGFR mutations. We enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma from three medical centers in Taiwan. EGFR mutations were assessed by Sanger direct sequencing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking status on both the frequency and patterns of EGFR mutations. From 2001 to 2013, a total of 1175 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled for EGFR mutation analysis. The overall EGFR mutation rate was 59.6%, which was significantly higher in females than males (69.1% vs. 49.8%) and in non-smokers than current/former smokers (73.8% vs. 29.8%) (both Psmokers expressed L858R mutation less frequently (35.2% vs. 50.2%, P=0.005) and exon 19 deletions more frequently (52.8% vs 38.8%, P=0.008) than non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers also had divergent exon 19 deletions subtypes (Del E746-A750 82.5% vs. 57.6%, respectively, Psmokers were associated with a higher rate of complex mutations than non-smokers (34.2% vs. 8.4%, P<0.001). Our results suggested that smoking status could influence not only the frequency but also the spectrum of EGFR mutations. These findings provide a clue for further investigation of EGFR mutagenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Population Growth in the 1990s: Patterns within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Examines population growth during the 1990s for a variety of geographic levels including regions, divisions, states, metropolitan areas, counties, and large cities. Compares growth rates for the 1990s with earlier decades to provide an historical context for present-day trends in population growth and decline. Discusses how differential population…

  11. Transcription mapping and expression patterns of genes in the major immediate-early region of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexei; Zhu, Fan; Yuan, Yan

    2002-08-01

    Viral immediate-early (IE) genes are the first class of viral genes expressed during primary infection or reactivation from latency. They usually encode regulatory proteins that play crucial roles in viral life cycle. In a previous study, four regions in the KSHV genome were found to be actively transcribed in the immediate-early stage of viral reactivation in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Three immediate-early transcripts were characterized in these regions, as follows: mRNAs for ORF50 (KIE-1), ORF-45 (KIE-2), and ORF K4.2 (KIE-3) (F. X. Zhu, T. Cusano, and Y. Yuan, 1999, J. Virol. 73, 5556-5567). In the present study, we further analyzed the expression of genes in these IE regions in BC-1 and BCBL-1 cells. One of the immediate-early regions (KIE-1) that encompasses ORF50 and other genes was intensively studied to establish a detailed transcription map and expression patterns of genes in this region. This study led to identification of several novel IE transcripts in this region. They include a 2.6-kb mRNA which encodes ORF48/ORF29b, a family of transcripts that are complementary to ORF50 mRNA and a novel K8 IE mRNA of 1.5 kb. Together with the IE mRNA for ORF50 which was identified previously, four immediate-early genes have been mapped to KIE-1 region. Therefore, we would designate KIE-1 the major immediate-early region of KSHV. In addition, we showed that transcription of K8 gene is controlled by two promoters, yielding two transcripts, an immediate-early mRNA of 1.5 kb and a delayed-early mRNA of 1.3 kb.

  12. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  13. Study of foetal heart rate patterns in pregnancy with intra-uterine growth restriction during antepartum period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardiazar, Z.; Abassalizade, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate foetal heart rate pattern during antepartum period in pregnancies suffering from intra-uterine growth restriction. Methods: The case control study was conducted at the Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran from April 2008 to April 2011. It comprised 100 pregnancies with intra-uterine growth restriction and 92 normal pregnancies. The foetal heart rate pattern including basal heart rate, beat-to-beat variation, non-stress test (NST) result and acceleration and deceleration patterns of the heart rate were determined in both groups during the antepartum period. Findings were compared between the two groups and their relation with pregnancy-foetal outcomes was specified in the case group. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the foetus mean basal heart rate in the two groups (p <0.960). Frequency of cases with non-reactive non-stress test in the Cases was significantly higher than Controls (p <0.005). The difference in heart rate acceleration was also not statistically significant (p <0.618). Frequency of cases with low birth weight and caesarian was non-significantly but borderline higher among the Cases (p <0.081 and 0.060, respectively). Conclusion: Abnormal foetal heart rate pattern is more common in pregnancies marked by intra-uterine growth restriction and is directly associated with worse pregnancy/foetal outcomes. (author)

  14. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2017-04-01

    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. MATERNAL HEIGHT AND PRE-PREGNANCY WEIGHT STATUS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FETAL GROWTH PATTERNS AND NEWBORN SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölzlberger, Eva; Hartmann, Beda; Hafner, Erich; Stümpflein, Ingrid; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-05-01

    The impact of maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain on fetal growth patterns and newborn size was analysed using a dataset of 4261 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Fetal growth patterns were reconstructed from three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33th weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured immediately after birth. The vast majority of newborns were of normal weight, i.e. between 2500 and 4000 g. Maternal height showed a just-significant but weak positive association (r=0.03: p=0.039) with crown-rump length at the first trimester and with the majority of fetal parameters at the second trimester (r>0.06; p0.09; p0.08; p0.17; p0.13; p0.13; pnewborn size. Some of these associations were quite weak and the statistical significance was mainly due to the large sample size. The association patterns between maternal height and pre-pregnancy weight status with fetal growth patterns (pnewborn size (p<0.001), were independent of maternal age, nicotine consumption and fetal sex. In general, taller and heavier women gave birth to larger infants. This association between maternal size and fetal growth patterns was detectable from the first trimester onwards.

  16. Re-translocation of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marentes, E; Shelp, B J [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Guelph, ON (Canada); Vanderpool, R A [USDA, Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, ND (United States); [Spiers, G.A. Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Land Resource Science, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if boron (B) re-translocation depends on plant-B status and external-B supply. The stable {sup 10}B isotope was supplied to the root system of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to provide a quantitative picture of B distribution during early reproductive development. Regardless of the B regime (i.e. continuous supply with luxury, sufficient or deficient B; transfer at influorescence emergence from either a luxury- or sufficient-B supply to a deficient one) and whether {sup 10}B was acquired before or during influorescence development, a significant proportion of the B recovered in broccoli florest and lupin fruit was {sup 10}B enriched. B acquired during inflorescence development was an important source of B for reproductive structures, but the relative importance of B acquired before and after inflorescence emergence appeared to be species dependent. The occurrence of B re-translocation was not dependent upon the induction of B deficiency. The concentrations of B in phloem exsudates (0.38 to 0.03 mM) were 4- to 23-fold those in xylem sap, and more similar to the concentrations in the reproductive structures (0.86 to 0.07 mM) than those in source leaves (2.4 to 0.19 mM). The decreasing acropetal gradient of tissue-B concentrations with luxury-B supply declined dramatically or was reversed in plants grown with sufficient or deficient B. The data are consistent with B being a phloem-mobile element, and suggest that newly acquired B is particularly important during the early reproductive growth of plants. (au) 36 refs.

  17. Re-translocation of boron in broccoli and lupin during early reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marentes, E.; Shelp, B.J.; Vanderpool, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if boron (B) re-translocation depends on plant-B status and external-B supply. The stable 10 B isotope was supplied to the root system of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck cv. Commander) and lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to provide a quantitative picture of B distribution during early reproductive development. Regardless of the B regime (i.e. continuous supply with luxury, sufficient or deficient B; transfer at influorescence emergence from either a luxury- or sufficient-B supply to a deficient one) and whether 10 B was acquired before or during influorescence development, a significant proportion of the B recovered in broccoli florest and lupin fruit was 10 B enriched. B acquired during inflorescence development was an important source of B for reproductive structures, but the relative importance of B acquired before and after inflorescence emergence appeared to be species dependent. The occurrence of B re-translocation was not dependent upon the induction of B deficiency. The concentrations of B in phloem exsudates (0.38 to 0.03 mM) were 4- to 23-fold those in xylem sap, and more similar to the concentrations in the reproductive structures (0.86 to 0.07 mM) than those in source leaves (2.4 to 0.19 mM). The decreasing acropetal gradient of tissue-B concentrations with luxury-B supply declined dramatically or was reversed in plants grown with sufficient or deficient B. The data are consistent with B being a phloem-mobile element, and suggest that newly acquired B is particularly important during the early reproductive growth of plants. (au) 36 refs

  18. Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight, or obese as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. FAST MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: GROWTH OF COLLISIONLESS PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TURBULENT MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)

    2015-07-20

    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.

  20. Comparison of two models of intrauterine growth restriction for early catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkhalili, Yasaman; Moulin, Julie; Zbinden, Irene; Aprikian, Olivier; Macé, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Two models of intrauterine growth restriction, maternal food restriction (FR), and dexamethasone (DEX) exposure were compared for early postnatal catch-up growth and later development of glucose intolerance and obesity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mated dams were randomly divided into three groups at 10 days gestational age. Group FR was food restricted (50% of nongestating rats) during the last 11 days of gestation; Group DEX received DEX injections during the last week of gestation, and Group CON, the control group, had no intervention. Birth weight, catch-up growth, body weight, and food intake were measured in male offspring for 22 wk. Body composition, blood glucose, and plasma insulin in response to a glucose load were assessed at 8, 16, and 22 wk. Pups from both FR and DEX dams had similarly lower birth weights than CON (22% and 25%, P growth, which occurred during the suckling period, was much more rapid in FR than DEX offspring (6 vs. 25 days, 95% CI). Postweaning, there were no significant differences between groups in food intake, body weight, body fat, and plasma insulin, but baseline plasma glucose at 22 wk and 2-h glucose area-under-the-curve at 8 and 22 wk were greater only in FR vs. CON offspring (P restriction is a more sensitive model than DEX exposure for studies aimed at investigating the link between low birth weight, early postnatal catch-up growth, and later development of glucose intolerance.

  1. Patterns of depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Place and Duration of study: Study was carried out at University of the Punjab, Lahore from 17 February to 31st August 2010. Methods: A purposive sample of 600 students (boys=300; girls=300) was divided into two age groups; early adolescents (13-15 years) and late adolescents (16-18 years). Participants were administered beck anxiety inventory, beck depression inventory-II and coping strategies questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS14 version using independent sample t test. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that early adolescents exhibit more depression and anxiety symptoms as compared to the late adolescents. Moreover, early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways as active practical coping styles were more utilized by late adolescents. On the other hand, religious focused and avoidance focused coping styles were mostly used by the early adolescents. Besides, there was no significant group difference on active distractive coping styles. Conclusion: The current study revealed that significant changes during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of stress during this period. The findings also suggest early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways that become more diverse and adaptive with development through the adolescent years. (author)

  2. Early functional and morphological brain disturbances in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starčević, Mirta; Predojević, Maja; Butorac, Dražan; Tumbri, Jasna; Konjevoda, Paško; Kadić, Aida Salihagić

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the brain disturbances develop in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) before blood flow redistribution towards the fetal brain (detected by Doppler measurements in the middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery). Further, to evaluate predictive values of Doppler arterial indices and umbilical cord blood gases and pH for early functional and/or morphological brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR. This cohort study included 60 singleton term pregnancies with placental insufficiency caused late-onset IUGR (IUGR occurring after 34 gestational weeks). Umbilical artery resistance index (URI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (CRI), and cerebroumbilical (C/U) ratio (CRI/URI) were monitored once weekly. Umbilical blood cord samples (arterial and venous) were collected for the analysis of pO2, pCO2 and pH. Morphological neurological outcome was evaluated by cranial ultrasound (cUS), whereas functional neurological outcome by Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT). 50 fetuses had C/U ratio>1, and 10 had C/U ratio≤1; among these 10 fetuses, 9 had abnormal neonatal cUS findings and all 10 had non-optimal ATNAT. However, the total number of abnormal neurological findings was much higher. 32 neonates had abnormal cUS (53.37%), and 42 (70.00%) had non-optimal ATNAT. Furthermore, Doppler indices had higher predictive validity for early brain disturbances than umbilical cord blood gases and pH. C/U ratio had the highest predictive validity with threshold for adverse neurological outcome at value 1.13 (ROC analysis), i.e., 1.18 (party machine learning algorithm). Adverse neurological outcome at average values of C/U ratios>1 confirmed that early functional and/or structural brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR develop even before activation of fetal cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, i.e., before Doppler signs of blood flow redistribution between the fetal brain and the placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  3. Production of Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease VvpE begins during the early growth phase: usefulness of gelatin-zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kang, Sang-Mee; Jeon, Ho-Jong; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that expression of the vvpE gene begins during the early growth phase albeit at low levels. However, we found that the traditional protease assay method that is used to measure caseinolytic activity in culture supernatants is not suitable for the measurement of extracellular VvpE that is produced at low levels during the early growth phase. By using gelatin-zymography in place of the protease assay, we could specifically detect only VvpE of several proteases produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Moreover, we could sensitively measure VvpE produced at low levels during the early growth phase, which was consistent with transcription of the vvpE gene. The extracellular production of VvpE was reduced or delayed by mutation of the pilD gene which encodes for the type IV leader peptidase/N-methyltransferase associated with the type II general secretion system; the delayed production of VvpE was recovered by in trans complementation of the wild-type pilD gene. These results indicate that VvpE begins to be produced during the early growth phase via the PilD-mediated type II general secretion system, and that the use of gelatin-zymography is recommended as a simple method for the sensitive and specific detection of VvpE production.

  4. Artificially regenerating longleaf pine on wet sites: preliminary analysis of effects of site preparation treatments on early survival and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Our study, conducted over two years on poorly drained, sandy sites in Onslow County, NC, compared the effects of eight common site preparation treatments on early survival and growth of planted longleaf pine seedlings. Through two growing seasons, we found survival to be similar across all treatments (p = 0.8806), but root collar diameter was greatest with combinations...

  5. Impact of Witnessing Violence on Growth Curves for Problem Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies used latent growth-curve analysis to examine the relation between witnessing violence and changes in problem behaviors (drug use, aggression, and delinquency) and attitudes during early adolescence. In Study 1, six waves of data covering 6th to 8th grades were collected from 731 students in urban schools serving mostly African-American…

  6. Influence of establishment timing and planting stock on early rotational growth of loblolly pine plantations in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Blazier; E. L. Taylor; A. G. Holley

    2010-01-01

    Planting container seedlings, which have relatively fully formed root systems encased in a soil-filled plug, may improve loblolly pine plantation productivity by increasing early survival and growth relative to that of conventionally planted bareroot seedlings. Planting seedlings in fall may also confer productivity increases to loblolly pine plantations by giving...

  7. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2

  8. Conventional and Piecewise Growth Modeling Techniques: Applications and Implications for Investigating Head Start Children's Early Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…

  9. Touchscreen typing-pattern analysis for detecting fine motor skills decline in early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovakis, Dimitrios; Hadjidimitriou, Stelios; Charisis, Vasileios; Bostantzopoulou, Sevasti; Katsarou, Zoe; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2018-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative movement disorder causing progressive disability that severely affects patients' quality of life. While early treatment can produce significant benefits for patients, the mildness of many early signs combined with the lack of accessible high-frequency monitoring tools may delay clinical diagnosis. To meet this need, user interaction data from consumer technologies have recently been exploited towards unsupervised screening for PD symptoms in daily life. Similarly, this work proposes a method for detecting fine motor skills decline in early PD patients via analysis of patterns emerging from finger interaction with touchscreen smartphones during natural typing. Our approach relies on low-/higher-order statistical features of keystrokes timing and pressure variables, computed from short typing sessions. Features are fed into a two-stage multi-model classification pipeline that reaches a decision on the subject's status (PD patient/control) by gradually fusing prediction probabilities obtained for individual typing sessions and keystroke variables. This method achieved an AUC = 0.92 and 0.82/0.81 sensitivity/specificity (matched groups of 18 early PD patients/15 controls) with discriminant features plausibly correlating with clinical scores of relevant PD motor symptoms. These findings suggest an improvement over similar approaches, thereby constituting a further step towards unobtrusive early PD detection from routine activities.

  10. HTLV-1 Tax upregulates early growth response protein 1 through nuclear factor-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingsong; Niu, Zhiguo; Han, Jingxian; Liu, Xihong; Lv, Zhuangwei; Li, Huanhuan; Yuan, Lixiang; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Shuming; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xinxiang

    2017-08-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in susceptible individuals. The HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax induces persistent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. Here, we showed that both Tax expression and HTLV-1 infection promoted EGR1 overexpression. Loss of the NF-κB binding site in the EGR1 promotor or inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced Tax-induced EGR1 upregulation. Tax mutants unable to activate NF-κB induced only slight EGR1 upregulation as compared with wild-type Tax, confirming NF-κB pathway involvement in EGR1 regulation. Tax also directly interacted with the EGR1 protein and increased endogenous EGR1 stability. Elevated EGR1 in turn promoted p65 nuclear translocation and increased NF-κB activation. These results demonstrate a positive feedback loop between EGR1 expression and NF-κB activation in HTLV-1-infected and Tax-expressing cells. Both NF-κB activation and Tax-induced EGR1 stability upregulated EGR1, which in turn enhanced constitutive NF-κB activation and facilitated ATL progression in HTLV-1-infected cells. These findings suggest EGR1 may be an effective anti-ATL therapeutic target.

  11. Jimma Town: Foundation and Early Growth from ca. 1830 to 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifu Yonas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the early history of Jimma town and its growth from its foundation until 1936. It explores social, economic and administrative themes, but also attempts to show the interrelationship between these themes. The town of Jimma evolved during this period from being the home-town of a relatively homogenous society and culture into a place of residence for a diverse and increasingly cosmopolitan population. Economically, the story of Jimma during this period is one of both continuity and change. It is a story of continuity because Jimma, which had been a center of trade from the very beginning, continued to be so during this period. There was significant change, however, because unlike the previous decades in which Jimma had served as a point of exchange or transit for elite goods that mostly originated from beyond the borders of the Oromo Kingdom (such as slaves, ivory and musk, during this period the town developed into the chief center for the collection, organization and export of a cash crop that was grown locally (coffee.

  12. Bovine serum prolactin, growth hormone, and triiodothyronine levels during late pregnancy and early lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johke, Tetsu; Hodate, Kouichi

    1977-01-01

    Changes of serum prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in Holstein dairy cows during late pregnancy and early lactation were determined by radioimmunoassays. The cows calved in September. Mean serum PRL ranged 9.9 ng/ml to 12.4 ng/ml during the 3rd to 7th day prepartum. It increased to a peak value of 87.3 ng/ml on the day of parturition from 57.5 ng/ml on the day before calving, and decreased to 13.9 ng/ml within 3 days postpartum. During the 2nd to 30th day prepartum, serum GH varied between 2.4 and 4.0 ng/ml and increased to 8.0 ng/ml on the day of calving. During a week postpartum, serum GH ranged from 5.2 to 8.2 ng/ml. Mean serum GH during a week postpartum was higher than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). Mean serum T3 level during 5 days prepartum varied 104.2 to 108.8 ng/dl and decreased to 93 ng/dl on the day of calving. During 5 days postpartum, mean T3 level varied 73.0 to 83.8 ng/dl. Contrary to GH, mean serum T3 level during 5 day postpartum was significantly lower than that of prepartum (P < 0.001). (auth.)

  13. Genetic evidence for the association between the early growth response 3 (EGR3 gene and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, two genome scan meta-analysis studies have found strong evidence for the association of loci on chromosome 8p with schizophrenia. The early growth response 3 (EGR3 gene located in chromosome 8p21.3 was also found to be involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. However, subsequent studies failed to replicate this finding. To investigate the genetic role of EGR3 in Chinese patients, we genotyped four SNPs (average interval ∼2.3 kb in the chromosome region of EGR3 in 470 Chinese schizophrenia patients and 480 healthy control subjects. The SNP rs35201266 (located in intron 1 of EGR3 showed significant differences between cases and controls in both genotype frequency distribution (P = 0.016 and allele frequency distribution (P = 0.009. Analysis of the haplotype rs35201266-rs3750192 provided significant evidence for association with schizophrenia (P = 0.0012; a significant difference was found for the common haplotype AG (P = 0.0005. Furthermore, significant associations were also found in several other two-, and three-SNP tests of haplotype analyses. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant association between rs35201266 and schizophrenia (P = 0.0001. In summary, our study supports the association of EGR3 with schizophrenia in our Han Chinese sample, and further functional exploration of the EGR3 gene will contribute to the molecular basis for the complex network underlying schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  14. Increased Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Sensory Neurons of Early Diabetic Rats Is Corrected by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lucia Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, characterized by early hyperalgesia and increased nerve growth factor (NGF, evolves in late irreversible neuropathic symptoms with reduced NGF support to sensory neurons. Electroacupuncture (EA modulates NGF in the peripheral nervous system, being effective for the treatment of DPN symptoms. We hypothesize that NGF plays an important pathogenic role in DPN development, while EA could be useful in the therapy of DPN by modulating NGF expression/activity. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. One week after STZ, EA was started and continued for three weeks. NGF system and hyperalgesia-related mediators were analyzed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG and in their spinal cord and skin innervation territories. Our results show that four weeks long diabetes increased NGF and NGF receptors and deregulated intracellular signaling mediators of DRG neurons hypersensitization; EA in diabetic rats decreased NGF and NGF receptors, normalized c-Jun N-terminal and p38 kinases activation, decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel, and possibly activated the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB. In conclusion, NGF signaling deregulation might play an important role in the development of DPN. EA represents a supportive tool to control DPN development by modulating NGF signaling in diabetes-targeted neurons.

  15. pH modulates the binding of early growth response protein 1 transcription factor to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; Schuchardt, Brett J; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; McDonald, Caleb B; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-08-01

    The transcription factor early growth response protein (EGR)1 orchestrates a plethora of signaling cascades involved in cellular homeostasis, and its downregulation has been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we show that the binding of EGR1 to DNA is tightly regulated by solution pH. Importantly, the binding affinity undergoes an enhancement of more than an order of magnitude with an increase in pH from 5 to 8, implying that the deprotonation of an ionizable residue accounts for such behavior. This ionizable residue is identified as His382 by virtue of the fact that its replacement by nonionizable residues abolishes the pH dependence of the binding of EGR1 to DNA. Notably, His382 inserts into the major groove of DNA, and stabilizes the EGR1-DNA interaction via both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals contacts. Remarkably, His382 is mainly conserved across other members of the EGR family, implying that histidine protonation-deprotonation may serve as a molecular switch for modulating the protein-DNA interactions that are central to this family of transcription factors. Collectively, our findings reveal an unexpected but a key step in the molecular recognition of the EGR family of transcription factors, and suggest that they may act as sensors of pH within the intracellular environment. © 2013 FEBS.

  16. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, S. E.; Magni, C. R.; Martinez, V. A.; Ivkovic, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don. Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering. Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles), root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed. Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local land race of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity. Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio. (Author) 46 refs.

  17. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are assoc